Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:40200 Agarwal, Usha D. Determinants of NRR and its prospects for India and some selected states. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 2, Dec 1986. 53-77 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to examine some of the socio-demographic factors affecting NRR [net reproduction rate], using the standardisation technique and the aggregate model of Bongaarts to decompose NRR into its related factors. It was observed that both the methods gave...similar results. Further, the analysis showed that changes in marriage pattern did not and would not play an important role in the reduction of NRR, but that changes in marital fertility were mainly responsible for the recent decline...in NRR. On the other hand, improvements in mortality played a major role in sustaining the level of NRR during the 1961-71 and 1971-81 decades...." Data are for India as a whole and for four states.
Correspondence: U. D. Agarwal, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40201 Alam, Iqbal; Irfan, Mohammad; Farooqui, Naseem I. Fertility levels, trends and differentials in Pakistan: evidence from the Population, Labour Force and Migration Survey, 1979-80. Studies in Population, Labour Force and Migration: Project Report, No. 1, [1983?]. [7], 74 pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
Fertility trends and differentials in Pakistan are analyzed using data from the Survey on Population, Labour Force and Migration, which included approximately 10,100 ever-married women under age 50 and was carried out in 1979-1980. The first two sections review previously available fertility data and describe the methodology of the survey. Other sections are included on current parity by age, marriage duration, and age at marriage; early marital fertility; and recent and current fertility. Consideration is given to the quality of the data and to regional fertility differentials. The authors conclude that a modest decline in fertility has occurred due primarily to a rise in age at marriage.
Correspondence: PIDE, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40202 Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa. Fertility and contraception. Las Tunas, 1985. [Fecundidad y anticoncepcion. Las Tunas, 1985.] Revista Cubana de Salud Publica, Vol. 14, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1988. 19-38 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Data from a 1985 survey of fertility and use and knowledge of contraceptive methods in the province of Las Tunas, Cuba, are analyzed. A sample of 1,667 households was surveyed, 926 of which were urban and 741 rural. The women interviewed were questioned concerning their ideals for marriage age and family size and their knowledge and use of various contraceptive methods. Fertility data given include number of children per woman, 1970-1981, and total, rural, and urban fertility by age group.
Correspondence: L. Alvarez Vazquez, Instituto Nacional de Endocrinologia, Calle D y Zapata, Plaza de la Revolucion, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40203 Becker, Gary S.; Barro, Robert J. A reformulation of the economic theory of fertility. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 103, No. 1, Feb 1988. 1-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Altruistic parents choose fertility and consumption by maximizing a dynastic utility function. The maximization implies an arbitrage condition for consumption across generations, and equality between the benefit from an extra child and the child-rearing cost. These conditions imply that fertility in open economies depends positively on the world's long-term real interest rate, the degree of altruism, and the growth of child-survival probabilities; and negatively on the rate of technical progress and the growth rate of social security. The growth of per capita consumption across generations depends on changes in the child-rearing cost, but not on interest rates or time preference."
Correspondence: G. S. Becker, University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40204 Beets, G. C. N.; van Hoorn, W. D. Profile of voluntarily childless women. [Vrijwillig kinderloze vrouwen geportretteerd.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 6, Jun 1988. 11-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article mainly sketches the profile of voluntarily childless women in the Netherlands. Data from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey among 18-37 [year-]old women and from the 1985 follow up survey among the same women are used. It appears that fewer than 10% of the respondents can be classified as voluntarily childless...and a substantial number of the women changed their opinion about their (future) family size in the period 1982-1985. Young women in particular seem to postpone an ultimate decision...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40205 Bhattacharya, A. K.; Mullick, S. K. On the bias and mean square error of some fertility measures. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 288-94 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"In the present study we try to investigate the nature of bias and sampling variability of the estimators of some of the indicators of fertility such as total fertility rate (TFR), gross reproduction rate (GRR) and net reproduction rate (NRR). We give estimators of [mean square errors] of these rates which can be used for giving confidence intervals for these rates." The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. K. Bhattacharya, Demography Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B.T. Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40206 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Nath, D. C. A note on Brass's model for the distribution of births in human populations. Janasamkhya, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1987. 103-9 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Brass...used the truncated version of the modified negative binomial to describe distributions of mothers of completed family by number of births, of some selected countries. But his model failed to provide a good numerical fit to data of low [fertility] countries. On the assumption that the fecund female population is a mixture of two distinct groups with respect to fecundability--one with high risk of conception and [the] other with low risk of conception, the modified Poisson distribution of Dandekar...is extended to analyse the data of low [fertility] countries. The truncated version of the proposed model explains adequately these data."
Correspondence: B. N. Bhattacharya, Department of Statistics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40207 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Nath, D. C. Probability distributions of number of births and their implications. Janasamkhya, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1987. 73-88 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Probability distributions to describe the variations in the number of live birth-conceptions to a female during a given time interval...have been developed. In derivation the interval...is divided into two consecutive segments and fertility parameters within each segment are assumed to be constant but may differ between the segments. A method of obtaining maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters is outlined. The models are applied to an observed set of data." Data are from the Rural Developments and Population Growth Survey conducted in Varanasi, India, in 1978.
Correspondence: B. N. Bhattacharya, Population Studies Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 B. T. Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40208 Bongaarts, John. The proximate determinants of fertility. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 243-60 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the proximate determinants of fertility using data from the World Fertility Survey and other international sources. "Three biological proximate variables are identified: permanent sterility, the probability of conception, and intrauterine mortality. Although these variables lower the actual rate of reproduction to far below its potential maximum, they contribute little to trends in fertility. Changes over time in fertility are largely due to changes in the behavioral proximate determinants. The most important of these is the prevalence of contraceptive use, but the duration of breastfeeding, the practice of induced abortion, patterns of union formation, and contraceptive effectiveness are or have been major determinants of levels and trends in fertility in most societies."
Correspondence: J. Bongaarts, Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40209 Borgan, Ornulf; Hoem, Jan M. Demographic reproduction rates and the estimation of an expected total count per person in an open population. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 83, No. 403, Sep 1988. 866-91 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The estimation of total fertility rates (TFR) and gross reproduction rates (GRR) is first discussed, followed by an evaluation of the Poisson model and the Nelson-Aalen estimator. Data are from official sources for mean number of children born to selected cohorts of Norwegian women. In determining the mean number of children ever born to a woman of a given age, the authors conclude "if births were generated by an age-dependent Poisson process, cumulative fertility rates give appropriate estimates, and so would the Nelson-Aalen estimator based on age-specific counts. Both of these methods are appropriate for that situation, but they estimate empirical mean numbers of births well, even though births are not generated by Poisson processes. This article shows why and when statistics like TFR and GRR are good estimates of mean counts, and how the same reasoning generalizes to the estimation of the mean number of any kind of event in any open population."
Correspondence: O. Borgan, Institute of Mathematics, University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:40210 Botev, Nikolai. Some aspects of fertility trends in Bulgaria since the beginning of the twentieth century and methods for their study. [Nyakoi aspekti ot razvitieto na razhdaemostta v balgariya sled nachaloto na XX v. i metodi za tyakhnoto izsledvane.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1987. 35-50 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author discusses some aspects of the fertility transition in Bulgaria, which began in the early twentieth century. Consideration is given to the role of several demographic factors, the low mean age of maternity, and the methods used to control fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40211 Cartier, Michel. In China, defusing a time bomb. [En Chine, desamorcer une bombe a retardement.] Projet, No. 192, Mar-Apr 1985. 33-40 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
China's recent successes in reducing fertility are first described. Some of the problems related to this rapid fertility decline are then reviewed, including labor force developments. The possibilities for a new population surge in China are also considered.
Correspondence: M. Cartier, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, 54 Boulevard Raspail, 75006 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:40212 Centro de Estudios de Poblacion y Paternidad Responsable [CEPAR] (Quito, Ecuador); Ecuador. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nutricionales y Medico Sociales [ININMS] (Quito, Ecuador); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Ecuador: Demographic and Family Health Survey, 1987. [Ecuador: Encuesta Demografica y de Salud Familiar, 1987.] Apr 1988. ix, 129, [38] pp. Quito, Ecuador. In Spa.
Results are presented from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey of Ecuador, one in a series of surveys being conducted with the support of Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. Following a description of survey methodology, chapters are included on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, fertility control, ideal family size, and mortality and health. The chapter on fertility control provides information on knowledge and use of contraception, where contraceptives were obtained, reasons for discontinuation of contraception, and intention to use contraception in the future.
Correspondence: CEPAR, Inglaterra 567 y Mariana de Jesus, Quito, Ecuador. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40213 Chayovan, Napaporn; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Knodel, John. Thailand: Demographic and Health Survey 1987. ISBN 974-569-466-5. May 1988. xii, 217 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
Results are presented from the 1987 Demographic and Health Survey of Thailand, conducted as one in a series supported by Westinghouse's Institute for Resource Development. Following a chapter on survey methodology, chapters are included on nuptiality; fertility; fertility regulation, including contraceptive knowledge and use, source of contraception, reasons for discontinuation or nonuse, and intentions for further use; fertility preferences; and mortality and health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40214 China. China Population Information Center [CPIC] (Beijing, China). Female fertility in China: a 1 in 1,000 population survey. 1988. [3,877] pp. New World Press: Beijing, China. Distributed by China International Book Trading Corporation, 19 Chegongzhuang Xi. In Eng.
Data from China's 1982 fertility survey are presented in five volumes. The first volume provides data on marriage, including marital status, age of women at first marriage, and monthly distribution of first marriages. The second volume concerns age-specific and total fertility by parity, educational status, ethnic group, and residence. The third volume contains data on distribution of women at birth by parity and number of births by educational status and residence. In the fourth volume, data are presented on parity-specific total fertility in time sequence following marriage. The fifth and final volume contains data on sex distribution of children, birth intervals, and rate of contraceptive use, including interval between marriage and contraception adoption, reasons for non-use, and sex and age composition of children in families with only-child certificates. The data are presented separately by province, excluding Taiwan and Tibet.
Location: China Population Information Center, Beijing, China.

54:40215 Clarke, Michael. Fertility and legal abortion in England and Wales: performance indicators for family planning services. British Medical Journal, Vol. 297, No. 6651, Oct 1, 1988. 832-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The relation between fertility rates and legal abortion rates was investigated in a sample of health authorities in England and Wales to see how these varied....Such comparisons can be used for service monitoring, indicating the need for better abortion and family planning services in districts with high fertility rates and for better family planning services in those with high abortion rates."
Correspondence: M. Clarke, Department of Community Health, Leicester Royal Infirmary, P.O. Box 65, Leicester LE2 7LX, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:40216 Coale, Ansley J.; Li, Shaomin; Han, Jing-Qing. The distribution of interbirth intervals in rural China, 1940s to 1970s. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 109, ISBN 0-86638-108-2. LC 88-24583. Aug 1988. ix, 36 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
Using data from the 1-in-1,000 Fertility Sampling Survey conducted in China in 1982, the authors have "determined the distribution of the duration of intervals from marriage to the first fruitful conception, and from the first and second births to the next fruitful conception. Analysis of these distributions reveals that the monthly probability of conception before the first and second births increased from the 1940s to the 1970s; that intervals from the second to the third birth were always longer than from the first to the second; that conception rates were lower following a male birth; that mortality above age one was elevated more than infant mortality during the crisis of 1959-60; and that some women who lost a second child soon after its birth resumed breastfeeding of an older child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40217 Das, Narayan. A model to study changes in current fertility under different sex preferences. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 228-51 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
A mathematical model is developed to analyze the impact of sex preference on current fertility in India. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: N. Das, Population Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Lokmanya Tilak Road, Baroda 390 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40218 de Jong, A. H. Women by parity, January 1, 1987. [Vrouwen naar kindertal, 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 6, Jun 1988. 17-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility in the Netherlands is analyzed based on 1987 data from over half of the 714 municipal population registers. The data concern both single people and those in families. Changes over time in parity, birth intervals, and age at giving birth are analyzed. Consideration is also given to the sex composition of children and its impact on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40219 de Oliveira, Maria C. F. A.; Madeira, Felicia R. Population and the labor force: the case of coffee farming in western Sao Paulo. [Populacao e forca de trabalho: o caso da cafeicultura no Oeste Paulista.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 41-62 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Some assumptions concerning the causes of changes in population dynamics in Brazil are analyzed. The authors examine "first, the idea that families were large in the past as a consequence of a deliberately uncontrolled fertility. Second, the supposition that numerous offspring [were] a response to the way economic production was organized. The discussion focuses on the colonato, a labor regime of general use in coffee farming of the Paulista West from the last decades of the nineteenth century until 1930. The importance of the family in labor organization in coffee cultivation and the available evidences on family sizes and on labor force within families are examined. The fragility of the arguments in use is demonstrated and the need for more empirical research is stressed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40220 Desplanques, Guy. Demographic behavior: controlled fertility. [Comportements demographiques: une fecondite maitrisee.] Sociologie du Travail, Vol. 30, No. 2, 1988. 353-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The current status of fertility and its control in France is reviewed. Consideration is given to changes in contraceptive usage, nuptiality, educational status and fertility, birth timing and spacing, and female labor force participation. The author notes that fertility has not declined significantly since the mid-1970s. Fertility differentials by geographical region and occupation are also considered.
Correspondence: G. Desplanques, INSEE, Direction Regional de Paris, Service des Etudes Regionales, 12 Rue Boulitte, 75014 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

54:40221 Devi, D. Radha. Fertility determinants of working women in Trivandrum District, Kerala State, India: a path analysis. Population Review, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1988. 57-72 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The determinants of fertility in Trivandrum District, Kerala State, India are analyzed using data from a 1975 survey of 404 currently working, married women aged 20-49. "Out of sixteen variables hypothesized to be directly determining fertility ten had statistically significant effect. They are in decreasing order of importance: effective duration of marriage, desired family size, current age of wife, age at marriage of wife, wife's occupation, first birth interval, fecundity, family income, family structure and mother-worker role conflict. Education of wife came out as an important variable indirectly affecting fertility by placing women at higher occupational levels, by raising age at marriage, and by reducing the number of children desired."
Correspondence: D. R. Devi, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40222 Elisa, Woldeyesus. Determinants of fertility in the northern Sudan: application of path analysis. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 367-96 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author "attempts to investigate the causal links between selected socio-economic and demographic variables and their direct and indirect effects on cumulative fertility.... "Data are from the 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey. "To examine the factors which affect the number of CEB [children ever born] directly and indirectly, [a] causal model consisting of 23 paths was built. Out of these, 14 paths were found to be statistically significant.... "The negative direct effect of woman's age at first marriage on number of children ever born and the negative indirect effect of woman's education are emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40223 Finnas, Fjalar. The fertility trends among married Finnish women born 1932-58. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 26, 1988. 26-36 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The trend toward declining fertility in Finland is examined using data from a 1977 survey, life table methods, and hazard models. Particular attention is given to factors that affect fertility, and comparisons are made with other Scandinavian countries. Rural-urban fertility differentials are observed, and the effects of woman's education, parity, and sex of previous offspring are studied.
Correspondence: F. Finnas, Institute of Social Research, Abo Akademi, Domkyrkotorget 3, 20500 Abo 50, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40224 Foster, Andrew. Cohort analysis and demographic translation: a comparative study of recent trends in age specific fertility rates from Europe and North America. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 22, Oct 1986. 28, [9] pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"Ryder (1980) showed that measures of completed cohort fertility explain only about half of the variations in period total fertility rates observed during this century in the U.S.A. In this paper we generalize his results in three ways. First, we derive an alternative formulation of Ryder's first order demographic translation equation which can be formally justified even when age specific fertility rates are not changing linearly with time. Second..., we show that Ryder's findings are, for the most part, generalizable to other Western countries. Third, we develop a period decomposition of cohort rates and conclude that period total fertility rates explain most of the variation in cohort level, timing and spread."
For the article by Ryder, published in 1980, see 46:2040.
Correspondence: Program in Population Research, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40225 Fritsche, U. Some aspects of family planning and population reproduction. [Einige Aspekte zur Familienplanung und Bevolkerungsreproduktion.] Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und Ihre Grenzgebiete, Vol. 33, No. 11, Nov 1987. 601-3 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
This article on the decline in fertility in the German Democratic Republic focuses on whether social policy measures can increase the number of births to a level sufficient to ensure population replacement.
Correspondence: U. Fritsche, Institut fur Sozialhygiene und Organisation des Gesundheitswesens Maxim Zetkin, Berlin, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40226 Ghetau, Vasile. The fertility of some female generations in Romania. [Fertilitatea unor generatii feminine in Romania.] Viitorul Social, Vol. 80, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 548-56 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Recent trends in fertility in Romania are analyzed. The author describes the evolution of the total fertility rate from 1905 to 1985 using period analysis techniques and considers the level of replacement in successive generations. Longitudinal analysis is used to examine changes in female fertility from 1852 to 1960. It is noted that for the period 1949-1960, fertility was exactly at replacement level.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40227 Gurumurthy, G. The study of mortality in relation to fertility among Yanadis--a tribal community of Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 2, Dec 1986. 36-43 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author studies the influences of mortality and perception of mortality, especially infant and child mortality, on the fertility behavior of the Yanadis, the second-largest tribal group in Andhra Pradesh, India. "The objectives of the study were: (i) to determine the level of pregnancy wastage, foetal deaths, infant mortality and child mortality among Yanadi women; (ii) to study the causes of infant and child mortality...; and (iii) to study the perception of mortality and its relation to fertility behaviour." It is found that "perception of infant and childhood mortality was significantly associated with fertility behaviour...." Data are for a sample of 600 Yanadi women.
Correspondence: G. Gurumurthy, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517 502, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40228 Hecht, Jacqueline. Soviet fertility as viewed by Soviet authors: the Franco-Soviet demographic meeting of Suzdal (USSR). Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 56, 1988. 5-45 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author reports on the Franco-Soviet Seminar of Demography, held in Suzdal, USSR, in 1986. She examines "how the problem of fertility is viewed by Soviet authors, why and when they began to study its theoretical aspects, and what means they propose to raise fertility." Topics considered include sources of information on fertility in the USSR; analysis of fertility and reproductive behavior; the study of selected determinants of fertility, including geographical and ethnic differences, female labor force participation, and the relationships among family planning, health, and reproductive behavior; and means of developing an effective population policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40229 Ilinigumugabo, Aloys; Randriambanona, Robert. The impact of types of nuptiality and of the break-down of marital unions on fertility in four countries of Black Africa. [L'impact des types de nuptialite et des ruptures d'union sur la fecondite dans quatre pays de l'Afrique noire.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 143, ISBN 2-87085-159-6. Jun 1988. 25 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of the patterns of nuptiality existing in Africa South of the Sahara on fertility is analyzed. Data are from the World Fertility Survey for Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, and Rwanda. The authors "show, by means of the Duration Ratio (DRAT), that the polygamous nature of unions, their social legitimacy as well as the wife's conjugal mobility can have a negative impact on fertility in Black Africa. They also argue that, in countries where voluntary dissolution of first marriages is frequent, remarriage is frequent too, and that women contracting several successive unions are not subject to a strong fertility selection. On the other hand, in countries where voluntary dissolution of first marriages is rather uncommon, remarriage is rare too, and divorced or separated women are characterized by subfertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40230 Katsougiannopoulos, V. Ch.; Demoliates, I. D. Biostatistical analysis of the seasonal variation of births and marriages in Greece. [Biostatistike diereunese tes makrochronais kai tes epochiakes katanomes tes gennetikotetas sten Ellada.] Hellenic Armed Forces Medical Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1985. 259-66 pp. Ioannina, Greece. In Gre. with sum. in Eng.
Seasonal trends in fertility and nuptiality in Greece are analyzed using official vital statistics data for the period 1956-1980. "The main finding is that the seasonal variation of births has changed profoundly. Peak incidence of births occurred in the past, 20 years ago and before, during winter months while in recent years the higher incidence is found during [the] summer period....The recent seasonal variation model of births is strongly correlated with that of marriages and the correlation becomes more positive as the number of children per family is reduced." The author notes that this is attributed mainly to timing of first births.
Correspondence: V. Ch. Katsougiannopoulos, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40231 Kothari, Devendra; Sharma, Nand K.; Mathur, Anil. Rajasthan: estimated fertility indicators at the district level. 1988. viii, 117 pp. Indian Institute of Health Management Research: Jaipur, India. In Eng.
The authors estimate some basic fertility indicators such as age-specific fertility rate, crude birth rate, general marital fertility rate, and total fertility rate for districts in Rajasthan, India, in 1981. Estimates are provided for rural and urban areas. Data are from the 1981 Indian census.
Correspondence: Devendra Kothari, Population Studies, Indian Institute of Health Management Research, C-105, Lalkothi Scheme, Jaipur 302 015, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40232 Kowaleski, Jerzy T. Illiteracy and fertility in developing countries. [Analfabetyzm a rozrodczosc w krajach rozwijajacych sie.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/90, 1987. 39-55 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relationship between illiteracy and fertility in developing countries is examined using published U.N. data. The author notes that countries with high rates of illiteracy also exhibit high fertility levels.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40233 Leasure, J. William. Mexican fertility and the revolution of 1910-1920. Population Review, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1988. 41-8 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
The author tests "the hypothesis that the growth of autonomy in Mexico led to increased control over reproductive life and the subsequent decline of fertility. Autonomy is defined as increased control over one's personal, political, and religious life." He argues "that the Mexican Revolution of 1910-1920 was a pervasive one that challenged traditional institutions and increased autonomy. Consequently, fertility should have declined. It fell by 23 percent between 1910 and 1930."
Correspondence: J. W. Leasure, Department of Economics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92181. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40234 Li, Jing-Guo. Fertility changes and concomitant changes in nuptiality in Hebei province, China, 1963-1985. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 753-73 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The fertility transition in Hebei province, China, between 1963 and 1985 is examined using data from the 1982 1-in-1,000 fertility survey. Fertility and nuptiality changes are studied during a period of moderate fertility control between 1967 and 1970, a period of strict fertility control in both urban and rural areas between 1971 and 1979, and the recent period of socioeconomic reform from 1980 to 1985. The total fertility rate in the province during the two-decade period declined from 5.6 to 2, with an increase in 1981. The impact of changes in marital fertility and changes in proportion married on total fertility rates is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40235 Li, Rongshi. A tentative analysis of the effect of income on women's fertility. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Sep 29, 1986. 19-23 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The impact of income on women's fertility in China is analyzed using data from official and other published sources. The author notes that there is a clear link between lower fertility and higher income up to a certain point. This point seems to be when family income reaches a level of 300 yan in rural areas. Other factors affecting fertility are also considered, including the national family planning program, female educational level, and female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40236 Lightbourne, Robert. New approaches for estimating the demand for children. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 23-24, 1987. 21-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the instantaneous demand for children during each month of the reproductive span. It does so by analysing survey data on the desire to conceive as a function of two variables--namely, parity and months elapsed since entry to each parity. Based on the estimates of the instantaneous demand for children, the paper then develops a unified model for estimating desired conception waits, desired birth intervals, number of births wanted over a lifetime, the desired level of contraceptive prevalence, and the unmet need for contraception. This unified model is applied to Ecuador, Ghana, Malaysia and the Republic of Korea."
Correspondence: R. Lightbourne, Population Division, Department of International Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Secretariat, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40237 Lin, Fude. Social and economic factors affecting China's fertility transition. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 1, Jan 29, 1987. 15-21 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Regression analysis is used to examine factors affecting the decline in fertility in China. The results show that the level of a region's economic development and women's educational status are associated with lower fertility. Fertility is lower in urban than in rural areas and among women with high participation in social activities. The impact of early marriage and short birth intervals in maintaining high fertility is noted. Data are from the 1982 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40238 London, Bruce. Dependence, distorted development, and fertility trends in noncore nations: a structural analysis of cross-national data. American Sociological Review, Vol. 53, No. 4, Aug 1988. 606-18 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The results of quantitative, cross-national studies of the effect of [a] dependency/world-system position on fertility trends in [59 developing] noncore nations are contradictory. Some provide support for the view that dependency distorts development and, in turn, impedes fertility decline. Others either qualify or refute this finding. This study criticizes the methods, measures, and approaches used in previous research. It then conducts a new analysis based on those criticisms. Results suggest that dependency does distort development and impede fertility decline."
Correspondence: B. London, Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40239 Lutz, Wolfgang. Culture, religion, and fertility: a global view. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 15-35 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author assesses "the effects of culture and religion on fertility after accounting for a country's socio-economic standing.[Analyses] of covariance models are estimated for 128 countries with time-series covering the period 1950-75. The dependent variable is the gross reproduction rate; independent variables are the infant mortality rate, an aggregate indicator of female educational standing and GDP per person as well as categorial variables for religion and cultural region." Evidence is found of the diminishing influence of religion over time as well as the increasing effect of culture relative to socioeconomic factors.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40240 Lutz, Wolfgang. The demographic dimensions of fertility in Finland 1984. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 26, 1988. 49-61 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Factors affecting fertility in Finland are analyzed based on data for 1984. Logit models are used to provide quantitative estimates of the relative impact on fertility of age, marriage duration, and birth interval.
Correspondence: W. Lutz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg A-2361, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40241 Makatjane, Tiisetso. Child-spacing in Lesotho. Working Papers in Demography, No. 9, Mar 1987. iv, 41 pp. National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit: Roma, Lesotho. In Eng.
The author "has researched traditional child-spacing practices in Lesotho, and the socio-economic changes that have affected these practices. In addition, he has attempted to outline the future prospects for child-spacing in the country and their implication for population growth and infant mortality." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Demography Unit, Department of Statistics, National University of Lesotho, PO Roma, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40242 McNicoll, Geoffrey; Singarimbun, Masri. Fertility decline in Indonesia: analysis and interpretation. ISBN 979-420-008-5. 1986. ix, 149 pp. Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to account for the onset and course of fertility decline in Indonesia--its timing and its pattern (both geographic and socioeconomic). In linking demographic outcomes to their social and economic context, it attempts to draw a detailed picture of the intermediate fertility variables--the so-called proximate determinants." Chapters are included on demographic change and its historical and social perspectives; proximate determinants of fertility, including marital patterns, breast-feeding, and contraceptive use; and an analysis of fertility decline as affected by economics, attitudes toward fertility regulation, family planning programs, and social and administrative pressures.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40243 Micheli, Giuseppe A. Exploring theoretical frameworks for the analysis of fertility fluctuations. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 1988. 177-201 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Analysis of scientific debate on the determinants of procreational choice leads the author to identify four main decisional logics: primary adaptation, economic rationality, norm internalization and identity reinforcement. Revisiting the classics supports the hypothesis of a bipolarity of strategical principles governing fluctuating reproductive behaviour. In particular, [the dialectic] between the two endogenous strategies--economic rationality and identity rationality--suggests the use of the Volterra-Kostitsin predator-prey model as a metaphor to account for fertility waves."
Correspondence: G. A. Micheli, Universita L. Bocconi, Via Sarfatti 25, 20136 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40244 Miura, T. Seasonality of birth. Progress in Biometeorology, Vol. 6, ISBN 90-5103-006-1. 1987. xv, 231 pp. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by different authors on the study of birth seasonality. The book "deals with the interactions between birth season and multiphasic physiological and pathological phenomena in human health and disease. Throughout it we stress the effects of hypothetical environmental factors in fetal stages which contribute to a constitution or disease proneness in man." It is aimed at a wide range of scientific and research professionals. Topics considered include research methodology; epidemic seasonal infertility; seasonality in twinning; and the relationship between seasonality and factors such as age at menarche, length of menstrual cycle, physical characteristics, congenital malformations, obstetric complications, mental disorders, Parkinson's disease, neurological disorders, longevity, cancer, and encephalitis.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40245 Mookherjee, Harsha N. Fertility decline in a developing country: the case of Papua New Guinea. Population Review, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Jan-Dec 1988. 49-56 pp. La Jolla, California. In Eng.
"The present study examines the trends of fertility changes in Papua New Guinea during the last two decades on the basis of the census data and presents some explanations for the decline in the fertility rate. It is argued here that the sudden social changes might have led to an increase in fertility, as indicated in earlier studies, but at the same time fertility declined in urban areas where land was scarce. However, at present, the influence of Christian faith, increased education, and improved health care practices have contributed considerably toward smaller family size."
Correspondence: H. N. Mookherjee, Department of Sociology, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40246 Moustafa, Eman M. Factors related to supply and demand for children, Upper Egypt region. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 111-46 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines socioeconomic and demographic factors related to observed fertility, fertility preferences, and contraceptive knowledge and use in Upper Egypt, based on data from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey. Comparisons are made with selected other regions of Egypt, and a regression analysis is conducted using desired family size as the dependent variable. Particular attention is given to large family size norms among the rural population of Upper Egypt and the fertility implications of economic development policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40247 Nolan, Patrick D. World system status, techno-economic heritage, and fertility. Sociological Focus, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1988. 9-33 pp. Kent, Ohio. In Eng.
"The relevance of world system/dependency theory, and ecological-evolutionary theory for the population processes of currently developing nations is explored and evaluated by testing hypotheses drawn from models of fertility and fertility decline implied by them. Despite the preliminary and necessarily limited nature of the tests and measures, some support is found for hypotheses drawn from both perspectives. Techno-economic heritage is found to affect fertility change directly, and world system status and techno-economic heritage are each found to affect fertility level and fertility change through independent effects on intervening variables. In addition, a significant interaction effect of techno-economic heritage and world system status on fertility level is found."
Correspondence: P. D. Nolan, Department of Sociology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40248 Obafemi Awolowo University. Department of Demography and Social Statistics (Ile-Ife, Nigeria); University of Pennsylvania. Population Studies Center (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). The cultural roots of African fertility regimes. Proceedings of the Ife Conference, February 25-March 1, 1987. [1987?]. iv, 363 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Nigeria in 1987 on the cultural roots of current fertility trends in Africa, with a focus on factors that influence the proximate determinants of fertility in the African countries south of the Sahara. The general hypothesis of the conference organizers was that particular combinations of the proximate determinants, including nuptiality, abstinence, breast-feeding, and sterility, have their origin in specific customs and institutions rather than in socioeconomic characteristics. Papers are included on Nigeria, Mali, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, and Kenya, as well as on groups of countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

54:40249 Pandey, A.; Singh, K. K.; Dwivedi, S. N. On the distribution of interior birth intervals. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 283-7 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors attempt to derive a probability distribution for interior, or closed, birth intervals taking into account changes over time due to female contraceptive use. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Correspondence: A. Pandey, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40250 Pandey, G. D.; Talwar, P. P. Some aspects of marriage and fertility in rural Uttar Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 301-10 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Fertility trends during the 1960s and 1970s are examined for the rural area of Uttar Pradesh, India. Consideration is given to the effects of "a number of social and cultural factors including caste, education, use of family planning methods, taboos on sex relations, and length of breast feeding." The authors compare data from official studies conducted in Uttar Pradesh during the two decades, and note the impact of the family planning program introduced in 1975.
Correspondence: G. D. Pandey, Regional Medical Research Centre, ICMR, Jabalpur 482 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40251 Prioux, France. Seasonal peaks in the birth rate: the influence of rank and legitimacy in selected Western European countries. [Mouvement saisonnier des naissances: influence du rang et de la legitimite dans quelques pays d'Europe occidentale.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 587-609 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author analyzes the relationship between seasonal variations in births and both birth order and legitimacy in France, Italy, and the Netherlands. "In Italy, seasonal variations in the number of marriages are still responsible for the characteristic seasonal distribution of first births, but this is no longer the case in France or the Netherlands. The dates of birth for second children appear to be planned more often than those of children of higher birth ranks; the seasonal peaks become less pronounced with increasing rank of birth. As illegitimate births become less commonly the result of accidental conceptions, they are less frequently conceived during the spring."
Correspondence: F. Prioux, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40252 Quiggin, Pat. No rising generation. Women and fertility in late nineteenth century Australia. Australian Family Formation Project Monograph, No. 10, ISBN 0-7315-0325-2. 1988. xii, 141 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Factors affecting the decline in fertility that occurred in the late nineteenth century in Australia are analyzed. The data concern the states of New South Wales and Victoria, with a focus on the city of Melbourne, and are from both official and a variety of other contemporary sources. The primary emphasis of the study is on the impact on fertility of changes in the status of women. Chapters are included on the timing of the fertility decline, motherhood, marriage patterns, education and employment, and the relationships among feminism, fertility control, and religion. Differences in the timing of the onset of the fertility decline in the two states are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40253 Ramu, G. N. Family structure and fertility: emerging patterns in an Indian city. ISBN 81-7036-079-X. LC 87-26603. 1988. 174 pp. Sage Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between changing family structure and fertility patterns in an Indian city are analyzed. Data are from 1979 and concern 312 married men and women from Kolar Gold Field, Karnataka. The results suggest that "fertility decisions are made not only in relation to the couples' own marital and familial aspirations but also with regard to the social environment in which children are raised. Conditions which tend to discourage couples from having large families include the general scarcity of goods and services, limited opportunities for a good education and subsequent employment, and the dowry-dominated marriage market. Most of the couples in the study perceived large families as a source of potential strain for themselves and their children and were decisively in favour of small families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40254 Reddy, M. Ramachandra; Reddy, P. Chengal. Fertility behaviour in the Sugalis of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 9, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 205-17 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The authors analyze the fertility of a tribal population, the Sugalis of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India, using data concerning 353 couples living in 8 villages. The results indicate that fertility among this population approaches the biological maximum. The impact on fertility of age at marriage and occupation is considered.
Correspondence: M. R. Reddy, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 817 502, District Chittoor, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40255 Rele, J. R. 70 years of fertility change in Korea: new estimates from 1916 to 1985. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1988. 29-54 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the long-term fertility trends in the Republic of Korea by estimating TFR [total fertility rate] using a uniform methodology that covers both the historical and transitional stages. The Korean experience fits well into the typical broad description of fertility change in the theory of demographic transition. The period before 1960 is the pre-transitional stage when fertility was generally high with small fluctuations. The early 1960s marks the beginning of the downward drift in fertility, which accelerated during the course of the two decades ending in 1976-1980. During the quarter century from 1956-1960 to 1981-1985, TFR declined by 61 per cent. The decline was much faster than that in the developed countries at a similar stage of fertility transition. Thus, this occurrence demonstrates the prospects for rapid fertility decline in the Asian context."
Correspondence: J. R. Rele, East-West Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40256 Riboud, Michelle. Altruism in the family, economic growth, and demography. [Altruisme au sein de la famille, croissance economique et demographie.] Revue Economique, Vol. 39, No. 1, Jan 1988. 127-54, 304 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study uses an economic approach to analyze fertility behavior. The importance of the 'cost' of children is shown in a model which includes, as arguments of the utility function not only the number of children but also their 'quality'. Implications of this model for demographic changes during periods of economic growth are examined. Estimates show the existence of an interaction between family size and family transfers towards each child. The analysis is further extended to examine the phenomenon of intergenerational mobility. Using Becker's approach, a model of intergenerational linkages in earnings and fertility behavior is specified and tested with French data."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40257 Ruzicka, Lado T.; Kane, Penny. Infant and child mortality: the implications for fertility behaviour. Population Research Leads, No. 29, 1988. 11 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper addresses both the impact of mortality levels on fertility, and the effects of high fertility on mortality. It also examines briefly the impact of maternal health on children's chances of survival. It concludes with an outline of implications for policy decisions." The geographical focus is on Southeastern and Southern Asia.
Correspondence: Population Information Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40258 Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina; Mburugu, Edward K. Women's income and fertility in rural Kenya. Institute for Development Studies Working Paper, No. 441, Sep 1986. 31 pp. University of Nairobi, Institute for Development Studies: Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The author discusses the relationship between women's education and fertility in rural Kenya. Consideration is given to level of education as it affects age at marriage and contraceptive use. Women's status, measured by income, is also discussed in relation to number of children, contraceptive use, and percentage of income spent on children's education. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Institute for Development Studies, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40259 Schoenmaeckers, Ronny. Fertility levels and trends. [Niveaux et tendances de la fecondite.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 111-39 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in fertility in Africa South of the Sahara are analyzed using data from published sources. Consideration is given to differences among countries, changes in age-specific fertility, and differences in birth intervals.
Correspondence: R. Schoenmaeckers, PNUD, Boite Postale 911, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40260 Sharma, A. K. Fertility and family planning in rural areas (a longitudinal study). LC 87-902624. 1987. 164 pp. Mittal Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
These are the results of a longitudinal study of fertility and family planning in a rural population of India. The focus of the study was on analyzing changes in reproductive goals, family planning attitudes and practices, and fertility levels from 1971 to 1978. Data are from the Kanpur Project and a follow-up study of a sample of 217 of the project's original 3,000 participants. The methodology of the survey and follow-up survey are first described, and the characteristics of the survey participants are outlined. Following a description of the changes that occurred over time in fertility and family planning attitude and behavior, the factors affecting these variables are analyzed, including sex preferences, marriage age, educational status, changes in the intensity of the national family planning program, and seasonal variations.
Correspondence: Mittal Publications, B-2/19-B Lawrence Road, Delhi 110 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40261 Singh, V. K.; Singh, U. N. On a relationship between conception rates in a fertility model. Janasamkhya, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jun 1987. 61-7 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Several parity- or conception-dependent fertility models for number of births or conceptions to a female have been developed with a view to estimating fecundability associated with different deliveries and to observe the trend with parity. However, at the stage of estimation these models assume constancy of fecundability due to a large number of parameters which reduces the flexibility of models for application purposes. In this paper a functional relationship between conception rates has been assumed and hence a model for first birth interval has been derived." The model is tested using data from the 1969-1970 Demographic Survey of Varanasi (Rural).
Correspondence: V. K. Singh, Department of Statistics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40262 Sivamurthy, M. Life table approach for the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 595-622 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author seeks "to explore the possibility of using the life table techniques to analyse the ASFR [age-specific fertility rate], which will yield useful information for comparing fertility situations in different countries and for examining the changes in fertility over time." Age-specific fertility rates by single years of age and by five-year age groups are presented. Life table methods are utilized to calculate age-specific fertility rates for selected countries for the period 1960-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40263 Spain. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica [INE] (Madrid, Spain). Fertility survey 1985. [Encuesta de fecundidad 1985.] ISBN 84-260-1582-4. 1987. 928 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This two-volume publication contains the methodology and results of the 1985 Spanish fertility survey, which covered all women between the ages of 18 and 49. Preliminary sections examine theoretical concepts, variables used in the survey, survey design and fieldwork, survey methodology, and questionnaires. Tables of results are included on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy; knowledge and practice of contraceptive methods, including attitude toward induced abortion; fertility, including number of children, pregnancy history, birth intervals, and age of woman at marriage and at birth of children; preferences and motivations regarding family size, sex of children, and birth spacing; and the impact of marriage and number of children on female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40264 Sprague, Allison. Post-war fertility and female labour force participation rates. Economic Journal, Vol. 98, No. 392, Sep 1988. 682-700 pp. New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between fertility and female labor force participation in the United Kingdom since World War II is explored by developing a two-equation model. Data are from a variety of sources, including the Women and Employment Survey. The results suggest that "fertility and participation rates are substantially affected by male and female earnings and education. Vacancies, real interest rates and 'stocks' of children are also important explanatory variables."
Correspondence: A. Sprague, Institute of Economics and Statistics, Oxford University, Wellington Square, Oxford OX1 2JD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40265 Srinivasan, K.; Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, A. On estimating age specific fecundability and secondary sterility from the data on open and last closed birth intervals. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 49, No. 2, Aug 1987. 176-85 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
The authors study the current potential fertility of women in India in terms of age-specific fecundability and secondary sterility. Estimates of fecundability are from data on closed birth intervals. "Age specific secondary sterility is estimated from the data on open birth intervals by treating the process of reproduction in steady state. The relevant data are compiled from the two large scale sample surveys conducted [in 1980-1981] in the States of Bihar and Rajasthan in India."
Correspondence: K. Srinivasan, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40266 Teklu, Tesfay; Venkatacharya, K. Estimates of birth rates for some African countries with two censuses. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 252-9 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The Coale and Preston-Coale methods of estimating birth rates are evaluated using data for selected countries in sub-Saharan Africa.
Correspondence: T. Teklu, United Nations Regional Institute for Population Study, University of Ghana, P.O. Box 96, Legon, Ghana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40267 Tessaring, Manfred. Demographic aspects of educational expansion and labour-force development in the Federal Republic of Germany. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 3-4, Jul 1988. 327-58 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper assesses the impact [in the Federal Republic of Germany] of the baby boom and the subsequent decline of fertility to below-replacement level for both the educational system and the labour market. The experience of the last 25 years is documented and projections through to 2030 are presented. Particular attention is paid to comparison of the effects of demographic change with the effects of changing educational needs and aspirations....It is clear from the analyses presented here that although demographic change has had an important impact on educational needs and labour-force development, social and technological change is quite often as important or even more important."
Correspondence: M. Tessaring, Institut fur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung der Bundesanstalt fur Arbeit, Regensburgerstrasse 104, D-8500 Nurnberg 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40268 Thailand. National Statistical Office (Bangkok, Thailand). Report. The 1985 Survey of Fertility in Thailand. Pub. Order No. E-SuR-Fey-No. 1-87. [1987]. 10, 30 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Tha.
This report presents results of a 1985 survey of women of reproductive age in Thailand. Information is included on age at marriage, number of surviving children, desire for more children among married and pregnant women, first birth intervals, and breast-feeding.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, Larn Luang Road, Bangkok 10100, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40269 Thompson, Patrick A.; Bell, William; Long, John; Miller, Robert B. Multivariate time series projections of parameterized age-specific fertility rates. College of Business Working Paper Series, No. 87-3, Jan 1987. 41 pp. Ohio State University, College of Business: Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"Projection of individual age-specific fertility rates using time series analysis can lead to results inconsistent on a cohort basis. We solve this problem by parameterizing the full curve of age-specific rates and forecasting the parameters using multivariate time series analysis. The resulting time series forecasts of parameters are then used to project individual age-specific fertility rates. A final step examines the age-specific fertility rates for consistency on a cohort basis." U.S. data are used to illustrate the concepts discussed.
Correspondence: Faculty of Management Sciences, Ohio State University, 1775 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40270 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). The status of women and fertility. The case of Ecuador. [La situacion de la mujer y la fecundidad. El caso de Ecuador.] CELADE Serie A, No. 184; LC/DEM/G.64, Jun 24, 1988. 79 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa.
Data from the 1982 census of Ecuador are used to examine the impact on fertility of differences in female social status. Three different types of social class are considered: professional and managerial, nonmanual, and manual workers. The impact of educational status on fertility is also considered.
Correspondence: CELADE, Casilla 91, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40271 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). The geography of fertility in the ESCAP region. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-K, Aug 1988. iii, 41, [31] pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a report on trends in fertility in Asia during the 1970s. "It is based on previously published reports from the ten countries which participated in the project: Bangladesh, China..., India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand....The main product of the reports was a set of maps summarizing the information available from the census on subnational variations in fertility. These maps showed in detail, in some cases at the level of very small administrative areas, levels and trends of fertility during the 1970s, and in some cases the 1960s. The main purpose of the present report is to bring together all the maps in one volume and to summarize their lessons for family planning policy....[In addition,] this report recapitulates the progress of the 10 countries and the ESCAP secretariat in learning how to draw and interpret the maps."
Correspondence: ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40272 Unni, K. Narayanan; Rele, J. R.; Retherford, Robert D.; Luther, Norman Y. Recent fertility trends in North-Eastern India. Occasional Paper, No. 6 of 1987, [1988]. v, 52 pp. Office of the Registrar General: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study, which is the result of collaborative research between the East-West Population Institute in Hawaii and the Office of the Registrar General of India, is concerned with fertility trends in northeastern India. Data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses and other official sources are used to analyze fertility trends in an area that includes the states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, and Sikkim. Consideration is given to data quality and to alternative methods of estimating fertility. "In rural areas it was found that fertility declined in Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and Mizoram and increased in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. In urban areas it was found that fertility declined in all states, but less so in Arunachal Pradesh than elsewhere. These results are consistent with levels of female literacy, which in rural areas is lower in Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh than in the other states considered here."
Correspondence: Office of the Registrar General, West Block No. 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40273 Wachter, Kenneth W.; Lee, Ronald D. U.S. births and limit cycle models. Sloan-Berkeley Working Paper in Population Studies, No. 7, Jul 1988. 33 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"Lee's...formal demographic feedback models summarize the implications for births and age-structure of neo-Malthusian theories of baby booms like those of Easterlin. For some parameter values, such models imply sustained cycles, so-called 'limit cycles', in births. Frauenthal and Swick have recently re-estimated a continuous-age version of Lee's Basic Cohort Model with U.S. series and, contrary to Lee's original findings, have been led with this model to the conclusion that 'limit cycle oscillations have been occurring in U.S. births.' This paper disputes this conclusion, ascribing it to an inconsistency in detrending procedures. Furthermore, it corrects Lee's original conclusion by showing that his alternative Period Labor-Force Feedback Model, estimated from U.S. series, leads to cycles of implausibly long period. This paper thus reopens the question of whether any feedback model could account for the observed cycles in U.S. births."
Correspondence: Sloan-Berkeley Working Group, Institute of International Studies, c/o Graduate Group in Demography, 2232 Piedmont Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40274 Werner, Barry. Fertility data from the Population (Statistics) Act in England and Wales: 1938-1988. Population Trends, No. 52, Summer 1988. 15-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This year is the 50th anniversary of the introduction in England and Wales of the Population (Statistics) Act 1938. To mark the occasion this article gives a short account of trends in four aspects of fertility during the past 50 years using statistics which became available because of the Act. Illustrations are given of trends in fertility rates to women of different ages; in the contributions to the fertility rate made by successive births within marriage and by births outside marriage; in the length of time elapsing between when women marry and when they have their first child; and in the proportions of married women having a child who have been married more than once."
Correspondence: B. Werner, Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40275 Werner, Barry. Spacing of births to women born in 1935-1959: evidence from the OPCS Longitudinal Study. Population Trends, No. 52, Summer 1988. 20-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The OPCS Longitudinal Study provides details of the childbearing histories of women over a lengthy period by linking details collected in the 1971 Census to birth registrations since then. In this article these linked data have been used to investigate the distributions of the intervals between successive births to women born in 1935-59, taking into account the ages of the women at each birth. A comparison is made between the probabilities of second, third and fourth births to women at different intervals after the previous birth and the probabilities of first births to women after the age of 15. Possible implications for projections of future fertility are discussed."
Correspondence: B. Werner, Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40276 Wojtkiewicz, Roger A.; McDonald, Elaine. A mimic model for the relationship between education and fertility. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-28, [1987]. 20, 8 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The relationship between educational status and fertility is explored. Specifically, the authors examine "the structure of the social process which relates a woman's social, economic, and cultural background both to a woman's educational attainment and a woman's fertility behavior." The data are from the 1970 U.S. National Fertility Study. The results indicate that race, regional background, having an intact family, and smoking at a young age have a negative impact on age at first birth.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, 4412 Social Science Building, 1180 Observatory Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40277 Yusuf, Farhat. Correlates of fertility behaviour in Pakistan: some evidence from the Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 325, ISBN 0-85837-625-3. Aug 1988. 47 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
"The main objective of the present study is to analyse some recent data on demographic, socio-economic and KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning) correlates of fertility in Pakistan." The data, which concern cumulative fertility, were collected during the 1984-1985 Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence Survey and are for 7,405 currently married women aged 15-49. The results show that marriage age, woman's education, and survivorship of children are associated with lower fertility. Higher levels of knowledge and favorable attitudes toward contraception are associated with higher parity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40278 Zhao, Yali. Transition of age at marriage and length of reproduction in Shaanx province, China. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 803-23 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Trends in age at first marriage, first birth intervals, and length of reproductive span in Shaanxi province, China, between 1965 and 1984 are examined. The data are for 4,084 ever-married women interviewed in an in-depth fertility survey in 1985. Evidence is found of a rising age at marriage, no shortening of the first birth interval, and a reduction in the length of the reproductive span leading to a significant reduction in the total fertility rate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

54:40279 Adewuyi, Alfred A. Interrelations between duration of residence and fertility in a Nigerian primate city. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 28, No. 2, Jul 1986. 197-211 pp. Ibadan, Nigeria. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this study to critically examine duration of residence as a correlate of fertility behaviour [among migrants and nonmigrants in Nigeria]....We shall control for education and age in the cross tabulation of duration of residence with fertility of mothers with different migrant statuses. Subsequently, in a multivariate analysis, we shall control, in addition to education and age, for husband's education and income, age at first marriage, migration and employment status." Data are from a 1974-1975 survey of 1,801 married women living in Lagos.
Correspondence: A. A. Adewuyi, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40280 Basu, Alaka M.; Sundar, Ramamani. The domestic servant as family planning innovator: an Indian case study. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 292-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports on the relatively low fertility of female domestic servants in India....This low fertility, which appears to be volitional, may have its roots in the incompatibility between the servant's reproductive and productive roles, as well as in the changing values generated by continued exposure to a wealthier lifestyle."
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhawan 11, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40281 Clerici, Renata. Fertility and migration: an analysis of women included in the 1981 census in the province of Milan. [Fecondita e migrazioni: un'analisi delle donne censite nel 1981 in provincia di Milano.] Studi Emigrazione/Etudes Migrations, Vol. 25, No. 90, Jun 1988. 258-80 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The relationship between fertility and migration patterns in the Italian province of Milan is analyzed. "The own-children method is used to obtain retrospective fertility measurements by the linkage of the young children enumerated in the census to their mothers, classified by different mobility characteristics (such as place of birth, present and previous place of residence)."
Correspondence: R. Clerici, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 1, 20123 Milan, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40282 Edlinger, M. Sexually transmitted diseases and fertility: a case study of Mahalapye Subdistrict, Botswana. Groningen Demographic Reports, No. 12, 1988. ix, 24 pp. Groningen State University, Geographical Institute: Groningen, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This study examines the association between sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and fertility in a Subdistrict of Botswana." The data were collected in 1984 and 1985 and concern 256 women who had an STD occurrence diagnosed at the subdistrict health facility and a control group of 165 women. Birth interval data are analyzed in order to assess the impact of disease on fertility, and the author concludes that "on average a woman with an STD diagnosis has a 50 per cent lower fertility than normal, withage playing an important role."
Correspondence: Geographical Institute, Groningen State University, P.O. Box 800, NL 9700 AV Groningen, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40283 Kahn, Joan R. Immigrant selectivity and fertility adaptation in the United States. Social Forces, Vol. 67, No. 1, Sep 1988. 108-28 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This examination of the fertility of immigrants moving to the United States from high-fertility countries tests several hypotheses about the process of assimilation and the impact of selectivity using microdata from the 1980 U.S. Census and aggregate data from the sending countries. Unlike previous assimilation studies that focus on integration into the destination society, this study emphasizes the dynamic nature of the assimilation process by modeling the declining impact of the origin cultural setting. Although part of the variability among immigrant groups can be attributed to compositional differences, sending-country fertility levels continue to exert a positive influence on immigrant fertility behavior....Additional evidence suggests that in general, as immigrants adapt to the U.S., they are less and less influenced by their origin social environments."
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40284 Kaloyanov, Todor. Variation between conditional distributions--a means for analyzing fertility factors for women in Bulgaria. [Variatsiyata mezhdu uslovni razpredeleniya--sredstvo za analiz na faktorni vliyaniya varkhu plodovitostta na zhenite v NRB.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 4, 1987. 18-34 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The influence of age on the fertility of [Bulgarian] women...in their first marriage is studied....The analysis is based on the variation between conditional one-dimensional and two-dimensional distributions." Data are from a 1975 sample survey of fertility in Bulgaria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40285 Lachapelle, Rejean. Changes in fertility among Canada's linguistic groups. Canadian Social Trends, No. 10, Autumn 1988. 2-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Fertility trends among linguistic subgroups in Canada are analyzed. Data are from official sources and concern completed fertility by mother tongue of women born between 1896 and 1951. A decrease in fertility since 1960 in Francophone women is noted.
Correspondence: R. Lachapelle, Language Studies Program, Social and Economic Studies Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40286 Paraguay. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Asuncion, Paraguay); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada). Paraguay: geographic and socioeconomic fertility differentials, 1960-1979. [Paraguay: diferenciales geograficos y socioeconomicos de la fecundidad, 1960-1979.] Mar 1988. 119 pp. Asuncion, Paraguay. In Spa.
This publication provides estimates of fertility levels, trends, and differentials in Paraguay for the period 1960-1979, based primarily on 10 percent samples from censuses conducted between 1972 and 1982. Sections are included on fertility trends by age group, with some comparative data for selected other Latin American countries; differentials by region and for urban and rural areas; and socioeconomic and cultural differentials, including educational level, occupation, and degree of urbanization.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40287 Pathak, K. B.; Murthy, P. K. Rural-urban fertility differentials in India. Janasamkhya, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jun 1987. 41-59 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In this paper rural-urban differences in fertility in the States of India are investigated using the Sample Registration System data of the years 1972 and 1981. The decomposition of the rates shows that reduction in fertility on the period has been due to lower age-specific marital fertility rates at older age groups in 1981. But this gain is in a way offset by greater [proportions] of married women and higher specific rates at younger age groups in 1981."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40288 Saleh, Omer M. Regional variations in reproductive behaviour in northern Sudan. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 397-420 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author seeks to identify regional fertility levels and differentials for northern Sudan based on data from the 1973 census and the 1978-1979 Sudan Fertility Survey. Attention is given to age at first birth, birth intervals, length of reproductive span, and parity progression ratios. Among the findings, it is noted that the Central Region has high recent and current fertility, the highest average parity, the longest reproductive life span, and the highest average probability of progression to higher parity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40289 Sarkar, B. N. Differentials of fertility change. DRU Publication, No. 76, Oct 1985. 31 pp. Indian Statistical Institute, Demography Research Unit: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Differentials in fertility change in India are discussed using data from official and other published sources. Consideration is given to participation in family planning programs by sex, region, caste, and level of education for selected years in the period 1970-1980. The effects of socioeconomic development and of female educational level and marriage age on fertility are also explored.
Correspondence: Demography Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta 700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40290 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York). Adolescent reproductive behaviour: an annotated bibliography. No. IESA/P/WP/100, 1988. viii, 284 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This annotated Bibliography attempts to provide a general overview of the literature on adolescent fertility and closely related issues." Studies cover topics such as abortion, contraception, sex education, illegitimacy, and health issues, from global and country-specific perspectives. Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: Population Division, Department of International and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40291 Wineberg, Howard. Fertility of women married once or more than once. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 72, No. 4, Jul 1988. 260-6 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Data from the 1980 and 1985 Current Population Surveys are used to examine differences in U.S. fertility by marital status. The results indicate that "fertility varies greatly for women married once vs. [those] married more than once, as well as for those continuing to be married vs. those no longer married. This applies to both major races in the United States. Unadjusted data underestimate the fertility of continuously married women, who generally do not have characteristics associated with high fertility. However, they spend more time married and are more likely to have children while married."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

54:40292 Joffe, Michael. Advantages of a standard method for research on reproductive effects of occupation. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 42, No. 3, Sep 1988. 209-12 pp. London, England. In Eng.
A standard method for the study of the effects of occupational exposure on male and female reproduction is proposed. "The potential benefits include increased measurement reliability and statistical power, together with a systematic study of expected (background) rates, confounding effects, types of exposure and selection effects. Particular advantages are the avoidance of designating a group as non-exposed with attendant problems of bias, and in the longer term the study of multiple or rare exposures."
Correspondence: M. Joffe, St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Department of Community Medicine, Norfolk Place, London W2 1PG, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40293 Ratnam, S. Shan; Teoh, Eng-Soon; Anandakumar, C. Infertility: male and female. Advances in Fertility and Sterility Series, Vol. 4, ISBN 1-85070-154-7. 1987. xv, 239 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Park Ridge, New Jersey/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This volume contains papers on infertility that were presented at the 12th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, held in Singapore, October 27-31, 1986. It includes 13 papers on male infertility, 4 papers on the epidemiology of human infertility, 7 papers from a WHO workshop on the investigation of the sub-fertile couple, and 5 papers on other aspects of infertility. The geographical scope is worldwide.
For a related volume on contraception, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40294 Sala-Diakanda, Mpembele. Infertility among certain ethnic groups. [L'infecondite de certaines ethnies.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 191-216 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
Infertility and subfertility among various African ethnic groups are analyzed using data mainly for Cameroon and Zaire. Evidence that infertility is declining over time is noted, and significant differences among neighboring ethnic groups regarding infertility are discussed.
Correspondence: M. Sala-Diakanda, Institut de Information et de Recherches Demographiques, B.P. 1556, Yaounde, Cameroon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

54:40295 Arnold, Fred. The effect of sex preference on fertility and family planning: empirical evidence. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 23-24, 1987. 44-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the issue of whether the prevalence of a strong desire for children of a particular sex would be a significant obstacle to the success of family planning programmes in achieving rapid fertility declines. The author used a recently developed method to produce...quantitative estimates of sex preference, based on data from demographic surveys for 27 countries. Estimates were derived which indicate that a preference for sons has a smaller impact on fertility than is generally expected, since the random biological processes insure that most couples will bear their desired minimum number of sons and daughters at a relatively low parity."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. 417).
Correspondence: F. Arnold, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40296 Audinarayana, N. Determinants of family planning acceptance in India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 4, Jun 1987. 64-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The present paper is an attempt to study the effect of a few socio-economic and programme implementation factors leading to the acceptance of family planning in Indian states, with the latest available data, using multiple linear regression analysis for identifying the contribution of each variable in determining family planning acceptance."
Correspondence: N. Audinarayana, Department of Population Studies, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40297 Bardin, C. Wayne. Public sector contraceptive development. History, problems, and prospects for the future. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 289-305 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The withdrawal of the pharmaceutical industry from the development of new contraceptives and the increasing role of public-sector research organizations in this regard are described. New products successfully introduced by public organizations are identified, and obstacles to further development are outlined. A table is included, providing information on both U.S. and intergovernmental organizations involved in research and development of new contraceptives.
Correspondence: C. W. Bardin, Center for Biomedical Research, Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021-6399. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40298 Bhuyan, K. C. Education, fertility and family planning practices in a rural area of Bangladesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 2, Dec 1986. 3-15 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to study the fertility behaviour and family planning practices of women with respect to their education, age at marriage and husband's education." The data are from a survey of 825 married females of childbearing age in Noakhali district in rural Bangladesh. The authors conclude that "to effect a reduction in fertility, the age at marriage of females should be increased along with an improvement in their educational levels."
Correspondence: K. C. Bhuyan, Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40299 Black, Maggie. Better health for women and children through family planning: report on an international conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, October 1987. [1988?]. 46 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report is based on presentations at a conference held in Kenya in 1987 on the achievement of better health for women and children through family planning. Included are opening statements, an outline of the conference program, the mobilization of resources, recommendations, and proposed follow-up. The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40300 Brown, George F. Family planning programs. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 465-80 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
This is an overview of the development of both governmental and nongovernmental family planning programs throughout the world since the middle of the twentieth century. Attention is given to funding, program organization and management, and impact.
Correspondence: G. F. Brown, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40301 Bruce, Judith. Users' perspectives on contraceptive technology and delivery systems. Highlighting some feminist issues. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 359-83 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents a framework of feminist concerns through which to view the potential acceptability of new contraceptive technologies and family planning service delivery systems. It draws on knowledge of women's roles and status, particularly their power relations, in developing countries, acceptability and program research, and selected, more theoretical feminist perspectives."
Correspondence: J. Bruce, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40302 Davey, Claire. Birth control in Britain during the interwar years: evidence from the Stopes correspondence. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1988. 329-45 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
In this article, "a single archival source--letters written to Marie Stopes, a major English advocate of contraception--are used to examine the contraceptive experiences and sexual problems of individual men and women during the later phase of the demographic transition in England (1918-1939). Various statistical assessments reveal that methods and motives for contraception were influenced by the correspondents' sex and social standing."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40303 Debavalya, Nibhon. Thailand's success story. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1988. 38-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Thailand's achievements in reducing fertility through a voluntary program are described. Factors associated with the success of the government program are identified as a general acceptance by individuals of the benefits of small families, the relatively favorable status of women, and a high contraceptive prevalence rate.
Correspondence: N. Debavalya, Population Division, U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40304 Donaldson, Peter J. Modernizing family planning. Society, Vol. 25, No. 5, Jul-Aug 1988. 11-7 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author summarizes the revolution in reproductive behavior that is occurring across much of the developing world. Reasons for the decline in fertility in the modern world are first described. He concludes that "the women of the developing world have transformed their childbearing in response to changing social and economic conditions and the availability of contraceptive services. Organized family planning programs made fertility regulation easier, cheaper, and more convenient. American foreign aid helped to improve family planning programs and to increase their impact."
Correspondence: P. J. Donaldson, Committee on Population, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40305 Easterlin, Richard A.; Wongboonsin, Kua; Ahmed, Mohamed A. The demand for family planning: a new approach. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 257-69 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A new 'supply-demand' measure of family planning demand is compared with others commonly used to target prospective family planning clients. In analyses of data from six cross-sectional surveys the new measure consistently explains past contraceptive use better than the others. Time series analysis for two countries yields similar results. Family planning program officials may wish to consider exploring the use of this measure to target prospective clients." Data are from official and published sources and primarily concern Thailand, Taiwan, and Egypt.
Correspondence: R. A. Easterlin, Department of Economics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0152. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40306 El-Islam, M. Fakhr; Malasi, Taha H.; Abu-Dagga, Sanaa I. Oral contraceptives, sociocultural beliefs and psychiatric symptoms. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 9, 1988. 941-5 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The occurrence of psychiatric symptoms as detected by the General Health Questionnaire was examined in three groups of Moslem women [in Kuwait]. Those who used oral contraceptives were compared to those who used local contraceptives and those using no contraceptives in relation to their beliefs about prohibition of contraception by the Islamic religious code and/or about possible health hazards of contraception. Those who held one or both sets of adverse beliefs had significantly more symptoms." Data are from a sample of Kuwaiti women receiving oral contraceptives from health centers between January and July 1986.
Correspondence: M. F. El-Islam, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 24923, Sufut, Kuwait 13110. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:40307 Freeman, Helen R. The use and prevalence of contraception in some countries of the American region. ISBN 92-75-12001-3. 1985. xiii, 77 pp. Pan American Health Organization [PAHO], Maternal and Child Health Program: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report presents a summary of available information concerning contraceptive use and prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data are presented separately by country and are primarily from the World Fertility Survey, Westinghouse Health Systems, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and concern the period from 1976 to 1982. "Data on the coverage and prevalence of contraceptive use in each country are analyzed, as well as information on the proportion of women who use each method and the relative influence of the different governmental, nongovernmental and private programs." Characteristics of regular contraceptive users are also analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40308 Gonzalez-Olguin, Arturo; Romero-Gutierrez, Gustavo; Malacara, Juan M.; de Leon-Medina, Jorge D. Personality profiles and socioeconomic factors in contraceptive use. Contraception, Vol. 38, No. 5, Nov 1988. 551-9 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this study we examined the role of socioeconomic factors and the possible interaction of some personality profiles in order to correlate them with contraceptive use and the type of contraceptive [in Mexico]." Data are for a sample of 3,060 married women aged 15-45 who were interviewed in 1985-1986.
Correspondence: J. M. Malacara, Instituto de Investigaciones Medicas, 20 de Enero 929, Leon, Guanajuato, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40309 Grady, William R.; Hayward, Mark D.; Florey, Francesca A. Contraceptive discontinuation among married women in the United States. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 227-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this analysis reports differentials in contraceptive discontinuation among married women aged 15-44 years in the United States. The total discontinuation rate is broken down into change to no method (termination) or to a different method (a method switch), and rates are obtained for specific methods. In addition, sociodemographic differences in risks associated with each type of discontinuation are shown. Discontinuation rates are compared to use-failure rates to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of discontinuation for contraceptive efficacy."
Correspondence: W. R. Grady, Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, 4000 NE 41st Street, Seattle, WA 98105. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40310 Grossman, Richard A. A survey of prescribing habits for high-estrogen oral contraceptives. Contraception, Vol. 38, No. 5, Nov 1988. 561-5 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"A sample survey was made of [166] health-care providers [in the United States] to determine their attitudes toward oral contraceptives containing more than 50 mcg of estrogen. It was found that about two-thirds of respondents prescribe this group of medication, although few do so regularly. Their use seemed correlated with providers 40 years of age or older."
Correspondence: R. A. Grossman, 1810 East Third Avenue, Durango, CO 81301. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40311 Guertechin, Thierry L. de; Pego, Raquel A.; Richa, Arnaldo C.; Souza, Leticia K. N.; Libanio, J. B.; Labra, Maria E.; Bohadana, Estrella. Birth control X Family Planning in Brazil. [Controle da natalidade X Planejamento familiar no Brasil.] LC 88-130603. 1987. 118 pp. Achiame: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
This report is a product of a 1982 seminar on aspects of birth control and family planning in Brazil. The papers, which are by various authors, are concerned with the demographic and political aspects of birth control, the institutions involved in family planning, contraceptive methods, the position of the Catholic Church regarding family planning, the struggle by women to control their own reproductive choices, induced abortion, and family planning in a Brazilian favela.
Correspondence: Edicoes Archiame, Av. Treze de Maio 13/1010, 20031 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40312 Hadiya, Kamel H. M. The role of family planning availability in motivating fertility regulation, Egypt, 1984: a multilevel analysis. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 39-75 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The role of perceived availability of family planning services in motivating women to regulate fertility is studied using data from the 1984 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Individual- and community-level data are used in multiple classification analyses. Evidence is found to support three hypotheses: that increased availability positively affects motivation to regulate fertility, that this role is stronger in rural and less developed areas, and that the effect is more evident when aggregated, community-level data are used.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40313 Harkavy, Oscar. Funding contraceptive development. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 307-19 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
Trends in public and private investment in contraceptive technology development and factors affecting them are discussed. It is noted that "contraceptive development is not attractive to industry because of its high cost and risk, the length of time required to obtain regulatory approval, and lack of adequate product liability insurance. Public sector [research and development] organizations have difficulty in obtaining substantial support from governmental and private donors because of impatience for short-term results, concern that small-scale operations are not effective, tensions between U.S. and European donors, and even ambivalence on the usefulness of new technology." New collaborative efforts among public-sector groups and private industry as well as initiation of contraceptive research funding by the World Bank are seen as positive steps.
Correspondence: O. Harkavy, Ford Foundation, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40314 Harvey, S. Marie. Trends in contraceptive use among university women, 1974-1983: a decade of change. Journal of American College Health, Vol. 36, No. 4, Jan 1988. 209-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data obtained from interviews with nearly 4,700 [U.S.] female students utilizing a university contraceptive clinic over ten consecutive years (1974-1983) indicated that the pill was the most popular contraceptive of three prescription methods (pills, IUD, and diaphragm). Although the pill dominated in each of the ten years examined, the percentage of women using this method substantially declined from 1974 (89%) to 1983 (73%)....Conversely, a trend of increased diaphragm selection emerged over time, with only 6% of the study population choosing this method in 1974, compared with 25% ten years later....Ethnicity was significantly correlated with pill and diaphragm preference....Pill use was inversely related to age, but diaphragm and IUD preference increased with age. These patterns are consistent with national trends in contraceptive use over the past decade and [the data] indicate that the pill may be making a comeback."
Correspondence: S. M. Harvey, Department of School and Community Health, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:40315 Hirsch, Larry. PROFAMILIA: Colombian success story. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1988. 22-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The development of PROFAMILIA, a successful private sector family planning program in Colombia begun in 1965, is described. The author notes that the program has managed to overcome strenuous opposition by obtaining popular support.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40316 Johansson, Elof D. B. The future of contraceptive technology. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 283-8 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
Likely trends in future contraceptive development are outlined, and attention is given to factors affecting this development in various regions of the world. According to the author, "the newcomers will be long-acting subcutaneous implants, such as NORPLANT; intravaginal rings for delivery of steroid hormones or as a base for barrier contraceptives with prophylaxis for sexually transmitted diseases; intrauterine devices releasing steroid hormones; ovulation inhibition by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone; menses induction based on progesterone-receptor blockage; and maybe a hormonal contraceptive for men based on Inhibin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40317 Kane, Thomas T.; Gaminiratne, K. H. W.; Stephen, Elizabeth H. Contraceptive method-switching in Sri Lanka: patterns and implications. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 68-75 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The main focus of this article is on changes in individual contraceptive use [in Sri Lanka] rather than on aggregate national changes in the mix of contraceptive methods. The various 'paths' of contraceptive practice followed by a national sample of women are examined for two broad age-groups, women under age 30 and those 30 and older...." Implications of contraceptive method-switching are discussed in relation to family planning programs. Data are from the 1985 Sri Lanka Contraceptive Prevalence Survey and concern 4,500 ever-married women aged 15-49.
Correspondence: T. T. Kane, Committee on Contraceptive Development, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20418. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40318 Khan, M. E. Family planning in Indian industries--a status paper. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 2, Dec 1986. 16-29 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
An increase in the use of incentives and disincentives for family planning in India is examined in light of the 1981 census results, which showed no decline in the country's rate of population growth. Specifically, the author examines the use of incentives in industry-developed family planning programs. "While a large number of industries offer incentives in the form of cash and leave benefits, a few industries offer other forms of incentives as well. While none of the industries had any disincentive schemes, a few offered medical benefits and delivery advances for the first two or three children." The absence of adequate studies to assess the impact of incentives in family planning programs is noted.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Population, Health and Women's Studies, Operations Research Group, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Marg, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40319 Khan, M. E.; Singh, Ratanjeet. Woman and her role in the family decision-making process: a case study of Uttar Pradesh, India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 4, Jun 1987. 49-63 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the role of women in making decisions concerning family size and contraceptive use in India, using data from an ongoing project being conducted in three villages in Uttar Pradesh. The impact of the low status of women and the extent to which husbands and other family members control family decisions are emphasized.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Population Health and Women's Studies, Operations Research Group, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Marg, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40320 Klaus, Hanna; Labbok, Miriam; Barker, Dianne. Characteristics of ovulation method acceptors: a cross-cultural assessment. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 299-304 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Five programs of instruction in the ovulation method (OM) in diverse geographic and cultural settings are described, and characteristics of approximately 200 consecutive OM acceptors in each program are examined. Major findings include: the religious background and family size of acceptors are variable, as is the level of previous contraceptive use....In sum, the ovulation method is accepted by persons from a variety of backgrounds within and between cultural settings." Programs were selected for analysis in Bangladesh, India, Kenya, the Republic of Korea, and the United States.
Correspondence: H. Klaus, Natural Family Planning Center of Washington, D.C., 8514 Bradmoor Drive, Bethesda, MD 20817-3810. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40321 Klinger, Andras; Meszaros, Arpad. Fertility, family planning, and the present and future of birth control: Hungarian congress, October 5-6, 1982. [A termekenyseg, csaladtervezes, szuletesszabalyozas jelene es jovoje: tudomanyos kongresszus, 1982 oktober 5-6.] LC 84-226329. 1984. 259 pp. Statisztikai Kiado Vallalat: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
This is a compilation of papers presented at a conference held in Hungary in 1982 concerning fertility, family planning, and use of contraceptive methods. Attention is given to the role of the individual, the family, and society within the context of a growing population. The primary geographical focus is Hungary.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40322 Korea Institute for Population and Health (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Population and family planning in Korea. Sep 1988. 37 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This report presents basic information concerning the population and family planning program of the Republic of Korea. It includes sections on policy developments from 1961 to 1985, program management, achievements of the family planning program, and future prospects. It is noted that current use of contraception increased from 9 percent in 1964 to 70.4 percent in 1985 and that much of the recent increase in use is due to an increase in female sterilization; the total abortion rate has declined from a high of 2.9 in 1978 to 2.1 in 1984; and the total fertility rate has declined from 6.0 in 1961 to 2.1 in 1985.
Correspondence: KIPH, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

54:40323 Leridon, Henri; Toulemon, Laurent. Contraception in France: the pill and the IUD. [La contraception en France: pilule et sterilet.] Population et Societes, No. 228, Oct 1988. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Current contraceptive practice in France is reviewed using data from a 1988 survey conducted jointly by INSERM and INSEE. The survey included 3,000 women aged 18-49. The first results presented here indicate the decline of traditional methods of contraception. Of the 68 percent of women practicing contraception, half use the pill, and almost another third the IUD. Changes in contraceptive methods chosen since 1978 are also described. Comparisons are then made with other developed countries.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40324 Lieberson, Jonathan. Ethics of family planning. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 481-95 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"The expression, 'ethics of family planning', it is argued, has no firm meaning, and should not be taken to imply that a full set of moral rules and principles governing family planning has been or is likely to be established. A survey is made of recent views on population and economic and social development....A scheme of analysis to appraise the ethical status of measures to arrest or promote population growth is proposed, and a number of such measures are critically analyzed." Among the measures discussed are U.S. moves to limit funding of clinics that provide referrals to abortion clinics and China's one-child policy.
Correspondence: J. Lieberson, Center for Population Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40325 Lovio, Timo. Culture, family planning and the number of children. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 26, 1988. 62-72 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author combines anthropological and demographic approaches to the question of factors affecting fertility in Finland. Cultural changes influencing the family, changes in educational status, and shifting attitudes toward desired number of children are examined using official sources and data collected by the author.
Correspondence: T. Lovio, Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40326 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Technology and the social regulation of fertility. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 261-73 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
Technology as a factor influencing fertility is discussed. The author argues that "technological change affects the demand for children, and hence for fertility regulation, both by directly altering the expected benefits and costs of children to parents and by influencing the cultural and social structural underpinnings of that economic calculus. Routes of that influence include the demand for education generated by competition for modern sector employment, the consumerist values and lifestyles conveyed by communications media, and the erosion of community and kin pressures on individual behavior in a more mobile and more commercialized society. Such forces for behavioral change, it is argued, are more powerful factors in fertility decline than either the 'social technology' of contraceptive service delivery (family planning programs) or improvements in the technology of contraception itself."
Correspondence: G. McNicoll, Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40327 Mitra, S. N.; Kamal, G. M. Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1983: key results. [1984]. vii, 57, [38] pp. Mitra and Associates: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The results of Bangladesh's third contraceptive prevalence survey, conducted in 1983, are presented. This survey, which involved interviews with some 20,000 respondents, included samples of ever-married women under 50 years of age and their husbands, and of couples with wives under 50. Sections are included on knowledge, ever-use, and current use of family planning methods; differences in the current use rate among the samples interviewed; data reliability; and sources of supplies and services.
Correspondence: Mitra and Associates, 2/17 Iqbal Road, Mohammadpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

54:40328 Monteith, Richard S.; Carron, Juan M.; Warren, Charles W.; Melian, Maria M.; Castagnino, Dario; Morris, Leo. Contraceptive use and fertility in Paraguay, 1987. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 284-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results from the 1987 Paraguay Family Planning Survey are analyzed, focusing on levels of contraceptive use and fertility as well as the need for family planning services in Paraguay. The authors note that "findings from the present study are consistent with the lack of a public sector family planning program in the country....Twenty-two percent of all women and one-third of married women are at risk of having an unplanned pregnancy." Data from earlier surveys are presented for comparison.
Correspondence: R. S. Monteith, Program Evaluation Branch, Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40329 Mukerji, S. The need and feasibility of attaining sixty per cent couple protection rate in India by the end of this century. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 3, Mar 1987. 14-25 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
This study examines India's strategies for controlling its population growth, with a focus on the use of the Net Reproduction Rate (NRR) for making population projections and setting program targets. First, the NRR approach is compared to projection methods based on birth and death rates. The author then discusses India's long-term goal of achieving 60 percent couple protection by the year 2000 and the need to increase family planning targets to reach that level. Consideration is also given to the adoption of a two-child per family norm. Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: S. Mukerji, International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi, Station Road, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40330 Murthy, G. V. S.; Reddaiah, V. P.; Kapoor, S. K. Profile of sterilisation acceptors in one of the districts of Haryana. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 9, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 218-24 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
Factors affecting sterilization acceptance in India are explored using data on 816 women of reproductive age in rural Haryana. The results show that women of higher caste and upper-middle socioeconomic status were more likely to accept sterilization. "The mean age of ligation acceptors was 30.4 years while it was 32.7 years [among] spouses of vasectomy acceptors. About 60 per cent of the couples accepting sterilisation had more than 5 living children and 69.4 per cent of the acceptors had 2-3 living male children at the time of the sterilisation."
Correspondence: G. V. S. Murthy, Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40331 Omari, C. K. Modern family planning, sexual behavior and marriage status among women in Tanzania. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1988. 1-14 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article looks into sexual behavior and marriage status among women attending Mother and Child Health Care clinics in Tanzania. It looks into the effects of such behavior on the marriage and suggests some policy implications, especially in relation to modern family planning methods. The data which form the basis of this article were collected [in 1987] among 244 women in two urban centers in Tanzania."
Correspondence: C. K. Omari, Sociology Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40332 Parisot, Jeannette; McCann, Bill; Rudge, Geraldine; Piggins, Bill. Johnny come lately: a short history of the condom. ISBN 1-85172-000-6. 1987. xiii, 125 pp. Journeyman: London, England. In Eng.
This study, translated from the original German, presents a history of the condom. It includes a history of this contraceptive method, a review of current condoms and their availability, and condoms in literature. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: Journeyman Press, 97 Ferme Park Road, Crouch End, London N8 9SA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40333 Pati, R. N. Population, family and culture. ISBN 81-7024-151-0. 1987. xii, 206 pp. Ashish Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a collection of studies from a seminar on population, family, and culture, held in India in May 1985. The first section, on methodological aspects of population research, contains papers on psychological and sociological perspectives on family planning, the dynamics of tribal family structure, and population control. The second section covers ethical and religious issues affecting marriage, fertility, and family planning. Population and the quality of life are examined in the third section. The final section presents alternative approaches to family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40334 Raju, Siva. Husband-wife communication and contraceptive behaviour. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 4, Jun 1987. 44-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the role of husband-wife communication in decisions regarding family size and contraceptive use, with a focus on the impact of status differences between men and women. "The present study was undertaken among family planning adopters and non-adopters belonging to two extreme regions in Andhra Pradesh State in India. Factors associated with husband-wife communication such as initiation of discussions on family planning, frequency of discussion, and decision-making were studied."
Correspondence: S. Raju, Unit for Urban Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40335 Ross, John A.; Isaacs, Stephen L. Costs, payments, and incentives in family planning programs: a review for developing countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1988. 270-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A variety of monetary policies regarding contraception exists around the world. These range from high user charges in some countries, to free contraceptives in many, to incentives and disincentives in others. This paper examines these policies, focuses on charges and payments as they existed in early 1988, looks at the consistency of monetary policies within countries, and considers the ethical issues raised by each kind of incentive....The data in this paper come principally from a 1987 questionnaire inquiry to the 100 developing countries having populations over one million."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Family Planning and Child Survival Study Project, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40336 Ross, John A.; Rich, Marjorie; Molzan, Janet P.; Pensak, Michael. Family planning and child survival: 100 developing countries. ISBN 0-9620952-0-6. LC 88-72069. 1988. vi, 247 pp. Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]: New York, New York. In Eng.
Tabular data on family planning and child survival programs for the 100 developing countries with populations of over one million are presented. Consideration is given to the demographic and social environment, including selected population and socioeconomic characteristics; the number of married women of reproductive age, 1975-2000; and total fertility rates, 1955-2000. A section on family planning programs includes subsections on government policies; program budgets and expenditures; the import, supply, and cost of contraceptives; personnel and facilities; program effort and scope; acceptor numbers and characteristics; prevalence of contraceptive use; and adolescents. A section on child survival programs covers health personnel and hospital beds; infant, child, and maternal mortality; and program outcomes. In most cases, time series data are provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40337 Rutenberg, Naomi; Ferraz, Elisabeth A. Female sterilization and its demographic impact in Brazil. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 61-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article addresses three issues: the social and demographic correlates of female sterilization in Brazil, the likelihood that women will choose sterilization, based on past and current sterilization rates, and the impact female sterilization has had in the past and will have in the future on the fertility rate in Brazil." Data are from the 1986 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey.
Correspondence: N. Rutenberg, Demographic and Health Surveys, Institute for Resource Development, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40338 Sabur, Sohela; Huq, M. Najmul. Population and family planning research, Bangladesh. An annotated bibliography, fourth volume. 1988. [xviii], 238 pp. National Institute of Population Research and Training [NIPORT]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This is the fourth in a series of annotated bibliographies on population research in Bangladesh. It covers the years 1986 and 1987 and includes reports on 83 research projects and the proceedings of 17 seminars and workshops. The bibliography is organized in three sections. Part 1 concerns research reports in family planning and maternal and child health, Part 2 presents the recommendations from the seminars and workshops, and Part 3 lists the organizations involved. Among the research topics considered are contraceptive methods, including effectiveness and side effects; the demographic and socioeconomic correlates of fertility behavior; service delivery methods, procedures, and evaluation; attitudes, awareness, and interest in family planning programs; training programs in evaluation, follow-up, and comparative techniques; field worker programs; and infant and maternal mortality in relation to fertility.

54:40339 Sai, Fred T.; Nassim, Janet. The role of international agencies, governments, and the private sector in the diffusion of modern contraception. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 497-520 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This paper views diffusion as encompassing three processes: the acceptance of the idea and practice of contraception by consumers; the establishment of the institutions or programs to provide services; and the development of technical capability in research and development and in the production of contraceptives. The historical development of the family planning movement is described, and the contribution of international agencies, governments, and private sectors is discussed in the context of changing development approaches. Substantial achievements have been made, but, in view of future needs and the uncertainty of political and financial commitment to family planning on the part of donors, the future presents a continuing challenge."
Correspondence: F. T. Sai, Senior Population Adviser, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40340 Segal, Sheldon J. The development of modern contraceptive technology. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 277-82 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of contraceptive technology development, noting the drop in private-sector investment as a result of the high costs of product development and potential litigation concerning product liability. He calls for increased cooperation between public and private research initiatives and highlights past results of such collaboration including Copper-T IUDs and NORPLANT implants. The obstacles to contraceptive development presented by groups linking contraception and abortion are described.
Correspondence: S. J. Segal, Director for Population Sciences, Rockefeller Foundation, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40341 Sherris, Jacqueline D.; Perkin, Gordon W. Cultural perspectives on contraceptive technology. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 323-37 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The authors emphasize the importance of cultural factors influencing contraceptive method acceptability, with particular attention to developing countries. They argue that "family planning programs and other groups working to introduce and adapt contraceptive methods to specific populations...need to take cultural factors into account in order to develop the most appropriate distribution channels, publicity campaigns, and educational materials. Agencies and programs working to make methods more culturally appropriate must obtain ethnographic data on how people perceive family planning, and integrate this information into their plans."
Correspondence: J. D. Sherris, Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT), Canal Place, 130 Nickerson Street, Seattle, WA 98109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40342 Swaminathan, L. P.; Subramaniam, S. R. Agricultural development and adoption of family planning. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 2, Dec 1986. 30-5 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper specifically attempts to find out the nature and extent of adoption of family planning in agriculturally developed and less developed regions and also to know whether there is any difference in the fertility level between these regions." Data are from interviews with 500 couples living in the Periyar district of Tamil Nadu, India. "A differential rate of adoption of family planning methods was found between an agriculturally developed block and an agriculturally less developed block, with a higher rate of adoption in the developed block, thereby confirming the hypothesis that agricultural development influences the adoption of family planning."
Correspondence: L. P. Swaminathan, Department of Agricultural Economics, Centre for Agricultural and Rural Development Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, P.O. Coimbatore 641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40343 Trost, Jan; Hultaker, Orjan. Decision-making and children. [Beslut om barn.] Familjerapporter, No. 11, ISBN 91-506-0682-4. 1988. 52 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze qualitative data from two studies of Swedish women's decision-making practices regarding childbearing and contraception. The decision to begin and to stop using contraception is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40344 Ubaidur Rob, A. K. Community characteristics, leaders, fertility and contraception in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jun 1988. 55-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article is based on the results of an operations research project in four rural upazila (sub-districts) of Bangladesh. It examines the influence of social and economic institutions on the community members, particularly with respect to contraceptive use and women's status. The results suggest that community leaders support the use of modern contraceptives but oppose women's participation in jobs outside the home. It observes that male children are considered 'old age security.' The majority of the religious leaders report that they have little or no influence on individuals' fertility decisions. However, they expressed a willingness to participate in family planning activities. The article concludes with several recommendations."
Correspondence: A. K. Ubaidur Rob, Research and Evaluation Adviser, Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception, Asia Regional Office, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40345 Vadies, Eugene; Clark, Jeremy. Comprehensive adolescent fertility project in Jamaica. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1988. 240-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors describe the development of an ongoing adolescent health project begun in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1985, with a focus on encouraging family planning and preventing sexually transmitted diseases. They suggest that the project's success has been due to its comprehensive approach, in which a variety of services were offered to young people.
Correspondence: E. Vadies, Global Program on AIDS, World Health Organization, 27 Avenue Appia, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40346 van de Walle, Etienne; van de Walle, Francine. Traditional and modern behavior of couples regarding child spacing or fertility control. [Les pratiques traditionnelles et modernes des couples en matiere d'espacement ou d'arret de la fecondite.] In: Population et societes en Afrique au sud du Sahara, edited by Dominique Tabutin. 1988. 141-65 pp. Editions l'Harmattan: Paris, France. In Fre.
The general acceptance of the value of birth spacing in Africa South of the Sahara is noted, and the means by which it is achieved, including sexual abstinence, breast-feeding, and contraception, are discussed. Separate consideration is given to both traditional and modern methods of contraception. The authors conclude that a decline in fertility is likely to be slow in establishing itself, and that rapid population growth is likely to remain a dominating factor in African economies.
Correspondence: E. van de Walle, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40347 van Keep, Pieter A.; Davis, Kenneth E.; de Wied, David. Contraception in the year 2001: proceedings of an Excerpta Medica Foundation symposium held at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Letters, Amsterdam, 2nd-3rd October 1986. International Congress Series, No. 759, ISBN 0-444-80900-7. LC 87-15468. 1987. xii, 235 pp. Excerpta Medica: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands; Elsevier Science Publishers: New York, New York/Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium held to consider possible developments in contraception up to and beyond the year 2001. The contributors attempted to define the future need for contraception in different parts of the world, particularly in developing countries, and to explore the potential and imaginable developments that could occur. Following a demographic analysis of contraceptive needs in the twenty-first century and in developing countries, chapters are included on the characteristics of the ideal contraceptive, possible endocrine approaches to both male and female contraception, peptides and neuropeptides, immunological approaches, mechanical methods, intrauterine methods, and environmental and behavioral aspects of contraception. A final paper provides a view of probable developments by the year 2001 in contrast to possible developments.
Correspondence: Elsevier Science Publishing, P.O. Box 1663, Grand Central Station, New York, NY 10163. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40348 Westoff, Charles F. The potential demand for family planning: a new measure of unmet need and estimates for five Latin American countries. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1988. 45-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author describes "a new current-status measure of the unmet need for family planning [in five Latin American countries] that combines elements of earlier measures...on the basis of data from the ongoing Demographic and Health Surveys program. It yields estimates of the potential demand for contraceptives for spacing and for limiting births, and incorporates pregnant and recently pregnant amenorrheic women whose pregnancy was unintentional." Estimates are presented for Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Peru. "The unmet need for contraceptives to limit childbearing is greater than the unmet need for spacing purposes in all of the countries but the Dominican Republic, where the prevalence of sterilization is very high. The greatest overall unmet need is found among the youngest women and in rural areas. Unmet need varies inversely, and sharply, with education."
Correspondence: C. Westoff, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544-2091. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40349 Winikoff, Beverly. Family planning and the health of women and children. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 415-38 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The role of family planning in reducing maternal and infant mortality is discussed with reference to numerous recent studies focusing on developing countries. It is noted that "use of family planning has the potential to produce reductions of 10-20% in infant and child mortality. Similar reductions in the mortality rate associated with pregnancy can be expected for mothers." Attention is given to risk factors associated with first births, births to young mothers, high parity, older mothers, and birth spacing. The author argues that "estimation of mortality reduction through family planning requires knowledge of risk distribution as well as relative risk....Family planning does not avert all high-risk pregnancies because of a lack of acceptance and imperfect use."
Correspondence: B. Winikoff, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

54:40350 Lincoln, Richard; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Evaluating the health risks and benefits of birth control methods. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1987. 387-414 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
The health risks and benefits of various methods of birth control are identified, with attention given to the roles of age and other user characteristics. "The most notable benefits of contraceptive use are some protection conferred by the Pill against ovarian and endometrial cancer, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, ovarian retention cysts, and iron deficiency anemia; considerable protection by the barrier methods, especially the condom, against sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS; and protection by male and female sterilization against ectopic pregnancy. The major disadvantages are increased risk of heart attack and stroke associated with Pill use (mainly among those over 35 who smoke); significant risk of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with IUD use; surgical complications and anesthesia deaths from sterilization and abortion procedures; and complications of pregnancy from failure of barrier methods and of periodic abstinence."
Correspondence: R. Lincoln, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 360 Park Avenue S, New York, NY 10019. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40351 Perez, Alfredo; Labbok, Miriam; Barker, Dianne; Gray, Ronald. Use-effectiveness of the ovulation method initiated during postpartum breastfeeding. Contraception, Vol. 38, No. 5, Nov 1988. 499-508 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the effectiveness of the ovulation method (OM) of contraception using data for 378 urban, middle-class postpartum women in Chile during the period April 1981-March 1984. The rate of unplanned pregnancies for breast-feeding and non-breast-feeding women using this method is compared.
Correspondence: A. Perez, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40352 Ratnam, S. Shan; Teoh, Eng-Soon; Lim, Su-Min. Contraception. Advances in Fertility and Sterility Series, Vol. 6, ISBN 1-85070-156-3. 1987. xi, 185 pp. Parthenon Publishing Group: Park Ridge, New Jersey/Carnforth, England. In Eng.
This volume contains papers on contraception that were presented at the 12th World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, held in Singapore, October 27-31, 1986. It includes a description of the development of family planning in Singapore; a section of 16 papers on contraception, covering topics including hormonal contraception, metabolic effects of oral contraception, natural family planning, immuno contraception, gossypol, progestagens, IUDs, postcoital methods, a hydrogelic intratubal device, and contraceptive method choice among new acceptors in Nigeria; a section of 4 papers on Norplant; and a section of 5 papers on ethical considerations in family planning and fertility regulation.
For a related volume on infertility, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

54:40353 Bhate, Vaijayanti; Mulay, Sanjeevanee. Population front of India's economic development. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 44, Oct 29, 1988. 2,294-6 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors present a critique of a recent article by V. M. Dandekar on the effectiveness of the family planning program in India. The limitations in the available data are first discussed. The authors then conclude that the available data are not sufficient to support his negative assessment of the family planning program.
For the article by Dandekar, also published in 1988, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40354 Bhattacharjee, Arun. The turning point. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1988. 27-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author evaluates the current Indian family planning campaign, which focuses on raising the status of women in society. Attention is given to the media campaign on radio and television and to the distribution of films in rural areas. The low status of women and its impact on the wide gap between family planning awareness and real acceptance is discussed.
Correspondence: A. Bhattacharjee, Amrita Bazar Patrika, 14 Ananda Chatterjee Lane, Calcutta 700 003, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40355 Chandra, Shanta K. Family planning programme in India (its impact in rural and urban areas--1970-1980). Pub. Order No. Delhi, India. ISBN 81-7099-023-8. LC 87-903955. 1987. xiv, 265 pp. Mittal Publications. In Eng.
The author reviews the progress made by India's national family planning program during the 1970s. "The first three chapters look into the nature, scope, methodology, review of literature and historical perspective of the programme. The fourth chapter discusses the population policy and indicators of its implementation. The administrative set-up is discussed in the fifth chapter and demographic and socio-economic factors have been discussed in the sixth chapter....The seventh chapter discusses the performance of the State/Union Territories in the field of family planning....The eighth chapter takes an account of the rural urban perception with regard to family planning and family planning practices. The data is based on field study of a rural and urban area collected with the help of a questionnaire. The primary data provides information with regard to fertility and its relationship with education, income, number of children, family structure etc. It also throws light on the knowledge, attitude and practices of people regarding family planning. Chapter nine which is the concluding chapter highlights the findings of the study and discusses [its] implications...."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40356 Dandekar, V. M. Population front of India's economic development. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 17, Apr 23, 1988. 837-42 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the role of population growth in India's failure to achieve its objective as described in the First Five-Year Plan of 1950-1951 to double per capita income in 25 years. Extensive data on the achievements of the family planning program are presented. The author concludes that significant improvement is required in both the quality of these data and of the demographic data provided by the Sample Registration System. The need for a larger and more efficient effort in family planning is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40357 Dong, Hengjin; Gu, Xingyuan. An evaluation of family planning programme in Shanghai County. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 4, Oct 1987. 35-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the family planning program in China's Shanghai County for the period 1979-1984 using data from a 1985 survey. Trends in the fertility rates of married women of reproductive age and in the number of averted births are examined. The impact of the one-child policy is considered.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 1, 1987.
Correspondence: H. Dong, Shanghai Medical University, 138 Yixueyuan Lu, Shanghai 200032, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40358 Dryfoos, Joy G. School-based health clinics: three years of experience. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 193-200 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article summarizes the current status of comprehensive school-based clinics in the United States, focusing on the proliferation of facilities over the period 1985-1988, the lessons learned from this experience and the outlook for comprehensive school health services in the coming years." Clinic provision of family planning services and the impact on contraceptive use and pregnancy among adolescents are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40359 India. Planning Commission. Programme Evaluation Organisation (New Delhi, India). Evaluation report on family planning programme. May 1986. iv, 102 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This is a report conducted during the period 1983-1986 by the Indian government to evaluate its family planning program. The objectives of the report were "to study the organisational set up...of the programme, particularly for educating and motivating the people; to examine the communication strategy adopted in terms of creating awareness, change in attitude and adoption of family planning methods, and popularising the concept of 'small family norm'; to assess the extent of service facilities and supplies made available and their utilisation;...to assess the role played by voluntary organisations in promoting the programme...and to assess the views and reactions of the adopters and non-adopters towards the family planning programme. The study was confined only to rural areas. It was undertaken in 31 selected districts in 16 States and covered 62 primary health centres (PHCs) and 124 villages." Recommendations for improving the program are also offered.
Correspondence: Government of India Planning Commission, Yojana Bharan, New Delhi 1, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40360 Jain, Anrudh K. Assessing the fertility impact of quality of family planning services. International Programs Working Paper, No. 22, Jul 1988. 60 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to determine whether a focus on quality of family planning services is consistent with meeting demographic objectives. An analytical framework that links the six elements of quality with fertility is described. A review of existing literature and analysis presented in the paper suggests that improvements in quality of family planning services through enhancement in the choice of contraceptive methods available in a country would increase the overall use of contraception and thus would result in fertility reduction." The focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40361 Khan, M. E.; Prasad, C. V. S.; Quaiser, Neshat. Reasons for under-utilization of health services--a case study of a PHC in a tribal area of Bihar. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 177-95 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The functioning of primary health centers (PHCs) in Bihar, Gujarat, and Kerala, India, is examined. Citing the under-utilization of PHCs as impetus for the study, the authors give consideration to patients' travelling distance to PHCs, waiting time of patients, availability of doctors at PHCs, and medical, contraceptive, and immunization supplies. Recommendations for improvement of PHC utilization are included.
Correspondence: M. E. Khan, Operations Research Group, Dr. Vikram Sarabhai Marg, Baroda 390 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40362 Prasartkul, Pramote; Porapakkham, Yawarat; Sittitrai, Werasit. Report on birth order distribution as a family planning programme evaluation indicator. Phase II. IPSR Publication, No. 118, ISBN 974-586-391-2. Dec 1987. 45 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This is a review of the second phase of a project conducted in Thailand to develop simple indicators from birth order distributions for use in the evaluation of family planning programs. Consideration is given to the systematic tabulation of the data available at provincial and district levels and to continuing the information for Bangkok as reported previously for Phase I. Following an overview of the methodology involved, results are presented concerning the late registration of births, births by residence of mother, births of unknown origin, and the first and second birth (FSB) indicated by district. The report concludes that the FSB indicator is a useful measure for assessing family planning achievement at the local level.
For a report on Phase I, also published in 1987, see 54:20416.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40363 Rayappa, P. Hanumantha; Johnson, S. M.; Manjeshwar, D. B. Cost-efficiency of the family welfare programme: clinics vs camps. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 3, Mar 1987. 56-65 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to illustrate the cost-efficiency of delivering family planning services [in India] through mass camps vis-a-vis institutions. Secondly, the kinds of clientele served in camps as well as in institutions are also looked into. The quality of health care that is provided in institutions and mass camps are also considered."
Correspondence: P. H. Rayappa, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore 560 072, India. Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40364 Stycos, J. Mayone; Sayed, Hussein A. A.; Avery, Roger; Fridman, Samuel. Community development and family planning: an Egyptian experiment. Westview Special Studies in Social, Political, and Economic Development, ISBN 0-8133-7599-1. LC 88-12057. 1988. xv, 224 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This book presents the findings of a four-year evaluation of the community development and family planning education program carried out in Egyptian villages in the late 1970s. "Interviewing thousands of male and female villagers, researchers elicited data about knowledge of contraception, attitudes toward family size and family planning, family planning practices, and actual fertility rates. Also included in the survey were the social and economic characteristics of the villages. In their analyses, the authors pay particular attention to determining which aspects of family planning and practice appeared to be affected by the development program and which did not." The results suggest that the development program did not have a significant effect on fertility, although it had a measurable impact on family planning attitudes and practice.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40365 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B.; Streett, Rosalie; Emerson, Mark R.; Smith, Morna; Hardy, Janet B.; King, Theodore M. The Baltimore pregnancy prevention program for urban teenagers. I. How did it work? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 182-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This, the first of two articles published in the current issue, provides a detailed description of the services delivered by [two school-based pregnancy prevention programs in Baltimore, Maryland] and the students' overall utilization of those services; it does not explore the relationship between individual patterns of utilization and individual outcomes, but attempts to give a sense of what was done by the staff to bring about the collective results. The first article lays the groundwork for the second, which is an accounting of program expenditures and the costs of specific services."
For Part II, by Zabin et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40366 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B.; Smith, Edward A.; Smith, Morna; Emerson, Mark R.; King, Theodore M.; Streett, Rosalie; Hardy, Janet B. The Baltimore pregnancy prevention program for urban teenagers. II. What did it cost? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 188-92 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article explores the costs of [a school-based pregnancy prevention program in Baltimore, Maryland]...that had as its primary objective the prevention of pregnancy in a high-risk population....The project was conceived as an experimental model with a strong research component [and]....was connected to a major health institution and shared staff with that institution. In replicating any one project, especially one with these advantages, the question must always be raised of whether the costs can be duplicated. Adjustments made in accommodating program costs to the accounting and staffing requirements of The Johns Hopkins University (the affiliated institution) are reported, and the overall impact of the institutional association is addressed."
For Part I, by Zabin et al., see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: L. S. Zabin, Department of Population Dynamics, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

54:40367 Ballweg, John A. Unwanted pregnancies and unwanted fertility: conceptual variations. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 1987. 138-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The concepts of pregnancy unwantedness and unwanted fertility have a range of definitions, nor are reports consistent for concept use. This report examines various definitions and their application. Considering a measure of unwantedness as underinvestment in the child, a scale is described which examines the extent to which the unwanted child may be subjected to underinvestment. The hypothesis of an association between unwantedness and underinvestment was not supported. The conclusion is that unwantedness requires conceptual standardization and a behavioral definition for sociological use." The concepts are tested using data from the Philippines.
Correspondence: J. A. Ballweg, Department of Sociology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40368 Clifford, William B.; Lake, Jeffrey L.; Brannon, Yevonne S. Spousal agreement on the value of children and fertility behavior. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 3, Fall 1987. 148-59 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the level of spousal agreement on the value of children and fertility behavior. Interviews with 441 once married couples from a probability sample in Robeson County, North Carolina, provide the data for testing the hypothesized relationships. The results indicate that the level of spousal agreement on the value of children is significantly related to live births, family size expectations and fertility planning. The introduction of duration of marriage and wife's education as controls did not significantly alter these relationships."
Correspondence: W. B. Clifford, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40369 Eberstein, Isaac W.; Weller, Robert H.; Klepinger, Dan H.; Enchautegui, Maria E. Pregnancy wantedness and birth weight. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 89-55, [1988]. 38, [4] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"In this paper, we focus on the relationship between the wantedness status of the pregnancy and birth weight [in the United States]....The birth's wantedness/planning status is a variable which predates the fact of pregnancy and...affects a whole host of maternal behaviors which surround pregnancy and affect birth weight. [The authors examine] the linkages between pregnancy wantedness and outcome by focusing on the intervening variables of timing of prenatal care, cigarette smoking, and weight gain during pregnancy. Following a review of prior research bearing on this problem, we present three alternative hypotheses which inform the analysis and the specific conceptual model used as a basis for empirical estimation." Data are from the 1980 National Natality Survey.
Correspondence: Center for the Study of Population, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40370 Hagar, Tarek M. H. Correlates and determinants of husband-wife communication about family planning in Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 77-109 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
Husband-wife communication about family planning and the role of this communication in accepting family planning in Egypt is studied using data from the 1984 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Following a review of the literature, cross classification and multivariate analyses are used to examine determinants of husband-wife communication, including socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the spouses. Differences in findings among urban and rural populations are noted. It is found that husband-wife communication about family planning is significantly related to family planning attitude and knowledge and is associated with a smaller desired family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40371 Khalifa, Mona A. Attitudes of urban Sudanese men toward family planning. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 236-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using data from the Male Attitude Survey of 1985, this paper shows that Sudanese men play a major role in family planning decision-making. Attitudes regarding family planning issues are presented for 1,500 men aged 18 years and over, living in urban areas of Khartoum, the capital of Sudan. The decision not to practice family planning is found to be male-dominated, and husbands are responsible for providing contraceptives when family planning is practiced. Widespread misconceptions about vasectomy, along with a very low acceptance rate, exist among the men in the sample. It is concluded that the involvement of men in family planning programs will give these programs a better chance of success in the future."
Correspondence: M. A. Khalifa, Department of Statistics, Cairo University, Khartoum Branch, P.O. Box 1055, Khartoum, Sudan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40372 Reddy, V. Meera. Motivational facilities for family planning acceptance in a rural set-up: a micro study. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 9, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 98-111 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The author identifies the various communication and motivation facilities in a primary health center, which forms part of India's national family planning program, and attempts to determine how they influence family planning adoption in a rural area. The data concern 1,200 respondents selected by stratified random sampling procedure in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. The focus is on differences in motivation of the rich and the poor to practice family planning and on the need for communicators to take these differences into account when developing motivation strategies.
Correspondence: V. M. Reddy, Sri Venkateshwara University, Department of Economics, Post-Graduate Centre, Kurnool 518 001, Andhra Pradesh, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40373 Retherford, Robert D.; Tuladhar, Jayanti; Thapa, Shyam. Strength of fertility motivation and contraceptive use in Nepal. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, Sep 1988. 5-12, 30-2 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
Data from the 1986 Nepal Fertility and Family Planning Survey are used to test whether new survey questions included on strength of fertility motivation "enable improved prediction of current contraceptive use and of intention to use contraception in the future, over and above the effects of socioeconomic background factors." The authors conclude that "strength of fertility motivation, as measured by relative preference intensity (RPI), contributes to the explanation of current contraceptive use, over and above the effects of demographic and socioeconomic background variables usually included in analyses of the determinants of contraceptive use."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40374 Snowden, Robert; Kennedy, Kathy I.; Leon, Federico; Orense, Virginia C.; Perera, Harin W.; Phillips, Rodney; Askew, Ian; Flynn, Anna; Severy, Lawrence J. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 215-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as 'scientific' and 'modern,' which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as 'scientific' and 'modern,' methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral."
Correspondence: R. Snowden, Institute of Population Studies, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QJ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40375 Talwar, P. P.; Gaba, K. L.; Chanana, H. B. Factors affecting acceptance and non-acceptance of family planning: a study in low income population in Delhi. May 1986. ii, 44 pp. National Institute of Health and Family Welfare: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine contraceptive acceptors and non-acceptors in India. The data, obtained from households in a low-income area in the Delhi region, concern 229 current users, 90 past users, and 173 never users. The results suggest that current users tend to be older and of higher educational level than the other two groups. The primary reason for nonuse among couples was failure to reach desired family size rather than lack of contraceptive knowledge. The main causes of contraception discontinuation were side effects and method dissatisfaction. Both nonuser and past user categories had a high percentage of couples planning to use contraception in the future. The need to encourage child spacing as well as family limitation in the future is noted.
Correspondence: National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Mehrauli Road, Munirka, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

54:40376 Bielli, Carla. Legal abortion and reproductive behavior in Italy. [Abortivita legale e comportamento riproduttivo in Italia.] Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 85-111 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Official statistical data concerning legal abortions in Italy during 1980-1981 are analyzed by age and marital status. Educational and occupational status and parity are discussed as factors influencing the decision to seek an abortion.
Correspondence: C. Bielli, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Universita degli Studi La Sapienza, Citta Universitaria, 00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40377 Chhabra, S.; Gupte, N.; Mehta, Anita; Shende, Arti. Medical termination of pregnancy and concurrent contraceptive adoption in rural India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 244-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study reports on 2,755 women seeking medical termination of pregnancy (MTP), and concurrent contraceptive acceptance, at a clinic in rural India from 1976 to 1987. The level of contraceptive acceptance among married women seeking MTP between 1976 and 1987 was 88.2 percent. Among married women seeking MTP in their first trimester of pregnancy, 43.4 percent accepted the IUD as a method of contraception and 41.8 percent accepted sterilization. By contrast, only 11.5 percent of women in their second trimester accepted the IUD, but 70.2 percent accepted sterilization. Seventy-two percent of the unmarried women and 43 percent of the married women seeking MTP were in their second trimester." A series of recommendations is included.
Correspondence: S. Chhabra, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Wardha 442 102, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40378 David, Henry P.; Dytrych, Zdenek; Matejcek, Zdenek; Schuller, Vratislav. Born unwanted: developmental effects of denied abortion. ISBN 0-8261-6080-8. LC 88-16651. 1988. 143 pp. Springer: New York, New York; Avicenum-Czechoslovak Medical Press: Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Eng.
"This monograph reviews and discusses the limited knowledge on the developmental effects of denied abortion from childhood through adolescence to early adulthood. Available studies come from Czechoslovakia, Finland, and Sweden. Major focus is on the Prague cohort which follows the development of 220 children born in 1961-63 to women twice denied abortion for the same pregnancy and pair-matched controls from age nine through ages 21-23....[The first chapter] summarizes the history of abortion and the legal constraints gradually placed on its practice...; the eventual liberalization of legislation...; and the initial efforts to conduct research on the developmental effects of denied abortion....Subsequent chapters consider unwantedness in demographic and psychological perspective, in terms of the wantedness-unwantedness continuum, and in relation to responsible parenthood. The Goteborg, Prague, and Northern Finland cohorts are presented in greater detail along with related Swedish studies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40379 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Silverman, Jane. The characteristics and prior contraceptive use of U.S. abortion patients. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 158-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents new national data on the characteristics of [U.S.] women having abortions, collected in an AGI [Alan Guttmacher Institute] survey of 9,480 women who obtained abortions during 1987 at 103 clinics, hospitals and doctors' offices in all parts of the country. The purpose of the survey was to provide data needed for an ongoing AGI project to correct contraceptive failure rates calculated from the National Survey of Family Growth....Where possible, as a check on the representativeness of the weighted sample, results have been compared with national abortion data from 1983 and with 1983 data projected for 1987...." Factors considered include age, race, ethnicity, income, marital status, previous births and abortions, education, employment, religion, place of residence, contraceptive use and methods chosen, and intention to have children.
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40380 Sachdev, Paul. International handbook on abortion. ISBN 0-313-23463-9. LC 87-11994. 1988. xii, 520 pp. Greenwood Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of 32 papers by different authors concerning aspects of induced abortion throughout the world, including legal status, indications for abortion, service delivery, abortion incidence, fertility trends, and profiles of contracepting and aborting women. Each paper concentrates on a specific country or region. An international review is also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40381 Saw, Swee-Hock. Seventeen years of legalized abortion in Singapore. Biology and Society, Vol. 5, No. 2, Jun 1988. 63-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we first discuss the two-stage process of legalizing induced abortion in Singapore, the initial legalization to make it available on a restrictive basis in 1970 and the complete liberalization to make it available on demand from 1975 onwards. The incidence of abortions registered in the last seventeen years and the major characteristics of aborters are analysed. The impact of abortion on the rapid decline of fertility to below-replacement level is highlighted, and the need to reduce abortion by amending the more liberal aspects of the law are considered at the end of the paper."
Correspondence: S.-H. Saw, Department of Economics and Statistics, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 0511, Singapore. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40382 Stloukal, Libor. Abortion rate in the Czech Socialist Republic in a regional perspective. [Potratovost v CSR v regionalnim pohledu.] Demografie, Vol. 30, No. 3, 1988. 212-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Differences in abortion rates in the districts and regions of the Czech Socialist Republic are analyzed for the period 1982-1984. Consideration is given to both induced and spontaneous abortions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40383 Torres, Aida; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Why do women have abortions? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1988. 169-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The study reported in this article addresses the question of why certain [U.S.] women elect to have an abortion. The study also examines why some women who have abortions obtain them fairly late in gestation....Previous studies have looked exclusively at the social and demographic characteristics of women who have late abortions, at problems related to access or at personal factors, such as the ability to recognize signs of pregnancy. In the study reported here, we investigate all these factors simultaneously and provide some indication of their relative importance." Data are from a sample of 1,900 women obtaining abortions during a five-month period beginning in November 1985.
Correspondence: A. Torres, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40384 Trost, Jan; Manniche, Erik. Abortion measures and ideology. Familjerapporter, No. 10, ISBN 91-506-0532-1. 1986. 28 pp. Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala, Sweden. In Eng.
The authors "discuss ways of approaching answers to the question of whether the abortion measure at a specific moment, in a certain area, is high or low and what abortion measure should be used." Using abortion data for Sweden and Denmark, they examine different methods of presenting statistics on abortion and describe the inadequacies of each type of measure. The ethical and practical problems of abortion at both the societal and the individual level are considered, with an emphasis on the ethical problems facing the "neutral" or "objective" supplier of abortion statistics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

54:40385 Rabei, Afaf. Breastfeeding aspects and its impact on fertility in Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian Demography: CDC Annual Seminar, 1987. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 17, 1988. 3-38 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The association between breast-feeding and fertility in both rural and urban areas in Egypt is examined, focusing primarily on its effects on postpartum amenorrhea. Following a review of existing research, life table estimates for breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea are derived using data for 4,768 births from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. The effect of economic development on duration of breast-feeding is noted, and the author concludes that "changes in durations and patterns of breastfeeding which may occur as urbanization and development continue in Egypt will...contribute to higher fertility levels unless compensated for by higher level of effective contraceptive practice."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40386 Takasaka, Kouichi. The duration of postpartum amenorrhea in a Sundanese village. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jun 1988. 55-63 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
"The duration of postpartum amenorrhea of women in a Sundanese agricultural village [in Indonesia] whose last pregnancy resulted in live birth in the past six years was studied. Data were collected from 197 women from September through November 1983....[The] results suggest that the duration of postpartum amenorrhea of women in a Sundanese agricultural village although relatively long, has recently become shorter."
Correspondence: K. Takasaka, Department of Human Ecology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 476 Miyashita, Hachioji, Tokyo 192, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:40387 Berkov, Beth; Cheung, Maria; Tashiro, Mich. Trends in births and birth outcomes for unmarried and married women, California, 1966-1985. Data Matters, No. 88-01168, Jun 1988. iv, 59 pp. Department of Health Services, Health and Welfare Agency: Sacramento, California. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the incidence and consequences of childbearing outside marriage in California. Data from U.S. censuses, including the 1980 census, are provided on total births, birth rates, and ratios through 1985, and on low birth weight, neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and infant mortality through 1982. The data are presented by marital status, age, and ethnic group, including blacks, whites, Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic whites. The results indicate relatively large increases in nonmarital birth rates for Hispanic women in California between 1980 and 1985.
Correspondence: California Department of Health Services, Health and Welfare Agency, 2151 Berkeley Way, Annex 4, Room 400, Berkeley, CA 94704. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.