Volume 54 - Number 4 - Winter 1988

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

54:40050 Craig, John. Population density and concentration in England and Wales, 1971 and 1981. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 52, ISBN 0-11-691224-3. 1988. v, 47 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
Trends in population density and spatial distribution in England and Wales are examined using data from the 1971 and 1981 censuses. "Summary tables and summary statistics have been prepared highlighting some features of the spatial distribution of population in 1981 and how they have changed since 1971." Consideration is given to geographical variations in population density as well as to methods of data analysis.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40051 Foss, Olaf; Sorlie, Kjetil; Texmon, Inger. All growth is in the cities! The components of recent regional demographic change in Norway. A demographic analysis. [All vekst i storbyer! Sentralisering av flytting og folketallsvekst pa 1980-tallet. En demografisk analyse.] NIBR Report, No. 42, 1987. xxiii, 70 pp. Norsk Institutt for By- og Regionforskning: Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Recent demographic trends in Norway are analyzed, with a focus on regional demographic changes and their consequences. The authors note an increased trend toward the centralization of population. However, in contrast to the post-World War II period, when centralization was balanced by natural increase in the peripheral regions, the current move toward the core areas is taking place in a period of zero population growth or even population decrease. The consequences include a trend toward the depopulation of the more remote parts of the country, with various social and economic effects. The authors see no likelihood of a reversal of such trends under current conditions, and there are no policies under consideration that will either alter such trends or cope with their consequences.
Correspondence: NIBR, Nycoveien 1, Postboks 15 Grefsen, 0409 Oslo, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40052 Frey, William H.; Speare, Alden. Regional and metropolitan growth and decline in the United States. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-293-5. LC 88-6727. 1988. xxix, 586 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, conducted for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series concerned with analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. This volume analyzes the significant changes in population movement and distribution that occurred during the 1970s. The study "describes new population distribution patterns, explores their consequences, and evaluates competing explanations of current trends....The book focuses not only on regional patterns but on the shifts occurring within metropolitan areas; the authors look closely at the changing race, status, and household demographics of our nation's largest cities and discuss the broad societal forces precipitating such changes." The authors concude that the 1970s represented a transition decade with regard to population distribution, and that the new patterns now emerging do not indicate a return to the past.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40053 Kumar, K.; Taragi, R. C. S. Changing population concentration in India: a macro-regional scenario. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 58-63 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The pattern of population concentration in India is examined at the macro-regional level. Consideration is given to regional differences in climatic and socioeconomic conditions.
Correspondence: K. Kumar, Office of the Registrar General, West Block No. 1, R. K. Puram, New Delhi 110 022, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40054 Ram, Sodhi. A spatial perspective on the distribution of the Indians in the United Kingdom, 1981. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 17-26 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes the spatial distribution of Indians living in Great Britain in 1981. The impact of factors such as demand for labor, location of manufacturing industries, and the attraction of urban areas is examined.
Correspondence: S. Ram, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

54:40055 Armstrong, Warwick; McGee, T. G. Theatres of accumulation: studies in Asian and Latin American urbanization. ISBN 0-416-78570-0. LC 85-11466. 1985. xvi, 269 pp. Methuen: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is an overview of urbanization in Latin America and Asia. The authors argue that the major cities "play a crucial role in the process of capital accumulation and of unequal exchange and dependency." They show how the flow of capital through the urban system brings net losses to rural areas and further exacerbates income inequalities among regions and classes. Theoretical issues are also discussed, and projections of likely future developments in urbanization are offered.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

54:40056 Atzema, O. A. L. C.; Bargeman, C. A. Regional population growth and internal migration. [Regionale bevolkingsgroei en binnenlandse migratie.] In: Regio en ontwikkeling: aspecten van regionaal-economische ontwikkelingen in Nederland, edited by J. Buursink and E. Wever. Nederlandse Geografische Studies, No. 26, ISBN 90-6809-035-6. 1986. 103-29 pp. Koninklijk Nederlands Aardrijkskundig Genootschap: Amsterdam, Netherlands; Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, Geografisch en Planologisch Instituut: Nijmegen, Netherlands. In Dut.
The effect of urbanization on internal migration in the Netherlands is examined using data from official and other published sources. Consideration is given to economic factors, housing availability, income, and transportation. Maps of seven urban areas involved in major population movements are provided.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40057 Bourne, L. S. Urbanization, migration and urban research in comparative context: an urban systems perspective. Revue Canadienne d'Etudes du Developpement/Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1987. 69-79 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
"The urbanization process is not only global in scale, and thus subject to universal principles, but intensely specific in time and place. The former calls for research which is both transnational and comparative, the latter for analyses set in the appropriate socioeconomic and political circumstances. This paper outlines a conceptual framework, based on the theory of urban systems, that can accommodate both spatial scales as well as provide a bridge between research focusing on developed and developing countries. A developmental model of migration is introduced to illustrate the approach and the paper concludes with a series of challenges to future research."
Correspondence: L. S. Bourne, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Cornell University Library, Ithaca, NY.

54:40058 Haines, Richard; Buijs, Gina. The struggle for social and economic space: urbanization in twentieth century South Africa. Institute for Social and Economic Research Special Publication, No. 3, ISBN 0-949947-73-3. Dec 1985. xx, 269 pp. University of Durban-Westville, Institute for Social and Economic Research: Durban, South Africa. In Eng.
This is a compilation of papers presented at a workshop on urbanization in twentieth-century South Africa, held in Durban, South Africa, in 1981. The focus is on the interdisciplinary nature of urbanization and on factors that control and direct the process. Papers are included on an overview of some aspects of urbanization and urban space construction in South Africa, 1870-1980; the role of the homeland in urbanization; mechanisms of control in a Natal sugar estate; a reformulation of the informal sector concept; and images of rural and urban life as presented in the media.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40059 Islam, Sohel M. S. A stochastic model of urbanisation in India. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1987. 295-300 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author presents a stochastic model of urbanization in India using data from official and other published sources. "The purpose of the present paper is to predict the future path of urbanization in India based on a diffusion process approximation assuming time and state space as continuous."
Correspondence: S. M. S. Islam, Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Post Code No. 4331, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40060 Krishan, Gopal. Is India overurbanised? Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 76-81 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author "questions the frequently posed thesis of India being overurbanised. The diverse connotations of the term 'overurbanisation' have been taken into account and tested against the Indian reality." Consideration is given to the positive and negative effects of Indian urbanization in relation to economic growth.
Correspondence: G. Krishan, Department of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40061 Kuijsten, Anton. High population density areas. Pub. Order No. SEM-ORG(86)10. 1986. 64 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This paper on areas of high population density was prepared for the Seminar on Demographic Problem Areas in Europe, held in Strasbourg, France, September 2-4, 1986. The first section is concerned with the demographic characteristics of high population density areas. The problems faced by such areas are next discussed. The final section contains population projections for high density areas.
For a report on the seminar, published in 1987, see 54:30754.
Correspondence: Council of Europe, F-67006 Strasbourg CEDEX, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40062 Mobius, Dina. The development of the population geography of the capital city, Berlin, since the foundation of the German Democratic Republic. [Bevolkerungsgeographische Entwicklung der Hauptstadt Berlin seit Grundung der DDR.] Geographische Berichte, Vol. 32, No. 2, 1987. 87-92, 141-2 pp. Gotha, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Population trends in East Berlin since the creation of the German Democratic Republic in 1949 are reviewed. Changes in urban spatial distribution over time are described with particular reference to the concentration of new building in suburban areas. The author notes that total population numbers have stabilized since the 1960s but that the age distribution has improved since then. The importance of migration to the city's population growth is emphasized.
Correspondence: D. Mobius, Sektion Geographie, Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Universitatsstrasse 3b, Berlin 1086, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40063 Pathak, Pushpa. Slow growing towns in India. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 64-75 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
The author addresses the question of "why some towns [in India] are not...able to sustain the population added due to natural increase in an overall rapidly urbanising environment....An analysis of slow growing towns...conducted at both macro- and micro-levels reveals that: (i) the slow growing towns are concentrated in a few states which are characterised by a high urbanisation level but a slow urban growth rate; (ii) practically all of them have suffered net out-migration...; and (iii) their slow growth is attributed to a low administrative status, poor transport connectivity, inadequate developmental efforts, and fast growth of some town(s) in close proximity." Data are from official Indian sources.
Correspondence: P. Pathak, National Institute of Urban Affairs, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40064 Pernia, Ernesto M. Urbanization and spatial development in the Asian and Pacific region: trends and issues. Asian Development Review, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1988. 86-105 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article reviews the trends and patterns of urbanization and spatial development since 1960 in selected Asian and Pacific developing countries and discusses the main forces underlying the trends. It examines issues such as the speed of urbanization, spatial concentration and appropriate measures to deal with them; the effects of income and differences in sectoral productivity and of population growth; the relative effectiveness of spatial policies; and urban problems and measures to cope with them. It then attempts to preview the likely urbanization trends to the year 2000, highlighting problems associated with rapid urban growth and excessive spatial concentration. Finally, it discusses the various policy approaches to spatial and urban issues."
Correspondence: E. M. Pernia, Economics Office, Asian Development Bank, P.O. Box 789, 1099 Manila, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:40065 Pumain, Denise. Application of a spatial dynamic model to urban populations. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 56, 1988. 107-31 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author applies P. Allen's intra-urban model "to the post-war evolution of the spatial distribution of employment and resident active population in a few French urban agglomerations. [She makes] a short presentation of the structure and of the main properties of this complex model. The results of the calibrations and the residuals of the simulations are then analysed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40066 Rafiq, Muhammad; Hailemariam, Assefa. Some structural aspects of urbanization in Ethiopia. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1987. 183-204 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
Urbanization in Ethiopia between 1967 and 1984 is examined, with attention to regional differentials, relative growth rates of urban centers of various sizes, and international comparisons.
Correspondence: M. Rafiq, Demographic Training and Research Center, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40067 Ueda, Kozo. Demographic urbanization in Asian countries. SEAMIC Publication, No. 44, LC 86-191465. 1985. v, 170 pp. Southeast Asian Medical Information Center [SEAMIC]: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This study, translated from the original Japanese, examines aspects of urbanization in Asia. General urbanization trends in the region are first outlined. The author then examines population characteristics of urban and rural populations, other socioeconomic characteristics, fertility differentials, mortality differentials, migration, and migrant characteristics. The general focus is on the comparison of rural and urban populations.
Correspondence: SEAMIC, Toyo-kaiji Building No. 6, Shimbashi 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105, Japan. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:40068 Vetter, David M.; de Oliveira, Francisca L.; de Oliveira, Lucia E. G.; da Cruz, Olga L.; Porcaro, Rosa M.; Massena, Rosa M. R.; Araujo, Tereza C. N. Social indicators: metropolitan regions, urban agglomerations, and municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants. [Indicadores sociais: regioes metropolitanas, aglomeracoes urbanas, municipios com mais de 100,000 habitantes.] ISBN 85-240-0263-8. 1988. 271 pp. Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica [IBGE]: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Selected data based on 1980 census results and other sources are presented for urban areas in Brazil. The data concern urban population, population growth, sex distribution, and migrants; educational status; labor force; and housing. The data are provided separately for different types of urban area.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:40069 Zhang, Wei-Bin. The urbanization process with moving boundary. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 20, No. 4, Oct 1988. 328-39 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"The paper proposes a dynamic model of urbanization in the regional system consisting of the central business district (CBD), the urban, and the rural areas....The model consists of three partial differential equations under appropriate boundary and initial conditions. It describes how the actual regional pattern is disturbed far away from the equilibrium by inflationary forces. An analytic solution of the fixed rural land price is given."
Correspondence: W.-B. Zhang, Department of Economics, University of Umea, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

54:40070 Singh, Jhujar; Gosal, R. P. S. Density of rural population in an Indian situation: a contemporary approach. Population Geography, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1986. 50-7 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to measure the role of selected natural variables in determining the spatial patterns in the density of rural population in Punjab [India]....Mean annual rainfall, quality of soil and availability of potable water have been considered relevant independent variables in explaining spatial variance in density of rural population in this study."
Correspondence: J. Singh, Department of Geography, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:40071 Vlassoff, Carol; Khuda, Barkat-e. Impact of modernization on development and demographic behaviour: case studies in seven third world countries. Pub. Order No. IDRC-260e. ISBN 0-88936-502-4. 1988. xi, 123 pp. International Development Research Centre [IDRC]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The collection of articles in this volume focuses on the impact of rural development policies and projects on demographic behaviour in seven countries in Asia and Latin America....The Philippines study examines changes over time in two rural communities...influenced by the Green Revolution and agrarian reform. The Malaysian project investigates the impact of modern industrial expansion in a traditional rural area upon the family economy and gender roles. In Bangladesh, the effect of an integrated program for rural development upon demographic change, especially on fertility and family-planning behaviour, is examined. The Indian study focuses on the relationship between child labour and fertility....In rural Colombia, demographic and economic behaviours are compared in three different economic sectors--modern capitalist, traditional capitalist, and smallholders. The Argentinian study investigates the demographic and economic characteristics of [rural] households....Finally, in Peru, demographic and economic behaviours in four rural areas...are compared." Data are from official and other published sources. The publication is also available in French and Spanish.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.


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