Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

54:20461 Ahmed, Ashraf U. Marriage and its transition in Bangladesh. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1986. 49-59 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines developments in marriage patterns in Bangladesh in light of social, cultural, and economic conditions. Previous literature on the subject is used to discuss Muslim marriage, Hindu marriage, child marriage, mate selection and social mobility, and the question of a marriage squeeze. "The analysis presents evidence that the society is experiencing a change in its family formation, mating process and family type. This transition is to some extent towards the characteristics of [the] Western World, but in a poor economy. Part of this transition is due to the effect of modernization and part due to increasing poverty."
Correspondence: A. U. Ahmed, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, University of Dhaka, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20462 Amoateng, Acheampong Y. The sociodemographic correlates of the timing of family formation and dissolution in Ghana. Pub. Order No. DA8727167. 1987. 179 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using the 1979/1980 Ghana Fertility Survey, this study examined the effects of selected social and demographic factors on the timing of marriage, fertility, and marital dissolution. Among the sociodemographic factors examined were education, occupation, ethnicity, religion, region, family structure, and birth and marriage cohorts. The findings have shown the existence of early and universal marriage in Ghana despite the increasing tendency to postpone marriage. Moreover, childbearing follows soon after marriage, and family size tends to be large in Ghana, despite a recent decline in fertility. Contrary to expectation, we find both high rates of divorce and increasing marital instability in the country."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brigham Young University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(9).

54:20463 Basavarajappa, K. G.; Norris, M. J.; Halli, S. S. Spouse selection in Canada, 1921-78: an examination by age, sex and religion. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 211-23 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents time series data on spouse selection in Canada for the period 1921-78. Homogamous and edogamous trends are examined by age, sex and religion. There is considerable variation in the level of endogamy amongst religious groups. With respect to age, marriages were increasingly homogamous up to 1971 and thereafter less so. Younger males increasingly tended to select brides of their own age group until the 1960s, while older males have been increasingly heterogamous since World War II. Females under 20 years of age tend to select older grooms; other brides show no clear trend in their spouse selection by age."
Correspondence: K. G. Basavarajappa, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20464 Bozon, Michel; Heran, Francois. Finding a spouse. Part II: the meeting place in social space. [La decouverte du conjoint. II. Les scenes de rencontre dans l'espace social.] Population, Vol. 43, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 121-50 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The 'Formation of Couples' survey which was carried out [in France] in 1983-1984 on a sample of 3,000 (people under 45, belonging to couples, married or unmarried) investigated mechanisms at work in the marriage market. In this second article, the places where the couple first met (public dance, neighbourhood, school, work, etc.) are studied in relation to the social origins of the individuals concerned....There is a major difference between closed or reserved social settings, where members of the upper classes generally meet, and public places open to all, where working class couples first meet."
For Part I, published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20465 Bozon, Michel; Heran, Francois. Finding a spouse. Part 1: changes and morphology of the place of first encounters. [La decouverte du conjoint. I. Evolution et morphologie des scenes de rencontre.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 943-85 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
This is the first of a two-part study on how couples meet their eventual spouses in France, based on data from a survey of 3,000 persons under age 45 carried out in 1983-1984. The present part is concerned with the context and circumstances in which couples first meet. The questions asked in the survey were developed from those used by Alain Girard in a 1959 survey. "The open questions that were asked in the survey in 1959 we re-coded to the categories of the new survey. This made it possible to trace changes in modes of meeting between 1914 and 1984 (the rise and fall in meetings at dances, the disappearance of neighbourhood meetings and of arranged meetings, the increase in certain types of leisure activity, etc.). These different kinds of meeting are related to more general forms of sociability and are considered in their relation to the socio-demographic characteristics of participants."
For the study by Girard, published in 1964, see 31:2255.
Correspondence: M. Bozon, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20466 Castro, Teresa; Bumpass, Larry. Recent trends and differentials in marital disruption. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-20, Jun 1987. 29, [19] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper documents the highest level of marital disruption yet recorded for [the United States], and examines the persistence of major differences by race, education, and age at marriage. Given the growing prevalence of remarriage, the comparative stability of first and second marriages is also examined. We conclude with a consideration of some linkages between marital disruption and changes in other family related areas....This analysis is based on the marital histories from the June 1985 Current Population Survey, a multi-stage stratified sample of the U.S. population. These data have a clear advantage over vital statistics data because they permit the use of separation instead of divorce dates to identify the timing of marital disruption, and because they allow the analysis of a number of covariates."
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20467 Devereaux, Mary S. 1986 census highlights: marital status. Canadian Social Trends, Spring 1988. 24-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This is an overview of recent trends in nuptiality in Canada. "Results from the 1986 Census show continuing shifts in the marital status of Canadians since the last count in 1981. The numbers who were divorced, separated, or widowed increased at a faster pace than did the married and single populations."
Correspondence: M. S. Devereaux, Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20468 Driver, Edwin D.; Driver, Aloo E. Social and demographic correlates of consanguineous marriages in south India. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, Summer 1988. vi, xii, 229-44 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Trends in consanguineous marriage in south India are analyzed. Data are from a stratified, random sample of 400 heads of households living in urban Madras in 1966. The results indicate that consanguineous marriages generally involved "men who were defined by their communities as the most preferred types of mates--mother's brother, mother's brother's son, or father's sister's son. As compared with non-consanguineous marriages, these marriages were usually arranged by the parents and usually occurred at young ages for bride and groom. Comparatively speaking, they produced more offspring and had greater infant and child mortality." Results are compared with other studies conducted in south India and in the rest of the country.
Correspondence: E. D. Driver, Department of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

54:20469 Dumas, Jean. The evolution of first marriages in Canada. [L'evolution des premiers mariages au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 237-65 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent the major socio-political events to the last sixty years (the crisis of the 1930's, the second world war, etc.) have influenced the behavior of Canadians towards (first) marriage. The results of period as well as cohort analysis lead to the conclusion that, while these events did not significantly affect the ultimate (at age 50) frequency of first marriages among generations, they however had a marked impact on the timing of marriage, and therefore on the period measures."
Correspondence: J. Dumas, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20470 Fargues, Philippe. The demography of Arab-Muslim marriage: tradition and change. [La demographie du mariage arabo-musulman: tradition et changement.] Maghreb-Machrek, Vol. 116, Apr-Jun 1987. 59-73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent changes in marriage patterns in the Muslim Arab world are analyzed. The author notes that the problems posed by the early age at marriage for women, virtually universal marriage, and a surplus of women in the marriage market were traditionally resolved partly by polygyny but primarily by repudiation. Changes over the past 25 years have tended toward a stabilization of marriages and a decline in repudiation of wives.
Correspondence: P. Fargues, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED], 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris, Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

54:20471 Hooper, Douglas A.; England, J. Lynn. Single females in rural energy-impacted counties: the effects of rapid growth and a male marriage-market squeeze. Rural Sociology, Vol. 53, No. 1, Spring 1988. 87-95 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
"There are two hypotheses concerning how rapid growth affects women in rural communities: (1) women are more adversely affected than men, and (2) growth liberates women from their traditional sex roles. We used a specific subgroup of the [U.S.] female population--single, never-married females of marriageable age--to examine these two hypotheses. This paper focuses on how a male marriage-market squeeze caused by the influx of a large number of single, never-married males of marriageable age affects these females. The hypotheses, combined with proposals drawn from the demographic literature on marriage markets, are tested using data from counties in Montana and Utah impacted by energy development in the mid- and late 1970s. The measures used are changes in nuptiality rates and age patterns of first marriages."
Correspondence: D. A. Hooper, Research and Evaluation Division, LDS Church, 50 East North Temple, Salt Lake City, UT 84150. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20472 Imaizumi, Yoko. Familial aggregation of consanguineous marriages in Japan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 99-109 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The distribution of consanguineous marriages among spouses and husband's and wife's parents was analysed using data on 9,225 families in six widely different areas of Japan. With two exceptions, the consanguinity rates for husband's and wife's parents are higher in related spouses than in unrelated spouses. The familial aggregation of consanguinity was slightly decreased in more recent marriages, a change which began recently with couples who have abandoned the more traditional Japanese way of life."
Correspondence: Y. Imaizumi, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tokyo, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20473 Jones, F. L. Marriage patterns and the stratification system: trends in educational homogamy since the 1930s. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Sociology, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jul 1987. 185-98 pp. Bundoora, Australia. In Eng.
Changes in marriage patterns over time in Australia are examined using data from the 1981 census one percent sample tape. The focus is on changes in the stratification of marriage choices as reflected in educational status of spouses. The results indicate no significant changes since the 1950s.
Correspondence: F. L. Jones, Department of Sociology, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, POB 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20474 Keyfitz, Nathan. A Markov chain for calculating the durability of marriage. Mathematical Population Studies, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1988. 101-21, 124 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The usual Markov model of marriage permits informative experiments on the effect of alterations in the transition rules. It can tell, for example, what difference it would make to the durability of marriage if there was no divorce and the other transitions were as observed. This is in addition to the capacity of the usual model to find the effect of small changes in the transition rates. Canadian data for 1970-1982 permit comparisons over time, and show among other things not only that married men live longer than single, but that the difference is increasing; the increase in the 'marriage bonus' over time also appears for women."
Correspondence: N. Keyfitz, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20475 Kravdal, Oystein; Noack, Turid. Divorce in Norway, 1965-1985: a demographic analysis. [Skilsmisser i Norge, 1965-1985: en demografisk analyse.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 88/6, ISBN 82-537-2587-6. 1988. 147 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor.
Trends in divorce in Norway are analyzed for the years 1965-1985, with a focus on determining the rates of divorce among different groups of the population. Following a discussion of data and methodology, the significance of marriage cohort, number and age of children, timing of first birth, and marriage age are considered. Rates for divorce in first and second marriages are examined separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20476 Lacombe, Bernard. Informal unions in sub-Saharan Africa: the example of the Congolese "second office". [Les unions informelles en Afrique au sud du Sahara: l'exemple du deuxieme bureau congolais.] Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 151-64 pp. Rome, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ita.
The author analyzes an informal type of marital union known as the "second office", which is prevalent in countries such as the Congo, the Ivory Coast, and Zaire. "He points out...aspects of the phenomenon which pertain to tradition (polygamy) as well as to sociological aspects linked to modern lifestyles (affectivity in interpersonal relationships, preeminence of the father over the uncle in matrilineal kinship systems), to the urban way of life (greater feminine independence) and to essentially monetary economic relationships. The survey method was based on 'focus groups'."
Correspondence: B. Lacombe, Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation, 24 Rue Bayard, 75008 Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20477 Lengsfeld, Wolfgang; Schwagler, Georg. Unions without marriage--results of an empirical study. [Nichteheliche Lebensgemeinschaften--Ergebnisse eines empirischen Projekts.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 53, 1987. [412] pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a report on a project conducted by the University of Mainz on consensual union in the Federal Republic of Germany. Two papers are first presented, one concerning marriage, unmarried living partners, and the family, and the second a review of the literature on consensual unions. Reports from project participants are also included on topics such as reasons for not marrying, reasons for separating, division of household responsibilities between married people and between unmarried partners, female employment, and other aspects of life for married and unmarried couples. Data for the project are from interviews conducted in 1982-1984 with 236 married and unmarried couples in three age groups.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postf. 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20478 Lin, Sung-Ling. Marital selection and the child-bearing and companionship functions of marriage and remarriage. Pub. Order No. DA8722017. 1987. 196 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1982 Cycle III of the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this dissertation concentrates on how the change of marital function between the first and second marriages is associated with the degree of homogamy between husbands and wives in first and second marriages, and similarity between the two husbands in first and second marriages, with respect to age, education, and religion....The present findings show that child-bearing marriages tend to have a higher degree of homogamy in age and religion while companionship marriages tend to have higher degree of homogamy in education."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Arizona State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:20479 Malaker, Chitta R. On recent developments of marriage models and their applications to Indian nuptiality. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 93-102 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The author reviews various marriage models and applies them to data for India. The models tested include Coale's model curve, Hernes's model, and Hill's polynomials for first marriage distribution. The author notes that age at entry into the marriage market is very low in India and the pace of marriage is high, with almost universal marriage for both sexes. The problems this poses for the three models considered are discussed. The author concludes that "among different models compared, Coale's three parameter curve gives a very satisfactory representation of Indian nuptiality."
Correspondence: C. R. Malaker, Demography Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20480 Mutsaers, W. C. M. The stability of second marriages. [De stabiliteit van tweede huwelijken.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1987. 83-106 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Based on published research the stability of second marriages is compared with that of first [using data primarily for the United States]. Stability is defined in two ways in the literature, viz. the behaviour of divorce and the inclination to divorce. The various ways of measuring the frequency of divorce behaviour, as well as the relation between divorce and marital satisfaction, are discussed. The usefulness of the concept inclination to divorce is critically evaluated. The results of the various enquiries on the stability of second marriages are discussed and summarized. A suggestion is made for research on the subject in the Netherlands."
Correspondence: W. C. M. Mutsaers, Zonnebloemlaan 10, 2111 ZG Aerdenhout, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20481 Nair, P. S.; Koteshwar, R. K. Female age at marriage in Northern Karnataka. Social Change, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep 1987. 65-70 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to (i) furnish the recent trends in female age at marriage in rural Northern Karnataka [India] and (ii) examine the socio-cultural factors influencing very early marriages. The main data set used is from a cohort analysis pertaining to girls born in rural Dharwad during 1962-1972. The median age at marriage is 16 years. Further, two-thirds of the girls are married before 18 years and nearly one-fourth of the marriages are even pre-puberty cases. Various factors--socio-cultural, social psychological, economic etc.--responsible for the perpetuation of very early marriages in the study area, in spite of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, are discussed."
Correspondence: P. S. Nair, Population Research Centre, JSS Institute of Economic Research, Vidyagiri, Dharwad 580 004, Karnataka, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20482 Parnell, Allan M. Marriage and motherhood: changing social relationships in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8722335. 1987. 152 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Changes in the relationship between marriage and fertility in the United States since World War II are examined. "This dissertation examines each of the three sequences of marriage, conception and motherhood for American women from 1946 through the mid-1970s. Proportional hazards models are used to examine the first birth interval, which measures the linkage between marriage and motherhood. Women who conceive their first child premaritally are examined to see who marries prior to the birth. For premarital mothers, the interval between their first birth and first marriage is examined."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:20483 Rao, Kamarsu V. Demographic models of age at first marriage and first birth: an application to Canadian data. 1987. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis examines various mathematical models suitable for the analysis of event histories. The models discussed include [the] Coale-McNeil model, Cox's model, and parametric failure time models. All these models are applied to data on age at first marriage and first birth, obtained from the Canadian Fertility Survey of 1984....The covariates considered are place of residence, education, work, first birth status, and religion....All four models considered are fitted, first without covariates, and later with the five covariates, for each birth cohort of women....The results from all the models indicate similar trends and patterns across birth cohorts."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(9).

54:20484 Rowland, Robert. Mortality, migratory movements, and age at marriage in the Iberian Peninsula. [Mortalidad, movimientos migratorios y edad de acceso al matrimonio en la Peninsula Iberica.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987. 41-63 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines the possibility of using singulate mean age at marriage, as defined by John Hajnal in 1953, for the estimation of models of nuptiality in the Iberian Peninsula. He also evaluates to what extent demographic conditions in the region in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (relatively severe mortality and high levels of migration in some areas) affected the accuracy of the estimates. Two alternatives are presented that use model populations to compensate for the lack of adequate statistical information.
For the article by Hajnal, published in 1953, see 20:851.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20485 Sathar, Zeba A.; Kiani, M. Framurz K. Delayed marriages in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Winter 1986. 535-52 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"This paper's primary objective is to explore the impact of modernization, particularly of expansion of education and modern sector employment, urbanization and migration, on proportions never married in various age groups [in Pakistan]....The primary source of data for this study is the Migration module of the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) Survey of 1979. Supplementary data have also been taken from Pakistan's population censuses of 1961, 1972 and 1981....This study mainly underscores the importance attached to education, particularly of females, as an important policy tool for bringing about significant delays in marriage and subsequently in lowering fertility. Pre-nuptial employment of women, particularly in the modern sector, though of small magnitude, is of critical importance in changing attitudes not only towards marriage but, subsequently, towards child-bearing and contraception also." A comment by M. N. I. Farooqui is included (pp. 551-2).
Correspondence: Z.A. Sathar, Senior Research Demographer, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20486 Susokolov, A. A. International marriages in the USSR. [Mezhnatsional'nye braki v SSSR.] Populyarnaya Demografiya, 1987. 143 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in marriage between people of different ethnic groups in the USSR are analyzed. Factors considered include sources of information on marriages and families, how spouses met, who is employed, divorce, and children and family size.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20487 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). First marriage: patterns and determinants. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/76, 1988. vi, 110 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one of two publications that will present the main results of a worldwide review of patterns of first marriage. It presents "a review of the nuptiality literature as it bears on the concepts of marriage and determinants of first marriage patterns. In addition, it provides current data on first marriage patterns and minimum legal age at marriage for all countries for which data or information are currently available." Separate consideration is given to developed and developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20488 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Marital status and living arrangements: March 1987. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 423, Apr 1988. iii, 73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed statistics on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States based on the March 1987 Current Population Survey. The statistics are presented by age, sex, race, Hispanic origin, and, in some instances, by metropolitan residence and region. In past years, this report contained an analysis of the data, comparing the current survey results to past surveys and/or decennial censuses. This year, this portion of the report has been omitted so the release of current survey data is more timely." Appendixes include definitions and explanations of categories, and information on data sources and reliability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20489 Wheeler, Raymond H.; Gunter, B. G. Change in spouse age differences at marriage: a challenge to traditional family and sex roles? Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 3, Fall 1987. 411-21 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The authors hypothesize that marriage postponement by women, the dispersion of divorce through the life cycle, more equal distribution of power between the sexes, and wide swings in fertility will affect age differences by sex in U.S. marriages. Data from a Florida county for the period 1930-1980 show an increasing percentage of women marrying men younger than themselves, a trend confirmed by 1985 data. An analysis of these changes is presented, and some explanations for them are provided.
Correspondence: R. H. Wheeler, Department of Sociology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20490 Wu, Lawrence L. J. Age dependence in rates of first marriage: an exploratory analysis of women in the United States, 1880-1970. Pub. Order No. DA8720445. 1987. 274 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Age dependence in rates of first marriage among women in the United States between 1880 and 1970 is studied by analyzing marriage histories of a large sample from the June Supplement to the 1980 Current Population Survey. "Overall, the results...suggest that a woman's decision to marry consists of two broad sets of factors whose explanatory power varies with age. The first set of factors involves practical considerations and has the greatest explanatory power during the ages when most women marry. These factors include schooling status, disadvantageous economic circumstances, and age norms. A second set of factors concerns a logically prior issue--whether to marry at all."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Stanford University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(6).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

54:20491 Abrahamse, Allan F.; Morrison, Peter A.; Waite, Linda J. Beyond stereotypes: who becomes a single teenage mother? Pub. Order No. R-3489-HHS/NICHD. ISBN 0-8330-0832-3. LC 87-32393. Jan 1988. xv, 88 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the factors affecting single teenage pregnancy in the United States. The data concern 13,000 contemporary high school sophomore women included in the High School and Beyond survey. The focus of the study is on identification of the background characteristics that determine teenagers' risk of becoming single mothers, the extent to which family and religious influences temper those risks, and what other kinds of influences may further modify such risks. "Our analysis shows that young women with different background profiles exhibit markedly different rates of single parenthood over the two-year period they were tracked. Rates vary from as low as one in a thousand (for high-ability, high-SES [socioeconomic status] white respondents in intact families) to as high as one in four (for low-ability, low-SES black girls from female-headed families)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20492 Abrahamse, Allan F.; Morrison, Peter A.; Waite, Linda J. Teenagers willing to consider single parenthood: who is at greatest risk? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 13-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors explore factors that contribute to the willingness of U.S. teenagers to consider single parenthood. "The willingness to consider single motherhood can be traced to patterns of nonconforming behavior, to the educational opportunity costs of becoming a single mother and, at least among whites and Hispanics, to self-reported depression, which may be a proxy for low self-esteem....The data presented in this article are taken from the High School and Beyond panel study, a large, nationally representative study begun in spring 1980 that has conducted follow-up surveys at two-year intervals since then."
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20493 Adewuyi, Alfred A. Intergenerational change in family size among the urban residents in Ibadan, Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 121-32 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The relationship between the sizes of family of origin and family of procreation is analyzed using data for 845 households in Ibadan, Nigeria. The results indicate that the relationship is positive but not significant. This weak relationship is attributed to the fact that the population surveyed is one of high social aspirations and of first-generation urban status, for whom size of family of origin is of little significance.
Correspondence: A. A. Adewuyi, Department of Demography and Social Statistics, University of Ife, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20494 Avdeev, A. A. The family in pre-capitalist societies. [Sem'ya v dokapitalisticheskikh formatsiyakh.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 26-38, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Economic determination of changes in family size during the precapitalist epoch [in the USSR] is analysed. It is argued that familial type of production creates demand [for a] high number of children and [that] historical decay of this production type constitutes the main cause of fertility decline."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20495 Becker, Gary S. Family economics and macro behavior. American Economic Review, Vol. 78, No. 1, Mar 1988. 1-13 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
In this 1987 presidential address to the American Economic Association, the author explores the contributions of the field of family economics to macroeconomic analysis. The focus is on family behavior as an active, endogenous factor that both affects and is affected by the evolution of the economy. "Much of the time is spent on long-term economic growth, although I also discuss short and long cycles in economic activity, and the interaction between overlapping generations through Social Security, transmission of inequality, and in other ways....Many conclusions in these and presumably other macro areas change radically when family choices get the attention they deserve."
Correspondence: G. S. Becker, Departments of Economics and Sociology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20496 Bestuzhev-Lada, I. V. The future of the family as an issue in social forecasting. [Budushchee sem'i i sem'ya budushchego v problematike sotsial'nogo prognozirovaniya.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 178-96, 202 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses possible future developments in family structure under conditions of socialism. It is suggested that there will be a decrease in the numbers of large families and of childless families, and that the number of single and divorced persons will decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20497 Bracher, M. D. The Australian Family Project. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 2, Nov 1987. 106-22 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"The Australian Family Project was established by the Research School of Social Sciences of the Australian National University in 1985 to investigate the social, demographic and economic forces that have been changing the shape and nature of the Australian family over the last generation. To create its data base, the project conducted a national sample survey in 1986 in which detailed personal histories were obtained from men and women. This paper documents the background and planning for the survey, its content and the organization, execution and outcome of the fieldwork."
Correspondence: M. D. Bracher, Australian Family Project, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra City, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20498 Chen, Jie. Preliminary study on the methodology for dynamic and static observations of family households. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1987. 24-31 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author discusses methodology for the study of household change based on census data and on the results of a 1984 household survey conducted in Yunan province, China. Attention is given to both static and dynamic observation of family size and composition. The focus is on ascertaining the similarities and discrepancies between families and households.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20499 da Costa, Iraci del N.; Nozoe, Nelson H.; Porto, Cornelia N. Family and household structure in Brazil: quantitative changes and lines of convergence. [Estrutura das familias e dos domicilios no Brasil: mudancas quantitativas e linhas de convergencia.] Estudos Economicos, Vol. 17, No. 3, Sep-Dec 1987. 367-403 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The structure of rural households in Brazil is analyzed using data from national household surveys conducted between 1978 and 1984. Comparisons are made with urban households. Factors considered include household size, relationship to head of household, sex distribution, and characteristics of head of household. The authors conclude that rural and urban households are becoming more similar in size and composition over time.
Correspondence: I. del N. da Costa, Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, Cidade Universitaria Armando de Salles Oliveira, Caixa Postal 11.474, CEP 05508 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20500 Davis, Mari. Work and family functioning: an annotated bibliography selected from FAMILY Database. ISBN 0-642-12190-7. Sep 1987. 143 pp. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This bibliography lists Australian works published since 1980 about work and family life. It provides annotations to recent research and other publications on the impacts of work on family life and the care of children, on women, the aged, adolescents, migrants and disabled persons." Sections are also included on family size and employment, migrants and employment, and one-parent families and employment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20501 de Graaf, A. The stability of the expectation: "no more children". [De stabiliteit van de uitspraak: "geen kinderen meer"] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 1987. 27-32 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The reliability of women's stated expectations not to have more children is tested using data from the Netherlands Fertility Survey of 1982 and the 1985 follow-up survey. The factors most closely associated with persisting in having no more children include parity, age of youngest child, and degree of certainty.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20502 DeVoe, Pamela A. Structural considerations in the comtemporary Taiwanese farm family: survival of the large family ideal. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1987. 57-65 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The structure of farm families in an industrializing rural area in west-central Taiwan is explored using data for 96 households in Hsiu-Shui district. The results suggest that despite modernization and social change, "the large family ideal still persists and expresses itself as a compartmental family which offers both the individual freedom of a nuclear family and the support and security of a large extended family."
Correspondence: P. A. DeVoe, Missouri Institute of Psychiatry, St. Louis, MO. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20503 Dudchenko, O. N. Family wealth and number of children in the family. [Blagosostoyanie i chislo detei v sem'e.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 81-93, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The article discusses methodological questions of...studies of social and economic fertility factors [in the USSR]. A brief overview of statistical studies of [the] income-fertility relationship is presented. Results of [a] recent socio-demographic study are used to follow-up and correlate certain trends of living standards and reproductive behavior of the families."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20504 Eliseeva, I. I.; Kadibur, T. S. Welcome, new persons. [Zdravstvui, novyi chelovek.] Populyarnaya Demografiya, 1987. 141 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Characteristics of families in the USSR are examined. Chapters are included on family formation, the birth rate and its ties to family structure, education and the family, family size, extended families, education and society, and the school-age population.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20505 Gauthier, Anne H. New estimates of child costs in Canada. [Nouvelles estimations du cout de l'enfant au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 187-208 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"In order to be able to appraise to what extent policy measures compensate for the cost of rearing a child, one needs an estimate of this cost. In this paper, the author presents a new model which is applied to data obtained from the survey of family expenditures, made in 1982 by Statistics Canada. The first part is devoted to the methodological and theoretical considerations on which the model is based, and the second part analyses the estimates of the cost of a child, according to age and rank of the child, and standard of living of the family."
Correspondence: A. H. Gauthier, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0T6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20506 Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung (Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of). Family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany: survey results. [Familienbildung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Stichtagergebnisse.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 54, 1987. xvi, 129 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a cross-sectional comparison of data on family formation collected at two-year intervals between 1975 and 1983 in the Federal Republic of Germany. Information is provided on socioeconomic factors related to family formation, including education and occupation, occupational status and income, family financial status, and attitudes toward marriage. Sections are also included on children, the desire to have them, and determinants of family size; housing, living conditions, and number of children; level of satisfaction with the living situation, schools, and characteristics of the neighborhood; family relationships; contraceptive use and methods, desired family size, and unwanted pregnancy; and family size and the decline in fertility.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Gustav-Stresemann-Ring 6, Postf. 5528, D-6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20507 Germany, Federal Republic of. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung (Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of). Family formation in the Federal Republic of Germany: methodology and base data concerning selected themes (limited panel analysis). [Familienbildung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Methodische Aufbereitung und Basisdaten uber ausgewahlte Themenkomplexe (eingeschrankte Panelanalyse).] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 55, 1988. vi, 209 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a follow-up to a longitudinal study on family formation, involving 2,235 women from the Federal Republic of Germany who were interviewed five times between 1975 and 1984. The author tests the value of selected data and their potential use for later panel analysis. Changes during the inquiry intervals are documented for selected indicators. The information pertains to marital status, attitudes toward marriage, household size, parents and in-laws, attitudes toward family size, financial status, residence characteristics, employment status of wife and husband, family planning, and attitudes and opinions on a variety of family issues.
Correspondence: Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 5528, 6200 Wiesbaden, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20508 Haskey, John. One-person households in Great Britain: living alone in the middle years of life. Population Trends, No. 50, Winter 1987. 23-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article examines the numbers and characteristics of people aged from 30 to 59 who live alone. The historical growth in the proportion of people living alone is traced from the beginning of the century and the trends over the last 25 years are examined against the background of changes in household and family composition. Almost one quarter of all households in Great Britain in 1985 were one-person households, but among households where the head was aged from 30 to 59, the proportion was smaller at one in nine. The article analyses the composition of those living alone by their age and marital status and, using data from the Longitudinal Study, assesses the importance of changes in marital status upon the likelihood of starting to live alone."
Correspondence: J. Haskey, Population Statistics Division, OPCS, St. Catherines House, 10 Kingsway, London WC2 6JP, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20509 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Factors affecting the recent change in headship rate in Japan. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 182, Apr 1987. 62-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Changes in household formation patterns in Japan between 1975 and 1985 are analyzed. The author notes a decline in the rate of household formation in this period, particularly a decline in the headship rate among males in their 20s and 30s. Changes in headship rate are analyzed in terms of age, marital status, and household composition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20510 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Recent change in prevalence of parent-child co-residence in Japan. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, May 1987. 33-41 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
"Co-residence of parents and grown-up (especially married) children has been one of the most important factors that affect the trends in household formation in recent Japan. This article reports the proportion co-residing...using a nation-wide large-sample household survey data set containing about 300,000 persons in each year....The proportion of parents who co-reside with children...had remarkably decreased during the period 1975 to 1985, especially for younger elders regardless of their marital status....On the contrary, the proportion co-residing of married children aged 20-39 with their parents had been constant or slightly rising...during the same period. These two opposite trends can be interpreted as follows: though the preference for co-residence has declined both for parents and for children, the child availability for parents has barely changed and the downward trend in preference has directly appeared [in] the proportion co-residing; while the parent availability for children has increased owing to the decrease in number of siblings to be balanced with the decreasing preference."
Correspondence: K. Hirosima, Institute of Population Problems, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20511 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. The Swedish family: aspects of contemporary developments. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 43, ISBN 91-7820-030-X. Oct 1987. 31 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper reviews trends in family-related demographic behavior in Sweden since the early 1960s. These trends have included dramatic changes in family formation and in the role of women, both in the family and in working life." Specifically, trends pertaining to consensual union, marriage age, maternal age, divorce, and female labor force participation are discussed. The author comments on the ways in which the Swedish experience differs from that of other European countries and discusses the social policies responsible for these differences. Data from the Swedish Fertility Survey of 1981 are used for cohort analyses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20512 Islomov, S. Evolution of family types and fertility levels of the rural population in Tadzhikistan. [Razvitie tipov semei i rozhdaemost' sel'skogo naseleniya Tadzhikistana.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 156-69 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Changes in family structure and fertility levels among the rural population of the Tadzhik SSR are analyzed. The impact of socioeconomic and psychological factors on the general decline in family size is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20513 Kharchev, A. Family and parenthood. [Sem'ya i roditel'stvo.] Kommunist, No. 9, 1987. 72-82 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Recent changes affecting the family and fertility in the USSR are reviewed. Topics covered include abortion trends, attitudes toward fertility outside marriage, alcoholism and its impact on child health and family stability, the impact of family income and housing on child quality and family stability, divorce, and the growing popularity of consensual unions and voluntary childlessness.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20514 Kuz'min, A. Regional differences in the number of children in workers' families in the Urals. [Regional'nye osobennosti detnosti rabochei sem'i na Urale.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 73-96 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in family size among blue-collar families living in the Urals are analyzed. Changes in family structures and relationships and in women's status within the family since the nineteenth century are described, with a focus on the increasing participation of women in the labor force. It is noted that the result of such changes has been a trend toward smaller families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20515 Lakiza-Sachuk, N. N. Socio-demographic conditions of the development of the contemporary family. [Sotsial'no-demografischeskaya obuslovlennost' formirovaniya sovremennoi sem'i.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 69-75 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between social conditions and family development in the Ukrainian SSR is analyzed for the period 1970-1979. Factors considered include changes in the occupational structure of the population, increased levels of education among women, and changes in the rate of female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20516 Laumon, B.; Mamelle, N.; Munoz, F.; Measson, A. Sociodemographic characteristics and intentions for further births in France. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 31-6 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In the Lyon region of France, 356 couples of childbearing age were interviewed [in 1981-1982] regarding their fertility intentions. Couples intending to have, and not to have, further children were compared. The former are less often skilled workers or qualified office staff, the woman is less likely to work, and the couple had their first child at a relatively late age. These differences are still present after adjustment for the couple's ages and number of children."
Correspondence: B. Laumon, INSERM U 265, 151 Cours Albert-Thomas, Lyon, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20517 Lelievre, Eva. Definitive migration to France and family constitution. [Migrations definitives vers la France et constitution de la famille.] Revue Europeenne des Migrations Internationales, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, 1987. 35-53 pp. Poitiers, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Data from a survey of 383 individuals, either aliens or naturalized citizens, aged 45-69 residing in France in 1981 are used to examine the relationship between migration and the family life cycle. The results indicate that "marriage, which is an obstacle to migration for women born before 1915, actually favours migration in later generations. Furthermore, the [fertility] of naturalized citizens (2.64 children per woman) is shown to be markedly lower than that of foreigners (3.67) and approaches the national level of that period (2.60) in a few years only."
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20518 Luo, Jiqiong. Changes in the family structures of the elderly in Taiwan in the past 10 years. Taiwan Jingji Yuce/Taiwan Economy Forecast, Vol. 18, No. 2, Nov 1987. 83-107 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi.
The author uses family income surveys undertaken in Taiwan during the past 10 years to study the effect of economic development on the family structures of the elderly and to forecast future living arrangements of the elderly. The author finds that the living arrangements of the elderly are changing rapidly and that the proportion of elderly living alone is rising.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20519 Nizharadze, T. Aspects of reproductive behavior among rural families in Georgia. [Nekotorye aspekty reproduktivnogo povedeniya sel'skoi sem'i v Gruzii.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 97-118 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The trend toward smaller families among the rural population of the Georgian SSR is analyzed. Factors affecting family size are investigated. Data are from surveys of 1,448 women living in four rural areas of Soviet Georgia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20520 Ram, Bali. Reproduction: the Canadian family in transition. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 19-30 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Three trends suggest that the reproductive function of the Canadian family is in transition. First, fertility has fallen and remained below the replacement level. Secondly, an increasing proportion of women are spending a larger part of their lives without having any children. Finally, an increasing proportion of women are having children without getting married." The data are from official Canadian sources.
Correspondence: B. Ram, Demography Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20521 Rybakovskii, L. L. Family size: yesterday, today, tomorrow. [Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra.] Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 205 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of articles by different authors concerning past, present, and future trends in family size in the USSR.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20522 Santi, Lawrence L. Baby boom and marriage bust: implications for change in the structure and size of American households, 1970 to 1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-7, [1987]. 18, [15] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the household-level implications of recent changes in the composition of the [U.S.] population by age and by marital status. Strong and relatively stable patterns of household headship mediated the impact of these population changes, moderating change in the distribution of householders by age and amplifying change in the distribution of householders by marital status. The changing marital status distribution of householders thus emerges as a pivotal aspect of change in American households, with implications for both the structure and size of households." Data are from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985.
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20523 Santi, Lawrence L. The implications of the changing age structure for changes in the structure and size of American households: 1970 to 1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-3, 1987. 13, [8] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between changes in the age distribution of the U.S. population during the period 1970-1985 and changes in American households during the same period. It is found that "the average size of American households decreased dramatically from 1970 to 1980, and at a somewhat slower rate from 1980 to 1985. A direct standardization procedure...shows that changes in the age structure should have produced a slight decrease in average household size from 1970 to 1975, and slight increases in each of the two subsequent five-year intervals. This disparity between actual and expected household sizes is attributed to changes in age-specific patterns of household formation...and to changes in age- and household type-specific household sizes...."
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20524 Santi, Lawrence L. The use of log-linear models to assess compositional effects: the case of household headship in the United States, 1970-1985. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-6, [1987]. 12, [4] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates the use of log-linear models to assess the effects of changing population composition by age and by marital status on changes in the likelihood of headings one's household in the United States from 1970 to 1985....Substantively, the analysis shows that the effects of the compositional factors varied over the 15-year interval, at times operating at cross-purposes. The propensity to head one's own household, net of compositional change and compositional effects, increased from 1970 to 1980 and decreased in the first half of the 1980's." Data are from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985.
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20525 Shimizu, Hiroaki. Regional differences in the family structure. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 176, Oct 1985. 33-7 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author examines regional differences in family structure in Japan as they relate to differences in family life styles. Official data are used to analyze the period from 1973 to 1983. The focus is on regional differences in the prevalence of three-generational families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20526 Simm, Regina. The dynamics of partner selection and family formation. The internal dynamics of partner systems and family systems and their structural characteristics and consequences. [Partnerschaftsdynamik und Familienentwicklung. Die interne Dynamik von Partner- und Familiensystemen und ihre strukturellen Bedingungen und Folgen.] IBS-Materialien, No. 25, ISBN 3-923340-18-4. 1987. [vii], 151 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This report is part of a sociological study of reproductive behavior in North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany. It focuses on partner selection, the course and duration of couples' relationships, and the influence of the structure and dynamics of pairing on the institution of the family. Sections are included on the structure of pairs, the selection process, conditions that precede the forming of a pair, the dynamics of pair formation and conditions preceding parenthood, and the relationship between pair formation and family formation. Data are from a longitudinal study performed in 1981, 1983, and 1985-1986 involving 2,620 women aged 18-30 and their partners.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20527 Sinel'nikov, A. B. The number of children in the Soviet family. [Chislo detei v sovetskoi sem'e.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 54-69, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The article focuses on [a] consistent trend [toward a decrease in the] number of children in the Soviet family during the last quarter of this century, which is primarily reflected in diminishing frequency of the third and following birth orders. [A] cost-effectiveness analysis of the population policy measures undertaken in the [eleventh] five-year period is presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20528 Sweet, James A.; Bumpass, Larry L. American families and households. The Population of the United States in the 1980s: A Census Monograph Series, ISBN 0-87154-148-3. LC 87-32113. 1987. xxxii, 416 pp. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study, undertaken for the National Committee for Research on the 1980 Census, is one in a series presenting analyses of the results of the 1980 U.S. census. The present volume is an examination of changes in U.S. families and households, based on data from the 1980 census and data from other sources covering the past 20 years. Chapters are included on marriage, the never-married, married couples, the incidence of marital disruption, the formerly married, children, the older population, households, female-headed and nonfamily households, and implications for the future. Consideration is given to differences by ethnic group, educational status, age, and sex. The major changes identified include a decline in household size, a decline in rates of marriage and childbirth, an increase in rates of separation and divorce, an increase in the number of one-person households, an increase in the time children spend in one-parent families, and changes in the situation of the elderly.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20529 Thornton, Arland; Fricke, Thomas E. Social change and the family: comparative perspectives from the West, China, and South Asia. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 746-79 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In this paper we draw upon recent substantive findings from several disciplines to make some generalizations about the influence of social and economic change of family structure and relationships. We take a historical and comparative approach to this issue and examine the experiences of three major sociocultural regions: the West [the populations of Northwest Europe and the European migrants to North America and Australia], China [using data from Taiwan], and South Asia. A primary goal of this paper is to identify processes of social change that operate across regions as well as to specify ways in which family change depends upon cultural context. Our focus is on interrelationships between parents and children during the transition to adulthood. Specifically, we are interested in the involvement of children in the family economy, the living arrangements of young adults, marriage, and the autonomy of young people in making important decisions about their lives."
Correspondence: A. Thornton, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20530 Tsuladze, G. E.; Chankvetadze, T. V. The formation of school-age children's attitudes about number of children in the family. [Formirovanie predstavlenii shkol'nikov o chisle detei v sem'e.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 104-16, 201 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Attitudes about family size are investigated using data for Tbilisi, USSR, school-age children and their mothers. Children's desired and expected future family sizes are found to be lower than their mothers' family size attitudes. Means of counteracting this negative family-size trend are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20531 Valentei, D. I. Urban and rural families. [Gorodskaya i sel'skaya sem'ya.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 285 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This is a collection of papers by different authors concerning the family in the USSR, although one paper is included on the People's Republic of China. The focus is on trends in family structure and formation in various areas of the country and on differences between urban and rural areas.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20532 van de Giessen, G. J. The stability of long-term birth expectations, 1982-1985. [De stabiliteit van lange termijn geboorteverwachtingen, 1982-1985.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 11, Nov 1987. 20-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in expected number of births in the Netherlands are examined using data from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey and a follow-up survey conducted in 1985. "On the 'yes', 'no', 'don't know' level, the answers of four out of every five respondents were identical in 1982 and 1985. On the level of an exact number of additional children this was three out of five. The expectation not to have any (more) children turned out to be stable for 87% of the respondents; the expectation to have one or more (additional) children for 84%. On an aggregate level there were minimal changes in the average expected number of additional children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20533 Viazzo, Pier P.; Albera, Dionigi. Nuptiality, fertility, and family structure: the case of the western Alps. [Nupcialidad, fecundidad y estructura familiar: el caso de los Alpes occidentales.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1987. 5-40 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Trends in family formation in the western Alps are analyzed, considering not only nuptiality and household structure but also marital fertility in the Alpine regions of France, Switzerland, Italy, Yugoslavia, Austria, and the Federal Republic of Germany. The authors use data from anthropological literature and from the Princeton European Fertility Project to provide a historical perspective on matrimonial models in the Alps. Sections are included on trends in nuptiality and fertility in the western Alps, an investigation of unstable equilibrium between nuptiality and fertility using data for the community of Alagna, Italy, and similarities between trends in the study region and those outlined in a Hungarian model of families and fertility. The role of emigration in family formation is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20534 Volkov, A. G.; Darskii, L. E. Demographic development of the family. [Demograficheskoe razvitie sem'i.] In: Demograficheskoe razvitie v SSSR, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1985. 53-72 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in the development of the family in the USSR are analyzed. Topics considered include marriage patterns, particularly the increase in celibacy and changes in age at marriage; declining family stability; changes in the reproductive function of the family; the nuclear family; the trend toward smaller families; and social and normative influences on family patterns.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20535 Voss, Hans-Georg; Mayer, Hans-Jurgen. Sex of child and birth intervals in families with several children. [Geschlecht des Kindes und Geburtenintervalle in Mehrkindfamilien.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1987. 491-503 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This contribution will investigate the question whether the sex of a child will have a bearing on the number of the subsequent children [and] on the birth intervals....Data records taken from the residents' registration data sets of a total of 3,098 [West German] families with one child [and] several children...were analyzed. The results are as follows: 1) With single-child families, the primary sex ratio corresponds to the population mean. 2) During the time interval 10 to 48 months after the birth of the first child, an effect of the sex of the elder sibling on the birth interval could be noted in regard of the total group of families with several children....3) With families having three or four children the sex combination girl/girl is frequently represented and the combination girl/boy is more rarely met than could be expected statistically or according to random."
Correspondence: H.-G. Voss, Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Institut fur Psychologie, Steubenplatz 12, 6100 Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20536 Waldrop, Judith. The fashionable family. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 3, Mar 1988. 22-6 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Present and future trends in family characteristics in the United States are analyzed based on data from the Current Population Survey. The focus is on factors affecting family income.
Correspondence: J. Waldrop, American Demographics, 108 N. Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20537 Watanabe, Yoshikazu. On the definition of household in longitudinal observation. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 180, Oct 1986. 41-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The objective of this study is to consider the concept of the household in the analysis of changes in household structure over time. The focus is on the analysis of household changes in Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20538 Watkins, Susan C.; Menken, Jane A.; Bongaarts, John. Demographic foundations of family change. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 3, Jun 1987. 346-58 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors analyze the impact of increased life expectancy on the time current cohorts spend as members of a family in the roles of parents, children, or spouses. This is examined by a simulation of U.S. demographic conditions in 1800, 1900, 1960, and 1980. The results suggest that despite declining fertility and higher divorce, women in the 1960 and 1980 cohorts spent more years in marriage and as parents than did earlier generations. They also spent more years as children of aged parents. However, not only did number of years spent in marriage and as parents decline between 1960 and 1980, but current cohorts spent a smaller proportion of their adult lives in such roles. The implications of these trends for social change are considered.
Correspondence: S. C. Watkins, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk CR, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20539 Xie, Yu. On regional variation of sex preference in China. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-16, [1987]. 26 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author attempts to show that sex preference in mainland China is homogenous across regions and nationalities. The primary data source was the 1982 National Fertility Survey, which provides percent and base figures for couples participating in the one-child program, couples using contraception, and those who have more than one child. Findings are compared with those of an earlier study by Arnold and Liu. "[The present study's] finding of the variation of sex preference along the dimensions of education and place of residence supports [the author's] theory that changes in social, economic and cultural structures are necessary for further reducing sex preference in China."
For the article by Fred Arnold and Xhao Xiang Liu, published in 1986, see 52:30271.
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20540 Zotin, V.; Mytil', A. Views of newlyweds on the number of children in the family. [Predstavleniya molodozhenov o chisle detei v sem'e.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 45-72 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Views of newlyweds concerning desired and expected family size are investigated. Data are from a survey of 400 young couples in first marriages living in Moscow.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20541 Zvereva, N. Studying the multi-child family. [Kak izuchat' mnogodetnost'.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 119-41 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author discusses methodological issues involved in the study of large families. The need to integrate demographic and sociological approaches is noted. The value of children in different time periods and among different ethnic groups is examined in relation to socioeconomic conditions. Data are for Soviet Central Asia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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