Volume 54 - Number 3 - Fall 1988

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:30188 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. The effects of the registration system on the seasonality of births: the case of the Soviet Union. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 303-20 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study we examine the reported number of births by month in the Soviet Union for 1950, 1955, and 1958-85. The lowest number of births has typically occurred in December, and the highest in January. This seasonal pattern is not consistent with any plausible biological or behavioural explanation. It is probably an artifact of attributing births that actually occurred during the preceding December or earlier, to January. This implies that Soviet statistical practice has not followed the stated policy of attributing births to the period (day, month, year) in which they occur. A substantial reduction between the 1950s and 1985 in the December-January peak in reported births implies marked improvement in Soviet vital registration statistics. The Soviet case shows that characteristics of the registration system can impart a particular seasonal pattern to demographic data. It also shows that officially prescribed procedures are not always followed in data generation, even in centrally planned economies."
Correspondence: B. A. Anderson, Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30189 Angola. Instituto Nacional de Estatistica. Unidade de Analises Demograficas (Luanda, Angola). Estimates of fertility for the province of Luanda: calculated from data from the 1983 census. [Estimativa da fecundidade da provincia de Luanda: efectuada atraves dos dados do censo, 1983.] Documento de Trabalho, No. 2, Jan 14, 1987. 35 pp. Luanda, Angola. In Por.
Estimates of fertility for the province of Luanda, Angola, are presented by marital status and age using data from the 1983 census. Data from the 1960 and 1970 censuses are also used to analyze trends in fertility. The methodology employed in preparing these estimates is described.
Correspondence: Instituto Nacional de Estatistica, Unidade de Analise Demografica, CP 1215, Luanda, Angola. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30190 Aoun, Samar; Airey, Pauline. Illustrative application of the use of projected parity progression ratios for the analysis of fertility. CPS Research Paper, No. 88-2, ISBN 0-902657-21-6. May 1988. i, 26 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
The authors illustrate the method developed by William Brass in 1985 to estimate parity progression ratios "through different examples, taking into consideration its data requirements and inherent assumptions, pitfalls in the interpretation of results and the possible corrections for errors in the data." Illustrations for India, Kenya, Kuwait, and Zaire are provided. It is concluded that "projected PPRs are useful exploratory tools for examining patterns of fertility and for identifying early fertility changes....However, when there are problems of reporting completeness and time reference periods, projected PPRs cannot be depended upon to provide conclusive measures of changes in fertility without additional support from alternative sources of information."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30191 Ashley, Mary J. Season of birth: stability of the pattern in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 79, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 101-3 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The seasonality of Canadian births for the 25-year period 1960-84 was examined. The months from March to July were characterized by above average births. A September peak was also present. November, December and January were characterized by below average births. This basic pattern, which is clearly different from the national pattern observed during the same period in the United States, appears to have remained generally stable."
Correspondence: M. J. Ashley, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30192 Axelrod, Paul. Natality and family planning in three Bombay communities. Human Organization, Vol. 47, No. 1, Spring 1988. 36-47 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
Some basic assumptions concerning the demographic transition theory are questioned in this article. The author takes an anthropological approach to the analysis of fertility change among three Indian communities: the Parsis, Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmins, and the Jains of Bombay. He notes that although modernization has resulted in lower fertility, each community has adapted its demographic behavior in different ways in accordance with its cultural and religious distinctions. He concludes that "cultural and religious differences, along with context-specific adaptive strategies, make global predictions about the uniform effect of such variables as income, education, and other factors often associated with economic development and modernization on natality and adoption of contraception all but impossible."
Correspondence: P. Axelrod, Department of Anthropology, Ripon College, P.O. Box 248, Ripon, WI 54971. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30193 Bartiaux, Francoise; Tabutin, Dominique. Family structures and fertility in developing countries: measurement problems and points of explanation. [Structures familiales et fecondite dans les pays en voie de developpement: problemes de mesure et elements d'explication.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 245-62 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Studies concerning the impact on fertility of a change in family structure from an extended to a nuclear family are reviewed. Methodological questions concerning the family life cycle concept are discussed, and fertility in nuclear and extended families is compared. Attention is given to the interaction of family type with intermediate variables affecting fertility, including marriage age, husband-wife age differences, contraception, sterility and postpartum abstinence, marriage dissolution and remarriage, and breast-feeding. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30194 Bercovich, Alicia M. Fertility of black women: conjectures and questions. [Fecundidade da mulher negra: constatacoes e questoes.] Textos NEPO, No. 11, Aug 1987. 46-101 pp. Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Nucleo de Estudos de Populacao [NEPO]: Campinas, Brazil. In Por.
Fertility change in Brazil is analyzed using data from censuses from 1940 to 1980 and the PNAD surveys of 1976 and 1984. Topics covered include regional fertility differentials, differences by ethnic group and color, and the impact of educational status on marital fertility. Consideration is given to methodological problems.
Correspondence: NEPO, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Caixa Postal 1170, Campinas, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30195 Birdsall, Nancy M.; Griffin, Charles C. Fertility and poverty in developing countries. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1988. 29-55 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"High fertility strains budgets of poor families, reducing available resources to feed, educate, and provide health care to children. Conversely, many characteristics of poverty contribute to high fertility--high infant mortality, lack of education for women, too little family income to 'invest' in children, inequitable shares in national income, and inaccessibility of family planning. Experience in China, Indonesia, Taiwan, Colombia, Korea, Sri Lanka, Cuba, and Costa Rica shows, however, that fertility can fall rapidly in low-income groups and countries when health care, education, and family planning services are made widely available. It appears that adequate delivery and targeting of these services--services that most governments already play a major role in providing to their citizens--are a key to breaking the nexus between poverty and high fertility, and reducing the negative effects of both on the lives and prospects of children."
Correspondence: N. M. Birdsall, World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20433. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30196 Blayo, Yves. Birth limitation programs and the evolution of fertility in developing countries. [Programmes de limitation des naissances et evolution de la fecondite dans les pays en developpement.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 463-83 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between the establishment of a family planning program and a decline in fertility in developing countries is discussed. Three categories of countries are identified: those that have experienced no fertility decline since adoption of family planning programs, those that experienced a drop in fertility prior to the establishment of explicit family planning measures, and those that have implemented population programs and have experienced long-term fertility declines. The author contends that fertility declines have led to the adoption of family planning programs, and not the reverse. Tabular data are included for birth rates in selected developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30197 Brunborg, Helge. Cohort and period fertility for Norway, 1845-1985. [Kohort- og periodefruktbarhet i Norge, 1845-1985.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 88/4, ISBN 82-537-2573-6. 1988. 135 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
"This report presents fertility rates for Norway for the last two centuries, for the periods 1845-1985 and for the cohorts born 1820-1970....Most of the report is devoted to a presentation of data and estimation problems." Data are from a variety of published and unpublished sources. "In addition to ordinary and cumulated fertility rates, for both 1- and 5-year age groups, we present measures like mean, medium and modal age at birth, and standard deviation of the age at birth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30198 Chang, Ching-Meei. A hazard rate analysis of fertility using duration data from Malaysia. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 137-59 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the effects of biological and socioeconomic variables on fertility based on the hazard rate model. An asymptotic...test for the equality of constant hazard rates across birth orders, allowing time-invariant variables and heterogeneity, shows the importance of time-varying variables and duration dependence. Then, under the assumption of fixed-effects heterogeneity and the Weibull distribution for the duration of waiting time to conception, the empirical results show a negative parity effect, a negative impact from male children, and a positive effect from child mortality on the hazard rate of conception.... Finally, in a hazard rate model with piecewise-linear-segment duration dependence, the socioeconomic variables such as cohort, child mortality, income, and race have significant effects, after controlling for the length of the preceding birth." Data are from the Malaysian Family Life Survey.
Correspondence: C.-M. Chang, Department of Economics, Rutgers University, P.O. Box 2101, New Brunswick, NJ 08903. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30199 Choiniere, Robert; Robitaille, Norbert. Fertility among the Inuit of New Quebec since 1931: the transition from natural to controlled fertility. [La fecondite des Inuit du Nouveau-Quebec depuis 1931: passage d'une fecondite naturelle a une fecondite controlee.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 427-50 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"A study of recent changes in birth rates among the Inuit population of New Quebec indicates a transition from natural to controlled fertility. This development corresponds to the second stage predicted by the theory of demographic transition, in which birth rates are reduced by various factors associated with the development process. Improvements in public health and socio-economic changes first resulted in sharply rising birth rate among the Inuit. A sharp drop in fertility followed: the sum of age-specific fertility rates fell from 8.1 children in 1961 to 4.3 in 1981. This is still a relatively high level, and it seems unlikely that the birth rates among the Inuit will be reduced to that in the general population of New Quebec (1.4 children in 1986) within the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: R. Choiniere, Groupe de Recherche sur la Demographie Quebecoise, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30200 Clark, Stephen J.; Thompson, Richard W. Seasonal distribution of live births in a rural community in the southern United States. Human Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1987. 289-300 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Births in Greene County, Alabama for the years 1980-1984 were examined and an overall seasonal trend was found with a peak from August through November. This trend was found to be most pronounced among women greater than 24 years old, and among multiparous women, and to be negatively correlated with seasonal variations in temperature and daylight. The phenomenon is likely multifactorial in origin, with sociocultural factors playing a considerable role. The influence of increasing maternal age and parity in the expression of the seasonal trend may be a function of age-related changes in families, with nuclear families acting as the most powerful potentiators of seasonality."
Correspondence: S. J. Clark, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama, School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL 35294. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30201 Clerc, Paul. A Coale-Trussell model to measure birth limitation: a test case for France from 1892 to 1980. [Un modele (Coale-Trussell) qui mesurerait la limitation des naissances: mise a l'epreuve sur la France de 1892 a 1980.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 417-30 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author assesses the validity of the Coale-Trussell model for calculating the limitation of marital fertility by applying the model to the situation in France between 1892 and 1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30202 Colombia. Corporacion Centro Regional de Poblacion (Bogota, Colombia); Colombia. Ministerio de Salud (Bogota, Colombia); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Colombia. Third National Survey of Contraceptive Prevalence and First of Demography and Health, 1986. [Colombia. Tercera Encuesta Nacional de Prevalencia del Uso de Anticonceptivos y Primera de Demografia y Salud, 1986.] Mar 1988. [xii], 134, [30] pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
This is the first country report from a survey undertaken in Colombia in 1986 as one in a series of surveys being carried out by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's Demographic and Health Survey program. The Colombian survey covered 5,331 women aged 15-49. The report contains chapters on the demographic and social characteristics of the country; nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy; fertility levels, trends, and differentials; fertility control; fertility preferences; and mortality and health. Appendixes are included on the survey methodology.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30203 Cosio, Maria E. Z. Fertility change in Mexico. [Les changements de la fecondite au Mexique.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 321-9 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in fertility in Mexico are discussed using official and other published data for the 1970s and 1980s. The author explores the relationships between fertility changes and changes in marriage patterns and contraceptive use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30204 De Cooman, Eric; Ermisch, John; Joshi, Heather. Econometric modelling of the birth rate. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 213, Jan 1988. [v], 34, [8] pp. Centre for Economic Policy Research: London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore two econometric approaches to data on parity-specific birth rates in England and Wales during the postwar period. Both approaches can accommodate complex dynamic adjustments within birth rates and focus on adjustments of fertility behaviour in response to changes in certain labour market variables: the ratio of women's to men's wages, a cohort's long-term level of female attachment to the labour market, the relative size of generations, price inflation, real earnings and unemployment. The first approach uses a panel data estimator, while the second divides the data into time-series for five-year age groups. The latter method appears more promising for short-run forecasting."
Correspondence: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 6 Duke of York Street, London SW1Y 6LA, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30205 Dominican Republic. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Dominican Republic: Demographic and Health Survey, DHS-1986. [Republica Dominicana: Encuesta Demografica y de Salud, DHS-1986.] Dec 1987. x, 100, [41] pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This is the first country report from a survey undertaken in the Dominican Republic in 1986 as one in a series of surveys being carried out as part of the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's Demographic and Health Survey program. The Dominican Republic survey involved 7,649 women aged 15-49. The report contains chapters on survey organization and methodology, sample characteristics, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraception, fertility preferences, mortality and health, and summary and conclusions.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30206 Ettlinger, Nancy. American fertility and industrial restructuring: a possible link. Growth and Change, Vol. 19, No. 3, Summer 1988. 75-93 pp. Lexington, Kentucky. In Eng.
"This article seeks to raise questions and explores the possibility that recent processes of industrial restructuring [in the United States] have created new employment patterns and socioeconomic conditions which have influenced American fertility positively. Specifically, conditions of underemployment and unemployment, generated by the service and manufacturing sectors, may be conducive to increased fertility." Data are from official and other published sources and primarily concern the 1970s and early 1980s.
Correspondence: N. Ettlinger, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30207 Fliess, Kenneth H. Fertility, nuptiality, and family limitation among the Wends of Serbin, Texas, 1854 to 1920. Journal of Family History, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1988. 251-63 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
Fertility transition in a European immigrant community in America during the period 1854-1920 is examined, using data from the primary passenger ship's log, parish registers, and censuses. "This essay investigates the fertility and nuptiality experience of the Wends of Serbin, Texas using age-specific fertility rates, total marital fertility rates, the index of family limitation, age at last birth, birth intervals and age at first marriage for both males and females. The Wends are shown to have experienced fertility decline in the same magnitude as the rest of the country though they begin and end at higher levels."
Correspondence: K. H. Fliess, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30208 Fuster, V. Determinants of family size in rural Galicia (Spain). International Journal of Anthropology, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1986. 129-34 pp. Florence, Italy. In Eng.
"The determinants of complete family size and offspring survival were assessed by means of family reconstitution data from 19th and 20th century rural [populations] of Northwest Spain. The reproductive performances of families were submitted to a stepwise regression analysis in which the number of children born alive and those surviving to reproductive age per family were taken as dependent variables, while 13 other variables were defined as independent. Infant mortality appears to explain most fertility variation; an earlier marital age and at first maternity leads to an increased family size. Survival seems to be the result of the apposite interaction of both fertility and mortality in early childhood."
Correspondence: V. Fuster, Department of Anthropology, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: New York Public Library.

54:30209 Guilkey, David K.; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Popkin, Barry M.; Akin, John S.; Paqueo, Vicente. Child spacing in the Philippines: the effect of current characteristics and rural development. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 259-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this study the effects of characteristics current at the beginning of the birth interval on the time elapsing before the next birth [in the Philippines] are examined. The child-spacing process is viewed as affected by time-varying and fixed characteristics of the community, household, and individual. In the model on which the empirical research is based sociological and economic antecedents are used. The study is based on data from two panels of the Bicol Multipurpose Survey collected in 1978 and 1983. These furnish detailed histories of pregnancy and contraception, together with an extensive set of socio-economic data. Detailed information on services and facilities available in each of the 100 sample communities is also available....Our results clearly show that current characteristics at the individual, household, and community levels have significant and interpretable effects on the lengths of birth intervals."
Correspondence: D. K. Guilkey, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30210 Han, Young-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Oak. Analysis of fertility trends in Korea using vital statistics. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 56-72 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in fertility in the Republic of Korea from 1972 to 1985 are analyzed using vital statistics data. Trends in maternal age and birth order are examined, and comparisons are made with developments in China and Japan.
Correspondence: Y.-J. Han, Korea Institute for Population and Health, San 42-14, Bulgwang-dong, Eunpyung-ku, Seoul 122-040, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30211 Hernandez Iglesias, Feliciano; Riboud, Michelle. Intergenerational effects on fertility behavior and earnings mobility in Spain. Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 70, No. 2, May 1988. 253-8 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"Using Spanish data we estimate Becker's model of intergenerational transmission of endowments. Income elasticities are positive both in fertility and in quality regressions. Signs of coefficients in fertility equations are as predicted by the model. A lower bound of 0.17 is found for the transmission of endowments coefficient. A strong positive effect of grandparents' earnings in quality equations implies that Becker's model alone cannot explain these data. The transmission of endowment mechanism is accompanied by a direct effect of grandparents' income which increases quality and reduces fertility." Data are from a 1979 survey of 2,200 households located primarily in the province of Seville.
Correspondence: F. Hernandez Iglesias, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Ramiro de Maeztu s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30212 Horne, Amelia D.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil. Childbearing indices in the Arab world. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 31, Dec 1987. 77-111 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This paper presents synthetic childbearing indices for the Arab countries based on an extended model developed by Suchindran and Horne. The model transforms age-specific fertility rates (quantum measures) into childbearing temporal indices. The experience of Arab countries in the past three decades is measured by projected ages at first and last birth, and of childbearing, length of reproductive span and inter-birth spacing. The results indicate young ages at first birth, old ages at last birth, long reproductive spans, and short inter-birth spacing. Regional, residential, educational, and national differentials are discussed. Correlation analyses suggest that the reproductive span is the best predictor of fertility, mortality, and socio-economic measures at the societal level."
For the article by Suchindran and Horne, published in 1984, see 52:30313.
Correspondence: M. N. Al Khorazaty, Central Statistics Organization, P.O. Box 5835, Manama, Bahrain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30213 Horne, Amelia D.; Suchindran, Chirayath M. Maternal age at last birth in Egypt. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 313-20 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A proportional hazards regression model was applied to data on women aged 45-49 from the Egyptian Fertility Survey, to assess the effects of women's education, residence, and marital experience on their age at the birth of their last child. When age at marriage and parity were controlled, well-educated urban women tended to stop reproducing earlier than less educated rural women. Compared to intact first marriages, marital dissolution (divorce, widowhood, or separation) with remarriage tended to prolong the age at last birth, while failure to remarry tended to hasten it."
Correspondence: A. D. Horne, Department of Mathematics, American University, P.O. Box 2511, 113 Sharia Kasr El-Aini, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30214 Huinink, Johannes. Social origin, education, and age at time of first birth. [Soziale Herkunft, Bildung und das Alter bei der Geburt des ersten Kindes.] Zeitschrift fur Soziologie, Vol. 16, No. 5, Oct 1987. 367-84, 402 pp. Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
A cohort analysis of the factors affecting age at first birth in the Federal Republic of Germany is presented. The impact of educational status and social class is examined for cohorts born in 1929-1931, 1939-1941, and 1949-1951. The results indicate that the decline in fertility since the 1960s is related to a significant increase in female participation in vocational training programs. A sharp increase in voluntary childlessness among women with higher education is also noted.
Correspondence: J. Huinink, Max-Planck-Institut fur Bildungsforschung, Lentzeallee 94, D-1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30215 India. Office of the Registrar General. Demography Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. Fertility and child mortality estimates of Bihar. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 9 of 1987, [1988]. [vi], 104 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Fertility data for the state of Bihar from the 1981 census of India are analyzed. These data were collected from a 20 percent sample of the population enumerated in states with populations over 10 million. The emphasis is on presenting estimates of female age at marriage, fertility, and child mortality, the latter two derived through indirect estimation techniques. The estimates are presented at the district level. The state-level estimates are presented by religion, educational status, and occupation. Similar reports are available for the states of Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30216 Joyce, Theodore. The social and economic correlates of pregnancy resolution among adolescents in New York City, by race and ethnicity: a multivariate analysis. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 6, Jun 1988. 626-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to examine the association between pregnancy resolution and age, schooling, parity, previous induced abortions, method of payment, poverty, and the availability of reproductive health services among teenagers in New York City in 1984. Four racial/ethnic groups are examined: Black non-Latinos, White non-Latinos, Puerto Ricans, and non-Puerto Rican Latinos." A data set combining vital statistics on births and induced abortion certificates is used to examine pregnancy outcomes among 31,207 pregnant teenagers. The results indicate that "adolescents whose pregnancy resulted in a live birth, as opposed to an induced abortion, are more likely to be married, nulliparous, and to have had no previous induced abortions. Among teenagers who aborted, Whites, relative to non-Whites, have completed more years of schooling and are less likely to have had the abortion paid by Medicaid."
Correspondence: T. Joyce, National Bureau of Economic Research, 269 Mercer Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10033. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30217 Juarez, Fatima. Census probability of family extension: fertility levels and trends in Latin America. [Probabilidades censales de agrandamiento de las familias: niveles y tendencias de la fecundidad en la America Latina.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 15, No. 43, Apr 1987. 9-24 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Fertility surveys compared to census and vital registration data provide a greater scope for the study of fertility. Not only is it possible to employ orthodox techniques, but also through a birth interval analysis, a measure equivalent to the parity progression ratio (PPR, an optimal index in the study of fertility) can be computed. Censored PPR's were calculated using World Fertility Survey (WFS) data for nine Latin American countries; Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. In the past, these censored PPR's have proven useful for detecting fertility trends; the present analysis corroborates this result."
Correspondence: F. Juarez, Colegio de Mexico, Camino Al Ajusco 20, 10740 Mexico DF, Mexico. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30218 Kelley, Allen C.; Schmidt, Robert M. The demographic transition and population policy in Egypt. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 69-110 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines household-level fertility research within the broader contexts of the demographic transition and public policy. The framework chosen for this examination is the Easterlin-Crimmins...model, which we modify and apply to a sample of rural Egyptian households. The remainder of this section describes the value of that model in analyzing the demographic transition and in formulating public policy. Section II provides a summary of the theory; Section III, a critical discussion of the empirical model and its application to rural Egypt; and Section IV, the results."
Correspondence: A. C. Kelley, Department of Economics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30219 Khalifa, Mona. The pattern of family formation in Sudan. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 18, No. 2, Dec 1984. 108-18 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
Birth intervals in northern Sudan are examined using a life table analysis. Data are from the 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey and are for birth order and maternal age at the beginning of each interval. Consideration is given to the effects of age and family planning on parity and birth intervals.
Correspondence: M. Khalifa, Cairo University, Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

54:30220 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Surkyn, Johan. Cultural dynamics and economic theories of fertility change. Population and Development Review, Vol. 14, No. 1, Mar 1988. 1-45, 220-1 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Cohorts are socialized under a historically specific set of conditions by a unique set of parents, institutions, and peers. Economic circumstances affect the value orientations of the socializing generation, set constraints on family building patterns, and open or close possibilities for cultural diffusion. The demographic cycle of the baby boom and bust can be matched by a cycle of ideational change: individual trust in existing institutions and their regulatory functions during the boom, and accelerated individuation during the bust. The individuation process is continuing among today's younger cohorts in Europe, suggesting an extension of the current period of below-replacement fertility."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Sociology Research Center, Vrije Universiteit, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30221 Levy, Susan J.; Taylor, Richard; Higgins, Ilona L.; Grafton-Wasserman, Deborah A. Fertility and contraception in the Marshall Islands. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 179-85 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data on fertility and contraception [among] Micronesian women in the Marshall Islands were collected during a women's health survey in 1985. High total fertility rates were found. The reproductive pattern of many Marshallese women is one that has been associated with adverse health consequences: pregnancies in teenagers and in women over 39 years, high parities of four or more births, and short birth intervals. The practice of breastfeeding is declining in younger women. The prevalence of contraceptive use is low, and the availability of reversible methods is limited. Most contraceptive nonusers would like to practice contraception, but are inhibited by the lack of information about family planning."
Correspondence: S. J. Levy, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30222 Makatjane, Tiisetso. Internal migration and fertility in Lesotho. Working Papers in Demography, No. 6, LC 87-132347. Nov 1985. iii, 36 pp. National University of Lesotho, Department of Statistics, Demography Unit: Roma, Lesotho. In Eng.
"This...is an analysis of the factors causing fertility differentials in Lesotho, paying special attention to the factor of internal migration." Topics covered include fertility differentials by migration status, the influence of educational attainment and economic activity of women on fertility, and completed family size and retrospective fertility. Data are from the 1976 population census.
Correspondence: Department of Statistics, Demography Unit, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma, Roma, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30223 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N.; Boldsen, J. L. Assortative mating, differential fertility and abnormal pregnancy outcome. Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 15, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 223-8 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ger.
"This study examines the relationship between spousal likeness in stature and two measures of reproductive success: the number of live-born children and the frequency of abnormal pregnancies, in a large British national sample. The analyses showed that as the husband-wife height difference increases so does the probability of having an abnormal pregnancy outcome. Increasing spousal similarity of height associates with increasing numbers of live-born children even after correcting for parental age, social and regional differences." The data are from the National Child Development Study, in which a 1958 sample was followed up through 1982.
Correspondence: C. G. N. Mascie-Taylor, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30224 Munoz, Francisco. An overview of fertility trends in the industrialized countries since the beginning of the 1970s. [Vue d'ensemble sur l'evolution de la fecondite dans les pays industrialises depuis le debut des annees soixante-dix.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 53-66 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Fertility trends in industrialized countries are examined, with particular emphasis on developments since 1970. The general fertility decline, changes in the pace of family formation and in completed family size, the influence of changing marriage patterns, and new trends in fertility outside of marriage and fertility by birth order are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30225 Mustian, Robert D.; Shoieb, Farouk T. Infant mortality and fertility. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jun 1985. 1-9 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this paper, we are concerned with the effect of infant mortality on fertility in a rural area of a developed society...." Data are from a sample survey conducted in 1972 among 526 married couples in Robeson County, North Carolina, and include figures for race, educational attainment, occupation, maternal age, income, number of live births, and infant mortality.
Correspondence: R. Mustian, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695. Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

54:30226 Nemeth, Roger J. Fertility decline in the modern world-economy. Pub. Order No. DA8722329. 1987. 181 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The primary concern of this study is the irregularity of fertility decline in the developing world. It is argued here that the key to understanding this uneven fertility pattern lies in the international context within which societal development takes place....A dependency/world-system explanation of development is presented and its implications for fertility decline are discussed....Empirical tests of the effects of structural position on fertility are made [and] two models of the dependency-fertility relationship are discussed....The final chapter suggests possible mechanisms by which dependency affects the childbearing decisions of couples. Changes in household structures and familial relations are argued to be crucial in motivating couples to limit their fertility."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:30227 Newman, John L. A stochastic dynamic model of fertility. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 41-68 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This paper has formulated and solved a fertility model that treats both births and deaths as stochastic and has parents exercising control over their probablilities of births in a dynamically optimal fashion. The model allows one to relate explicitly the choices that parents make over the probability of births to the relation between their actual and desired number of children. The desired number may change over time, but there is no requirement that parents always have their desired number. Other attractive features of the model include properly teating children as discrete, having the passage of time make a difference in fertility decisions, and considering two apsects of mortality, the probability of a death and an actual death."
Correspondence: J. L. Newman, Department of Economics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30228 Olsen, Randall J. Cross-sectional methods for estimating the replacement of infant deaths. Research in Population Economics, Vol. 6, 1988. 111-36 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Demographic transition theory views a decline in infant mortality as a precondition for a decline in fertility....In this paper I describe some new methods which can be applied to cross-sectional data on women to investigate a central issue in transition theory--the replacement hypothesis. I attempt to distinguish and estimate the effects of three channels of the phenomenon known as replacement. The first channel is direct replacement, or the direct impact of a child death on fertility due to an attempt by a couple to achieve some desired family size. The second channel, precautionary fertility..., is faster or earlier childbearing as a precaution against anticipated future child mortality. The third channel is biological replacement, which arises due to purely physiological reasons such as the death of an infant shortening both the lactational period and postpartum amenorrhea....The focus will be on the methodology for estimating these replacement effects. Data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey...will be used to illustrate the methods."
Correspondence: R. J. Olsen, Department of Economics, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30229 Osawa, Machiko. Working mothers: changing patterns of employment and fertility in Japan. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 4, Jul 1988. 623-50 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Trends in Japanese women's fertility and labor force participation in the period since World War II are examined, with a focus on the differential fertility rates between paid women workers in the formal sector and family workers in the informal sector. Data are from official and other published sources and concern urban and rural fertility rates; hourly wage, labor force participation, and fertility; and average number of children in metropolitan areas by employment status.
Correspondence: M. Osawa, Japan Institute of Labor, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:30230 Otani, Kenji. Determinants of the decline in the total marital fertility rate in the early 1970s. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 185, Jan 1988. 36-54 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines "the relationship between the total marital fertility rate and the cohort marital fertility pattern in Japan since the late 1960s. We calculated parity-duration-year-specific marital fertility rates and conducted comparisons among them cohort by cohort and period by period. In addition, we carried out a decomposition of the change in total marital fertility rates into the tempo and quantum components on two different assumptions about future completed fertility. By calculating the first-birth, second-birth and third-birth timing indices, we could specify the effect due to a change of birth timing for each parity on the variation of the total marital fertility rate." It is found that "given that the drop in the total fertility rate in the early 1970s is largely attributable to a decrease in the total marital fertility rate, most of the drop in the total fertility rate in this period is also attributable to the change in second-birth timing over marriage cohorts since the middle 1960s and the temporal disturbance in second-birth timing in marriage cohorts of the early 1970s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30231 Paradysz, Jan. Multidimensional analysis of population reproduction. [Wielowymiarowa analiza reprodukcji ludnosci.] Prace Doktorskie i Habilitacyjne Zeszyt, No. 88, 1985. 232 pp. Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu: Poznan, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This dissertation is concerned with the methodology of multidimensional analysis of human reproduction. It examines longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis as well as single and multiregional approaches. The methods examined include birth intervals, parity progression ratios, and female distribution by number of children. Consideration is given to changes in fertility in Poland from 1938 to 1983. The implications of current fertility trends for future population development are explored.
Correspondence: Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu, ul. Marchlewskiego 145/150, 60-967 Poznan, Poland. Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

54:30232 Peru. Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (Lima, Peru); Peru. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CNP] (Lima, Peru); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). Survey of Demography and Family Health (ENDES 1986). General report. [Encuesta Demografica y de Salud Familiar (Endes 1986). Informe general.] Apr 1988. xviii, 122, [42] pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This is the first country report from a survey undertaken in Peru in 1986 as one in a series of surveys being carried out by the Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development's Demographic and Health Survey program. The Peruvian survey involved 7,533 women, 4,999 of whom completed the basic questionnaire and 2,534 of whom used the experimental questionnaire. Chapters are included on methodological aspects of the survey, fertility, nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility control, reproductive intentions, infant mortality, and maternal and child health.
Correspondence: Sidney H. Moore, DHS Program, IRD/Westinghouse, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30233 Pethak, K. B.; Ram, Faujdar. Fertility change in India: some facts and prospects. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 48, No. 2, Jul 1987. 147-61 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"Some factors associated with fertility change in India have been analysed. The correlates of the proximate determinants, and their future contributions towards changes in the behaviour of the couples towards their fertility, are also discussed. Upsurge in the female population in the age groups of peak fertility seems to be a major factor to forestall the fall in birth rate till 1996."
Correspondence: K. B. Pathak, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30234 Pilon, Marc. Nuptiality, fertility, and social reproduction among the Moba-Gourma (Togo). The presentation of a research program. [Nuptialite, fecondite et reproduction sociale chez les Moba-Gourma (Togo). Presentation d'un programme de recherche.] In: Au-dela du quantitatif: espoirs et limites de l'analyse qualitative en demographie. Chaire Quetelet '85. 1988. 483-97 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author describes a research project currently being conducted in northern Togo involving the relationship among nuptiality, fertility, and social reproduction in Moba-Gourma society. He examines both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the research and the problems that have arisen.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30235 Randall, Walter. A statistical analysis of the annual pattern in births in the U.S.A., 1967-1976. Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1987. 179-91 pp. Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
Regional variations in annual patterns of births for whites in the United States are analyzed using official data. "A step-wise regression analysis of the total U.S.A. births for the years 1967 thru 1976 provided the familiar bimodal pattern of previous analyses. Confidence intervals for the regression coefficients of the annual sine curve were obtained and the discrepancies with the data described and discussed. The inadequacy of single sine curve representations for these data on births was demonstrated. A brief review of the literature on causation of the complex temporal patterns in births indicates the complexity and suggests that multiple factors may be involved."
Correspondence: W. Randall, Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30236 Randall, Walter. A statistical analysis of the annual pattern in white births of maternal age groups in the United States for the years 1973 thru 1980. Journal of Interdisciplinary Cycle Research, Vol. 19, No. 1, Mar 1988. 1-15 pp. Lisse, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The annual trend of white births of maternal age groups in the United States was analyzed for the years 1973 thru 1980. Monthly means for each age group were subjected to time series analysis with sine curves, using a stepwise, forward-going regression analysis. The births in the maternal age groups also were compared with an analysis of variance in order to detect differences in trend. Adjacent age groups exhibited different annual trends. The general pattern of births for the period of 12 months was bimodal. The youngest and oldest maternal groups exhibited approximately equal peaks. In the middle age groups the bimodal peaks were unequal, with a major peak in September and a minor peak in February or March."
Correspondence: W. Randall, Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:30237 Rios, Roberto J. Economic development and family size. Pub. Order No. DA8724081. 1987. 218 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author examines factors associated with declines in fertility in developed countries and in Latin America, giving particular attention to stages of economic development and to mortality levels. "Declining mortality explained about sixty percent of the fertility decline in the United States and Western Europe, and somewhat less in Japan. No other variable has as consistent or as large an effect on births. Economic development was also found to depress fertility and, among European countries, accounted for forty percent of the fertility decline....[there is] a systematic tendency for less developed Latin American populations to show a long lag between the start of the mortality decline and the fertility response."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Columbia University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 N. Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(8).

54:30238 Rodriguez, German; Cleland, John. Modelling marital fertility by age and duration: an empirical appraisal of the Page model. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 241-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Page's model of marital fertility by age and duration is fitted by maximum likelihood techniques to data from 38 of the 41 developing countries that participated in the World Fertility Survey. The results indicate that the model does an excellent job of capturing variations in fertility patterns, with only two parameters. Moreover, national-level estimates of the parameter representing the degree of control of marital fertility correlate reasonably well with the proportion using contraception. On the other hand, estimates of the parameter representing the level of natural fertility correlate well with the duration of breastfeeding and with a measure of contraceptive use for spacing, but also show substantial regional variation. The paper closes with comments on several extensions and applications of the model."
Correspondence: G. Rodriguez, Departamento de Estadistica, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30239 United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (Santiago, Chile). Latin America: fertility, 1950-2025. [America Latina: fecundidad, 1950-2025.] Boletin Demografico/Demographic Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 41; LC/DEM/G.59, Jan 1988. 133 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Eng; Spa.
Indicators of female fertility are presented for the countries of Latin America for the period 1950-2025 using data from official sources. Fertility trends are first reviewed. Data are then presented for different fertility hypotheses and periods by country on estimated annual births, crude birth rates, general fertility rates, total fertility rates, gross reproduction rates, and net reproduction rates. A final section contains data for each country on fertility rates and structures (estimated and projected), fertility hypotheses, and female age by five-year intervals, 1950-2025.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30240 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Fertility of American women: June 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 427, May 1988. iv, 67 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data on the fertility and birth expectations of U.S. women are presented, based on the June 1987 supplement to the Current Population Survey. The data are presented by race, age, and marital status. Topics considered include current fertility patterns; labor force characteristics of mothers with newborn children; dual-employed families; age patterns of fertility, 1976-1987; and birth expectations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30241 Ventisette, Moreno. New marital fertility tables for Italy, 1930-1981. [Nuove tavole di fecondita dei matrimoni per l'Italia, 1930-1981.] Serie Ricerche Empiriche, No. 14, 1986. 83 pp. Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento Statistico: Firenze, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Revised marital fertility tables are presented for Italy for the period 1930-1981. Data are included on duration-specific fertility rates by birth order by year of marriage for each year from 1930 to 1980.
Correspondence: Dipartimento Statistico, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Piazza San Marco 4, 50121 Firenze, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30242 Wattelar, Christine. Fertility and nuptiality in Belgium: an overview of 30 years. [La fecondite et la nuptialite en Belgique: un survol d'une trentaine d'annees.] In: Les familles d'aujourd'hui: demographie et evolution recente des comportements familiaux. Colloque de Geneve (17-20 septembre 1984). No. 2, 1986. 81-93 pp. Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents an overview of fertility and marriage trends in Belgium from the 1950s through the 1970s. Attention is given to developments in the total fertility rate, the components of fertility, first marriage trends, divorce and remarriage, differential fertility by cohort, marital fertility by birth order, and overall fertility by birth order and age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30243 Werner, Barry. Birth intervals: results from the OPCS Longitudinal Study 1972-84. Population Trends, No. 51, Spring 1988. 25-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Details of successive registrations of births to women [in England and Wales] in the OPCS Longitudinal Study sample have been linked and therefore provide information about the lengths of intervals between births to women in the sample. Using these LS sample data, together with information from all birth registrations, this article discusses trends during the period 1972-84 in the intervals from marriage to first births within marriage and from first to second and from second to third births within marriage. Further analyses illustrate the differences in these birth intervals for women married to men in different social classes. To validate the results from the LS sample, comparisons are made wherever possible with results from all birth registrations."
Correspondence: B. Werner, Population Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30244 Werner, Barry. Fertility trends in the U.K. and in thirteen other developed countries, 1966-86. Population Trends, No. 51, Spring 1988. 18-24 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Fertility trends in the United Kingdom and in 13 other developed countries from 1966 to 1986 are analyzed using data from official national and international sources. Specifically, "trends in overall and age-specific fertility rates and in the proportion of births occurring outside marriage in the United Kingdom, during the twenty-year period 1966 to 1986, are compared with the equivalent trends in the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, in nine of the larger countries of Western Europe and in the U.S.A., Japan, Canada, and Australia."
Correspondence: B. Werner, Population Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2B 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30245 Yeung, Wei-Jun J. The reciprocal effects of female labour force participation and fertility. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 53, May 1988. 38 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"Data drawn from the 1975 U.S. National Fertility Survey are utilized to examine the causal interaction between female employment and fertility for a marital cohort. Reciprocal effects are hypothesized between these two important aspects of life for young couples....[using] nonrecursive and dynamic structural equation models....Results from both types of models consistently show that, during the early years of marriage, fertility has a stronger impact on women's employment status than vice versa....It is found that most of the effects of female employment on fertility act through the 'opportunity costs' of having children. Reciprocal causation between fertility and female employment is supported by the data."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30246 Zurayk, Huda. An overview of the development of studies on fertility. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 31, Dec 1987. 65-76 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
The author "examines the historical development of theories on fertility, particularly those relevant to the Arab world. These theories deal with the supply of and demand for children and with the economic, social and physical factors that influence this supply and demand....This paper discusses the status of studies on fertility that have been conducted in the Arab world and makes proposals relevant to future research requirements on the subject of fertility."
Correspondence: H. Zurayk, Department of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

54:30247 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. A review of research literature on ethno-religious fertility differentials. Progress, Vol. 7, No. 3, Sep 1987. 23-31 pp. Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
This is an overview of the literature pertaining to ethno-religious fertility differentials. Articles are briefly outlined in three categories: studies on Sri Lanka, studies on other developing countries, and studies on developed countries. A bibliography providing complete citations is included.
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Information Centre, 407 Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30248 Bhargava, P. K.; Saxena, P. C. Determinants of the status of women and fertility in greater Bombay. Indian Journal of Social Work, Vol. 48, No. 1, Apr 1987. 71-81 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to examine the contribution of each of the selected indicators of the status of women viz., education, work status, age at marriage, family income and level of dominance on their fertility. The study is based on the collection of primary data from 1,200 currently married women of ages between 15 and 49 years, living in Greater Bombay [India]." The techniques used are hierarchical analysis of covariance and multiple classification analysis. The results indicate that women's educational status is the main factor associated with fertility differentials, followed by age at marriage. Labor force participation has a significant but inverse relationship with number of children ever born.
Correspondence: P. K. Bhargava, Department of Fertility Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30249 Clegg, E. J. Aspects of fertility in Suva, Fiji. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 295-311 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Differential fertility by ethnic group in Fiji is analyzed. Data are from a survey of 302 Melanesian and 324 Indian children attending four schools in the suburbs of Suva in 1985. The results suggest that "the Melanesian...component of the population is growing faster than the Indian...component, thus reversing a long-standing demographic trend." The author proposes that two factors may account for the reduction in Indian fertility: "(i) pressure to limit population growth in the interests of racial harmony; and (ii) economic pressure resulting in a demographic transition. The latter suggestion is supported by the fact that the greatest decrease in fertility occurs among high status families."
Correspondence: E. J. Clegg, Department of Anatomy, University of Aberdeen, Marischal College, Aberdeen AB9 1FX, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30250 Dunn, S. Kanu. A model of fertility decision-making styles among young mothers. Human Organization, Vol. 47, No. 2, Summer 1988. 166-75 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
This study is concerned with fertility decision-making among adolescent women in the United States. Data are from 36 young mothers and significant members of their social networks in Alachua County, Florida. "The purpose of this study is to specify the combination of factors affecting the fertility decisions of young mothers who have access to and some knowledge of contraception. After taking into account the ethnographic data and the perceptions gained through the use of discourse analysis, the reasons that some girls prevent further rapid childbearing while others do not are presented. A model of decision-making styles is constructed so that health, education and welfare service agents can discern the cues of young mothers who are 'at risk' for a rapid, repeat pregnancy."
Correspondence: S. K. Dunn, Bridges in Health Care, 1631 1/2 19th Street NW, Suite A, Washington, D.C. 20009. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30251 Impens, K. K. The impact of female unemployment on fertility in Flanders. [De impact van werkloosheid bij vrouwen op de vruchtbaarheid in Vlaanderen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1987. 73-98 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of unemployment on fertility in Belgium is examined using data collected in 1982-1983 in Flanders for 3,101 women aged 20-43 during the course of the NEGO IV survey. Parity-specific bivariate life tables and multivariate proportional hazards analyses of birth and employment data indicate that unemployment is significantly associated with lower fertility. "This effect is parity-specific, direct as well as indirect, and, as far as the first birth timing is concerned, declines with rising educational level. Some implications for fertility theory and social, family and demographic policy are deduced."
Correspondence: K. K. Impens, CBGS, Ministerie van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Nijverheidsstraat 37, B 1040 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30252 Itoh, Shigeru. An analysis of prefectural differentials in fertility in early modern Japan. Research Bulletin of Obihiro University, Series I, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1987. 63-73 pp. Obihiro, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Regional differences in fertility in early modern Japan are analyzed. Crude birth rates for prefectures are estimated for selected years. Conclusions drawn from these estimates are that the birth rate in most prefectures showed an upward trend until 1908; between 1908 and 1925 a decline in birth rates was seen, especially in the Kinki region; and the birth rate was highest in the Tohoku region and lowest in the Kinki region. There is also a comparison of factors affecting fertility for the years 1903 and 1920; among these were mean age at marriage, infant mortality rate, industrialization, and rural population capacity.
Correspondence: S. Itoh, Department of Agricultural Economics, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080, Japan. Location: Colorado State University Libraries.

54:30253 Jun, Kwang Hee. Reproductive behavior of rural-urban migrants in Korea: an analysis of the proximate determinants. Pub. Order No. DA8715515. 1987. 502 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of fertility adaptation and alternative mechanisms, selection and disruption, in the process of rural-urban migration in [the Republic of] Korea....First is an examination of the migrant/nonmigrant fertility differential, comparing rural-urban migrants with the population at origin....The second part compares rural-urban migrants with urban natives....We expect that in the short run there may be a serious conflict in policy measures between the fertility reduction of rural-urban migrants and the reduction of urban population growth, because the greatest fertility reduction among rural-urban migrants, even as compared to urban natives, occurs in the metropolitan areas which accept the huge number of immigrants and provide easier access to family planning services and induced abortion markets."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Correspondence: University Microfilms International, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:30254 Kollehlon, Konia T. Migration and fertility: the case of Liberian women. Liberian Studies Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1986. 97-116 pp. Oak Park, Illinois. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between migration status and fertility in Liberia, particularly in the context of the high rate of migration to the capital city of Monrovia. "The study will examine two inter-related issues. First, it will examine the differences, if any, in the socioeconomic characteristics of migrant and nonmigrant women. Secondly, it will examine whether differences (or lack thereof) in socioeconomic characteristics of migrant and nonmigrant women lead to differential fertility between the two groups." The results indicate that migration does not affect fertility significantly. "While migrant women generally tend to be better educated and a slightly higher percentage of them participate in the labor force as employers/paid employees, this small advantage in socioeconomic status does not result in lower fertility for...migrant women."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30255 Lakshmi, G. R.; Bandyopadhyay, S. S. Effect of education, economic status and occupation on fertility. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 42-51 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to study the effect of occupation, education and economic status of couples on fertility. Data have been collected from 386 couples of different socioeconomic status from Dehra Dun City (Uttar Pradesh) [India] during 1981-82 using a specially designed schedule. Results after analysis revealed that education up to graduate level for men and high school level for women is effective in increasing age at marriage which in turn reduces fertility. Husband's/family income plays a positive role for reduction in fertility. Occupation of husband is also a determining factor for control of fertility."
Correspondence: G. R. Lakshmi, Anthropological Survey of India, North-West Region, 218 Kaulagarh Road, Dehra Dun 248 195, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30256 Maxwell, Nan L.; Mott, Frank L. Trends in the determinants of early childbearing. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 2, Summer 1987. 59-73 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study uses data from the young women's and new youth cohort of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Labor Market Experience to examine the extent to which socioeconomic background factors and race have changed in their ability to predict a first birth before age 19 between 1968 and 1980 for women aged 19 to 23. The authors find little support for their hypothesis that the increasing availability of contraception and abortion for young women from all social classes reduces the traditionally strong inverse association between social class and early childbearing. There is evidence that, even after controlling for changes in socioeconomic background factors, black young women are significantly more likely than their white counterparts to bear children before age 19 in 1980 and the relative gap between races in this regard did not alter perceptively during that period."
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 413).
Correspondence: F. L. Mott, Center for Human Resource Research, Ohio State University, 190 North Oval Mall, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30257 Pongracz, Tiborne. Demographic characteristics of pregnant adolescents and the socializing effect of the family background. [Serdulokoru terhesek demografiai jellemzoi es a csaladi kornyezet szocializalo hatasa.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 2-3, 1987. 273-90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Characteristics of pregnant adolescents in Hungary are studied using data from a national survey conducted in 1983. Attention is given to living arrangements, marital status, age factors, educational status, and family background, including parents' educational and occupational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30258 Razzaque, Abdur. Effect of famine on fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 287-94 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effects of the 1974-75 famine on differential fertility in a rural population of Bangladesh, using information on household socioeconomic status collected in the 1974 census, and registration data on births, deaths and migrations for the period 1974-77 from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh....Total fertility rates were analysed for three periods: pre-famine, famine and post-famine. Overall fertility declined due to the famine by 34%, but this was compensated partially by a 17% increase in the post-famine period. Fertility of women of all ages and socioeconomic groups was affected by the famine, a more pronounced effect being observed among the poor."
Correspondence: A. Razzaque, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30259 Reyes Rodriguez, J. Felix; Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa. Reproductive behavior among adolescents in selected countries, 1966-1982. [Comportamiento reproductivo en los adolescentes en paises seleccionados entre 1966 y 1982.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 38-54 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Adolescent reproductive behavior in selected countries is analyzed using data from a variety of published sources. Some common characteristics of adolescent fertility are identified, and the effects of educational status and residential characteristics on adolescent fertility are noted. Other topics considered include age at menarche, contraceptive usage, personality, family relationships, and peer relationships.
Correspondence: L. Alvarez Vazquez, Serafines No. 40 entre Rabi y 10 de Octubre, Santos Suarez, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30260 Sarrible, Graciela. Possible influences of migration on changes in fertility (based on a study of the city of Barcelona, 1970-1981). [Posibles influencias de la migracion en los cambios de la fecundidad (a partir de un estudio de la ciudad de Barcelona, 1970-1981).] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 37, Jan-Mar 1987. 91-111 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Fertility statistics for native-born females in Barcelona, Spain, during the period 1970-1981 are compared with those of female migrants born outside the province of Catalonia. The relationships among migration, nuptiality, and fertility are explored. Greater fertility variations among migrant groups were observed, suggesting intrinsic differences among communities of origin. Findings indicate that females contemplating migration tend to delay marriage and childbirth until after such a move.
Location: University of Pennsylvania Library, Philadelphia, PA.

54:30261 Tolnay, Stewart E. The decline of black marital fertility in the rural South: 1910-1940. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1987. 211-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Age-specific marital fertility rates are derived for the rural [U.S.] South in 1905-10 and 1935-40. Separate estimates are made for blacks and whites and for farm and nonfarm residents. The resulting marital fertility schedules are used to estimate the degree of family limitation practiced by the different population groups. Both black and white marital fertility fell sharply during this thirty-year period, with especially sharp declines for nonfarm residents. There is also evidence that deliberate family limitation became more widespread for both races during this period. By 1935-40, nonfarm residents had adopted essentially modern childbearing patterns. While high fertility persisted longer among farm women, they, too, experienced sharp reductions in marital fertility and a nascent adoption of family limitation." Data are from official sources.
Correspondence: S. E. Tolnay, Department of Sociology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

54:30262 Cseh, Imre. Study of the factors important for premature birth and low-weight birth. [A koraszules es a kissullyal szuletes szempontjabol fontos tenyezok vizsgalata.] Demografia, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1987. 76-86 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The results of a working group organized to examine the causes of premature and low birth weight in Hungary are presented. The data used were from the 1981 Standard Data Supply on Obstetrics. The main factors affecting perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity are maternal age, parity, previous obstetric history, and birth intervals. Other factors considered include low birth weight at previous pregnancy, previous spontaneous and induced abortion, certain anomalies of the placenta, mother's weight and height, and socioeconomic status and life style of mother.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30263 Mishra, Udaya S. Childlessness and fertility. IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 28, No. 4, Oct 1987. 1-4 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author aims "to describe the age pattern of childlessness by a mathematical model which gives the starting age of fecund married life and instantaneous first conception rate in addition to the estimate of [primary] sterility. The model has been applied to six countries for illustration purposes." Estimates of the proportion childless among ever-married women by age group are provided for Bangladesh, Kenya, Yemen, Turkey, Indonesia, and India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30264 Risch, Harvey A.; Weiss, Noel S.; Clarke, E. Aileen; Miller, Anthony B. Risk factors for spontaneous abortion and its recurrence. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 128, No. 2, Aug 1988. 420-30 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Pregnancy histories of women interviewed as normal population controls during 1974-1981 in four case-control studies in the U.S. and Canada were examined to identify risk factors for the occurrence of miscarriage. In total, 2,068 ever-gravid women aged 20-79 years at interview...described 6,282 pregnancies, including 805 miscarriages. The roles of previous pregnancy history, age at pregnancy, and other factors were evaluated using relative risk binomial regression methods...." Other factors considered include smoking, obesity, and oral contraceptive use. The authors conclude that "the levels of risk of miscarriage found in this analysis are similar to those of previous studies, and the analytic methods suggest how age, obstetric history, and other factors can be simultaneously examined for associations with such risk."
Correspondence: H. A. Risch, National Cancer Institute of Canada, Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, University of Toronto, 12 Queen's Park Crescent West, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

54:30265 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Ethno-religious differentials in contraceptive accessibility and use in Sri Lanka. Population Information Centre Research Paper Series, No. 3, Dec 1987. 28 pp. Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Information Centre: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
The author seeks "to describe and explain the effects of ethno-religiosity on contraceptive behaviour in Sri Lanka. We are particularly interested in studying the extent of variation in contraceptive behaviour among the six ethno-religious groups: Sinhalese Buddhists, Sinhalese Christians, Sri Lanka Tamil Hindus, Sri Lanka Tamil Christians, Indian Tamils and Moors. The data for the study come from the 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey conducted by the Department of Census and Statistics. The study sample consists of 4,483 ever married women aged 15 to 49 years." Multivariate analysis is used, and results are presented in tabular form. "It was observed that the original ethno-religious differentials in fertility and family planning behaviour are basically maintained within each category of socio-economic controls. However, there are signs of convergence with higher education and higher age at first marriage."
Correspondence: Population Information Centre, Ministry of Plan Implementation, 407 Bauddhaloka Mawatha, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30266 Ang, Eng Suan; Arshat, Hamid. A five-year review of diagnostic laparoscopy and female sterilizations in 52 centers in Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 5, No. 1, Jun 1987. 1-9 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"Doctors participating in the Laparoscopy Program of the National Population and Family Development Board, Malaysia return data on all cases of diagnostic laparoscopy and female sterilizations carried out in their centres. Data on 2,179 cases of diagnostic laparoscopy and 4,740 cases of female sterilizations for the period 1981-1985 are analysed. States with the highest return rates are Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory, Negeri Sembilan, Johor and Perak." Further analysis of female sterilizations is presented.
Correspondence: E. S. Ang, National Population and Family Development Board, No. 22 Jalan Murai Dua, 51100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30267 Beck, J. Gayle; Davies, Dana K. Teen contraception: a review of perspectives on compliance. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 16, No. 4, Aug 1987. 337-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews available literature on teen contraceptive compliance [in the United States] with particular focus on the development of self-regulation. In this first section, programs designed to enhance teens' choice and use of birth control are reviewed, with specific attention given to emerging issues and methodological concerns. In the second section, studies that examine factors predictive of contraceptive use in teen-age girls are discussed. This literature is grouped according to three conceptual systems: medical perpectives, behavioral theory, and self-regulation and self-control approaches. A summary is presented, specifying ways in which conceptually based research findings can assist in program development to address the problem of teen pregnancy."
Correspondence: J. G. Beck, Department of Psychology, University of Houston, University Park, Houston, TX 77004. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30268 Chadney, James G. Family planning: India's Achilles' heel? Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3-4, Jul-Oct 1987. 218-31 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
The development of a large-scale national family planning program in India during Indira Gandhi's tenure as prime minister is described. The author notes that "Indira Gandhi failed to provide constant and dynamic leadership for population control policies. It was under the leadership of her son, Sanjay, during the Emergency that a vigorous family planning policy was formulated and rigorously enforced. Use of coercion in controlling the size of the family was, however, one of the most unpopular aspects of Indira Gandhi's rule, and resulted in her 1977 electoral defeat. The post-Emergency Government of Indira Gandhi was consequently unable to mobilize an effective family planning campaign."
Correspondence: J. G. Chadney, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30269 Chang, Chang-Gok; Kim, Eung-Suk. Log-linear analysis of personal factors affecting the level of fertility among women using contraception. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, Dec 1987. 73-84 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
Characteristics of women in the Republic of Korea using contraception for birth limitation are examined based on 1985 data from the Korean Fertility and Family Health Survey. Urban and rural populations are analyzed separately, and the impact of woman's education, income, and marriage age on number of children is considered.
Correspondence: C.-G. Chang, School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30270 Forrest, Jacqueline D. The delivery of family planning services in the United States. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 88-95, 98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The availability of family planning services in the United States is described. Information is included on the general health care situation, with attention to costs borne by patients; providers of family planning services, the majority of whom are private physicians; public programs and clinics; and preferred contraceptive methods. Consideration is given to the role of mass media as a dispenser of information and to the educational activities of federal, state, and local agencies. The author concludes that "because of the need to maneuver through the health care system to find a private physician who provides the service sought or to find a lower priced alternative, the task of obtaining contraceptives can be difficult in the United States."
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30271 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Fordyce, Richard R. U.S. women's contraceptive attitudes and practice: how have they changed in the 1980s? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 112-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results from a 1987 survey on sexual activity and contraceptive use among U.S. women aged 15-44 are examined and compared with data from 1982. The surveys were conducted by the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation and the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]. The authors found that while the proportion of women in sexual relationships increased during this five-year period, a significant number of those surveyed were not using a contraceptive method. This exposed them to the risks of unintended pregnancy and in some cases of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.
Correspondence: J. D. Forrest, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30272 Hardee-Cleaveland, Karen; Banister, Judith. Family planning in China: recent trends. CIR Staff Paper, No. 40, May 1988. xii, 97 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper summarizes demographic trends in China, including the impending birth peak, an expected result of the large cohorts that will be reaching reproductive age during the next decade. The paper briefly describes the one-child population policy and family planning program in China through 1985 and looks in more detail at implementation of the family planning program in China between 1986 and 1988....The paper summarizes the effects of economic reforms on family planning; discusses desired family size in China; and provides a close look at implementation of the program, emphasizing family planning responsibility systems, marriage reform, and efforts to control the floating population." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: Center for International Research, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30273 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Jones, Elise F. The delivery of family planning services in Ontario and Quebec. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 80-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assess the delivery of family planning services through the Canadian health care system in Ontario and Quebec. Particular attention is given to the services provided by general practice physicians as the principal sources of medical family planning services. Sections are included on family planning clinics in Ontario and Quebec, facilities such as pharmacies and counseling centers, and information and education. The authors compare family planning services and pregnancy rates in the United States and Canada and conclude that "overall, contraceptive practice in Canada is clearly superior to that in the United States, with the expected result that the rate of unintended pregnancy is lower."
Correspondence: S. K. Henshaw, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30274 Jacobson, Jodi L. Unmet needs in family planning. Populi, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988. 35-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The effect of family planning programs on fertility in developing countries is discussed, with a focus on the unmet needs of acceptors and potential acceptors. "Unmet need, defined as the gap between the number of women who express a desire to limit fertility and the number who actually are able to do so, exists to varying degrees in virtually every developing country. This gap results from inadequate access to or knowledge of family planning methods, even where programmes already exist. According to data from the World Fertility Survey..., 40-50 per cent of women of reproductive age in 18 developing countries desire no more children but have no access to family planning. Fertility rates could be reduced by 30 per cent in these countries if unwanted births were prevented." Data are from official and other published sources.
Correspondence: J. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30275 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Henshaw, Stanley K.; Silverman, Jane; Torres, Aida. Unintended pregnancy, contraceptive practice and family planning services in developed countries. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 53-67 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze the organization and availability of family planning services in developed countries. They summarize "the results of a new study...that seeks to determine whether the differences found between the United States and other developed countries with regard to adolescents are also seen among adults, and to explore more deeply the role of the family planning service delivery system. Specifically, this article examines the relationships between fertility, pregnancy--especially unintended pregnancy--and contraceptive use, and between contraceptive use and public policies and programs related to family planning during the period 1982-1986. Nineteen developed countries were selected as the most appropriate setting for comparisons with the United States....The analysis draws on the results of fertility surveys and other published and unpublished data, as well as on material from a new survey undertaken as part of the present investigation." The authors conclude that "the U.S. system for delivering family planning services differs from the systems of other Western countries in ways that make it less conducive, on the whole, to the promotion of highly effective contraceptive methods."
Correspondence: E. F. Jones, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30276 Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Adams, Russell P. Family planning needs and behavior of Mexican American women: a study of health care professionals and their clientele. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 3, Sep 1987. 265-86 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng. with sum. in Spa.
"A random sample of Mexican American women and a sample of family planning health care professionals, both from two major southwestern cities in the United States, were compared in terms of their reports of birth control methods used, problems in obtaining family planning services, and values involved in making fertility-related decisions, within the Mexican American population....While there were points of agreement between the two samples, discrepancies were found in reports of problems in obtaining family planning services, fertility-related values, and in the acceptability of female sterilization as a birth control method. It was concluded that family planning professionals in these service areas tend to stereotype Mexican American women, and may not yet realize that the family planning attitudes and behavior of these women are probably changing in significant ways."
Correspondence: S. R. Jorgensen, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30277 Khan, M. R. Prospects and problems of integration of family planning with health services in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jun 1986. 101-8 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
This is a summary of a report prepared for the government on the integration of family planning and health services in Bangladesh. It concludes that although there has been nominal integration since 1980, in practice the services have not been integrated at the clinic level.
Correspondence: M. R. Khan, Population Division, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, Adamjee Court, Motijheel Commercial Area, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30278 Knodel, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit. Contraception after childbirth in Thailand. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jul 1988. 321-32 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Results from a 1984 national survey indicate that the large majority of Thai women initiate contraception soon after giving birth. Among sterilized women, the vast majority undergo the operation during the immediate post-partum period and thus avoid the risks of subsequent unwanted pregnancy. Rates of initiation of other methods are unusually high at and immediately following the time at which menses return, and hence only modest proportions of Thai women remain at risk of unwanted pregnancy for very long after the birth of a child."
Correspondence: J. Knodel, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30279 Laajimi, Adly. Family planning in Tunisia: reasons for its success and future strategy. [La planification familiale en Tunisie: raisons d'un succes et strategie du futur.] Famille et Population, No. 5-6, 1987. 48-70 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ara.
The reasons for the successful development of the national family planning program in Tunisia are examined. These include pioneer work in the area of family planning legislation, the efficient distribution of contraceptives throughout the country, public information and education programs, training of staff, and research. The author states that integration of family planning programs within the health sector is a key factor in the program's successful development to date.
Correspondence: A. Laajimi, Centre de Recherche, Office National de la Famille et de la Population, Ariana, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30280 Landy, Uta; Ratnam, S. S. Prevention and treatment of contraceptive failure. In honor of Christopher Tietze. ISBN 0-306-42477-0. LC 86-25318. 1986. xvi, 240 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on the prevention and treatment of contraceptive failure. The papers were presented at the first Christopher Tietze International Symposium, held in Berlin in September 1985. The volume is organized under nine headings: global reviews; prevention of contraceptive failure; illegal abortion; medical practice after legalization of abortion; abortion technology; menstrual regulation; delivery of abortion care; maternal mortality; and the future of women's health. The geographical scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30281 Lidegaard, O.; Helm, P. Sexual and reproductive life events in relation to duration of oral contraceptive use. Contraception, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jul 1988. 69-77 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In order to disclose differences between users and non-users of oral contraceptives (OC), 620 [Danish] women aged 15-54 were invited to participate in an in-depth interview about sexual, contraceptive, and reproductive life events. Of the 585 women who participated, 459 were consecutive gynecological in- or outpatients, and 126 were selected from visitors in general practice. Data was analysed by multivariate test statistics. After correction for present age and social class, the duration use of OC (DOC) among women 15-34 years of age correlated negatively to age at menarche and coital debut and positively to number of sexual partners, oral- genital sexual practice, and number of pelvic inflammatory diseases. Among women over 35, DOC was positively associated only to cigarette smoking....The present findings point at sexual and life-style habits as potential confounders in the study of OC and associated diseases."
Correspondence: O. Lidegaard, Olgasvej 23, DK-2950 Vedbaek, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30282 Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Ivanov, Serguey. The effects of improved child survival on family planning practice and fertility. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 141-61 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The relationship between improvements in child survival, family planning, and fertility is viewed here as the outcome of a process of family building that evolves through distinct phases as the mortality transition progresses. The speed with which family building strategies evolve from 'family building by fate' to 'family building by design' and from 'insurance' to 'replacement' as child survival improves depends on the pattern (by age and causes of death) of mortality decline and the sociocultural context. While child survival improvements will not lead to compensatory declines in fertility when fate or replacement behavior govern family building, more than compensatory fertility declines can result when families shift to family building by design, which, in its initial phases, is manifested by so-called insurance behavior. A literature review supports these hypotheses and identifies family planning availability as a critical additional factor. These results provide strong support for an integrated approach to the delivery of health and family planning services." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: C. B. Lloyd, Fertility and Family Planning Studies Section, Population Division, United Nations, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30283 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. Premature recourse to tubal ligation in Quebec: some undesirable consequences? [Le recours precoce a la ligature des trompes au Quebec: des suites indesirables?] Sociologie et Societes, Vol. 19, No. 1, Apr 1987. 83-95 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper reports on some of the results of a randomized survey carried out in 1985 of a representative sample of women within greater Montreal having undergone a tubal ligation. Unpublished data are presented on the frequency of manifestations of regret linked with the desire to have another child after this procedure has been carried out, and on the identification of certain characteristics of women which makes them more likely to question their choice."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:30284 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. The contraceptive confidence idea: an empirical investigation. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1988. 205-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper the hypothesis that 'contraceptive confidence' promotes accelerated childbearing is presented and examined. Methodological difficulties in investigating the question empirically are discussed. Because of the absence of a direct measure, a proxy indicator of 'contraceptive confidence' is used in multivariate analyses of maternity history data. These give results consistent with the existence of a contraceptive confidence effect. Evidence is also presented (a) of shorter second birth intervals among women who were in higher status occupations before marriage and (b) of an inverse association between educational qualifications and length of intervals after the first. These findings are construed as supporting the basic thesis regarding contraceptive confidence. The contraceptive confidence idea is discussed in the context of related work on an acceleration effect associated with women's labour-force participation. Several difficulties in interpreting the findings are considered and some implications are discussed....The data used in the main part of this study are taken from the Family Formation Survey (FFS), carried out in 1976 by the [U.K.] Office of Population Censuses and Surveys."
Correspondence: M. Ni Bhrolchain, Population and Statistics Group, London Research Centre, County Hall, London SE1 7PB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30285 Pai Panandiker, V. A.; Mehra, Ajay K.; Chaudhuri, P. N. People's participation in family planning. ISBN 81-85024-10-3. LC 87-900414. 1987. [viii], 258 pp. Uppal Publishing House: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Problems concerning India's efforts to promote a national policy of popular participation in family planning are considered. The book is based on reports of visits to various family planning programs, including the New Delhi Family Planning Association, the Gandhigram Institute of Rural Health and Family Welfare Trust, the Vadu Rural Health Project, the Comprehensive Rural Health Project in Jamkhed, and family planning programs developed through panchayats in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. The report concludes that popular support for family planning is essential but that it is for the most part nonexistent; furthermore, it is unrealistic to expect mass participation in any government-sponsored activity of this kind given the current conditions of underdevelopment in India. However, the authors note that popular support can be successfully generated by an efficient and enthusiastic local agency, such as a voluntary agency or panchayat. Recommendations for future policy based on an increased role for the local panchayats are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30286 Robles, Rafaela R.; Martinez, Ruth E.; Vera, Mildred; Alegria, Margarita. Sociocultural factors associated with contraceptive use in Puerto Rico. [Factores socioculturales asociados con el uso de contraceptivos en Puerto Rico.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 104, No. 1, Jan 1988. 23-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"A survey of family planning practices in Puerto Rico was conducted in 1982. Based on interviews with women 15-49 years old, the survey included 3,175 women who constituted a representative stratified sample of the Puerto Rican population....The survey indicated that 45.7% of all Puerto Rican women 15-49 years old and 70% of all married women in this age range were using contraception in 1982. Sterilization (principally female sterilization) was the most common method, being used by 42.6% of the married interview subjects....Overall, it seems evident that women in Puerto Rico have legitimized contraception and that society has provided various ways for them to achieve the results desired."
Correspondence: R. R. Robles, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Escuela de Salud Publica, P.O. Box 5067, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30287 Ross, John A.; Mauldin, W. Parker. Berelson on population. ISBN 0-387-96716-8. LC 81-3150. 1988. xii, 275 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This volume contains a selection of the most important writings on population by the late Bernard Berelson, with the focus on the evolution of family planning programs in the developing world. Topics covered include national family planning programs as policy instruments, conditions of fertility reduction, the effects of improved contraceptive technology, better allocation of resources in population programs, and ethical aspects of government actions to reduce fertility rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30288 Silverman, Jane; Jones, Elise F. The delivery of family planning and health services in Great Britain. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 68-74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Characteristics of the national health care system are examined to determine its role in contraceptive practice in Great Britain. The authors assess the impact of the National Health Service's free family planning services and clinics, the provision of family planning services by general practitioners and other types of providers, counseling centers for adolescents, private clinics and nonprofit facilities, and advertising and media coverage of contraceptive products and family planning services. The authors conclude that despite some problems in the health care system, "the most fundamental factor contributing to the wide utilization of family planning services in Great Britain and the use of highly effective methods is that contraceptive services are free to people of all ages."
Correspondence: J. Silverman, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30289 Tietze, Sarah L.; Lincoln, Richard. Fertility regulation and the public health: selected papers of Christopher Tietze. ISBN 0-387-96450-9. LC 86-31337. 1987. xxii, 351 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This is a selection of the writings of the late Christopher Tietze on aspects of human fertility and its control. The papers selected are divided into four substantive parts, which are concerned with IUDs and other contraceptive methods, the impact of abortion on public health and population, mortality associated with fertility and its control, and the assessment of human reproduction and sexual behavior.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30290 Torres, Aida; Jones, Elise F. The delivery of family planning services in the Netherlands. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 75-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the availability and delivery of family planning services and their influence on attitudes toward contraception and on contraceptive prevalence in the Netherlands. Separate consideration is given to the role of the general practitioner as point of entry to the Dutch health care and family planning systems; clinics and other family planning service providers; specialized services; contraceptive use; and information and education programs. The authors conclude that "in the Netherlands, contraception is encouraged by the government, the medical profession and the media, and is widely accepted by the public....The inclusion of contraception in the package of services covered by national health insurance has...contributed to the widespread use of effective methods of contraception."
Correspondence: A. Torres, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30291 Tunisia. Office National de la Famille et de la Population (Tunis, Tunisia). A summary of family planning activities during the last three economic and social development plans (1974-1986). [Bilan des activites de P. F. durant les trois derniers plans economiques et sociaux (1974/1986).] Famille et Population, No. 5-6, 1987. 17-22 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ara.
The demographic objectives of the three socioeconomic development plans implemented in Tunisia between 1974 and 1986 are described. The paper presents statistical data on the achievements of the family planning program, particularly concerning women's adoption of effective, modern contraceptive methods. Data are also provided on induced abortion.
Correspondence: Office National de la Famille et de la Population, 42 Avenue de Madrid, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30292 Tunisia. Office National de la Famille et de la Population. Division de la Population (Tunis, Tunisia). Family planning statistics: for the year 1987. [Statistiques de planning familial: au cours de l'annee 1987.] Bulletin Annuel Nouvelle Serie, No. 3, 1988. 72 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Statistics from Tunisia's national family planning program for 1987 are presented with an accompanying analysis. Information is provided on family planning activities by type of center providing services and by governorate, contraceptive methods used, induced abortion, contraceptive prevalence, and acceptor characteristics.
For a previous report presenting statistics for 1986, published in 1987, see 54:10350.
Correspondence: Office National de la Famille et de la Population, 42 Avenue Madrid, Tunis, Tunisia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30293 World Federation of Health Agencies for the Advancement of Voluntary Surgical Contraception (New York, New York). Voluntary choice and surgical contraception: report of a leaders' symposium. ISBN 0-935955-02-X. 1987. x, 57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a leaders' symposium on voluntarism held in Kalutara, Sri Lanka, in May 1985. The focus is on the experiences and opinions concerning policies and practices involving voluntarism in surgical contraception programs around the world. Examples are presented for India, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, and the United States, and voluntarism in programs of the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception is described. Other perspectives considered include program policy, service delivery, the clients, the general public, nongovernmental organizations, and international donor organizations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

54:30294 Treiman, Katherine; Liskin, Laurie. IUDs--a new look. Population Reports, Series B: Intrauterine Devices, No. 5, Mar 1988. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The current status of IUDs throughout the world is reviewed. The situation in the United States, where IUDs have been all but removed from the market, is examined, and implications for IUD use in other countries are considered. The report includes sections on IUD performance, insertion, removal, infection, distribution and use, and use in family planning programs. An extensive unannotated bibliography is included. It is concluded that IUD use "is many times safer than pregnancy and more effective in preventing pregnancy than oral contraceptives, condoms, spermicides, any barrier method, or Natural Family Planning. The current generation of IUDs is safe for most women and about 99 percent effective over one year of use. But not all women should use IUDs. The provider must screen potential users, insert the IUD correctly, and follow up users."
Correspondence: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30295 Trias, M.; Anderson, J. E.; Ojeda, G.; Oberle, M. W. A lifetable analysis of sterilization failure: data from the Profamilia clinic, Bogota, Colombia. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, No. 3, Jun 1987. 235-40 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Sterilization failure rates were computed using lifetable methods for sterlizations occurring between 1973 and 1982 in the Profamilia family planning clinic in Bogota, Colombia. Out of a total of nearly 45,000 sterilizations occurring during this period 503 sterilization failures were detected. Comparing methods, laparoscopy with the silastic band method had a significantly higher rate of failure, 1.5% after 5 years compared to 0.9% for laparoscopy with cautery and 0.6% for minilaparotomy."
Correspondence: M. W. Oberle, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

54:30296 Juyal, R. K. Cost-effectiveness of family planning in India: the long-run average and marginal costs. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1986. 138-47 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the present paper, the average and marginal costs have been estimated for the family planning programme in India over a period of 27 years. During this period, various policy changes were introduced and one of these, the reorientation of the programme in 1966-67 to make it time-bound and target-oriented, was found to have improved the programme's cost-effectiveness."
Correspondence: R. K. Juyal, Department of Planning and Evaluation, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi 110 067, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:30297 Phillips, James F.; Simmons, Ruth; Koenig, Michael A.; Chakraborty, J. Determinants of reproductive change in a traditional society: evidence from Matlab, Bangladesh. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 135, Dec 1987. 58 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
Lessons concerning factors influencing reproductive change that have been learned in the course of the Matlab (Bangladesh) Family Planning-Health Services Project, begun in 1977, are summarized. Evidence is found to support the hypothesis that "contraceptive services can induce and sustain fertility decline in a rural traditional population. The demographic impact of this project has been pronounced. This finding supports the view that supply-side policies can succeed even where institutional supports for demand are weak. This paper reviews the relationship between the Bangladesh climate of demand and the Matlab system of supply with the aim of explaining how such effects arise."
Correspondence: Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30298 Schultz, T. Paul. Population programs: measuring their impact on fertility and the personal distribution of their effects. Journal of Policy Modeling, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1988. 113-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Evaluating population programs involves statistically inferring how the interregional variation in subsidized family planning activity (or other program intervention) is related to fertility, holding constant for an array of initial endowments, prices, wages, and environmental factors that are determined independently of parents and are likely to exert an exogenous influence on desired and actual fertility. This paper illustrates how most family planning evaluation schemes are flawed because they focus analysis on measured contraceptive use rather than on the final fertility outcome. Furthermore, the choice of environmental determinants of fertility, other than the local activity of the family planning program, are rarely conceptualized as including only exogenous conditions influencing the reproductive goals and behavior of couples. Review of evidence from the early years of the Taiwan family planning program illustrates many of the issues discussed at the outset of the paper."
Correspondence: T. P. Schultz, Department of Economics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:30299 Szykman, Maurice. Evaluation problems of anti-natalist policies. [Problemes d'evaluation des politiques anti-natalistes.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 2, No. 2, ISBN 2-87085-045-X. Feb 1985. 7-56 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study is a brief overview of the main problems hindering the measurement of the impact of family planning programmes on fertility. A brief description of several evaluation methods commonly resorted to is presented. A number of theoretical, conceptual and methodological difficulties pertaining to these methods are then scrutinized. Special attention is devoted to various concepts of potential fertility and...their effect on the measurement of the demographic impact of a programme. Likewise, problems encountered in attempts to disentangle the effect of programme factors from the effects of social change on fertility are also examined. The reliability of the results obtained with these methods is affected by these problems, but these results remain, despite some weaknesses, useful approximations of the demographic impact of anti-natalist population policies." The primary geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

54:30300 Beckman, Linda J. Changes in motivation for parenthood among young married couples. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 2, Summer 1987. 96-110 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The perceived satisfactions, costs, and overall motivation associated with having a first or second child was assessed....Motivation associated with parenthood varied systematically over time and was influenced by attainment of cultural fertility norms and the impact of a birth. Among those who experienced a birth between Times 1 and 2, couples who already had a child showed a much greater drop in motivation for a future child than did initially childless couples. Husbands perceived lower costs associated with an additional child than did wives." Data are from two sets of interviews conducted with 507 U.S. couples six months after marriage or first birth in 1977-1978 and 18 to 20 months thereafter.
Correspondence: Linda J. Beckman, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30301 Cartwright, Ann. Unintended pregnancies that lead to babies. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 3, 1988. 249-54 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Among a random sample of women giving birth to a live baby in 1984 in England, just over a quarter described the pregnancy as unintended. This, together with the ratio of legal terminations to live or still births, suggests that about two-fifths of conceptions are unintended. Data from the study suggest that babies resulting from unintended pregnancies are somewhat disadvantaged physically as well as socially, while maternity services may contribute to the disadvantages."
Correspondence: A. Cartwright, Institute for Social Studies in Medical Care, 14 South Hill Park, Hampstead, London NW3 2SB, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:30302 Igarashi, Tadataka. Cultural practices favoring young marriage and high fertility: the case of a Priangan Sundanese village, West Java. Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 4, Mar 1988. 593-624 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The social and cultural factors that are associated with high fertility among the Sundanese of Western Java, Indonesia, are analyzed. Data are from fieldwork undertaken by the author in a village in the Priangan Highlands and are compared with data on the fertility behavior of other Indonesian ethnic groups. Factors considered include early age at marriage, ability of women to choose their own marriage partners, universality of marriage, and early consummation of marriage.
Correspondence: T. Igarashi, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Shimoadachi-cho 46, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30303 Joesoef, Mohamad R.; Baughman, Andrew L.; Utomo, Budi. Husband's approval of contraceptive use in metropolitan Indonesia: program implications. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 162-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The impact of husband's approval on contraceptive use in urban Indonesia is studied. "Using data from the first Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for metropolitan cities, husband's approval and other determinants of contraceptive use among fecund women were evaluated. The levels of contraceptive use varied among cities, ranging from 34.2 percent in Ujung Pandang to 56.5 percent in Semarang. For all cities, however, husband's approval was the most important determinant, followed by number of living children and wife's education. Among women who desire to have no more children, 17.4 percent and 27.8 percent of contraceptive nonuse in Medan and Jakarta, respectively, was attributable to husband's disapproval. Because most of the family planning programs in Indonesia are designed to serve primarily women, the finding of husband's approval as the most important determinant has important program implications."
Correspondence: M. R. Joesoef, School of Public Health, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30304 Jorgensen, Stephen R.; Adams, Russell P. Predicting Mexican-American family planning intentions: an application and test of a social psychological model. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, No. 1, Feb 1988. 107-19 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Utilizing data from a random probability sample of 708 Mexican-American women in southern Arizona, this analysis is a test of a social psychological model of fertility-related intentions that has been applied in previous studies of the non-Hispanic population in the United States. Three behavioral intentions are entered as dependent variables in a multiple regression analysis: intending to (a) have no more children, (b) have a child in the next year, and (c) have a sterilization operation. In support of the model, the results indicate that attitudes and normative beliefs of significant others, weighted by motivation to comply with those reference groups, combine to explain a significant proportion of variance in these fertility-related intentions of Mexican-American women."
Correspondence: S. R. Jorgensen, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30305 Karki, Yagya B. Sex preference and the value of sons and daughters in Nepal. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 169-78 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Sex preference and the specific value of sons and daughters to parents in Nepal are examined using rural and urban survey data from 1979. Ideal family size among all respondents was, on average, three children, with two sons and one daughter the preferred sex composition for about 90 percent of all respondents. Among those who reported current contraceptive use, the mean number of living sons was higher than the mean number of living daughters for all respondents. Most couples have at least one son before they adopt contraception; respondents had, on average, three to four births before adopting contraception. Sons are preferred to daughters by Nepalese parents mainly for socioeconomic and religious reasons, as opposed to the economic reasons reported elsewhere in many developing societies. The findings indicate that the economic motive for having both sons and daughters may be weakening in Nepal, but that a preference for sons does exist."
Correspondence: Y. B. Karki, Worldview International Foundation/Nepal, P.O. Box 2912, Tangal, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30306 Nickerson, Carol A.; McClelland, Gary H. Beliefs and values and the sterilization decision. Population and Environment, Vol. 9, No. 2, Summer 1987. 74-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A decision-making framework based on the models of personal decision making developed by psychologists and economists and a methodology based on axiomatic conjoint measurement are used to explore individuals' beliefs and values regarding contraceptive sterilization. Particular emphasis is given to demonstrating a. that there exist individual differences in beliefs and values, b. that there exist differences in beliefs and values between persons who choose sterilization--either tubal ligation or vasectomy--and persons who choose non-sterilization contraceptive methods when no more children are wanted, and c. that the effect of beliefs and values on the sterilization decision is an interactive one. The methodology used is compared to that typically used in studying fertility- and health-related behaviors." Data are from interviews conducted with 100 U.S. men and women.
Correspondence: Publications Librarian, Center for Research on Judgement and Policy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0344. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30307 Poston, Dudley L.; Kramer, Kathryn B. Patterns of childlessness among Catholic and non Catholic women in the U.S.: are the patterns converging? Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 9: 1987, No. 9.002, 1987. 35 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The major objective of this paper has been to ascertain with log-linear analyses the degree to which Catholics and nonCatholics [in the United States] differ in their patterns of childlessness. We examined this question by focusing on women in 1976 and 1982 who were voluntarily, involuntarily, and temporarily childless, as well as those who had children. Given the long-standing emphasis by the Roman Catholic Church with regard to the importance of children in marriage and the family...we reasoned that the Catholic women should be less disposed than nonCatholic women to be voluntarily childless. With regard to involuntary childlessness, we...[expected] Catholic women to be more disposed than nonCatholic women to be involuntarily childless."
This paper was originally presented at the 1988 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. For more detailed information, see the abstracts of PAA papers at the beginning of this issue.
Correspondence: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas, 1800 Main Building, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30308 Sieval, Zamira. Contraception: liberation or threat? [Anticonceptie: bevrijding of bedreiging?] 1985. 176 pp. Stimezo Nederland: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut.
This is a report of a survey on contraception and induced abortion among Turkish migrant women living in the Netherlands. The data are from interviews conducted by the author with 33 pregnant women and 38 women attending abortion clinics. The focus is on attitudes toward fertility and family planning.
Correspondence: Vereniging Stimezo Nederland, Postbus 63565, 2502 JN The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30309 Winter, Laraine. The role of sexual self-concept in the use of contraceptives. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 123-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Sexual self-concept--defined as an individual's evaluation of his or her own sexual feelings and actions--is proposed as an important predictor of contraceptive behavior among [U.S.] teenagers, and a scale measuring the concept is described....Sexual self-concept is found to be associated with frequency of contraceptive use....It is also associated with [teenagers'] choice of contraceptive....These findings...suggest that younger teenagers may be poorer users of contraceptives because of a lower sexual self-concept."
Correspondence: L. Winter, Family Planning Council of Central Pennsylvania, Camp Hill, PA 17011. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

54:30310 Bailey, Patricia E.; Llano Saavedra, Luis; Kushner, Luis; Welsh, Michael; Janowitz, Barbara. A hospital study of illegal abortion in Bolivia. [Estudio hospitalario del aborto ilegal en Bolivia.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 104, No. 2, Feb 1988. 144-59 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Illegal abortion in Bolivia is analyzed using data on 4,371 women admitted because of abortion complications to 11 urban hospitals during a one-year period ending in July 1984. About one quarter of these admissions resulted from illegal abortions. Consideration is given to characteristics of those undergoing illegal abortions, methods used, previous contraceptive practice, and complications. The results indicate that 65.5 percent of these abortions were induced by persons with medical training. Furthermore, "60.2% of the women who underwent an induced abortion stated that in the month prior to conception they had not used any contraceptive methods; 47.7% indicated that the reason for this was lack of information." The author indicates the need to improve the availability of family planning services in Bolivia.
Correspondence: P. E. Bailey, Family Health International, P.O. Box 139950, Research Triangle Park Branch, Durham, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30311 Coeytaux, Francine M. Induced abortion in sub-Saharan Africa: what we do and do not know. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 186-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the literature on abortion in sub-Saharan Africa, identifies the gaps in the existing knowledge, and makes recommendations for future research and action."
Correspondence: F. M. Coeytaux, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30312 Dixon-Mueller, Ruth. Innovations in reproductive health care: menstrual regulation policies and programs in Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 129-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Although abortion is legally restricted in Bangladesh, early menstrual regulation (MR) as a means of reducing female morbidity and mortality associated with indigenous abortion has been part of the government's health and family planning efforts since 1975. Approximately 3,000 doctors and 2,600 female family planning workers (Family Welfare Visitors) have been trained in techniques of MR in a program intended ultimately to serve rural populations in all areas of the country. This paper assesses MR training and service programs in Bangladesh for their capacity to provide high quality reproductive health care for very poor women who are trying to control their fertility. Among other advantages, MR programs serve as an entry point for many women to contraceptive services and to maternal health care."
Correspondence: R. Dixon-Mueller, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30313 Hecht, Jacqueline. The legislation on abortion in Eastern Europe and the USSR. [La legislation de l'avortement en Europe de l'Est et en Union Sovietique.] Politiques de Population: Etudes et Documents, Vol. 3, No. 1, ISBN 2-87085-118-9. Jun 1987. 89-105 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Abortion laws for each of the countries of Eastern Europe are summarized. Changes in these laws during the postwar period are outlined. Eastern Europe is defined as including Albania, the USSR, and Yugoslavia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30314 Pacheco, Edilberto. Abortion in Venezuela: problem of public health, expression of social inequality. [El aborto en Venezuela: problema de salud publica, expresion de la desigualdad social.] 1986. 254 pp. Fondo Editorial Carlos Aponte: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Abortion in Venezuela is analyzed both from the public health perspective and as an indicator of social inequality. A review of the global situation concerning abortion and the associated mortality and morbidity is first presented. The next chapter deals with the situation in Venezuela, particularly in Caracas. The author contrasts the position of the state and its leaders regarding the sanctity of life and the country's socioeconomic conditions that make the poor and lower classes suffer the main impact of mortality and ill health from induced abortion.
Correspondence: Fondo Editorial Carlos Aponte, Apartado Postal 20.274, Caracas, Venezuela. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30315 Sheeran, Patrick J. Women, society, the state, and abortion: a structuralist analysis. ISBN 0-275-92744-X. LC 87-14615. 1987. xiv, 147 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is a general study of issues related to induced abortion in the contemporary world, with the emphasis on the situation in the United States. Topics covered include the political controversy surrounding abortion; the consequences of abortion, including morbidity and mortality; a historical overview; legal, biological, and philosophical issues; and medical, ethical, and theological views. The author attempts a structuralist approach to the analysis of the abortion controversy.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:30316 Spaziante, G. Recent changes in the field of therapeutic abortion: statistical data, observations, perspectives. [Variazioni recenti in tema di aborto terapeutico: dati statistici, considerazioni, prospettive.] Annali di Ostetricia, Ginecologia, Medicina Perinatale, Vol. 108, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 145-71 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in abortions performed over the past 12 years at a clinic in Milan, Italy, are analyzed. Consideration is given to age of woman, marital status, region of residence, and previous pregnancy history. Data are also presented on methods of abortion and on reasons for abortions performed after 90 days of pregnancy.
Correspondence: G. Spaziante, Sanitario Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan 20122, Italy. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

54:30317 Diaz, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Marshall, G.; del Pino, G.; Casado, M. E.; Miranda, P.; Schiappacasse, V.; Croxatto, H. B. Breastfeeding pattern and the duration of lactational amenorrhea in urban Chilean women. Contraception, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jul 1988. 37-51 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The influence of the breastfeeding pattern and several clinical variables upon the duration of postpartum amenorrhea [in Chile] was assessed in a group of [676] healthy women selected for having had a normal pregnancy and delivery and being highly motivated for prolonged breastfeeding on demand...." Among the factors considered are supplemental feeding, nursing frequency, maternal age, parity, and birth weight. The authors find that "in this urban population selected for having the highest motivation and best breastfeeding performance, the association of breastfeeding with amenorrhea was weak in comparison with what has been described for other populations."
Correspondence: S. Diaz, Instituto Chileno de Medicina Reproductiva, Consultorio de Planificacion Familiar, J. V. Lastarria 29, Departamento 101, Santiago, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30318 Kahn, Joan R.; Udry, J. Richard. Marital coital frequency: unnoticed outliers and unspecified interactions lead to erroneous conclusions. American Sociological Review, Vol. 51, No. 5, Oct 1986. 734-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a critique of an article by Guillermina Jasso concerning changes in marital coital frequency in the United States over time, in which she examined the separate effects of spouses' ages and marital duration. A reply by Jasso is included (pp. 738-42).
For the article by Jasso, published in 1985, see 52:10377.
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, University Square 300A, Chapel Hill, NC 27514-3997. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:30319 Cutright, Phillips; Smith, Herbert L. Intermediate determinants of racial differences in 1980 U.S. nonmarital fertility rates. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 3, May-Jun 1988. 119-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors identify "four major determinants of racial differences in nonmarital fertility rates in the U.S.: differential sexual activity...; differentials in spontaneous and induced abortion; differential contraceptive use...; and differential legitimation, through marriage, of births conceived out of wedlock. Racial differences in all four indicators encourage higher black than white nonmarital fertility rates in every age-group examined; however, the relative contribution of each determinant to differences in nonmarital fertility varies according to age."
Correspondence: P. Cutright, Department of Sociology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30320 Furstenberg, Frank F. Race differences in teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and adolescent childbearing. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 65, Suppl., No. 2, 1987. 381-403 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article has examined the origin and consequences of racial differences in teen sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing [in the United States]. Black/white differences in rates of early and out-of-wedlock childbearing have been declining in the past several decades though the incidence of nonmarital fertility among younger teens is still about five times as high for blacks as for whites. Early sexual behavior, irregular use of contraception, and a much lower probability of marrying prior to having a birth all contribute to the racial differential. Evidence suggests that both normative and socioeconomic differences may account for these demographic patterns."
Correspondence: F. F. Furstenberg, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6299. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:30321 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. Some new data concerning births conceived outside marriage in Italy. [De nouvelles donnees sur les naissances concues hors mariage en Italie.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 463-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Trends in the number of pregnancies conceived outside of marriage in Italy are analyzed based on data from official sources for 1980 and 1981. Comparisons are made with the situation in other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.