Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

54:30606 Chu, Chin-Yi. An income-specific stable population model: theory and potential applications. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 337-66 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"What we have shown in this paper is that classifying people by their incomes is a promising alternative to classifying people by their ages. Theoretically, this paper extends the Becker-Willis micro-level, static fertility demand model to a macro-level, dynamic population growth structure. Empirically, we also showed that the model can be applied to analyzing the relations between income distribution and population growth, average savings rate and population growth as well as long-run population projections. Most theoretical extensions made on Lotka's age-specific structure can be similarly applied to our income-specific model."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 456).
Correspondence: C.-Y. Chu, Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30607 Doh, Rainer; Senker, Wienfried. Population trends, the economic system, and the industrialization process in southeastern Europe: using the examples of Romania and Turkey. [Bevolkerungsentwicklung, Wirtschaftsordnung und Industrialisierungsprozess in Sudosteuropa: Dargestellt am Beispiel der Lander Rumanien und Turkei.] Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft in Sudosteuropa, No. 4, ISBN 3-88893-045-6. LC 87-140271. 1985. 486, 19 pp. Hieronymus: Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a report on a research project conducted from April 1981 to December 1983 that examined the origins and economic aspects of demographic processes in Romania and Turkey. Part 1 concerns Turkey and includes sections on the demographic transition and its economic implications, the social and political aspects of population trends, and a statistical analysis of the relationships among socioeconomic and demographic variables. Part 2 contains sections on population theory and policy in socialist countries, Romanian population policy, demographic structure and trends in Romania, and a statistical analysis of demographic and socioeconomic developments. Data are from a variety of official and other published sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30608 Ogawa, Naohiro; Tsuya, Noriko O. Demographic change and human resources development in Asia and the Pacific: an overall view. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 40, Mar 1988. vi, 64 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The relationship between demographic change and economic growth in Asia and the Pacific is examined. "In this paper, we first examine the recent levels and trends of demographic factors such as fertility, life expectancy, and infant mortality among countries at different stages of economic development in the Asian and Pacific region, by heavily drawing upon the macro-level data published by the World Bank and the United Nations. We then analyze inter-temporal changes of interrelations between these demographic factors and variables of human resources development such as education, female labor force participation, and proportion of agricultural labor force....After analyzing the principal sources of recent economic growth in the region, we next consider the differences in the role of human resources in postwar economic development among the three sub-regions in Asia: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Finally, some of the newly-emerging issues on human resources development in the region as a whole are discussed."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30609 South, Scott J. Sex ratios, economic power, and women's roles: a theoretical extension and empirical test. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1988. 19-31 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to extend the sex ratio theory to examine how women's economic power modifies the ways in which imbalanced sex ratios affect women's roles. Specifically, we argue that women's economic power will counteract the tendency for high sex ratios to constrain women to occupy traditional roles as wives and mothers. Following the theoretical elaboration of the sex ratio thesis, an empirical test of this extension using data from 111 countries is reported. The results provide considerable support for both the central propositions of the theory and for the hypotheses suggested by the theoretical extension."
Correspondence: S. J. South, Department of Sociology, Social Science 340, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30610 Williamson, Jeffrey G. Capital deepening along the Asian Pacific Rim. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 41, Mar 1988. vi, 31 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper suggests a research strategy for exploring the sources of growth along the Asian Pacific Rim [defined as Eastern and Southeastern Asia] over the past and the next quarter century. The paper stresses the human resource and capital-deepening connection along the following lines: the positive impact of relatively egalitarian distributions on accumulation; the impact of dependency rates on conventional accumulation and the quality of human capital (especially schooling); the impact of the rise in life expectancy on attitudes towards investment in human capital; and the role of relatively efficient labor markets on resource allocation and accumulation."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

54:30611 Basu, Alaka M. How economic development can overcome culture: demographic change in Punjab, India. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1988. 29-48 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper looks at the recent declines in fertility and mortality that have occurred in the state of Punjab in India and examines the evidence on the proposition that these have resulted from changes in the sociocultural structure of Punjab--especially those aspects of this structure which influence levels of female status. The article concludes that in fact rates of birth and death (especially at the older ages) have fallen in spite of the persistence of cultural norms and practices that limit female autonomy and that should therefore theoretically favour high fertility and mortality. It is suggested that at this stage of the state's demographic transition it might be more useful to look for causes in the relatively remarkable economic prosperity that the area has witnessed in the last two decades." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: A. M. Basu, National Council of Applied Economic Research, Parisila Bhawan, 11 Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi 110 002, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30612 Bhattacharyya, Dilip. Interaction between macro-economic activities and demographic changes in selected developing countries. Department of Economics Discussion Paper, No. 66, Oct 1987. 26 pp. University of Leicester, Department of Economics: Leicester, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationship between population and economic development in developing countries using a macro-level model and short-term time-series data. The variables considered are consumption expenditure, investment expenditure, national income, and population; the countries examined are India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and the Central African Republic, with the United Kingdom as a control. The time period covered is 1964-1980. The results show little support for Malthusian theory and only partial support for alternative theories asserting that population growth is associated with technological progress.
Correspondence: Department of Economics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30613 Bradshaw, York W. Urbanization and underdevelopment: a global study of modernization, urban bias, and economic dependency. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1987. 224-39 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The causes and effects of Third World urbanization have been addressed in theories of modernization, urban bias, and economic dependency, but no single cross-national study has tested the arguments advanced by all three theories. This paper uses panel regression analysis to assess the validity of the three perspectives in sixty-one underdeveloped countries between 1960 and 1980. The results provide some support for each theory and also contradict previous studies that do not consider several important variables. Thus, future studies must transcend current theoretical and ideological particularism to avoid incomplete or false representations of urbanization and underdevelopment." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Y. W. Bradshaw, Department of Sociology, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210-1353. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30614 Budiarto, Wasis; Ristrini. Economics and fertility: a popular review related to family planning programs. [Ekonomi dan fertilitas: suatu pembahasan populer sekitar program keluarga berencana.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 14, No. 28, Dec 1987. v-vi, 1-13 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines various socioeconomic determinants of population growth in Indonesia. Demographic transition and child demand theories are used to demonstrate the relationship between economic conditions in a community and number of births. The importance of income and educational status for fertility reduction is noted. Suggestions for an improvement of family planning programs are included.
Correspondence: W. Budiarto, Pusar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pelayanan Kesehatan Depkes R.I., J1. Indrapura 17, Surabaya, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30615 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. Population growth and development: an unexplained boom. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 17-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Have the unprecedented rates of population growth in the developing countries over the past 30 years been an obstacle to their development, as has been suggested by most of the writing on the subject? This paper attempts to answer the question from an empirical approach, a review of the existing studies on the subject, and from a more theoretical point of view. It must be noted first that the available data since 1950 for a number of selected developing countries do not support the view that high rates of population growth have impeded rapid increases in the GDP per capita....The past three decades, which historically have been the period of maximum population growth for most of the developing countries, have also been a period of exceptional growth in GDP per capita." The author notes that the growth of GDP per capita is still substantially higher in developing than developed countries, and that in the case where this is not so, such as in Africa, the causes lie elswhere than in rapid population growth. He concludes that population growth and economic development are capable of reinforcing each other and that rapid declines in mortality may be the key to successful development.
For a related study published in French in 1985, see 51:20619.
Correspondence: J.-C. Chesnais, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30616 D'Souza, Victor S. Does economic development necessarily lead to a decline in population? Some contrary evidence. Journal of Sociological Studies, No. 5, 1986. 77-94 pp. Jodhpur, India. In Eng.
This is a summary of a micro-level study conducted in three villages in India to examine the impact of economic development on population growth. The emphasis is on variables pertaining to social structure, particularly occupational status. "It was found that there was no significant relationship between level of income and occupational prestige on the one hand and the size of the family on the other in every village....The correlations between educational level of the head of the household and the size of his family were....small and because of the low levels of literacy they have not played any significant role in the demographic change in any of the villages." The author concludes that "if the parents try to restrict the size of their families it is not so much because they do not derive...economic benefits from their children but because thereby they hope to improve the career prospects of their children."
Location: Center for Research Libraries, Chicago, IL.

54:30617 Greenhalgh, Susan. Land reform and family entrepreneurialism in East Asia. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 134, Dec 1987. 58 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper argues that the land reforms in East Asia produced uniquely favorable economic and demographic results in large part because of the micro-institutional context in which they were carried out. Looking closely at three Chinese reforms--the Taiwan land reform of 1949-53, the mainland Chinese land reform of 1945-52, and the mainland rural reforms of 1979-present--the paper argues that by changing the security/mobility structure of peasant life the reforms removed the fetters on family entrepreneurship....The resulting proliferation of family enterprises promoted relatively rapid economic growth and diversification, urban-rural balance, and comparatively rapid fertility decline in response to changes in the costs and benefits of children."
Correspondence: Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30618 Loriaux, Michel. Economy, population, and population policy. [Economie, population et politique demographique.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, No. 3-4, ISBN 2-87085-041-7. Dec 1984. 171 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
A framework for designing and implementing population policy in developing countries is discussed. Simple correlations between population dynamics and economic development are critically analyzed, and the use of large demo-socioeconomic models and integrated population policies is favorably assessed. The author concludes that it may be necessary for social change to precede economic development and that the policy emphasis should be on meeting basic human needs for food, housing, education, and health services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30619 Mason, Andrew. Saving, economic growth, and demographic change. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 113-44, 221-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article reviews what has been learned about the relationship between saving, investment, and economic growth in the last 30 years. It asks how important a high rate of saving is to rapid economic growth and whether rapid population growth impedes efforts to raise the rate of saving....The experience of Japan and the United States, among other countries, demonstrates that a higher rate of investment leads to higher output per worker and a more rapid rate of economic growth over an extended period. Reduced fertility and slower population growth have contributed to the macroeconomic objective of increased saving in a number of countries. Survey evidence, international cross-sectional data, and time series studies of Asian countries support the view that slower population growth leads to higher saving. But the adverse impact of population growth on saving is by no means universal. In a number of developing countries available evidence fails to confirm the existence of a population-saving link. Moreover, both economic theory and analysis of aggregate saving data confirm that declining fertility may not lead to higher saving, particularly in countries with stagnant or slowly growing economies."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30620 Mlia, J. R. Ngoleka; Kalipeni, E. Population growth and national development in Malawi. Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 15, Jun 1987. 39-48 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Malawi is explored. The authors note that although the government has launched a program to encourage birth spacing, it does not recognize the current rate of population growth as a problem. They suggest that an extension of this program to encourage a reduction in fertility would be beneficial to the country.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30621 Nag, Moni. The Kerala formula. World Health Forum, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1988. 258-62 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author examines aspects of the demographic situation in Kerala, India, where socioeconomic indicators lag behind those of other states but low fertility and mortality levels persist. "With a view to explaining this paradox, the areas of land reform, social equity, education, women's status, and health care--among others--have been examined in both Kerala and West Bengal. Equity in health care and education are undoubtedly important, but underlying factors also have to be taken into account, notably the development of political awareness and action among the masses."
Correspondence: M. Nag, Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, 1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30622 Nihon University. Population Research Institute (Tokyo, Japan). Summary of proceedings: Conference on ASEAN Development--Problems and Prospects, September 28-30, 1987, Tokyo, Japan. Nov 1987. 36 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The proceedings of the September 1987 Conference on ASEAN Development--Problems and Prospects, which was sponsored by Nihon University, are outlined and summarized. "In this conference, following a special lecture, there were three major sessions concerning: development and rural poverty; rural development in ASEAN countries; and ASEAN development in comparative perspectives....Brief summaries of the special lecture and each section are made, and when possible, implications of the findings are also included." The geographical focus is on Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30623 Sembajwe, Israel. Population change and development prospects in Lesotho. Working Papers in Demography, No. 8, Nov 1986. iv, 39 pp. National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit: Maseru, Lesotho. In Eng.
The debate on the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development is discussed, and the effect of population change on future socioeconomic development in Lesotho is examined. Data are from official and published sources and concern population densities for selected countries; assumed net migration for member states of the U.N. Economic Commission for Africa; and infant mortality, population growth, and age dependency ratios by world region.
Correspondence: I. Sembajwe, National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit, P.O. Roma 180, Maseru, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30624 Srinivasan, T. N. Population growth and economic development. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1988. 7-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Much of the concern about the deleterious effect of a rapid growth of population on economic development is based largely on the view that either household fertility decisions are exogenous or, if endogenous, pervasive and significant externalities distort them. It is argued that this view is mistaken and that many of the alleged deleterious consequences result more from inappropriate policies and institutions than from rapid population growth. Thus policy reform and institutional change are called for, rather than policy interventions in private fertility decisions to counter these effects." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: T. N. Srinivasan, Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30625 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Assessing the demographic consequences of major development projects: proceedings of a United Nations workshop, New York, 1-4 December 1986. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/81, 1988. vi, 183 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a workshop what was part of a research project implemented by the U.N. Population Division. The focus of the workshop was on assessing the demographic consequences of major development projects. "The present volume is divided into two parts. Part one contains the report and recommendations of the Workshop. Part two comprises the background paper prepared by the Population Division and thematic papers commissioned for the Workshop. They are grouped according to the following topics: (a) general overview; (b) experiences of other institutions with population impact analysis; and (c) methodological and measurement issues in assessing the demographic consequences of major development projects." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30626 Vasquez Bazan, Cesar. Demographic trends, living conditions, and population policy in Peru. [Tendencias demograficas, condiciones de vida y politica de poblacion en el Peru.] Avances de Investigacion, No. 16, 1987. v, 85 pp. Universidad de Lima, Centro de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales [CIESUL]: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This study is concerned with population trends in Peru and their impact on the living standards of the population. The first chapter is concerned with demographic trends, including fertility, mortality, age distribution, and spatial distribution. The next chapter examines employment, income distribution, and basic needs such as food, housing, health, and education. In the final chapter, the bases for the development of a population policy are considered.
Correspondence: CIESUL, Prolongacion Javier Prado s/n, Monterrico, Apartado 852, Lima, Peru. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

54:30627 Bae, Hwa-Ock. Changing family structure and aging issues. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 203-23 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
Demographic aging in the Republic of Korea is discussed in light of changes in family characteristics, particularly the decline of the extended family system as well as more prevalent family dissolution. Official and other published sources indicate that the aged in Korea have a low educational status, are predominantly female, are concentrated in rural areas, and have low incomes. The need for social welfare programs to supply the care for the aged that families are no longer providing is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30628 Milanovic, Branko. Remittances and income distribution. Journal of Economic Studies, Vol. 14, No. 5, 1987. 24-37 pp. West Yorkshire, England. In Eng.
"The paper studies the effects of [foreign] remittances on the pattern of income distribution in Yugoslavia. It is found that remittances raise the Gini coefficient, although unequally as between different social groups. One reason may be that in social groups where the diffusion of information is relatively even (as among urban households) migration is more uniform across income groups than it is in social groups where the access to information depends primarily on the level of income (e.g. rural households). In the latter groups distribution of migrants is more skewed towards higher income groups and remittances increase the level of inequality more substantially." Data are from household surveys conducted in Yugoslavia in 1973, 1978, and 1983.
Correspondence: B. Milanovic, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30629 Vossen, Ad; Janssen, Ton. Socio-economic consequences of ageing: a long-term view for the Netherlands. Department of Sociology Working Paper Series, No. 10, 1986. 27 pp. Tilburg University, Department of Sociology: Tilburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper we shall chiefly examine the demographic aspects of ageing [as well as]....the question: to what extent could a specific population policy contribute to a reduction in the negative social consequences of ageing? First, widely differing demographic ageing scenarios are developed, which are then linked to what we call an age-specific public expenditure profile. On the basis of this, certain price labels are then examined with respect to their demographic sensitivity. Next, we examine the extent to which the changeover from a 'pay-as-you-go' system to a 'capital reserve' system can reduce pension expenses. Finally, we will discuss the savings resulting from a reallocation of the age-specific public expenditure profile." The geographical focus is on the Netherlands.
Correspondence: Department of Sociology, Tilburg University, Postbox 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30630 Zvidrin'sh, P. P.; Zvidrinya, M. A. Population and the economy. [Naselenie i ekonomika.] Populyarnaya Demografiya, 1987. 127 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The relationship between population and the economy in the USSR is analyzed from a life cycle perspective, with a focus on the phase of life spent in the labor force. Demographic processes (births, deaths, and natural increase) are reviewed in conjunction with trends in social and economic development for the country as a whole and for individual regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

54:30631 Hinrichsen, Don. Critical links between population and resources. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 14-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses the work of the World Commission on Environment and Development (WECD) and its 1987 report to the United Nations concerning the effects of population growth on the world's supply of natural resources. The report's scope is worldwide, with a focus on developing countries. Consideration is given to the concept of and prerequisites for sustainable development, the development squeeze, population issues, controlling urban sprawl, and agriculture and food production. The Commission's recommendations for policy changes for both governments and international agencies are also outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30632 Hogan, Daniel J. Population dynamics and environmental pollution: organization and introduction. [Dinamica demografica e poluicao ambiental: organizacao e introducao.] Textos NEPO, No. 12, Sep 1987. 144 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
These are the proceedings of a workshop on the relationship between demographic factors and environmental pollution, held in Campinas, Brazil, July 2-3, 1986. The specific focus is on the municipality of Cubatao, Brazil, whose population grew from about 12,000 in 1950 to about 77,000 in 1980. The contributed papers examine the environmental changes in the city and in the surrounding countryside as well as the social impact of these changes.
Correspondence: NEPO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30633 Myers, Ramon H. Land and labor in China. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 4, Jul 1988. 797-806 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This is a critical examination of a study by Kang Chao on Chinese socioeconomic history during the last 2,000 years. The author comments that "Chao...sees Chinese economic history as turning on the hinge of the population/land ratio, diminishing returns, and the institutional responses to those two processes....Chao's theory and his interpretation of institutional adjustments, however, are not easily supported by quantitative evidence about wage rates, population pressure, and agricultural yields. Moreover, analyzing economic trends during all these centuries, Chao neglects their context in terms of the whole institutional structure of tenancy, of state policies, of household reproductive behavior, of rural customary law, and of land settlement phases."
For the study by Chao, published in 1986, see 54:10707.
Correspondence: R. H. Myers, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30634 Norse, David. Population, resources and food in Africa. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 26-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Factors contributing to the decline in per capita food production in Africa are examined, and prospects for the future are considered. Food supply and demand projections produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization and U.N. population projections are used. The author finds that "population growth will account for almost the entire growth in the demand for cereals (from 77 million tons in 1979-1981 to around 200 million tons in 2010). During the same period, production is expected to grow by 2 per cent per annum, to 100 million tons, meeting only half of the total demand....The most promising approach would be to raise yields per hectare closer to realizable levels. Slowing the rate of population growth, at the same time, would not only reduce demand but permit the channelling of more resources into agricultural development."
Correspondence: D. Norse, Economic and Social Policy Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 1-00100 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30635 United Nations. Secretariat (New York, New York). Population and the environment. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 21-22, 1988. 32-44 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The interrelationships among demographic and environmental factors in developing countries are examined, with an emphasis on the need for comprehensive programs at both national and international levels. It is noted that "efforts to promote development in a way which preserves the resource base for future generations will have to take into account demographic factors, since excessive population pressure in specific geographical areas can pose serious ecological hazards, including soil erosion, desertification, dwindling supplies of firewood, deforestation and the degradation of sources of fresh water....Population policies should also be formulated with due regard for environmental factors. Priority should be given to population activities in those geographical areas likely to experience acute environmental stress. Programmes for influencing the distribution of population should also consider the environmental impact."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

54:30636 Choe, Ehn-Hyun; Koo, Sung-Yeal; Kim, Soo-Bong. Migration as a factor in labor supply. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 3-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Recent changes in the structure of employment opportunities by industry in the Republic of Korea are considered, with a focus on the role of internal migration in the distribution of human resources. Migration is shown to be a significant factor in labor supply, responding particularly to wage rate changes. The authors conclude that over time, migration has operated less efficiently in human resource allocation.
Correspondence: E.-H. Choe, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30637 Donohue, John J. Determinants of job turnover of young men and women in the United States: a hazard rate analysis. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 257-301 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"I have used hazard models to examine the expected job tenure of [U.S.] male and female entrants to the full-time labor force after they appear to have completed their full-time education. My results for the early periods are quite different from those obtained by a number of recent microdata studies, using different methodologies from mine, which found that there were no differences in quit rates by sex after controlling for the effects of a number of explanatory variables. I have found that for the period 1968-1971 female full-time workers quit their first job after completing school at substantially higher rates than male workers. This finding was robust to a number of different model specifications and selection criteria, as well as to estimations with and without duration dependence and with and without corrections for unobserved heterogeneity."
Correspondence: J. J. Donohue, Northwestern University School of Law, Evanston, IL 60201. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30638 Hayward, Mark D.; Grady, William R.; McLaughlin, Steven D. Changes in the retirement process among older men in the United States: 1972-1980. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 371-86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recent changes in older men's retirement patterns are investigated for the United States. The results show that labor force incumbents, particularly those in secondary occupations, experienced increases in the volume of both retirement and reentry to the labor force. In addition, although working life expectancy remained relatively stable across occupations, men in secondary occupations spent increasingly greater portions of their work lives in postretirement jobs. Finally, large increases in nonworking life expectancy occurred because of substantial increases in life expectancy. In several occupations, however, declines in working life expectancy were major contributors to increases in nonworking life expectancy."
Correspondence: M. D. Hayward, Department of Sociology, University of Southern California, University Park, MC 0191, Los Angeles CA 90089-0191. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30639 Herrin, Alejandro N. Human resource formation in the Philippines: problems and prospects. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 43, Mar 1988. vi, 21 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe the problems and prospects in human resource formation [in the Philippines] with attention to health, nutrition and basic education." It is found that "an underlying factor affecting the prospects for significant improvements in the quality of human resources is the rate of population growth. Rapid fertility decline can be expected to reduce the pressure of providing basic health, nutrition and educational services, and such reduced pressure can provide opportunities for improving the coverage and quality of such services. Fertility in the Philippines, however, still remains high and very little decline has been noted in the more recent period." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30640 Joshi, Heather; Owen, Susan. Demographic predictors of women's work in postwar Britain. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 401-47 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses and quantifies the effects of family formation on the cycle of women's employment participation over adult life, as discernible in aggregate data. Our main analysis is of the employment rates of successive birth cohorts of women [in Great Britain] over the period 1950-1974. Since World War II there has been unprecedented growth in labor force participation of women over 30, and particularly, given the small base, of mothers of dependent children. These trends are described and analyzed in terms of the contribution of demographic factors--children, marital status, age, and cohort--to the patterns observed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30641 Lim, Lin Lean. Economic dynamism and structural transformation in the Asian Pacific Rim countries: contributions of the second sex. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 45, Mar 1988. vi, 38 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The role of women in the recent economic development of the Asian Pacific Rim countries is analyzed. Data are from official and other published sources for female labor force participation for selected Asian countries. The author finds that "the Asian Pacific Rim experience has been unusual in that, compared to other regions, there has been a lack of institutional and socio-cultural barriers to female labor force participation while demographic and education patterns have ensured that there is a supply of qualified female labor. But the paper stresses that even in their economic roles, women remain...far from equal to their male counterparts and [are] often additionally burdened by formal entry into the labor force without any change in their familial roles nor any increase in their status."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30642 Lundberg, Shelly. Labor supply of husbands and wives: a simultaneous equations approach. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 70, No. 2, May 1988. 224-35 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Labor supply functions for married men and women are formulated as a dynamic simultaneous equations system, which is estimated using panel data. Controlling for fixed individual effects allows marginal labor supply responses to be disentangled from permanent patterns in hours worked due to assortative mating. The results suggest that the labor supply of husbands and wives without pre-school children is not jointly determined in the short run, while families with young children exhibit strong interactions in work hours and negative cross-earnings effects. Neither the joint utility model of family labor supply nor an ad hoc 'traditional family' model is supported by these results." The data are for the United States and concern 381 couples from the Denver Income Maintenance Experiment.
Correspondence: S. Lundberg, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30643 Manning, Chris. Rural employment creation in Java: lessons from the green revolution and oil boom. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 47-80, 220, 222 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Rapid economic growth has had a favorable impact on employment and incomes in rural Java [Indonesia]. Despite characterization of the island as a classic case of 'labor surplus' and the introduction of labor-displacing technology in rice, recent agricultural employment growth has been high by Third World standards. Nonagricultural employment creation has been heavily concentrated in cities. This concentration is attributable to import-substitution-oriented manufacturing growth and the distribution of oil boom expenditures. The rural population has benefited from higher labor mobility, but the overall urban bias in job creation has discriminated against them. Future prospects are clouded by the cutback in transmigration and the slowdown in rice production."
Correspondence: C. Manning, School of Social Sciences, Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, South Australia 5042, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30644 Metz, Manuel. A methodological approach to the study of changes in labor force participation patterns. PIDEH Inter-American Household Survey Program, ISBN 0-8270-2731-1. 1988. ix, 157 pp. Organization of American States [OAS]: Washington, D.C.; Inter-American Statistical Institute: Panama City, Panama. In Eng.
A two-stage approach to the analysis of changes in labor force participation is presented. The approach focuses on an age- and sex-specific labor force participation function rather than on specific age brackets. The proposed method is tested both over time and across countries, using census data for the 1960s and 1970s from Latin America. The results indicate that the method seems to work satisfactorily in the analysis of male labor force participation, but not for female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30645 Morley, Samuel A. Relative wages, labor force structure, and the distribution of income in the short and long run. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 4, Jul 1988. 651-68 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author attempts to demonstrate "a simple model of the labor market that explicitly distinguishes between the short and the long run [of income distribution], and...to explore the effect of changes in the level or growth rate of aggregate demand, changes in skill intensity, and changes in the educational system." The example used is Brazil, with data from recent censuses.
Correspondence: S. A. Morley, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30646 Morrison, Donna R.; Lichter, Daniel T. Family migration and female employment: the problem of underemployment among migrant married women. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1988. 161-72 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This article examines the effects of geographic mobility on changes in underemployment among married and single women. Data for the analysis are from the young women sample of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys. Changes in various forms of underemployment for the 1968-73 and 1973-78 periods are measured with the Labor Utilization Framework of Clogg and Sullivan (1983). In general, our results reinforce findings from previous studies by showing that migration contributes to labor force nonparticipation and unemployment among married women. Migration also is linked to other forms of labor force hardship, including involuntary part-time employment and low pay. Contrary to expectations, migration also negatively affects employment adequacy among single women. The implications of these results for family decision-making models of migration are discussed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 394-5).
Correspondence: D. R. Morrison, Decision Resources Corporation, 1828 L Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30647 Pernia, Ernesto M. The employment problem in the context of economic slowdown: the case of Indonesia. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 44, Mar 1988. vi, 29 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper reviews contemporary labor supply trends and employment performance [in Indonesia] vis-a-vis earlier trends and performance. It cites in passing some comparisons from the Philippines which, like Indonesia, experienced buoyant economic growth in the 1970s, followed by a recession, albeit more severe, in the first half of the 1980s. The paper goes on to look at the comparative performance of the various sectors and industries, then focuses on government spending, exports, and housing as critical areas for employment expansion (or contraction). After discussing underemployment as the real problem, the paper touches on prospects in the medium term as well as some policy approaches. Concluding remarks on research needs concerning human resources in the informal sector round out the paper."
Correspondence: Nihon University, Population Research Institute, 3-2 Misaki-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30648 Sengupta, Prasun. Demographic influences on female labor supply. Pub. Order No. DA8718156. 1986. 209 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research investigates the effects of household age-sex composition on the labor supply of women in [a developing country] setting. It is based on a new approach of modelling the economic consequences of variation in the individual and family life cycle developed by Lee (1983). It is posited that each person is capable of producing four types of effects: (1) generate demand for consumer goods...(2) supply time to market activity...(3) create demand for home production...and (4) supply time to housework....These per capita effects depend on the age and sex of each person and are regarded as exogenous, determined partly by biological needs and partly by socio-cultural norms....The empirical results of this research, derived from Malaysian Family Life Survey data (1976-77), have generally confirmed the usefulness of the basic approach described above."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(8).

54:30649 Share, M. A. J. Wage differentials in Jordan: effects on integrated labour market. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 30, Jun 1987. 51-68 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This paper aims at studying some aspects of workers' immigration to Jordan and comparing these workers with their native counterparts with regard to migration, characteristics, qualifications and wages....Available statistical material was supplemented by surveying a sample of 1,000 Jordanian and non-Jordanian workers. The study concludes that Jordanian workers' emigration scores positively in reducing unemployment. Moreover, the favourable impact of the remittances on Jordanian economy outweighs the negative effects manifested by shortages of certain skills and professions....However, the study reveals that immigrant workers are crowding-out the native workers in various professions...."
Correspondence: M. A. J. Share, Department of Economics, Yarmouk University, POB 566, Irbid, Jordan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30650 Stipp, Horst H. What is a working woman? American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 7, Jul 1988. 24-7, 59 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The availability of statistics on the extent of labor force participation by U.S. women is reviewed. The author concludes that monthly employment statistics significantly understate women's participation in the labor force.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30651 Syahruddin. The problem of labor force estimation and the standard of living. [Masalah ketenagakerjaan dan kesejahteraannya.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 14, No. 28, Dec 1987. viii-x, 29-46 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The problem of estimating labor force participation in Indonesia is discussed using data from the national censuses of 1961, 1971, and 1981. The author assesses the reliability of census data for estimating the rate of growth of labor force participation. Commentary on the living standard of an unskilled laborer's family is also included.
Correspondence: Syahruddin, Pusat Studi Kependudukan, Universitas Andalas, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan 77, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30652 van Dijk, Jouke. Migration and the labor market. [Migratie en arbeidsmarkt.] Serie Mens en Ruimte, No. 20, ISBN 90-232-2213-X. LC 86-215033. 1986. 239 pp. Van Gorcum: Assen, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of migration on the employment situation in the region of destination is analyzed, using the northern region of the Netherlands as an example. Consideration is given to both macro- and micro-economic aspects. The study examines both the effects of migration on the labor supply and the effects on employment of migrants' expenditures in the region of destination. The author concludes that in-migration had a positive impact on the employment situation in the region studied in 1979.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30653 Van Dongen, W.; Deschamps, L.; Pauwels, K. The allocation of time between paid labor and household labor of housewives, working women, and unemployed women in Flanders. [Een studie van de tijdsbesteding inzake betaalde beroepsarbeid en onbetaalde gezinsarbeid van de thuiswerkende, de buitenhuiswerkende en de werkzoekend vrouwen in Vlaanderen.] CBGS Werkdocument, No. 55, 1988. 90 pp. Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the allocation of women's time between paid labor and household labor using data from a survey carried out in the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium in 1985-1986. Consideration is given to a variety of socioeconomic and demographic variables and their impact on the allocation of women's time. The results indicate the increased total workload undertaken by women employed outside the home, particularly when they have young children.
Correspondence: CBGS, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 7de Verdieping, 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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