Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

54:30322 Bennett, Neil G.; Blanc, Ann K.; Bloom, David E. Commitment and the modern union: assessing the link between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability. American Sociological Review, Vol. 53, No. 1, Feb 1988. 127-38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Using data from the 1981 Women in Sweden survey and a hazards model approach, the authors examine the relationship between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital stability. "Our results indicate that women who cohabit premaritally have almost 80 percent higher marital dissolution rates than those who do not. Women who cohabit for over three years prior to marriage have over 50 percent higher dissolution rates than women who cohabit for shorter durations. Last, cohabitors and noncohabitors whose marriages have remained intact for eight years appear to have identical dissolution rates after that time. We provide evidence that strongly suggests a weaker commitment to the institution of marriage on the part of those who cohabit premaritally."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 412).
Correspondence: N. G. Bennett, Yale University, Department of Sociology, P.O. Box 1965, New Haven, CT 06520-1965. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30323 Berquo, Elza. Nuptiality among Brazil's black population. [Nupcialidade da populacao negra no Brasil.] Textos NEPO, No. 11, Aug 1987. 7-45 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
Data from a three percent sample of the 1980 census of Brazil are used to analyze nuptiality trends by ethnic group. The focus is on the homogamy of marriage by color and age and on the marriage patterns of the black population.
Correspondence: NEPO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30324 Caldwell, J. C.; Caldwell, Pat; Bracher, M. D.; Santow, Gigi. The contemporary marriage and fertility revolutions in the West. Australian Family Project Working Paper, No. 3, Apr 1988. 39 pp. Australian National University, Research School of Social Sciences: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Marriage and fertility trends in the West over the past thirty years are analyzed, with a major focus on changes in the United States and Australia. Data are from official sources and from in-depth interviews conducted as part of the 1986 Australian Family Project. Among the demographic changes examined are the lengthening period between marriage and first birth, fertility decline, the rise in marriage age, and the increase in the incidence of consensual unions. "This paper reports on the attempt...to obtain participants' explanations for the timing of their marriages and births, and for their acceptance or rejection of formal marriage."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. For more information, see the abstracts to PAA papers at the beginning of this issue.
Correspondence: Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30325 Cherlin, Andrew; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Variations in marriage patterns in central Thailand. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 337-53 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data from a survey of marriage patterns in central Thailand illustrate the complexity of change in marriage patterns in a developing society--the diversity of traditional patterns, the different directions of change, and the variations in current patterns. The data were collected in 1978 and 1979 from ever-married women aged 15-44 in three settings: a central plains village, established areas in Bangkok, and a Bangkok squatter settlement. Three forms of entry into marriage were identified: ceremonial marriage with parental involvement in the choice of spouse, ceremonial marriage with self-choice of spouse, and nonceremonial marriage (elopement and living together). All three forms of marriage existed in each setting, and the dominant form differed in each. In general, a family background of higher socioeconomic status led to a greater likelihood of a marriage ceremony and greater parental involvement in spouse choice. Women with more education were also more likely to marry with ceremony, but higher education for daughters was associated with less parental involvement in spouse choice. These findings suggests that marriage patterns may remain diverse in Thailand, even as further development occurs."
Correspondence: A. Cherlin, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30326 Cretser, Gary A.; Leon, Joseph J. Racial, religious, and national origin intermarriage in the U.S.: review of selected theory, method, and research. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1985. 3-30 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This article summarizes the intermarriage literature with special reference to books and articles in the social sciences. The literature is partitioned into theoretical approaches, conceptualization and operationalization, computational formulas used in the reporting of intermarriage, general findings on the extent and types of intermarriage, [and] correlates of and attitudes toward racial, religious and national origin intermarriage. The authors conclude that a variety of theories and methods have [been] and continue to be employed to investigate this phenomenon. Among the findings reported are that racial intermarriages are least prevalent and national origin intermarriages the most prevalent in the United States."
Correspondence: G. A. Cretser, California State Polytechnic University, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30327 Edwards, W. J. Remarriage: some preliminary findings. Local Population Studies, No. 39, Autumn 1987. 32-45 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
Data from 31 parishes in Shropshire for the period 1754-1810 are used to examine trends in remarriage in England. The data indicate significant differences in remarriage rates among parishes.
Correspondence: W. J. Edwards, University College of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30328 Ellman, Yisrael. Intermarriage in the United States: a comparative study of Jews and other ethnic and religious groups. Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 49, No. 1, Winter 1987. 1-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a comparative analysis of intermarriage in the United States of Jews and other ethnic and religious groups. The primary data source is the 1980 census. Factors affecting the rate of mixed marriages are identified as the size of the Jewish population, social distances, and intrinsic endogamy. The author notes that the decline in prejudice concerning marriage to Jews and increasing levels of Jewish integration into the general society have both led to increasing rates of intermarriage.
Correspondence: Y. Ellman, Seminar Givat Haviva, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30329 Espenshade, Thomas J. Markov chain models of marital event histories. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 73-106 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author asserts "that a focus on transitions is key to developing a life course perspective on individual and family behavior. Markov chain models were then proposed as a framework for studying these transitions and for summarizing their implications over a broad age range. To illustrate the applicability of such models, we computed increment-decrement marital status life tables for white and black [U.S.] females separately for the period 1940-1980. The results confirmed several trends: (1) since 1960 there has been an increasing tendency to postpone marriage...; (2) the upward trend in the probability that a marriage will end in divorce accelerated in the 1970s; (3) total remarriage rates have risen steadily among white females since 1960, but they have declined among black females; and (4) when the numerous trends are combined, they imply that the typical female is spending larger proportions of her lifetime in the never-married, separated, and divorced statuses and less time married."
Correspondence: T. J. Espenshade, Program in Demographic Studies, Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30330 Gauvreau, Danielle. Nuptiality and professional groups in Quebec during the French regime. [Nuptialite et categories professionnelles a Quebec pendant le regime francais.] Sociologie et Societes, Vol. 19, No. 1, Apr 1987. 25-35 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The demographic regime that historically characterizes any given society constitutes a complex whole in which several elements interact. In relation to marriages, we have been able to demonstrate that, for the City of Quebec during the French regime, the age of first marriages reflects a specific division of tasks according to sex within the family. At the same time, it is a reflection of the differences that exist in the possibilities for getting established and the requirements of rank among the various professional groups. Moreover, the study of matrimonial ties demonstrates the degree of professional endogamy, which is much stronger within the upper group (officers and merchants)."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30331 Goldscheider, Calvin; Goldscheider, Frances K. Moving out and marriage: what do young adults expect? American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1987. 278-85 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the trend toward establishing an independent household before marriage among young U.S. adults, using data collected in the High School and Beyond study of the class of 1980. "This paper examines expectations about premarital residential independence among young adults....That about 70 percent of young adults surveyed expect to move out of the parental home before marriage suggests that new norms are emerging which fit into patterns of independence in the transition to adulthood. There is substantial variation in factors affecting expectations about premarital residential independence. Young men more than young women, those with more parental resources, those who expect to marry at older ages, and those who do not have ethnic and religious ties that link them to their parental home until marriage expect to live independently. Religious, racial and ethnic differences interact in complex ways with gender and socioeconomic status to influence expectations about premarital residential independence."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 443).
Correspondence: F. K. Goldscheider, Department of Sociology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30332 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. Female age at marriage--an analysis of 1981 census data. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 7 of 1988, [1988]. [vii], 183 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This report attempts an analysis of the 1981 data on age at marriage [in India]. The data have been analysed with a view to identify the trends as well as the differentials in female age at marriage by residence (rural/urban), religion, educational level and worker category of the women. The analysis also throws light on the regional variations in female age at marriage." Data are from a 20 percent sample of the 1981 census of India. Some comparisons are made with 1971 census data. The data concern both mean and median age at marriage and are presented separately for rural and urban areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30333 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Who remains celibate? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 253-63 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Using data from the Medical Research Council's National Survey of Health and Development, a longitudinal sample study of a cohort born in 1946, the attributes of men and women in the United Kingdom who were still single in their mid-30s are considered against a background of trends in celibacy over the course of the twentieth century. The results show that "an important minority are 'handicapped' and these adults are cared for primarily by their families, in particular by elderly parents. Celibates tend to be more introverted, ambitious and to have older marrying parents than their ever-married peers. Single women differ from single men. The women are more likely to be of higher ability, to be graduates and to be in high status occupations whilst single men are more likely to be members of the lowest social class or unemployed. The great majority of single people live either with their parents or on their own."
Correspondence: K. Kiernan, Social Statistics Research Unit, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30334 Kim, Jin-Sook. A study of the local marriage network in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 19-38 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The author seeks "to find out the extent of [the] local marriage network in Korean society and to examine its variation by year of marriage and general characteristics of the married women. This study utilizes data from the national sample survey on the family life cycle which was implemented by the Korea Institute for Population and Health in 1986. Questionnaires were administered to 3,013 wives aged 15-64 in the survey." Changes in the rates at which the residents of the same region marry among themselves are discussed. It is found that traditional local marriage patterns are of declining significance in light of changes accompanying industrialization, urbanization, migration, and the improvement of women's educational status.
Correspondence: J.-S. Kim, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30335 Landale, Nancy S. Family formation at the turn of the century: the marriage behavior of U.S. males. 1987. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the marriage behavior of white males in the late nineteenth century United States with data from the 1900 Public Use Sample, the 1880-1900 National Panel Study, and the published tabulations of the 1900 U.S. census. The study provides a systematic description of the national pattern of nuptial timing, within the context of theories about the relationship between economic opportunity and marriage....The dissertation includes separate analyses of urban and rural residents of the United States....The empirical findings support the idea that restricted opportunity in agriculture retarded entry into marriage....Rural males employed outside of agriculture (or as farm laborers) exhibited a pattern of late marriage, relative to farmers....[It is found that] first, the type of employment available in a given city affected the labor force participation of women, which in turn had implications for nuptiality among men. Second, the relative demand for male and female labor had a strong impact on marriage through the sex ratio."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Washington.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(10).

54:30336 Larson, Lyle E.; Munro, Brenda. Religious intermarriage in Canada, 1974-1982. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1985. 31-49 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper reviews recent literature, with particular reference to Canada, on religious intermarriage. The importance of intramarriage in the cross-generation maintenance of subcultural values is emphasized. Recent trends in religious outmarriage and the major explanations and correlates of these trends are considered. Recent data published by Statistics Canada is examined for the nine year period between 1974-1982."
Correspondence: L. E. Larson, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30337 Leboutte, Rene; Helin, Etienne. The choice of a spouse: concerning the use of quantitative indicators to understand endogamy. [Le choix du conjoint: a propos de l'usage d'indicateurs quantifiables pour apprecier l'endogamie.] In: Au-dela du quantitatif: espoirs et limites de l'analyse qualitative en demographie. Chaire Quetelet '85. 1988. 415-65 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the use of quantitative indicators to analyze the process of selecting a spouse. The indicators considered are distance, age, socio-professional status, and educational status. The data concern 17 villages in the Basse-Meuse region of Belgium in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30338 Lee, Raymond M. Patterns of Catholic-Protestant intermarriage in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 15, No. 1-2, Spring-Fall 1985. 62-80 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Some of the social factors governing the incidence of religious intermarriage in Northern Ireland are reviewed before setting out data from a special tabulation of the 1971 census of Northern Ireland. According to the tabulation only some 2% of married couples enumerated declared themselves to be in Catholic-Protestant marriages....The tabulation suggests that the likelihood of marriage across the Catholic-Protestant divide is no greater for manual workers than for nonmanual workers when controls are introduced for relative group size....There are indications that the incidence of Catholic-Protestant marriage was rising in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s."
Correspondence: R. M. Lee, University College of Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea, SA28PP, Wales. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30339 Leridon, Henri; Villeneuve-Gokalp, Catherine. The new couples: numbers, characteristics, and attitudes. [Les nouveaux couples: nombre, caracteristiques et attitudes.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 331-74 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Changes in the structure of families and households in France are analyzed using data from the 1985 survey Situations Familiales. The focus of the survey was on changes in life styles not apparent from the study of data from conventional sources such as vital statistics and censuses. The results show that "previous estimates of the number of unmarried cohabiting couples need to be revised upwards: the figures amounted to 19 per cent of women between the ages of 21 and 24, and to 17 per cent of men in the same age group. Unmarried cohabitation has compensated almost completely for the decline in the number of marriages, except, more recently, in the 21-24 age group, where the age when young people leave the parental home has risen. At the beginning of a union, the prospects for marriage are somewhat uncertain; it is often the desire for a child that prompts couples to marry at a later stage, even though marriage may not be a precondition for childbearing. It appears that marriage is no longer an essential standard of reference, and that couples have come to weigh its advantages and disadvantages in a pragmatic manner."
Correspondence: H. Leridon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30340 MacDorman, Marian F. Contemporary marriage practices in north India: evidence from three Uttar Pradesh villages. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study employed a micro-approach methodology to examine the social and demographic implications of marriage practices and marriage change in a rural north Indian area." The author investigates trends in female age at both the ceremonial and the effective marriage, criteria for selecting a marriage partner, and marriage payments. "These and other practices were evaluated in terms of the prevailing systems of social stratification, by age, sex, and caste, found in the society. Some policy suggestions were offered."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:30341 McLanahan, Sara; Bumpass, Larry. Intergenerational consequences of family disruption. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 1, Jul 1988. 130-52 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of childhood family disruption on adult family experience by applying proportional hazard models to data from the [1982 U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). The results provide strong evidence that women who spend part of their childhoods in one-parent families are more likely to marry and bear children early, give birth before marriage, and have their own marriages break up. The major exception is that, among blacks, early marriage is unrelated to family background. Several explanations for intergenerational consequences are tested, including the economic-deprivation hypothesis, the socialization hypothesis, and the stress hypothesis. The results are most consistent with the socialization explanation, which argues that parental role models and parental supervision are the major factors in determining offspring's future family-formation behavior."
Correspondence: S. McLanahan, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30342 Michael, Robert T. Why did the U.S. divorce rate double within a decade? Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 367-99 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The paper has focused on the recent unusual, sustained rise in the U.S. divorce rate epitomized by the doubling from 9.6 per thousand marriages to 19.3 between 1963 and 1974. The explanation for that increase involves four factors....The first two are the rise in women's wages and the rise in public assistance payments....The other two factors are both repercussions of events of the 1950s. The aging of the postwar baby boom cohorts has changed the age composition and marital-duration composition of the married population, lowering the median duration of marriage and thus increasing the average rate of divorce....[And] changes in available medical contraceptive technology during the 1960s dramatically changed the costs of nearly perfect fertility control, which appears to have had an appreciable effect on period specific divorce rates."
Correspondence: R. T. Michael, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago, 1155 East 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30343 Modell, John; Steffey, Duane. Waging war and marriage: military service and family formation, 1940-1950. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1988. 195-218 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to indicate how and why World War II actually enhanced nuptiality in the United States....We will show that the war produced circumstances that not only dissipated the vestiges of Depression-based postponement of family formation, but brought into being a readiness to marry that anticipated the faster-paced schedule of marriage dominating the 1950s." Data are from U.S. censuses and Army surveys and include figures for marital status for males at induction into the army, proportion of males married after 1945 by age and service category, and proportion of males married after 1945 by service category and civilian occupation.
Correspondence: J. Modell, Department of History, Carnegie-Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30344 Morgan, S. Philip; Lye, Diane N.; Condran, Gretchen A. Sons, daughters, and the risk of marital disruption. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, No. 1, Jul 1988. 110-29 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The association between the sex of children and their parents' risk of marital disruption is examined using the June 1980 [U.S.] Current Population Survey. The finding is that sons reduce the risk of marital disruption by 9% more than do daughters. This difference holds across marriage cohorts, racial groups, and categories of mother's education. A compelling explanation for these findings, supported by data from the National Survey of Children, stresses a father's greater role in raising sons than daughters and his consequently greater involvement in the family....For fathers, the obligations and attachments [to children] are greater if they have sons."
Correspondence: S. P. Morgan, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30345 Neury, Jean-Emile. Divorce and remarriage among divorced persons in Switzerland since 1967. [Divorces et remariages de personnes divorcees en Suisse, depuis 1967.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 43-52 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Major features of trends in divorce and remarriage of divorced persons in Switzerland between 1967 and 1982 are outlined using official data. Divorce rates are examined according to marriage duration, average duration of marriage, remarriage rates following divorce, and average time between divorce and remarriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30346 Pilon, Marc. Nuptiality, fertility, and social reproduction among the Moba-Gourma (northern Togo). [Nuptialite, fecondite et reproduction sociale chez les Moba-Gourma (Nord-Togo).] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 275-83 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a qualitative study of the relations among nuptiality, fertility, and social reproduction among the Moba and Gourma tribes of northern Togo; it is based on fieldwork conducted in 1984. A general description of the Moba-Gourma society and marriage system is provided, and plans for a quantitative socio-demographic study are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30347 Roussel, Louis. The development of cohabitation without marriage and its effects on nuptiality in industrialized countries. [Le developpement de la cohabitation sans mariage et ses effets sur la nuptialite dans les pays industrialises.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 31-41 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The influence of cohabitation on marriage patterns is examined using recent official data for selected developed countries. Issues pertaining to the definition of terms in data collection are considered. Limitations of the suggested causal relationship are discussed. The author contends that cohabitation is an expression of changed attitudes toward marriage rather than a determinant of these changes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30348 Sabatello, Eitan F. Family formation, planning, and growth: the case of Israel since 1970. [Formation, planification et croissance de la famille: le cas d'Israel depuis 1970.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 95-103 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in nuptiality and fertility among Jews in Israel since 1970 are examined using official data and other published sources. The author finds evidence of a declining marriage rate, a rising divorce rate, an increasing number of children of divorced parents, a declining fertility rate, and a lessening of socio-demographic differences according to area of origin. The focus is on the impact of these trends on desired and actual family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30349 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Trends in nuptiality and divorce in Europe since the end of the 1960s. [Evolution de la nuptialite et de la divortialite en Europe depuis la fin des annees soixante.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 15-29 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Developments in first marriage and divorce in Europe since the end of the 1960s are discussed. Changes in average age at first marriage between 1965 and 1985, in divorce rates, and in marriage duration are described. The consequences of these changes for the family life cycle are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30350 Schlegel, Alice; Eloul, Rohn. Marriage transactions: labor, property, and status. American Anthropologist, Vol. 90, No. 2, Jun 1988. 291-309 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Marriage transactions--bridewealth, dowry, indirect dowry, and so on--and the absence of transactions have been shown to have a patterned distribution worldwide. This article attempts to account for these patterns by looking at marriage transactions as mechanisms by which households provide for labor needs, distribute property, and maintain or enhance status. A major factor in determining type of marriage transaction is the presence and type of property controlled by the household. Bridewealth circulates property and women, while dowry and indirect dowry concentrate them. The former is found where property is limited, in tribal societies and among the landless poorer classes in traditional states, whereas the latter is found in property-owning classes of landed or commercial pastoral peoples. This article pays particular attention to dowry and indirect dowry, using ethnographic and historical data to explain their functions."
Correspondence: A. Schlegel, Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30351 Sorensen, Annemette; Sorensen, Aage B. An event history analysis of the process of entry into first marriage. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 53-71 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors attempt "to demonstrate the use of the log-logistic waiting time model for the transition to marriage...[and] to understand the dramatic change in the marriage process which has taken place in Norway during the lifetime of the three cohorts we studied." Data are from the Norwegian Life History Study and are for the 1921, 1931, and 1941 cohorts of Norwegian men. Consideration is given to determinants of the rate of transition to marriage including age, family background, educational attainment, and premarital pregnancy.
Correspondence: A. Sorensen, Department of Sociology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30352 Stevens, Gillian; Schoen, Robert. Linguistic intermarriage in the United States. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1988. 267-79 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines linguistic and educational marriage patterns for native-born Americans in six language groups while controlling for the population's age, sex, educational, and linguistic composition. The results first show that linguistic homogamy is more pronounced for men and women of lower educational status and that education is more salient than language in marriage choices for Americans whose first language is French, German, Italian, or Polish. Further analysis shows that the common pattern of educational hypergamy in which women marry men with higher educational status than themselves is more pronounced in cross-language marriages involving English-language women than in those involving English-language men...."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 453-4).
Correspondence: G. Stevens, Department of Sociology, 326 Lincoln Hall, 702 South Wright Street, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30353 Tashakkori, Abbas; Thompson, Vaida D. Cultural change and attitude change: an assessment of postrevolutionary marriage and family attitudes in Iran. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1988. 3-27 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This report is aimed at investigating beliefs and intentions of Iranian adolescents regarding marriage and family building approximately four years after the Islamic Revolution, which brought substantial political and cultural changes. Differences associated with gender and parental education were found in beliefs and intentions regarding marriage and family building....However, it was found that even the groups from the lowest educational background showed some degree of nontraditional attitudes and intentions regarding marriage and family. Interpreting the findings in light of cultural observations and attitude change theory, it is argued that a certain degree of 'real' attitude change has occurred, and is continuing, in the nontraditional direction among educated youth." Data are from surveys conducted in 1982 on a sample of 687 adolescents in the city of Shiraz; comparisons are made with similar data from 1974.
Correspondence: A. Tashakkori, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30354 Tribalat, Michele. Problems related to the study of nuptiality among migrants. [Problemes lies a l'etude de la nuptialite des migrants.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 375-90 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Problems related to the study of nuptiality among populations that have undertaken international migration are reviewed. The author notes that it is necessary to take into account changes in marriage behavior among cohorts in both country of origin and destination. The difficulties in obtaining adequate data are described. The author concludes that such data can only be satisfactorily obtained from surveys carried out in both the sending and receiving countries.
Correspondence: M. Tribalat, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30355 Trovato, Frank. A macrosociological analysis of change in the marriage rate: Canadian women, 1921-25 to 1981-85. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 2, May 1988. 507-21 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study examines the historical changes in Canadian women's nuptiality patterns, namely, the first marriage rate and the age at first marriage, from 1921-25 to 1981-85. Five hypotheses are developed...: the modernization thesis, which predicts that increasing individualism is responsible for variation in nuptiality trends over time; the hypothesis of negative effects of national war and the Great Depression; the hypothesis of sex ratio imbalances, concerning distorted numerical marriage markets; the hypothesis regarding the relative size of the cohort of men, which calls for large cohorts to experience relatively low rates of marriage because of poor economic prospects; and the gains-from-marriage hypothesis, that since the early 1960s, the social psychological and economic advantages to entering legal marriage have diminished. Multivariate analyses of the first marriage rate and singulate age at marriage lend considerable support for the above explanations."
Correspondence: F. Trovato, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30356 Tuma, Nancy B.; Michael, Robert T. A comparison of statistical models for life course analysis with an application to first marriage. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 107-46 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Logistic regression, linear probability, and proportional rate models were used to analyze data concerning first marriage among white and Hispanic females interviewed during the 1979 U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. The authors compared "the results of these analyses across models in terms of tests of improvement in fit over suitable baseline models, visual assessments of absolute fit...,the closeness of the estimated effects of the measured covariates to one another, and the similarity of results of hypotheses tests about the significance of effects of particular covariates....We found that a model that controls for age improves significantly upon the fit of a baseline model that does not control for age for both white and Hispanic samples."
Correspondence: N. B. Tuma, Department of Sociology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30357 Uhlenberg, Peter; Chew, Kenneth S. Y. The changing place of remarriage in the life course. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 23-52 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents a framework for incorporating remarriage as an event in the life course. We argue, in particular, that life course, social, and historical location all influence propensities for remarriage and its consequences." The geographical focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: P. Uhlenberg, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

54:30358 Al Achkar, Ahmad; Sly, David F. The income, expenditures and net expenditures of children in households in rural Syria. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 30, Jun 1987. 5-23 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This paper examines the financial effects of children on the household in Syria and the extent to which they can be regarded as economic assets or liabilities. Data have been collected by the authors on the direct parental expenditure on children and on the children's contribution to the household's income in a small village in central Syria." It is found that "the excess of expenditures on children over income generated by children increases as the number of children in the household increases....The data suggest that the per child costs of having children through the 4 to 6 child level is fairly constant, but that the per child cost of having additional children beyond this level is substantially lower."
Correspondence: A. Al Achkar, University of Aleppo, Aleppo, Syria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30359 Antoine, Philippe; Guillaume, Agnes. An expression of family solidarity in Abidjan: own children and foster children. [Une expression de la solidarite familiale a Abidjan: enfants du couple et enfants confies.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 289-97 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the practice of fostering children in traditional African societies using a case study of Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The circulation of children among residences other than their place of birth and its impact on the structure of the urban population are discussed. Residence and family characteristics of households with foster children are described using data from a 1978 survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30360 Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF] (Paris, France). Families today: demography and recent developments in family behavior. Geneva colloquium (September 17-20, 1984). [Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984).] No. 2, ISBN 2-7332-7009-5. 1986. x, 600 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on world trends in family formation and development in recent years. The papers were presented at a colloquium sponsored by the Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise (AIDELF) in Geneva, September 17-20, 1984. The volume is organized under six headings: new family rhythms in industrialized countries, diversity and diversification of family types in industrialized countries, changes in the family in the third world, data collection and measurement of new family patterns in industrialized and third world countries, the origin and spread of new family types in industrialized and third world countries, and consequences of family change for individual behavior in industrialized and third world countries.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30361 Association Maghrebine pour l'Etude de la Population [AMEP] (Rabat, Morocco). The family in the Maghrib. The sixth Maghrib demographic conference. Rabat: December 19-21, 1985. [La famille au Maghreb. Sixieme colloque de demographie maghrebine. Rabat: 19-20-21 decembre 1985.] [1986]. 355 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre; Ara.
These are the proceedings of a conference on the family in the Maghrib countries of Northern Africa, held in Morocco in 1985. The 24 papers, 21 of which are in French and 3 in Arabic, cover topics such as changes in family structure, households and living conditions, the breakup of families, legislation affecting the family, and female employment. Papers are also included on fertility differentials, mortality, divorce, and the family planning program in Tunisia. Other countries considered include Algeria, Morocco, and Mauritania.
Correspondence: AMEP, B.P. 4004, Rabat, Morocco. Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, PA.

54:30362 Ayad, Mohamed. Desired family size in Arab countries. [La dimension desiree de la famille dans les pays arabes.] Famille et Population, No. 5-6, 1987. 23-36 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ara.
This is a review of data from the World Fertility Survey concerning desired family size in Arab countries. Attention is paid to the reliability of data concerning attitudes and motivation in the area of procreation. The author maintains that the available data indicate Arab women's desire for large families and preference for male children.
Correspondence: M. Ayad, Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Box 866, American City Building No. 400, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30363 Balseinte, Raymond. A geographical study of developments in the average size of French agricultural families between 1970 and 1980. [Etude geographique de l'evolution de la taille moyenne des familles agricoles francaises entre 1970 et 1980.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 105-15 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Reductions in family size among agricultural workers in France between 1970 and 1980 are analyzed at the departmental level. The roles of rural exodus and of declining fertility among farm women are discussed. Attention is given to sociocultural and socioeconomic factors associated with the aging of France's farm population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30364 Behar, Ruth; Frye, David. Property, progeny, and emotion: family history in a Leonese village. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988. 13-32 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers, from the historical, demographic, and anthropological points of view the various forms that the...peasant family [in the province of Leon, Spain] takes during its development cycle, and demonstrates the importance of extended and multiple family households in an area long characterized by partible inheritance and nuclear family households. Two methods of doing family history, at times held incompatible, are used and are shown to be complementary: a structural analysis of households, based on four household lists from 1920 to 1978, and on demographic data from 1739 to 1978; and an interpretive analysis of the lived reality of the Leonese household, based on ethnographic data and on locally held notions of proper relations between kin, as embedded in stories people tell about family histories."
Correspondence: R. Behar, Department of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30365 Birg, Herwig. Demographic methods for projecting household and family structure: synopsis of models and projection results for the Federal Republic of Germany. [Demographische Methoden zur prognose der Haushalts- und Familienstruktur: Synopse von Modellen und Prognoseergebnissen fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] Forschungsberichte des Instituts fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik (IBS), Universitat Bielefeld, Vol. 10, ISBN 3-593-33696-0. 1986. 221 pp. Campus: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of Germany. In Ger.
This publication contains seven papers on demographic methods for projecting household and family structure. The papers, written by various authors, were originally prepared for a 1983 meeting of the German Society for Demography's Working Group on Demographic Methods. The geographic focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics covered include methods used in Germany for projecting the size and structure of private households; methods for regional household projections; the use of microanalytic models, group simulation, and household member ratios; household membership over the life cycle; and research and family policy issues.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30366 Blanc, Olivier. Households in Switzerland: some aspects of their evolution from 1960 to 1980 according to census statistics. [Les menages en Suisse: quelques aspects de leur evolution de 1960 a 1980 a travers les statistiques de recensement.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 129-42 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines trends in household type and size in Switzerland between 1960 and 1980 using census data. Attention is given to definitions and classifications, primary household types, and nonfamily and family households. The author notes in particular the increase in the numbers of childless couples, one-person households, and single-parent families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30367 Blayo, Chantal. Data collection and measurement of new family patterns in industrialized and third world countries. [Collecte des donnees et mesure des nouveaux comportements familiaux dans les pays industrialises et ceux du tiers-monde.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 333-41 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author assesses the application of traditional methods of data collection and measurement to the study of new and complex forms of family structure in developed and developing countries. The methods are generally found to be suitable but limited, and suggestions for developing specific questionnaires and surveys are provided. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30368 Boungou, Gaspard; Gruenais, Marc-Eric; Guillaume, Agnes; Lacombe, Bernard. Statistical data on the family in the Congo. [Donnees statistiques sur la famille au Congo.] 1984. 46 pp. Direction Generale a la Recherche Scientifique: Brazzaville, Congo; Institut de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the final report from a project developed jointly by the Congolese General Directorate of Scientific Research and the Brazzaville office of the French Office for Scientific and Technical Research Overseas (ORSTOM) on demographic norms and recent trends in family size in the Congo. It includes an analysis and presentation of the main data in tabular format.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

54:30369 Brettell, Caroline B. Emigration and household structure in a Portuguese parish, 1850-1920. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988. 33-57 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Focusing in particular on the residence patterns of women over the life course, the study explores the impact of a predominantly male pattern of migration on the formation and structure of households in the parish of Lanheses in northwestern Portugal between 1850 and 1920. Households adjusted to the absence of men in ways that demonstrate several characteristics of matrifocality. The female-headed and patriuxorilocal households in Lanheses during the period are the result of centuries of coping, both demographically and socially, with the absence of men. Male migration has affected household structure in this area not only directly, but also indirectly through its impact on female spinsterhood and illegitimacy."
Correspondence: C. B. Brettell, Family and Community History Center, Newberry Library, 60 West Walton Street, Chicago, IL 60610. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30370 Buhr, Petra; Strack, Peter; Strohmeier, K. Peter. Living conditions and the organization of daily life among young families in North Rhine-Westphalia: regional differences and changes over time. [Lebenslage und Alltagsorganisation junger Familien in Nordrhein-Westfalen: regionale Unterschiede und Veranderungen im Zeitablauf.] IBS-Materialien, No. 26, ISBN 3-923340-19-2. 1987. 130 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The impact of the birth of a child on young families in North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany, is examined using data from a longitudinal survey carried out between 1981 and 1986 in two urban and two rural areas. The survey initially covered over 2,600 women aged 18-30 and their partners. Information is included on the economic situation of families and the employment of mothers; housing; social networks; the perceived burdens of career, children, and household; and the organization of daily life.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30371 Carlson, Elwood. Cohabiting couples in the United States: 1976, 1980, 1983. [Les couples de cohabitants aux Etats-Unis: 1976, 1980, 1983.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 183-94 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in unmarried cohabitation in the United States are examined in relation to changing family structures, using 1980 census data and Current Population Survey data for 1976 and 1983. Cohabitation rates by age, sex, and presence of children are provided separately for never-married and previously married persons. Factors contributing to the growth of the cohabiting population are assessed, and selected characteristics of this group are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30372 Castelain-Meunier, Christine; Fagnani, Jeanne. Two or three children: the new decisions that women face. [Deux ou trois enfants: les nouveaux arbitrages des femmes.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 45-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine the factors affecting women's decisions concerning family size in France. The focus is on the conflicting pressures on women of higher educational status. The data are from in-depth interviews with 40 professional women with at least two years of higher education who are living in unions and have two or three children. The desire for career success is identified as a primary factor affecting the decision to have a third child.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30373 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Morgan, S. Philip; Rindfuss, Ronald R. Living arrangements and family formation. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 4, Jun 1988. 926-50 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The relationship between family formation and household structure is examined using data for 994 couples from the 1978-1979 Thailand Asian Marriage Survey. The authors find that "the relationship between household structure and family formation is weak, but the pattern changes in a theoretically appealing manner. Strength of the relationship depends on the institutional context which defines parental roles and stakes in the marital choice and fertility behavior of their children. Quite unexpectedly, our work shows that postnuptial residence has been conceptualized far too simplistically: husband and wife often live apart after marriage and this pattern has been quite common for some time in Thailand. After demonstrating the plausibility of this finding, we discuss its theoretical implications."
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, Department of Sociology, Box 3210, Hamilton Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30374 Charbit, Yves. Households and families of migrants of Caribbean origin. [Menages et familles des originaires des Departements d'Outre-Mer.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1987. 49-67 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Households and family patterns of Caribbean migrants in France [are] compared to those of three different populations: first, to the non-migrants living in Guadeloupe, Martinique, Guyane or Reunion; second, to the other migrants in France; third, to the French population of comparable socio-economic status (mainly employees and workers)....Several indicators, mainly drawn from the census of 1982 are used: mean numbers of persons and of children per household, proportions of male-headed households, typology of households and families, [and] relationship of each member of the household to the head." Cultural background and French citizenship are shown to be more closely associated with patterns of family size and characteristics than are socioeconomic factors.
Correspondence: Y. Charbit, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30375 Coresh, Josef; Goldman, Noreen. The effect of variability in the fertility schedule on numbers of kin. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1988. 137-56, 207 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The kinship formulas developed by Goodman, Keyfitz, and Pullum (1974) are extended to encompass populations in which fertility varies among women. An expression is derived to determine the amount by which the number of sisters in a heterogeneous population exceeds that in a population with homogeneous fertility. This expression, which is a function of the variance in the gross reproduction rate of the population, can readily be applied to numbers of other kin, such as aunts and cousins. Several trial calculations indicate that calculations of average numbers of sisters based on an assumption of uniform fertility could result in a underestimate of about 13 percent."
For the article by Leo A. Goodman et al., published in 1974, see 40:3393.
Correspondence: J. Coresh, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21204. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30376 Czaplewski, Mary J.; Ralebipi, Matabole D. R. Inventory of marriage and family literature, 1986. Vol. 13, ISBN 0-91617-423-9. LC 67-63014. 1988. xviii, 1, 379 pp. National Council on Family Relations: Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
This volume contains citations for 8,688 articles on marriage and the family published in English in 1986. The unannotated bibliography is presented in three sections: a subject index, an author index, and a keyword in title (KWIT) index. A list of periodicals covered is included. The geographical focus is worldwide.
For Volume 12, published in 1987, see 53:10494.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30377 de Singly, Francois. Cohabitation: a compromise between generations and between sexes. [La cohabitation: un compromis entre generations et entre sexes.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 195-204 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Premarital cohabitation in France is discussed using recent published sources. The author suggests that cohabitation is acceptable to the parents' generation because it allows establishment in a profession to precede marriage. It is also argued that cohabitation is a flexible form of communal life that permits negotiation concerning subsequent marital sex roles.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30378 Douglass, William A. The Basque stem family household: myth or reality? Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988. 75-89 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Observers of rural Basque society have regularly contended that its basic social unit is the stem family household associated with the baserria system of agricultural production. The stem family household has long been an object of speculation, and its sanctity and preservation was a common theme in Basque literature. A close analysis of the population records of the village of Echalar in Navarre [Spain], making use of both synchronic and longitudinal analysis, suggests that the stem family household was indeed realized regularly in Echalar, and the fact of its statistical minority at any one point in time was due more to demographic limitations rather than to the presence of a competing family ethos."
Correspondence: W. A. Douglass, Basque Studies Program, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30379 Duchene, Josianne. Single-parent and reconstituted families. What data is required to measure their occurrence? [Les familles monoparentales et reconstituees. Quelles donnees pour une mesure de leur incidence?] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 141, ISBN 2-87085-154-5. May 1988. 22 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
This study is concerned with the difficulties inherent in the comparative analysis of trends in single-parent and reconstituted families due to the differences in the types and definitions of data available in different countries. The problems are illustrated using data from the Federal Republic of Germany, Denmark, Belgium, Italy, France, and the Netherlands. The author proposes the establishment of an individual record for each adult that would provide the necessary data for comparative studies of this kind.
Correspondence: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30380 Faessen, W. B. M.; Prins, C. J. M. Nuclear families and nonfamily persons in the Netherlands, January 1st, 1987. [Gezinnen en niet in gezinsverband levende personen in Nederland, 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 3, Mar 1988. 12-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Estimates of nuclear families and single persons in the Netherlands as at January 1, 1987, are presented. The data are from a partial enumeration from municipal population registers and estimates for municipalities without computerized population registers. Definitions of nuclear family and single person types are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30381 Festy, Patrick. Cohabitation and cohabitants: surveys and indexes. [Cohabitation et cohabitants: enquetes et indices.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 343-55 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Issues concerning the measurement of trends in cohabitation are discussed using data from the 1970s and 1980s for Norway and Sweden. The frequency and outcome of cohabitation, its effects on marriage, and characteristics of the cohabiting population are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30382 Fresel-Losey, Michel. Family models and new generations: in favor of an approach using representations of the family. [Modeles familiaux et generations nouvelles: pour une approche par les representations de la famille.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 163-72 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The growing diversity in family types in developed countries is discussed. Attitudes and behavior of those aged 18-24 with regard to family characteristics are examined, and an attempt is made to define representative family types.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30383 Hetler, Carol B. Female-headed households in a circular migration village in Central Java, Indonesia. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis describes a village study undertaken in a district experiencing rapid socio-economic change to examine the questions of how many households are female-headed, how they came to be headed by women, and how they fare in the village relative to households headed by men and among each other. The study was conducted in a circular migration village in Central Java and is based on an initial household census of 908 households followed up by a series of surveys among a selected group of 328 households....Although many of the households with female heads were not worse off than male-headed households, scattered among the households headed by women were pockets of poverty in a relatively affluent village. Marital dissolution and circular migration were the two primary demographic factors for the emergence of female-headed households."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Australian National University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:30384 Hockauf-Schneider, Reinhilde. Children as the cause of poverty among wage earners? Causes and development of the need for social assistance for families with children. [Kinder als Armutsursache von Lohnempfangern? Zu den Ursachen und Entwicklung der Sozialhilfebedurftigkeit von Familien mit Kindern.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1988. 23-48 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The negative economic impact of children on the cost of living for families in the Federal Republic of Germany is analyzed. Data are from microcensus and social welfare statistics and concern household type by region and for selected years. It is noted that an increase in the number of children does increase the poverty risks of such families; consequently, the need for public assistance also increases.
Correspondence: R. Hockauf-Schneider, Baumschulenweg 49, 8630 Coburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30385 Hogan, Dennis P. Maternal influences on adolescent family formation. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 147-65 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the process of transition from adolescent to adult in the United States. "The general question addressed by this longitudinal analysis is whether, net of position in the social structure, the socialization activities of parents affect the temporal organization of events in the lives of their children, either directly or through the preferred timetables of their children....This analysis examines the impact of maternal influences on the family formation behavior of adolescent women. Controlling for demographic characteristics and basic aspects of socioeconomic and family background, maternal socialization influences through educational aspirations, sex role attitudes, and timetables of the timing and sequencing of these transitions are measured. The extent to which these maternal influences are direct or are mediated by the adolescents' own life plans is assessed." Data are from the High School and Beyond Survey for 1980 and 1982.
Correspondence: D. P. Hogan, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30386 Itoh, Tatsuya. Probabilities of home-leaving and reunion by age, sex, and marital status in Japan, as derived from census and vital statistics data. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 185, Jan 1988. 17-35 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops a method for deriving probabilities of leaving home and of returning, using census data and vital statistics. Probabilities of home-leaving and reunion by age, sex, and marital status are calculated under both one- and two-way transition assumptions. The formulas are applied to 1980 census data and vital statistics for Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30387 Karweit, Nancy; Kertzer, David I. Data base management for life course family research. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 167-88 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper has described the general approach and capabilities of CASA, a data storage, update, and retrieval system for life course data in household and kinship context. Our primary intention...has been to describe the nature of the data base management problems encountered in developing a life course perspective to family study and to describe the approach we have taken to deal with these problems." Data are from a variety of sources and are for the community of Casalecchio di Reno in northern Italy during the period 1865-1921.
Correspondence: N. Karweit, Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30388 Kellerhals, Jean; Troutot, Pierre-Yves. An interactive construction of family types: an experiment in combining quantitative and qualitative methods. [Une construction interactive de types familiaux: essai de combinaison des methodes quantitative et qualitative.] In: Au-dela du quantitatif: espoirs et limites de l'analyse qualitative en demographie. Chaire Quetelet '85. 1988. 367-413 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
An attempt is made to combine both qualitative and quantitative approaches to the study of functional types of families. A test for family type is presented posing the question, Who are we? and illustrated using data for 107 Swiss families living in Geneva.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30389 Kellerhals, Jean. Diversity and diversification of family types in the industrialized countries: some typological problems. [Diversite et diversification des types de familles dans les pays industrialises: quelques problemes de typologie.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 119-28 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an overview of issues associated with the demographic analysis of changes in family characteristics in developed countries. The author considers problems with typologies and classifications, whether new family types are simply transitional forms, and the relevance of a linear evolution perspective on family systems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30390 Kertzer, David I. A life course approach to coresidence. Current Perspectives on Aging and the Life Cycle, Vol. 2, 1986. 1-22 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author attempts "to offer an alternative way of conceptualizing the household, one which places the processes underlying households in a temporal framework. This can be done by examining the coresidential experience of individuals through their life course, and relating these individual-level processes to such higher level factors as economic forces and cultural norms." The primary focus is on the historical study of households.
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30391 Kertzer, David I.; Brettell, Caroline. Advances in Italian and Iberian family history. Journal of Family History, Vol. 12, No. 1-3, 1987. 87-120 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"In the past decade a tremendous increase in family history research in Italy, Spain and Portugal provides new insight into family processes and has many implications for generalizations regarding the course of European family history. In this article many of these new findings are detailed and their historical and theoretical implications assessed. Previous generalizations regarding Mediterranean family history are examined in light of this new evidence. Among the topics discussed are the sources and methods employed in recent research, the household formation systems operating in Italy and Iberia, the role played by inheritance norms and by dowry, changing childrearing practices--especially as regards child abandonment, marriage patterns, the family lives of the elderly, and the impact of migration on family life. The benefits of considering certain cultural topics in understanding the course of southern European family history are also considered."
Correspondence: D. I. Kertzer, Department of Anthropology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30392 Koesoebjono, Santo. The development of socio-demographic accounting and the need for new data. [Le developpement des comptes socio-demographiques et le besoin de donnees nouvelles.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 365-70 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The development of socio-demographic accounting in the Netherlands in order to provide a coherent and systematic perspective of both family and individual life cycles is described. The matrix forming the basis for the analysis is explained, and needed data sources are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30393 Krug, Barbara; Frey, Bruno S. Economics of the family: patriarchy in China. [Okonomik der Familie: Patriarchalismus in China.] Zeitschrift fur Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Vol. 107, No. 1, 1987. 67-84 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The inward and outward directed behaviour of a patriarchal family is analyzed by assuming self-interested behaviour of the patriarch, subject to the constraints imposed by the members of the family and by the budget. Hypotheses are derived concerning (1) the allocation of labour within the family, (2) family size, (3) the length of time in office and (4) the consumption standard after retirement of the patriarch, and (5) the redistribution (taxation) among the family members. They are confronted with 'sociological' antitheses based on role and tradition. The evidence from the literature on China tends to support the economic hypotheses."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30394 Labat, Jean-Claude; de Saboulin, Michel. Vital statistics and censuses in France and their contribution to the analysis of family patterns. [Les statistiques de l'etat-civil et des recensements en France et leur contribution a l'analyse des comportements familiaux.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 379-85 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Census and vital statistics data in France concerning new family types are described and evaluated. Separate consideration is given to the family survey as an alternative method of data collection.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30395 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The family at the end of the 1960s: the example of the American family. [La famille a la fin des annees soixante: l'exemple de la famille americaine.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 5-13 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in demographic trends affecting families in the United States in the 1960s are discussed. Attention is given to marriage, childbearing, and marital dissolution. Data are from official and other published sources for 1940, 1950, 1960, and 1970.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30396 Laslett, Peter. Kinship in figures. [La parente en chiffres.] Annales: Economies, Societes, Civilisations, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 5-24, 285 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This piece begins by considering the importance of numbers of kin to the study of social structure in the past, the present and the future. It insists that there is no known method of recovering all the kin links of an individual or a community. This is true for the present, but it is much more so for the past. This makes it impossible to compare the size of kinship networks of individuals or of communities between periods or between places. The rest of the article discusses a method for simulating the numbers, sexes and ages of the relatives of individuals from information about births, marriages and deaths characteristic of the time at which these individuals lived. The technique used, microsimulation, using probablistic methods, is summarized and a small selection of the very large number of available results is presented....Kin numbers are being relentlessly reduced over time: in the extreme case of contemporary one-child China, if the policy of drastic fertility reduction continues, all kinship links except the vertical will gradually disappear. An appendix specifies the microsimulation system, CAMSIM, which has been used and four tables of numerical results are presented."
Correspondence: P. Laslett, Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30397 Lefaucheur, Nadine. Single-parent families: numbers and words for the discussion, new forms or new words. [Les familles monoparentales: des chiffres et des mots pour le dire, formes nouvelles ou mots nouveaux.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 173-81 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author traces the development of classifications, definitions, and measures pertaining to single-parent families, and questions factors underlying the increased attention given this group. The examples used are for France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30398 Linard de Guertechin, Thierry. Demographic and socioeconomic changes in family structure in Brazil. [Transformations demographiques et socio-economiques de la structure familiale au Bresil.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 263-74 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in the size, structure, and socioeconomic functions of the family in Brazil during the fertility decline of the 1970s are examined. Data are from official and other published sources and include some figures back to 1940. Marriage rates, age-specific and marital fertility, employment rates among family members and by marital status, standard of living and family income, and the distribution of family types are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30399 Makhlouf, Hesham H.; Amer, Ghazal A.; Farahat, Ahmed M. The cost of children in Egypt. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 31, Dec 1987. 25-43 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to determine the cost of children for parents in Egypt. Of particular interest to the researchers were the differentials in the costs of children from various social groups and the possible effects of these differentials on family size or fertility....A survey was carried out by the authors on a population sample which was categorized by socio-economic status and location of the families concerned and by the occupation of the parents....On the basis of their observations, the authors outline policies that could be adopted by the Egyptian Government to reduce family size in Egypt across the social spectrum."
Correspondence: H. H. Makhlouf, Institute of Statistical Studies and Research, Cairo University, Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30400 Manniche, Erik. The family in Denmark. ISBN 87-88735-00-1. LC 87-673891. 1985. 63 pp. IPC Print and Press: Helsingor, Denmark. In Eng.
This analysis of Danish family life is intended as an introduction to the subject for non-Scandinavian overseas students. Using data from selected years, the study "begins with a general description that also touches upon the history of family and social life in Denmark; and it gives a very brief statement of basic elements in Danish family law. This description is followed by quantitatively oriented presentations of some areas of family life that in recent years have undergone considerable change, viz. nuptiality and unmarried cohabitation, reproduction, divorce, contraception (family planning) and induced abortion. Throughout, the emphasis is on social change and its consequences and on elements that mark off Denmark from large parts of Europe as well as from the rest of the world."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30401 Martinez Carrion, Jose M. Peasant household formation and the organization of rural labor in the valley of Segura during the nineteenth century. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988. 91-109 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Meant as a contribution to the recently initiated debate over household and family composition in the Mediterranean area, the study presents the first results of an investigation of class differences in family behavior in several rural communities in the Segura Basin of southeastern Iberia [Spain] during a period of agrarian change. A variety of measures and classifications suggest the predominance of the nuclear family, but also that the household formation process and the family life cycle are conditioned by the land tenure system, inheritance practices, and transmission of the patrimony. Also, patterns of mobility and demographic mechanisms exert a powerful influence over family forms and household structures."
Correspondence: J. M. Martinez Carrion, Department of Economic History, Universidad de Murcia, Santo Cristo 1, Murcia, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30402 Mezei, Smaranda. Family life cycle: sociological and demographic issues. [Ciclul de viata familiala: probleme sociologice si demografice.] Viitorul Social, Vol. 80, Mar-Apr 1987. 138-42 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
The concept of the family life cycle is described and applied to Romanian data obtained during a research project carried out by the Institute of Hygiene and Public Health in Bucharest.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30403 Moini, Reza. Some demographic aspects of the household and family in Iran. [Quelques aspects demographiques du menage et de la famille en Iran.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 309-19 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a general overview of household and family characteristics in Iran based on official and other published sources for the 1970s and early 1980s. Household and family structure, nuptiality, and contraceptive use are discussed with attention to social, economic, legal, and religious aspects. There is some discussion of the changes in marriage law resulting from the Islamic Revolution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30404 Morgan, V.; Macafee, W. Household and family size and structure in County Antrim in the mid-nineteenth century. Continuity and Change, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1987. 455-76 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A computer-based analysis of the Enumerators' Returns from the 1851 Census of Ireland, for parts of County Antrim [now in Northern Ireland], suggests that household and family sizes were slightly larger than in England at the same period, but that there were considerable local variations. A close relationship between household size and socio-economic status seems to be confirmed by investigation of very large and very small households. Resident kin outside the two-generation family unit were found in between a quarter and a third of all households and there were living-in servants in up to a third of households."
Correspondence: V. Morgan, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Co. Londonderry BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

54:30405 Morioka, Kiyomi. A Japanese perspective on the life course: emerging and diminishing patterns. Journal of Family History, Vol. 12, No. 1-3, 1987. 243-60 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The period after World War II has witnessed in Japan the emergence of new family characteristics, including a life-course pattern that includes substantial periods of extrafamilial existence. Affecting at this time only a minority of contemporary Japanese, the new pattern is particularly noticeable among young adults and among the old, especially among old women; and appears to be related to the widespread acceptance of the conjugal family system among the younger generations and the development of welfare policies aimed toward the old. Available sources permit an examination of the new pattern through contrasts with the pre-World War II period...and through the study of familial settings of relevant cohorts in the past two decades."
Correspondence: K. Morioka, Faculty of Literature and Arts, Seijo University, 6-1-20 Seijo, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30406 Muhsam, Helmut V. Family changes in India: a methodological study. [Changements de la famille en Inde: etude methodologique.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 371-8 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author uses a transition matrix to analyze changes in family characteristics in India between 1958-1959 and 1977-1978. The focus is on the distinction between the methods of family demography and those of classical demography and sociology.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30407 Osman, Magued I.; Yamashita, Toyoko S. A model for evaluating the effect of son or daughter preference on population size. Journal of Heredity, Vol. 78, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 377-82 pp. Buckeystown, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper develops a micro probabilistic model to describe the family extension process. The parameters are: the probability that a newborn is a boy (P), the number of desired boys (B), the number of desired girls (G), and the maximum possible number of children (N). This maximum is a stopping rule rather than a biological maximum. The variables are the ultimate number of boys and girls. According to this model, each couple determines B, G, and N, at the beginning of the reproductive period and continues to reproduce until at least B and at least G are achieved, or until the total number of children reaches N. The probability distribution of the ultimate number of boys and girls in the population is derived for this model. Simulation techniques are used to generate offspring. The results showed that the population size increases with the absolute differences...for fixed N. They also suggested that son or daughter preference may be an important factor in fertility determinants, which may have important implications in population policies."
Correspondence: M. I. Osman, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30408 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. The family life cycle as a framework for the analysis of family statistics. [La cycle de la vie familiale comme cadre d'analyse de la statistique des familles.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 357-64 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
A distribution of families in Canada according to stages in the family life cycle is presented. A family classification derived from the life cycle is developed and applied to Canadian official statistics for 1971.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30409 Polit, Denise F.; Falbo, Toni. The intellectual achievement of only children. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 275-85 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A quantitative review of the literature on the intellectual achievement of only children indicated that only children were never at a disadvantage in relation to any comparison group; nor were they significantly different from first-born children or children from two-child families. Moreover, only children were at a significant advantage in comparison with later-born children and those from large families. The consistency of these findings across subgroups suggests that interpersonal mechanisms are largely responsible. The strong only-child advantage on tests of verbal ability, together with the overall pattern of findings, implicates parent-child interactions as responsible for the family size and birth order variations in intellectual achievement."
Correspondence: D. F. Polit, Humanalysis Inc., 74 Henry Street, Suite 139, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30410 Prins, C. J. M. Nuclear families by family life cycle category, January 1, 1987. [Gezinnen naar ontwikkelingsfase, 1 januari 1987.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 7, Jul 1988. 12-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Recent changes in family characteristics in the Netherlands are analyzed. The data are primarily from a partial enumeration held in 393 municipalities with computerized population registers. The focus is on differences between two-parent and single-parent families regarding ages of children in the family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30411 Quesnel, Andre; Vimard, Patrice. Production groups and demographic reproduction in a plantation economy: the Dayes plateau (southwest Togo). [Groupes de production et de reproduction demographique en economie de plantation: le plateau de Dayes (Sud-Ouest Togo).] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 513-21 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between changes in production and reproductive behavior since the establishment of a plantation economy in southwest Togo in 1945 is discussed. The focus is on the emergence of the nuclear family as an autonomous unit, central to the organization of agricultural production and to demographic reproduction. Separate attention is also given to changes in marriage patterns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30412 Rallu, Jean-Louis. The effects of new family rhythms on the distribution of families by type and size. [Les effets des nouveaux rythmes familiaux sur la repartition des familles selon le type et la taille.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 67-79 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The impact on family size and type of developments in fertility, marriage, and divorce in developed countries in the 1960s and 1970s is examined. The study is divided into two parts, with separate consideration given to families with married women and those headed by unmarried women. The family life cycle effects of an older age at first birth, fewer children, and more frequent marital dissolution are described. The author points to the persistence of a family model involving a couple, either married or cohabiting, and to the primary change, which is a decrease in family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30413 Reher, David S. Household and family on the Castilian meseta: the province of Cuenca from 1750 to 1970. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1988. 59-74 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"The present article presents some of the more salient results of a research project on family and society in the province of Cuenca in Spain between the eighteenth century and 1970. Based fundamentally, though not exclusively, on the Laslett-Hammel classification system, the data gathered reveal the overwhelming predominance of simple family forms throughout the province and in different social groups, as well as the lack of any fundamental evolution during the more than 200 years studied. The determinants of the system, its implications, as well as the reasons for its long-term stability, are all examined in the light of demographic, economic, geographical and cultural factors."
Correspondence: D. S. Reher, School of Sociology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30414 Riandey, Benoit. Sampling and measurement problems of new family patterns in France. [Problemes de sondage et mesure des nouveaux comportements familiaux en France.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 391-400 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an overview of three problems of particular concern in sample studies of new family types: the choice of a sampling base, the choice of an observation period, and the widespread geographic distribution of the sample. Illustrations from surveys conducted in France are used.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30415 Ritamies, Marketta; Riihinen, Olavi; Penttinen, Heli; Pulkkinen, Aimo. The ideal number of children: a wish or an aim. [Lapsilukuihanne: toive vai tavoite.] Vaestontutkimuslaitoksen Julkaisusarja D, No. 13, ISBN 951-9048-61-8. LC 85-174615. 1984. x, 248 pp. Vaestontutkimuslaitos: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin.
The relationship between ideal family size and family welfare in Finland is explored using data on 5,449 women from the 1977 Finnish Fertility Survey. Consideration is given to changes in ideal family size over the course of the life cycle. The results distinguish between those who attained their desired family size and those who did not. Relative failure to plan family size was associated with wife's low educational status, low socioeconomic status of husband's occupation, poor residential conditions, and sparsely settled region of residence. These same factors are associated with those whose completed family size significantly exceeded their ideal family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30416 Roussel, Louis. The pluralism of family models in postindustrial societies: some methodological and theoretical problems. [Du pluralisme des modeles familiaux dans les societes post-industrielles: quelques problemes methodologiques et theoriques.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 143-51 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses the growing number of family models relevant to developed countries. Attention is given to both structural and sociological typologies of families and households and to the problems entailed by using more than one model in a single society.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30417 Sandhop, Astrid. The family in transition: selected works on changes in the German family in the twentieth century. [Familiale Ubergange im Wandel: Ausgewahlte Arbeiten zum Wandel der deutschen Familie im 20. Jahrhundert.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 11, 1987. 163 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a study of changes in the German family during the twentieth century. The first part is a literature review covering the period from the early 1900s to the present. The focus is on literature pertaining to historical types of families, such as the postwar family, rather than to purely demographic studies. Literature on family theory is also reviewed. The second part concerns economic changes in family structure, changes in male and female roles, female labor force participation, and psychological and emotional changes in the family, with consideration also given to literature on divorce.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postfach 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30418 Schulz, Reiner. Only children--effects of increasing absence of siblings. [Einzelkinder--Auswirkungen zunehmender Geschwisterlosigkeit.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1988. 3-22 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The trend toward one-child families in the Federal Republic of Germany is examined using data from official and other published sources. Consideration is given to family relationships and structure, mother's economic activity, and parental sex roles, as well as to the impact of these factors on the child's socioeconomic achievement and family formation patterns. The author concludes that the increasing number of one-child families, combined with other demographic trends, will have an effect on the health care system, particularly regarding the care of the elderly.
Correspondence: R. Schulz, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30419 Shimizu, Hiroaki. Changes in population and household structure in a village, 1955-1985. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 185, Jan 1988. 1-16 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines changes since 1955 in family and household composition in a rural area in Yamagata prefecture, Japan. Changes related to births, deaths, and residential relocations are studied. Little evidence is found of a permanent shift to nuclear family households. Instead, extended families are predominant, with life cycle changes involving parents' deaths or childrens' marriages periodically altering family structure for a limited time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30420 Spiegel, Erika. New household types: causes of their formation, life situation, housing and neighborhood conditions. [Neue Haushaltstypen: Entstehungsbedingungen, Lebenssituation, Wohn- und Standortverhaltnisse.] Campus Forschung, Vol. 503, ISBN 3-593-33667-7. 1986. 315 pp. Campus: New York, New York/Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Results are presented from a 1983 study of new household types in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. The study involved interviews with approximately 20 persons, aged 20-45, from each of four groups: unmarried couples who were living together, young single people who were living alone, group households, and a control group of married couples. Questions examined include the reasons and attitudes that led to the choice of a particular household type; the legal, economic, and social situation of those interviewed; household relationships; attitudes toward other household types; and housing conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30421 Taamallah, Khemaies. The Tunisian family: problems related to socioeconomic inequalities. [La famille tunisienne: les problemes lies aux inegalites socio-economiques.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 299-308 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The family unit in Tunisia is examined from the perspective of traditional Islamic characteristics and in light of recent social, political, and economic changes. Official data for 1975 and 1980 are used to describe changes in standards of living, education, and family size. The persistence of higher fertility rates in economically disadvantaged regions is noted, and projections of fertility, mortality, and natural increase to the year 2001 are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30422 Tabutin, Dominique; Bartiaux, Francoise. Family and social structures in the third world. [Structures familiales et structures sociales dans le tiers-monde.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 231-43 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author outlines major family types in each of six regions of the world using data from published sources. The focus is on relationships among family type, socioeconomic structure, and modernization in developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30423 Todaro, Michael P.; Fapohunda, Eleanor. Family structure, implicit contracts, and the demand for children: a consideration of southern Nigerian data. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 136, Dec 1987. 54 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using primary data from a Southern Nigerian case study, this paper examines, both theoretically and empirically, how three implicit Nigerian family contracts affect spousal reproductive goals and actual fertility behavior. Although some of the dubious assumptions of the 'new home economics' fertility model have led to erroneous conclusions in Africa, paradoxically this paper suggests that the West African family with its implicit contracts must evolve in subtle ways toward some of the characteristics of the theoretical nuclear family before a fertility transition can become firmly established. Finally, we consider the efficacy of alternative population policy interventions derived from an elaborated transactions framework that explicitly recognizes the importance of family structural characteristics for reproductive behavior."
Correspondence: Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30424 Todd, Emmanuel. The analysis of family structures: anthropological and demographic approaches. [L'analyse des structures familiales: approches anthropologiques et demographiques.] In: Au-dela du quantitatif: espoirs et limites de l'analyse qualitative en demographie. Chaire Quetelet '85. 1988. 467-82 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author attempts to demonstrate the compatability between anthropological and demographic approaches to the study of the family using examples for Europe as a whole, the Iberian peninsula, and India. The emphasis is on how quantitative and qualitative approaches can successfully be combined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30425 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household and family characteristics: March 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 424, May 1988. iv, 145 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This annual report contains detailed demographic data on [U.S.] household and family characteristics for March 1987. The estimates are based on information gathered in the Annual Demographic Supplement to the Current Population Survey." The data are presented by residence, race, Hispanic origin, age, and marital status, and concern both family and household type and size. Consideration is also given to educational status, employment status, and occupations of householders.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30426 Universite de Paris I. Institut de Demographie de Paris [IDP] (Paris, France). Children and families. The debates of the IDP. [Enfant et familles. Les debats de l'IDP.] Travaux et Recherches de l'IDP, No. 1, May [1988?]. 68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of papers originally presented in May 1988 at a conference on children and families, organized by the Institute of Demography at the University of Paris. Papers are included on demographic indicators of the family in France in censuses and family surveys; the child and family from historical, sociological, and demographic perspectives; and public opinion on the current state of the family in France. Results from a recent survey on attitudes toward marriage and family formation are also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30427 Wall, Richard. Leaving home and the process of household formation in pre-industrial England. Continuity and Change, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1987. 77-101 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The focus of the present paper is on the process by which children left the parental home and on whether there was any tendency for daughters to leave earlier and in greater numbers than sons. Detailed results are presented on the characteristics of the life-cycle in two agricultural and two proto-industrial communities enumerated at various dates between 1599 and 1801. A broader survey indicates that it was rather rare in the English experience for sons to remain in the parental home in preference to daughters. From the later years of the eighteenth century relatively more sons were staying on than had been the case earlier."
Correspondence: R. Wall, Cambridge Group for the History of Population, 27 Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1QA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

54:30428 Wang, Chin-Lih. Effects of demographic factors on household consumption patterns in Taiwan. Studies of Modern Economy Series, No. 10, Dec 1987. viii, 125 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Household consumption patterns in Taiwan during the period 1964-1981 are analyzed, with an emphasis on the impact of demographic variables on household consumption choices. An economic model is used to show that "demographic factors play a key role in the household decision making of consumption and saving and that household demographic variables have great effects on the magnitudes and structures of commodities consumed. The estimated values of demographic scaling parameters indicate that there exists [an] economy of scale of family size in consumer expenditure....The scale effects of commodities in 1981 in general were lower than these in 1964." Comparisons are made with trends in the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Korea.
Correspondence: Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30429 Wolf, Douglas A.; Soldo, Beth J. Household composition choices of older unmarried women. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 3, Aug 1988. 387-403 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article extends previous research on the household composition of older unmarried women [in the United States], using a statistical model that treats each of a woman's surviving children as a distinct potential provider of a shared household. Additional possibilities--living alone, living with other nuclear-family relatives, and living with others--are also recognized, providing a varied range of household-structure opportunities for older women. The approach allows us to identify individual child attributes associated with the propensity to coreside with the older unmarried mother. The results confirm earlier findings regarding the importance of income, age, and disability status as determinants of the household composition of older women....Overall, the findings suggest that the attributes, more so than the sheer numbers, of living children influence the household structure of their mothers." Data are from the 1975 National Survey of the Aged.
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 443).
Correspondence: D. A. Wolf, Population Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxemburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30430 Zajac, Kazimierz. Contribution to studies on the model of the family. [Przyczynek do badan nad modelem rodziny.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/89, 1987. 29-39 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
General demographic factors determining family size in Poland are examined for the period 1877-1980, using information from historical research and public registers. Tabular data are provided for number of births per marriage, age of mother and number of births, age of father and number of births, and birth order and duration of marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30431 Zeng, Yi. Changing demographic characteristics and the family status of Chinese women. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 183-203 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The model developed in this paper extends Bongaart's nuclear family model into a general one that accounts for both nuclear and three-generation families, and which is expected to be more widely applicable. In the paper a simulation and comparison of two cohorts of women who are assumed to live out their lives under demographic conditions of China in 1950-70 and 1981 is presented. The status distribution and expected years spent in different parities, marital statuses, being the child of surviving parent(s), being a parent of living children, and having responsibility for both elderly parent(s) and young children etc. are given. The consequences of the dramatic demographic changes are clearly demonstrated."
Correspondence: Y. Zeng, Population Research Institute, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30432 Zimmermann, Klaus F. Demographic problems of household economics. [Demographische Probleme der Haushaltsokonomie.] Contributions to Quantitative Economics/Beitrage zur Quantitativen Okonomie, Vol. 9, No. 1, ISBN 3-88339-534-X. LC 87-137970. 1986. vii, 212 pp. N. Brockmeyer: Bochum, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This collection of eight papers by various authors focuses on demographic aspects of household economics in the Federal Republic of Germany. Topics covered include the process whereby children leave the parental household; market versus household production; increasing economic growth through labor force productivity or through promoting consumption by families with children; efficient allocation of the family budget for population policies; female employment and the timing of births over the family life cycle; migration and regional differences in fertility; and the situation of the elderly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.