Volume 54 - Number 2 - Summer 1988

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:20254 Acheampong, Konadu. Structural change, individual modernity and fertility preference in Taiwan. Pub. Order No. DA8721867. 1987. 167 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Using data from interviews with 973 Taiwanese women of childbearing age (15-44 years), having at least one child and living with husbands, a general theory of human fertility preference is derived and tested. Drawing from socio-structural, social-psychological and economic theories, the proposed theory posits that human fertility preference is a function of the changing socioeconomic and demographic milieu as well as some specific modal characteristics of the individual....The overall theory and hypothesis derived therefrom are tested with Joreskog and Sorbom's 'Analysis of Linear Structural Relationships by the Method of Maximum Likelihood' (LISREL Versions V and VI)....Of all the structural change variables examined, education appears to have the strongest direct and indirect impacts on individual modernity and fertility preference respectively."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Iowa State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(7).

54:20255 Agyei, William K. A. Fertility and family planning in the third world: a case study of Papua New Guinea. ISBN 0-7099-5125-6. 1988. xv, 208 pp. Croom Helm: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"This book is based on a demographic survey of 2,923 rural and 3,360 urban male and female respondents in Papua New Guinea. The survey focused on fertility, mortality (infant and child) and family planning." The first three chapters provide an explanation of the demographic transition theory in developing countries, a description of the survey methodology, and an examination of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the survey population. Chapters 4-7 present the project findings, with a focus on regional, rural-urban, and educational differentials. "Considerable attention is directed towards fertility and related areas. Chapter 4 reports on breastfeeding and sexual abstinence....Chapter 5 presents the results of the fertility analysis....The results of analysis in Chapter 6 show that infant and child mortality have declined in all parts of the country in the past 15 years prior to the survey....In Chapter 7 we found that both the rural and urban respondents favour large families, there was a relatively high level of contraceptive awareness, but the overall practice of modern contraception in both the rural and urban areas is low....The concluding chapter discusses the policy implications for Papua New Guinea."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20256 Agyei, William K. A. Fertility levels, patterns and differentials in Papua New Guinea. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 69-92 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper presents some new evidence on changes of fertility levels, patterns and differentials in Papua New Guinea. The paper is based on data collected on fertility and family planning between November 1979 and March 1980 in eight provinces of Papua New Guinea. A total of 3,986 females (1,857 in rural areas and 2,129 in urban areas) in the childbearing age group 15-49 years old were interviewed. The results of the estimated fertility measures for the rural and urban areas of Papua New Guinea are high by world standards. Adjusted estimates of total fertility rates of between 6 and 7, gross reproduction rates of 2.99 and 2.76, and net reproduction rates of 2.25 and 2.08 for the urban and rural areas are even high by the South Pacific Islands standards. Nevertheless, there is some evidence of possible decline in fertility levels." The significance of educational status for lower fertility is noted.
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, United Nations Development Programme, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20257 Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa. Proximate determinants of fertility in Cuba. The Bongaarts model. [Determinantes proximos de la fecundidad en Cuba. Modelo de Bongaart.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 13, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1987. 437-54 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The results of the implementation of the Bongaarts method for quantitating the effects of [proximate] determinants on fertility are presented. The model used is of the multiplicative kind and relates the global fertility rate to the so called natural fertility rate. Thus, it is possible to quantitate and separate the effect of each determinant and thus find out what factors have been responsible for the rapid change in fertility [in Cuba] from 1972 on. The determinant of highest impact on the fertility level attained in each province was assessed. The most important results point [to] the use of contraceptives as the cause for the rapid decline in the fertility level and the married state as the variable conditioning provincial differences."
Correspondence: L. Alvarez Vazquez, Instituto de Desarrollo de la Salud, Apartado 9082, Havana 9, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20258 Antonov, A. I. Evolution of childbearing norms and types of demographic behavior. [Evolyutsiya norm detnosti i tipov demograficheskogo povedeniya.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 10-25, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Strict social norms of family size for many centuries maintained high fertility [in the USSR]. The author shows how radical change of family functions along with mortality decline have destroyed this regulatory mechanism and led to [a] decrease in fertility. In the context of social development the changes in reproductive motivation are [outlined] and the main causes of fertility decline are analysed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20259 Arora, Y. L.; Kumar, Anil. Quantification of intermediate variables influencing fertility performance. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 144-9 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
An attempt is made to quantify the influence of four intermediate variables--proportion married, contraception, induced abortion, and lactational infecundability--on total fertility rates for Maharashtra, India, for 1972 and 1978.
Correspondence: Y. L. Arora, Institute for Research in Reproduction, Jehangir Merwanji Street, Parel, Bombay-400 012, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20260 Asociacion Demografica Costarricense (San Jose, Costa Rica). National Survey of Fertility and Health: Costa Rica, 1986. [Encuesta Nacional de Fecundidad y Salud: Costa Rica 1986.] Sep 1987. 94, [10], 18 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This is a collection of articles by different authors reporting the results of a national survey of fertility and health conducted in Costa Rica in 1986. Chapters are included on survey objectives and methodology; general characteristics of the survey population, which consisted of approximately 3,500 women aged 15-49; contraception, including knowledge, acceptance, use of family planning services, method availability, use differentials, and sources of supplies; fertility; reproductive preferences, including birth spacing, unwanted pregnancies, and desired family size; women's health; maternal and child health; and reproduction and sexuality among youth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20261 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Rao, K. Vaninadha; Krotki, Karol J.; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. Age at first birth and lifetime fertility. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 167-74 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The relationship between age at first birth and lifetime fertility among Canadian women is examined. "Among a national sample of Canadian women in the Canadian National Fertility Survey of 1984, the excess cumulative fertility of those who started their families early over others has steadily decreased. A difference of approximately two births between early and late starters among older women is reduced to approximately half a child among the younger women. Except for those who start childbearing after age 25, there is little evidence of attempts to catch up after age 30, irrespective of starting age."
Correspondence: T. R. Balakrishnan, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20262 Bantje, Han F. W. Female stress and birth seasonality in Tanzania. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 195-202 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Delivery records from Tanzanian hospitals reveal a marked seasonality of births in areas with holoendemic malaria. Accepted explanations of variations in conception rate are inadequate to account for these seasonal variations. The magnitude of the variation increases with high parity but it has decreased over the past decade. The differences are related to different activity patterns of younger and older women, and to recent changes in the rural economy. Contraception rate has a negative association with rainfall 4 months earlier; birth seasonality is therefore considered in relation to the agricultural cycle. While seasonal variations in sexual activity and pregnancy loss may be contributory factors, female stress due to the combination of malarial infection and physical exhaustion emerges as the major cause of seasonally depressed fecundity in areas with holoendemic malaria."
Correspondence: H. F. W. Bantje, Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35091, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20263 Barkalov, N. Microsimulation of a cohort fertility model. [Mikroimitatsionnaya model' rozhdaemosti pokoleniya.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 170-96 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author presents a mathematical, statistical approach to the study of reproductive behavior. The effect of socioeconomic factors on fertility is accounted for in the model in an attempt to calculate indicators of the extent to which individuals realize their family-size expectations. Data for the USSR are used to illustrate the model.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20264 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K.; Pandey, C. M. Some models for number of births and estimates of natural age-specific fecundability and sterility for a rural part of northern India. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 87, No. 2, Dec 1987. 141-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Probability models describing observed distributions of births occurring to women in different segments of the reproductive span are proposed. By applying the models to real data, the values and trends in fecundability and sterility of women in rural areas of northern India are studied."
Correspondence: B. N. Bhattacharya, Centre of Population Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, UP, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

54:20265 Borisov, V. A. Population growth in the USSR: trends and prospects. [Vosproizvodstvo naseleniya SSSR: tendentsii i perspektivy.] In: Demograficheskoe razvitie v SSSR, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1985. 34-52 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses trends in the birth rate in the USSR for the country as a whole and for different regions. Causes of the fertility decline in several Union republics are analyzed. The need for cooperation among those working in different branches of the social and natural sciences is noted.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20266 Brunborg, Helge. Boy or girl? [Gutt eller jente?] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 107, No. 14, May 20, 1987. 1,207-9, 1,248 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of sex preferences on fertility in Norway is examined using data from official sources for the period 1950-1985. The data indicate that although sex preferences are weak, there is a strong desire to have children of both sexes. However, the author uses the data to argue that the chances of having a child of the opposite sex diminish with each child of the same sex that a woman has.
Correspondence: H. Brunborg, Forskningsavdelingen, Statistisk Sentralbyra, Skipperg 15, 0033 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20267 Burieva, M. The study of fertility among women in families in Uzbekistan. [Izuchenie plodovitosti zhenshchin v Uzbekskikh sem'yakh.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 142-55 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Trends in fertility among Uzbek women in the USSR are analyzed. A decline in fertility in recent generations is noted, with a focus on differences between urban and rural areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20268 Chieh-Johnson, Dorothy; Cross, Anne R.; Way, Ann A.; Sullivan, Jeremiah M. Liberia Demographic and Health Survey, 1986. Feb 1988. xii, 117 pp. Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs: Monrovia, Liberia; Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report presents the findings of the Liberia Demographic and Health Survey, implemented by the Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs in 1986. The survey is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Programme which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health." The survey involved a nationally representative sample of 5,239 women aged 15-49. The report includes chapters on demographic background, marriage and exposure to risk of pregnancy, fertility, contraceptive knowledge and use, fertility preferences, and mortality and health.
Correspondence: DHS, IRD/Westinghouse, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20269 China. State Statistical Bureau. Population Statistics Department (Beijing, China). A preliminary report of the first round in-depth survey of fertility in China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 3, May 29, 1986. 8-15 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
This is the second of a two-part preliminary report on a survey conducted in the Chinese provinces of Hebei, Shaaxi, and Shanghai. The data and results concerning marital status are discussed in an earlier report. In the present publication, attention is given first to fertility and infant mortality and then to contraception. Cohort fertility rates, parity fertility rates, age at first birth, first birth intervals, infant mortality, distribution of various contraceptive methods, and contraceptive use by education and number of living children are considered.
For the first part of the report, also published in 1986, see 54:10420.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20270 Choi, C. Y.; Ruzicka, L. T. Recent trends in fertility and family formation. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 4, No. 2, Nov 1987. 123-36 pp. Carlton South, Australia. In Eng.
"Australia's fertility has declined significantly since the 1950s, and has remained below the long-term replacement level since 1976. The current trend appears to be towards a further decline. This paper describes the patterns of the fertility decline in terms of age and parity of the mother, and the effect on recent fertility decline of the postponement of marriage and family formation. The implications of the continued decline in fertility on completed family size are studied by reference to fertility patterns of marriage cohorts."
Correspondence: C. Y. Choi, Australian Bureau of Statistics, PO Box 10, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20271 Coale, Ansley J. Marriage and childbearing in China since 1940. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 87-116, Dec 1987. 15, [10] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author presents a technical analysis of developments in marriage and childbearing in China since 1940. Changes in age at marriage and in marital fertility are discussed, and attention is given to the role these factors have played in overall fertility changes. A mathematical "law" of the distribution of marriage by age is applied to selected cohorts, and changes both over time and following the implementation of restrictive marriage policies are considered. It is concluded that "the increase in age at marriage in China over the last several decades has reduced by more than 10% the number of births that would have occurred since 1950, had there been no change in age at marriage and had the actual fertility rates by duration of marriage occurred. The reduction is about 100 million births. Since 1970, when age at marriage has risen especially sharply, the reduction in the number of births has been about 60 million."
Correspondence: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20272 de Carvalho, Jose A. M.; Pinheiro, Silvia de M. G. Fertility and mortality in Brazil, 1970-1980. [Fecundidade e mortalidade no Brasil--1970/80.] CEDEPLAR Relatorio de Pesquisa, Feb 1986. 152 pp. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional [CEDEPLAR]: Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In Por.
Brass's technique is applied to census data to estimate urban and rural fertility and mortality in Brazil as a whole, in the federal states, in the 5 large geographic regions, and in 10 regions defined in the 1970 census. Data are presented separately for men and women.
Correspondence: CEDEPLAR, Rua Curitiba 832, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20273 Desai, Sonalde. A model of sequential fertility decisions: with an application to Sri Lanka. Pub. Order No. DA8720379. 1987. 132 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A model about both the timing and the level of fertility [is applied] to retrospective fertility histories collected in the Sri Lanka World Fertility Survey." The hypotheses that fertility rate depends on birth order and that socioeconomic differences in fertility are greater for later births than for early births are tested using a piece-wise constant hazard model estimated by maximum likelihood.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Stanford University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(6).

54:20274 Entwisle, Barbara; Mason, William M. Multilevel effects of socioeconomic development and family planning programs on children ever born. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 3, Nov 1985. 616-49 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This article describes an approach to an explanation of fertility that is sensitive to the dependence of the behavior of individuals or couples on social context and sets forth hypotheses about micro and macro determinants of children ever born (CEB). Data from 15 World Fertility Survey countries are used in a multilevel test of these hypotheses. The findings are that per capita GNP and family planning program effort affect not only country-specific average levels of CEB, but also the direction and magnitudes of the within-country effects of two micro socioeconomic variables on CEB. These findings, which are largely consistent with the hypotheses, illustrate the utility of a multilevel approach."
Correspondence: W. M. Mason, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:20275 Etzler, Cecilia. The first child: a demographic study of childbearing among Swedish women born 1936-1960. [Forsta barnet: en demografisk studie av barnafodandet bland svenska kvinnor fodda 1936-60.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 44, ISBN 91-7820-031-8. Dec 1987. 82 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is a study of the trend toward older maternal age at first birth in Sweden. An intensity regression analysis is performed using data for married and cohabiting Swedish women born between 1936 and 1960. Factors related to increased age at first birth include level of education, family's social status, occupation, marital status, and age at the time of first cohabitation. The study finds low fertility among young women and increasing fertility among older women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20276 Fei, Shihong; Liu, Shaohui. Discussions on fertility pattern. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1987. 41-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"This article mainly discusses the components of the fertility pattern [in China] and, taking into consideration the characteristics of the family planning program, develops a method of fertility projection with the parity rate as a fertility control indicator."
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 1, 1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20277 Fernandez, Rogelio E.; Carvalho, Jose A. M. The evolution of fertility in Brazil: 1957-1970. An application of the own-children method to estimate annual fertility rates. [A evolucao de fecundidade no Brasil, periodo 1957-1979. Aplicacao de tecnica dos filhos proprios para se estimar a fecundidade ano a ano.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 3, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 67-86 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
The own-children method is used to estimate trends in fertility in Brazil from 1957 to 1970 using 1970 and 1980 census data. The total fertility rate is estimated for each year by region and place of residence. Comparisons are made with estimates made using Brass's methods of indirect estimation. It is found that estimates using the own-children method give more detailed information for the earlier period.
Correspondence: R. E. Fernandez, CEDEPLAR, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Cidade Universitaria, Pampulha, CP 1621, 1622, 30000 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20278 Freedman, Ronald; Xiao, Zhenyu; Li, Bohua; Lavely, William R. Education and fertility in two Chinese provinces: 1967-1970 to 1979-1982. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1988. 3-30 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In fertility studies, education is generally recognized as the best single indicator of individual modernity. At the aggregate level, it is usually highly correlated with other major socio-economic indicators of development. Because the rapid decline of fertility in China during the 1970s coincided with a rapid rise in the educational attainment of Chinese women, this article attempts to determine the role and importance of education in that decline. It finds that very large fertility declines at every educational level in two provinces i.e. Sichuan and Liaoning, suggest that China's family planning programme has been able to transcend the barriers of illiteracy and low educational levels, but that education was nevertheless related to reproductive levels in the rural sector both before and after the major programme effects." Data are from the 1982 1-in-1,000 fertility sampling survey and concern 252,000 women aged 15-49.
Correspondence: R. Freedman, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20279 Freedman, Ronald. Fertility determinants. In: The World Fertility Survey: an assessment, edited by John Cleland, Chris Scott, and David Whitelegge. 1987. 773-95 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author summarizes the contribution of the World Fertility Survey to the study of determinants of human fertility. Separate consideration is given to the proximate determinants of fertility, family size preferences, socioeconomic determinants of fertility, region and ethnicity, community-level determinants, intra-country relationships, and multilevel analyses. The author concludes that the WFS has not yet provided the basis for a new general theory of fertility, although its contributions to fertility theory have been significant. He also notes that "the distinctive WFS contribution is in giving us for the first time information on the cross-national variations in relationships for a large set of countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20280 Freedman, Ronald; Xiao, Zhenyu; Li, Bohua; Lavely, William. Local area variations in reproductive behaviour in the People's Republic of China, 1973-1982. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, Mar 1988. 39-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The very large decline in fertility in the People's Republic of China and the powerful family planning programme associated with it have led to the impression that the phenomenon is uniform across China. This article, based on the One-per-Thousand Fertility Survey of 1982, shows that there is considerable variability among rural production brigades in many aspects of reproductive behaviour in four provinces covering about one-quarter of China's population. The article illustrates for Sichuan and Liaoning very rapid fertility declines at all educational levels, but with the educational level of the production brigade having an effect additional to that of individual education."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 399-400).
Correspondence: R. Freedman, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20281 Gomez, Victor. Birthspacing and fertility decline in Costa Rica. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-17, [1987]. 20 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper uses data from the Latin American Comparative Fertility Surveys as well as from the World Fertility Survey to study trends and differentials in birth spacing among ever married women in Costa Rica during the period 1945-1974. A good deal of attention is placed on the pace of fertility in threshold, early and late stages of the fertility decline that this country experienced during the sixties and early seventies. The results show a good deal of similarity in the tempo of reproduction across parities and geographical areas. However, an analysis of the background variables affecting birthspacing shows differences between urban and rural zones. Finally, it is postulated that the recent plateau in period rates may be a consequence of changes in the tempo of family building, with women at low parities having their postponed births now, offsetting the trends of decline generated among women at higher parities who still may be curtailing reproduction."
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, pp. 425-6).
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53606-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20282 Handwerker, W. Penn. Sampling variability in microdemographic estimation of fertility parameters. Human Biology, Vol. 60, No. 2, Apr 1988. 305-18 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper reports the results of an empirical investigation of sampling fluctuations in age specific fertility rates (ASFR), total fertility rates (TFR), and the ratios of ASFRs used to identify the age pattern of childbearing (ASFR at age X/ASFR at age 20-24)....The sampling distribution of ASFRs and their derived ratios are estimated. A test is made of the ability of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one sample goodness-of-fit test to discriminate reliably between differences in the shape of age-specific fertility and age-pattern of childbearing schedules. Finally, an indication is made as to how we can use Tukey's jackknife technique to generate point estimates and standard errors for ASFRs and TFRs." It is found that "we can accurately estimate fertility parameters from birth histories collected from as few as 50 women." The data used as an example are from Liberia and were collected in 1977-1978.
Correspondence: W. P. Handwerker, Program in Anthropology, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA 95521. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20283 Hicks, W. Whitney; Martinez-Aguado, Timoteo. The determinants of marital fertility in Spain. [Las determinantes de la fecundidad dentro del matrimonio en Espana.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 39, Jul-Sep 1987. 195-212 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Eng.
The authors analyze the determinants of marital fertility in Spain using data from the 1985 National Fertility Survey. The determinants include 18 regions of the country, size of place of residence, female and male education, male occupation at time of survey, religious belief and practice, number of siblings, and age. The results of an analysis using a single-equation ordinary least squares model are consistent with those using economic models based on demand for and supply of children. Education was generally significant and region was not. Comparisons are made with results from earlier studies.
Correspondence: W. W. Hicks, College of Arts and Science, Department of Economics, University of Missouri, 118 Professional Building, Columbia, MO 65211. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20284 Hobcraft, John. The proximate determinants of fertility. In: The World Fertility Survey: an assessment, edited by John Cleland, Chris Scott, and David Whitelegge. 1987. 796-837 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The World Fertility Survey's contribution to the study of the proximate determinants of fertility is examined, with the geographical focus on developing countries. The author describes the WFS contribution of providing a solid empirical foundation for the study of these determinants and also points out its uneven coverage on some crucial topics. He distinguishes between various analyses concerned with individual proximate determinants and attempts to treat all measurable proximate determinants in coherent and integrated frameworks. It is concluded that the WFS has heightened awareness of the proximate determinants of fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20285 Hotz, V. Joseph; Miller, Robert A. An empirical analysis of life cycle fertility and female labor supply. Econometrica, Vol. 56, No. 1, Jan 1988. 91-118 pp. Clevedon, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines household fertility and female labor supply over the life cycle. We investigate how maternal time inputs, market expenditures on offspring, as well as the benefits they yield their parents, vary with ages of offspring, and influence female labor supply and contraceptive behavior. Our econometric framework combines a female labor supply model and a contraceptive choice index function. It also accounts for the fact that conceptions are not perfectly controllable events. Using longitudinal [U.S.] data on married couples from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate these equations and test alternative specifications of the technologies governing child care. Our findings suggest that while parents cannot perfectly control conceptions, variations in child care costs do affect the life cycle spacing of births. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the gains of modelling the linkages between female labor supply and fertility behavior at the household level."
Correspondence: V. J. Hotz, Program in Quantitative Economic Analysis/NORC, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20286 Hull, Terence H.; Dasvarma, Gouranga L. Fertility trends in Indonesia, 1967-1985. Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Apr 1988. 115-22 pp. Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Fertility trends in Indonesia for the period 1967-1985 are analyzed. Data are from the Indonesian censuses of 1971 and 1980 and from the 1985 Intercensal Survey (SUPAS 85); they concern fertility rates by province, marital status, and for the general population. An overview of the sociocultural factors that affect data reliability and a discussion of the effectiveness of the date of last birth method are included. The authors conclude that the evidence "has confirmed the existence of a major fertility decline throughout Indonesia. The pace of the decline has been faster in 1980-85 than during the 70s. On present trends, it should be possible to reach the ambitious target of halving fertility between 1979 and 1990."
Correspondence: T. H. Hull, Australian National University, GPO 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20287 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). The cohort fertility of females born in 1937-1968. 1986. 77 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Data on fertility for women born between 1937 and 1968 in Hungary are presented. The data concern all females and married females by year of birth, age, and number of live-born children; probabilities of having more children by age; and live birth rates by cohort, age, and number of children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20288 Inaba, Hisashi. On the relationship between period total fertility rate and cohort fertility. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 178, Apr 1986. 48-53 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This study is concerned with the effect of temporal variation in cohort fertility on the period total fertility rate (TFR). The author attempts to develop a simple model to test the conclusion of Shigemi Kono and Akira Ishikawa that a delay in cohort fertility can reduce the TFR. The limitations of such an approach are discussed.
For the study by Kono and Ishikawa, also published in 1986, see 52:30290.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20289 Islamov, S. I. Features of reproductive behavior among Tadzhik families. [Osobennosti reproduktivnogo povedeniya tadzhikskoi sem'i.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, Vol. 132-45, 201, 1986. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Specific traits of childbearing practice [among] native Tadzhik [USSR] females are analysed. Some links between socio-economic factors and fertility in this republic and its regions are established."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20290 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Indexes of population reproduction for the Japanese population in 1980-1985. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 243, Dec 24, 1986. 31 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Tables and charts containing population reproduction rates and indexes for Japan for the period 1980-1985 are presented. Some retrospective data on fertility from 1920 are included. Information is provided on the sources of data.
For a previous report concerning the period 1975-1980, published in 1985, see 52:10269.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20291 Jiang, Zhenghua. Impact of socio-economic factors on China's fertility. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, Oct 1986. 9-17 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The effects of socioeconomic factors on fertility and mortality in China are first examined. A multiple regression model is developed, with education, income, population density, and family planning as independent variables affecting fertility. The data are from several socioeconomic surveys taken around 1982 as well as the census. The results show that the most significant variables affecting fertility are education and income.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 3, 1986, pp. 25-30.
Correspondence: Z. Jiang, Population Research Institute, Xi'an Communication University, Xi'an, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20292 Kabir, M.; Uddin, M. Mosleh. Fertility transition in Bangladesh: trends and determinants. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1987. 53-72 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Fertility patterns in Bangladesh between 1975 and 1985 are examined with some reference to data for earlier periods. "The basic question raised in this note is whether any fertility transition occurred in Bangladesh. If there has been a transition, then what is its extent, and what was the timing of the start of that transition. The aim is also to assess the current level of fertility. The findings are discussed in socioeconomic and cultural terms; implications for the future are suggested in light of the findings." Attention is given to problems of data quality, crude birth rates, age-specific fertility rates, urban-rural differentials, and proximate determinants of fertility.
Correspondence: M. Kabir, Department of Statistics, Jahangirnager University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20293 Kadyrov, Sh. Kh. Fertility in Turkmenian families (results of a pilot study). [Rozhdaemost' v turkmenskoi sem'e (rezul'taty pilotazhnogo obsledovaniya).] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 117-31 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"It is argued that fertility in...Soviet Central Asia has begun to [decline]. It is obvious that within limits of traditional reproductive behavior high fertility is being put under control. The females in rural areas with developing industry now use more and more contraception."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20294 Kallan, Jeffrey E.; Udry, J. Richard. Demographic components of seasonality of pregnancy. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-18, Aug 1987. 12, [5] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Previous studies of the seasonality of birth and/or pregnancy have been based on monthly numbers or proportions of births or pregnancies (i.e., their distribution throughout the year) without any explicit accounting of the size of the population actually at risk of pregnancy by month. The data on which past studies have been based permitted little more than such a numerator analysis. The present paper presents data on monthly populations at risk and monthly probabilities of pregnancy [in the United States] and we subsequently determine the relative contribution of each component to the monthly distribution of pregnancies. The data come from the National Survey of Family Growth, cycle III [January 1979 - December 1981]. We find that while there is some seasonality in the size of the population at risk, it contributes little, in fact, to the overall seasonality of pregnancy. The latter is, instead, determined almost completely by seasonality of pregnancy probability (fecundability)."
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20295 Katkova, I.; Shurandina, I. Infant mortality and family formation. [Detskaya smertnost' i formirovanie sem'i.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 241-64 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The relationship between infant deaths and reproductive behavior in the USSR is examined. Factors associated with infant mortality are also considered. Data are from a 1980-1982 survey of 350 Moscow families who had had an infant death in the previous two and a half years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20296 Kazi, Shahnaz; Sathar, Zeba A. Productive and reproductive choices: report of a pilot survey of urban working women in Karachi. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Winter 1986. 593-608 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The relationships between employment status and the domestic roles of women in Karachi, Pakistan, are examined using data on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of households. The data are for 110 working women between the ages of 19 and 50, of which 93 were married, 6 were separated or divorced, and 11 were widowed. "The survey data are used to explore the relationship between women's work and such demographic variables as fertility, age at marriage, and contraception adoption....The results from the survey most certainly confirm that there are strong inter-linkages between socio-economic conditions of different households which influence both productive and reproductive choices of women belonging to them." A comment by Nasra M. Shah is included (pp. 607-8).
Correspondence: S. Kazi, Senior Research Economist, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20297 Kestenbaum, Bert. Seasonality of birth: two findings from the decennial census. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 244-8 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Two results on the seasonality of birth phenomenon are derived from tabulations of 1980 [U.S.] census data: first, that the familiar pattern of spring trough and summer peak prevailed in the decades before the establishment of a national birth registration data system; second, that the seasonal pattern is most pronounced for the lower socioeconomic group."
Correspondence: B. Kestenbaum, Office of the Actuary, Social Security Administration, Baltimore, MD. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20298 Kim, Ik Ki. Socioeconomic development and fertility in Korea. 1987. xv, 142 pp. Seoul National University, Population and Development Studies Center: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the socioeconomic determinants of fertility in the Republic of Korea. The author develops a model that takes into account both individual and community-level factors and applies the model to data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey and official Korean data. Separate consideration is given to age at first birth, early fertility, and later fertility for three cohorts of women, those aged 30-34, 35-39, and 40-44. "The results of this study indicate that socioeconomic development results in increased age at first birth and reduced number of children....In addition to the developmental change, Korea's fertility decline was found to be facilitated by the family planning programs....The effect of women's education on fertility was proved to be greater in the settings with more family planning inputs than in the settings with less inputs of family planning....[and] the effect of socioeconomic development on fertility is greater among less-privileged women than among more-privileged women."
Correspondence: Ik Ki Kim, Population and Development Studies Center, Seoul National University, Sinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151, Republic of Korea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20299 Krishnan, Vijaya. Homeownership: its impact on fertility. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 51, Feb 1988. 28 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The fertility of Canadian women is investigated using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS). Attention is focussed on several social and cultural-demographic factors (age, education, religion, religiosity, homeownership, nativity, income, value of home, and number of siblings) that are associated with fertility of couples. Multivariate analysis of the data indicates that: age of wife, education of wife and homeownership are the three most important variables explaining the fertility behaviour of Canadian couples...."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20300 Kyriazis, Stella. Economic approaches to fertility: a comparative analysis of the New Home Economics and Easterlin theories. [Approches economiques de la fecondite: une analyse comparative des theories du New Home Economics et d'Easterlin.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 167-85 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of the New Home Economics and Easterlin theories of fertility, within a critical context. It is emphasized that in spite of similarities between the two theories, each makes distinct contributions: while one stresses the cost of children as a determinant of fertility, the other stresses the importance of material aspirations through the relative income concept."
Correspondence: S. Kyriazis, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128 Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20301 Lelievre, Eva. Labor force participation and fertility: choices and determinations among French women, 1930-1960. [Activite professionnelle et fecondite: les choix et les determinations chez les femmes francaises, de 1930 a 1960.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 2, Oct 1987. 209-36 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Using longitudinal data, the author analyses the interactions between labor force participation and fertility of French women born between 1911 and 1935. After identification of types of sequences integrating family and working life cycle events, a non-parametric modelling of interactions between these events is proposed. The 1911-1935 cohorts, which start to show high labor force participation rates, have not yet reduced their fertility level, and one may observe how they have combined working life and family life."
Correspondence: E. Lelievre, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20302 Lewin, David. Limitations of historical and geographic comparisons of fertility. [Limite des comparaisons historiques et geographiques de la natalite.] Bulletin de l'Academie Nationale de Medecine, Vol. 171, No. 2-3, Feb 1987. 207-14 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The consequences of changes in the birth rate are examined, with particular reference to the situation in France concerning unemployment and the financing of old-age security. The causes of fluctuations in the birth rate are also considered. The author concludes that governments have a greater likelihood of affecting the consequences of such changes than of influencing changes in fertility directly.
Correspondence: D. Lewin, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre Hospitalier, 78303 Poissy Cedex, France. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20303 Lin, Fude. Characteristics of fertility transition in China. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1987. 1-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Fertility trends in China from the 1960s to the 1980s are reviewed using data from the 1982 1-in-1,000 fertility survey, the 10 percent sample of the 1982 census, and official publications. Particular attention is given to changes in the speed of the fertility transition, in urban and rural fertility patterns, and in the parity structure of fertility.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1986.
Correspondence: F. Lin, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Hai Dian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20304 Lutz, Wolfgang; Yashin, Anatoli. Comparative anatomy of fertility trends: the aging of the baby boom. IIASA Working Paper, No. WP-87-12, Jan 1987. 34 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
The authors discuss changes in fertility patterns in developed countries as they relate to demographic aging. The focus is on "the anatomy of the most pronounced fertility change in recent times, the post-war baby boom. The presentation makes much use of newly-available graphical techniques, which allow the reader to visualize the demographic trends in great detail. The graphical tools also facilitate comparative analyses...." Graphs depicting age distribution for 14 countries for the years 1950-2025 are included in the appendix.
Correspondence: IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20305 Mahadevan, K.; Sumangala, M. Social development, cultural change and fertility decline: a study of fertility change in Kerala. ISBN 81-7036-056-0. LC 87-15001. 1987. 190 pp. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between social development and fertility decline in India is analyzed, focusing on a village in Kerala and using a village in Andhra Pradesh as the control group. "Using both qualitative and quantitative data, the authors have combined the anthropological and survey methods to...demonstrate the importance of socio-cultural factors in rapid fertility decline in the state [of Kerala]. This book confirms that a higher age at marriage, a decline in infant mortality, an extensive family planning infrastructure and the widespread use of contraceptive methods are important influences on fertility decline....Using case studies as illustrations, the authors argue that the relatively low value attached to the sex of children, the revival of polyandry, the recognition of deep-rooted kinship obligations, the emancipation of women and modernisation, all contribute significantly towards a decline in fertility." A model explaining fertility decline in Kerala is generalized to apply to other regions in the developing world.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20306 Mason, Karen O. The impact of women's social position on fertility in developing countries. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 718-45 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines ideas about possible ways in which the extent of women's autonomy, women's economic dependency, and other aspects of their position vis-a-vis men influence fertility in Third World populations. Women's position of 'status' seems likely to be related to the supply of children because of its links with age at marriage. Women's position may also affect the demand for children and the costs of fertility regulation, though some connections suggested in the literature are implausible. The paper ends with suggestions for future research."
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2590. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20307 Menken, Jane. Proximate determinants of fertility and mortality: a review of recent findings. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 697-717 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"Social, cultural, and economic factors that influence fertility must work through the intermediate variables or proximate determinants that directly affect reproduction. This paper reviews the proximate determinants framework amd recent advances in knowledge of its components. In addition, efforts to develop a comparable model for analysis of mortality are described. It is concluded that, for fertility, although gaps in knowledge of proximate determinants remain and continuing periodic measurement is necessary to monitor their levels and changes, the primary need now is to improve understanding of the causal links between the social and economic features of a population and the proximate determinants."
Correspondence: J. Menken, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20308 Mhloyi, Marvellous M. Fertility determinants and differentials: the cases of Kenya and Lesotho. Zambezia, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986. 81-107 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
Fertility determinants and differentials in Kenya and Lesotho are analyzed based on data from surveys carried out in 1977-1978 as part of the World Fertility Survey. The author attempts to determine the extent to which the populations of the two countries are still under the influence of natural fertility and the impact of their respective family planning programs on fertility.
Correspondence: M. M. Mhloyi, Department of Sociology, University of Zimbabwe, POB MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20309 Monnier, Alain. Intended and achieved fertility. A longitudinal survey: 1974, 1976, 1979. [Projets de fecondite et fecondite effective. Une enquete longitudinale: 1974, 1976, 1979.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 819-42 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"Consecutive observations made in 1974, 1976 and 1979 on the same sample of women [in France] show that statements about fertility intentions provide a reliable means of predicting the behaviour of individuals (77 per cent over five years), but are inadequate to project birth rates for the population in general. There is usually some ambiguity about statements of intention, depending on whether women are asked whether they want an additional child, or about the total number of children they want. Generally speaking the number of wanted children stated as intended turns out to be larger than the number actually achieved. These findings raise the question whether couples really have definite ideas about the total number of children they want. It would seem as if each new birth leads to a revision of intentions defined on a short-term basis."
Correspondence: A. Monnier, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20310 Munoz-Perez, Francisco. The decline of fertility in southern Europe. [Le declin de la fecondite dans le sud de l'Europe.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1987. 911-41 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"After the second world war, birth rates in Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal remained relatively high, because of the delayed demographic transition. The author shows that during the following 30 years developments in these countries paralleled those in the more industrialized nations. In spite of falling birth rates, there was a sharp rise in marriage rates and rather less childlessness. It is clear that the populations of these regions were liable to the same influences which had shaped demographic developments in the rest of Europe. Therefore, the recent fall in birth rates recorded in those countries, ten years later than in the remainder of Europe seems less surprising. The author analyzes certain aspects of the current troughs in fertility which signal the end of a development that began at the turn of the century, and the adoption of reproductive behaviour which is very similar to that found throughout Western Europe."
Correspondence: F. Munoz-Perez, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20311 Petrioli, Luciano; Menchiari, Andrea. Model fertility tables. Dec 1986. 241 pp. Universita di Siena, Istituto di Statistica, Facolta di Scienze Economiche e Bancarie: Siena, Italy. In Eng.
"In this paper we propose a new group of standard tables based on a mathematical function (Gompertz's function) which has been widely tested in the demographic field and which is particularly appropriate for the representation of empirical fertility distributions....Each model of the new group of standard tables was obtained by estimating the parameters of the above mentioned function, after establishing certain limitations derived from the original data, so as to be able to represent real situations of fertility....Instead of examining the fertility of one population in the course of time, or of several populations at the same time, we have gathered a great number of fertility rate distributions from different countries at different times. The set of fertility distributions thus assembled represents the fertility of a group of females that are part of the world population. Consequently, the models derived from it can be applied freely without limitations of space or time."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20312 Pillai, Vijayan K. The postwar rise and decline of American fertility: the pace of transition to motherhood among 1950-1969 marital cohorts of white women. Journal of Family History, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1987. 421-36 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"This study supports the theoretical argument that historical experiences of the marital cohorts, and the changes in the social and demographic composition of the cohorts, determine the pace of childbearing among white American women married during 1950-1969. During the period 1965-1969 environmental factors supported a delay in the birth of the first child among working women. This may be the result of socioenvironmental responses to the threshold proportion of working women in the 1965-1969 cohort. In the past, compositional changes, such as an increase in the proportion of working women, have resulted from structural changes absorbing women into the labor market. These trends might have broght about attitudinal and environmental changes during these years enabling many women to become more work committed. Thus, both structural and environmental changes now support delayed childbearing."
Correspondence: V. K. Pillai, Iowa Urban Community Research Center, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20313 Poston, Dudley L.; Rogers, Richard G. Development and childlessness in the states and territories of Brazil. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.020, 1987. 32, [3] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"In this paper we analyze the relationships between modernization and childlessness among 25 geographical units of Brazil, including 21 states, 3 territories, and the Federal District. We use seven age-specific rates of childlessness computed for 1980 grouped in 5-year intervals. We find both variation within the childlessness rates, as well as important associations between measures of economic development in 1970 and the rates of childlessness." The analysis is based on a review of the literature and the development of a theoretical model.
Correspondence: Texas Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20314 Prada, Elena; Ojeda, Gabriel. Selected findings from the Demographic and Health Survey in Colombia, 1986. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 116-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Summary results from the 1986 Demographic and Health Survey of Colombia are presented. The results show that fertility continues to decline but that the rate of decline has lessened considerably in recent years. "The total fertility rate...is 3.3 children per woman, and the average number of live births among women who have completed childbearing is 6.1. Rural women continue to have two more children, on average, than do urban women; and women with no education have three more children than do women with secondary schooling. Contraceptive knowledge is virtually universal....Contraceptive prevalence among married women has reached 65 percent, and urban-rural differentials in prevalence have declined since 1978--from a difference of 25 percentage points to one of 17 percentage points. The leading method of contraception in Colombia is now female sterilization--18 percent of all married women use this method--followed by the pill, used by 16 percent and the IUD, 11 percent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20315 Proebsting, Helmut. The number of children of married German women by length of marriage, husband's income, and wife's occupational status, 1986. [Kinderzahl verheirateter deutscher Frauen nach Ehedauer, Einkommen des Mannes und Erwerbstatigkeit der Frau 1986.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 1, Jan 1988. 23-5 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Selected fertility data from the 1986 microcensus for the Federal Republic of Germany are compared with similar figures for 1976 and 1981. Factors examined include number of children, marriage duration, husband's income, and wife's occupational status. It is found that, on average, employed married women have fewer children than their unemployed counterparts and that families of husbands with a lower income have a significantly lower number of children than families of husbands with a higher income. Marriage and fertility trends among women grouped by duration of marriage are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20316 Rantala, Maja-Liisa. Childlessness in Helsinki. Biology and Society, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1987. 191-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Childlessness in Finland is analyzed using data collected by questionnaire from 4,730 women living in Helsinki who participated in a cervical cancer screening program in 1981-1982. "About half (48%) of the women aged 30 had no children. In the age group of 35 years, 28% were nulliparous as were 24% of the women aged 40."
Correspondence: M.-L. Rantala, Department II of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Haartmaninkatu 2, SF-00290 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20317 Rauniyar, Krishna K. Demand for children in the Nepal Tarai. Winrock International Research Paper Series, No. 29, Nov 1985. 16 pp. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
"This study uses the micro-economic demand theory of fertility to examine forces influencing current fertility decisions of Tarai farm families [in Nepal]. Determinants of demand for farm children include value of mother's time, child labor contributions, farm income, child mortality, duration of marriage, migration, contraceptive use, and education." Data concern 270 couples surveyed in 1982. The main factors affecting the demand for children were child labor and marriage duration. "Three dependent variables were tried in the analysis of demand for children--number of children ever born (NCB), ideal family size (IFS), and average (current) fertility (NCE). Average (current) fertility was found to be more consistent with the idea of fertility than the aggregate measures (NCB, IFS) used in the other equations."
Correspondence: Winrock International, P.O. Box 1312, Kathmandu, Nepal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20318 Retherford, Robert D. An integration of two fertility analysis frameworks. Genus, Vol. 43, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1987. 1-18 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The conceptual building blocks of Easterlin's well-known framework for fertility analysis are tastes, income and prices, as portrayed by indifference maps and budget constraints. An alternative but equivalent formulation, useful for conceptualizing rapid diffusion of birth control and sudden and rapid fertility decline, starts with family size preference functions of the type used by psychometricians. This paper demonstrates the complementarity of these two approaches."
Correspondence: R. D. Retherford, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20319 Reunion des Directeurs d'Instituts (Paris, France); Centres Universitaires de Demographie (Paris, France); France. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED] (Paris, France); Association Internationale des Demographes de Langue Francaise [AIDELF] (Paris, France). Sixth National Demographic Conference. Fertility in industrialized countries, Lille, April 24-26, 1979. [VI Colloque National de Demographie. La fecondite dans les pays industrialises, Lille, 24-26 avril 1979.] ISBN 2-222-03740-9. 1986. 566 pp. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference on fertility in developed countries, with particular emphasis on France, held in Lille, France, in April 1979. The first section includes 12 papers on factors affecting fertility, including residence characteristics, social class, educational status, female employment, religion, cultural background, contraception, and other socioeconomic factors. The second section has 3 papers on the consequences of fertility levels, including production and consumption, the limits of population decline, and demographic aging. The third section contains 4 papers on government policy. A selection of 17 unsolicited papers is included in the next part.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20320 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Palmore, James A.; Bumpass, Larry L. Analyzing birth intervals: implications for demographic theory and data collection. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 811-28 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"In the last decade, the study of birth intervals has been greatly facilitated by a rapid expansion in data availability and by improvements in analytical techniques. Unfortunately, the results emerging from individual level, empirical studies of birth interval dynamics do not correspond with the predictions of standard demographic theory. This paper reviews a series of individual level studies that find substantial socioeconomic variation in childspacing after controlling statistically for the major intermediate or proximate variables. It then offers possible explanations for the lack of fit between theory and results at the micro level, concluding that the two most likely explanations are poor measurement of the four principal proximate determinants and the exclusion of additional proximate determinants." The individual-level studies concern the Republic of Korea, Peru, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20321 Roy, S. Guha. Parameterizing Indian fertility experience by Gompertz function. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 136-43 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author develops a relational Gompertz fertility model and applies it to the experience of India based on official statistics.
Correspondence: S. G. Roy, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Calcutta-700 035, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20322 Sakai, Hiromichi. On preferences for sex of children among the Japanese. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 182, Apr 1987. 51-5 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
The author reviews the few studies available on sex preferences in Japan. The emphasis is on actual preferences based on fertility decisions as opposed to attitudes. The available data for Japan on sex preference are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20323 Sandoval, Guillermo; Brenes, Abelardo; Gonzalez, Alfonso. Costa Rican development and male fertility. [El desarrollo costarricense y la fecundidad del hombre.] 1985. 233 pp. Universidad Nacional, Instituto de Estudios Sociales en Poblacion [IDESPO]: Heredia, Costa Rica. In Spa.
The authors report the results of a 1980 survey of the male role in fertility trends in Costa Rica, in which 800 men aged 18-55 were interviewed. Emphasis is on the contribution of males to fertility decisions, in particular male participation in the fertility decline that has taken place in Costa Rica in the past three decades and the impact of socioeconomic changes on reproductive behavior. The first section contains chapters on previous research on fertility in Costa Rica, models of reproductive behavior, fertility and development in Latin America, social development in Costa Rica from 1950 to 1980, and problems involved in explanatory models of male reproductive behavior. The second section is a comparative analysis of social factors associated with male and female reproductive behavior. The third section concerns the relationship between number of children and male occupational activity. Section 4 contains a multivariate analysis of male fertility; variables considered include number of living children, educational level, urban or rural residence, occupation, and age at first union.
Correspondence: IDESPO, Universidad Nacional, Apdo. 86, Heredia, Costa Rica. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20324 Sathar, Zeba. Birth spacing in Pakistan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 175-94 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Life table analysis is applied to data from the Pakistan Fertility Survey (1975) to examine the effects on birth spacing of a number of socioeconomic variables. Women of more modern backgrounds seem to space their families more closely, but differ little in achieved family size from the more traditional groups. Important factors are age at marriage, age at first birth, province of residence, and whether the woman had ever used contraception. Multivariate analysis taking into account interaction between variables shows that education, urban-rural residence, and province exert independent effects, and so does the cohort of the mother. But the variable with the strongest effect on length of interval, other than that from marriage to first birth, is duration of breast-feeding."
Correspondence: Z. Sathar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, P.O. Box 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20325 Shariff, Abusaleh. A micro investigation of social change, status of woman and fertility decisions in Karnataka: methodology and some findings. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 48-69 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author reports on fieldwork conducted in 1981 in four rural villages of Karnataka, India, "to investigate the causes and processes of fertility decline in south India with emphasis on tracing the pattern and process of decision-making." Following data collection on demographic characteristics and pregnancy histories, in-depth interviews were conducted with samples of family planning acceptors and non-acceptors. Attention is given to stages of fertility decision making, social change and the status of women, and family relationships and the decision-making process.
Correspondence: A. Shariff, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore-560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20326 Siegers, J. J. A prospective analysis of fertility based on the Willis model. [Een prospectieve analyse van het kindertal met behulp van het model van Willis.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 2, Feb 1988. 12-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, Willis' micro-economic model of fertility is tested with data obtained from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey of the Netherlands Central Bureau of Statistics." This model enables a prospective as well as a retrospective analysis of fertility and helps analyze the impact of husband's and wife's educational status on fertility. The probability of couples having three or more children is shown to be higher when both partners have had only a primary education or when both have had a university-level education.
Correspondence: J. J. Siegers, Economic Institute, State University of Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 8, POB 80125, 3508 TC Utrecht, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20327 Simonelli, Jeanne M. Two boys, a girl, and enough! Reproductive and economic decisionmaking on the Mexican periphery. Women in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ISBN 0-8133-7190-2. LC 85-50696. 1986. xxii, 231 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
The rate of change in fertility among women in Baviacora, in the state of Sonora, Mexico, is studied using information from fieldwork conducted by the author. Evidence is found for a decreasing birth rate as a result of changing behaviors and reproductive strategies. Attention is given to fertility and economic change, the geography and history of the region, modernization in the area since 1945, economic resources in Baviacora, and female employment and demographic change. The author concludes that traditions of male migration and female access to modern medicine have together made it possible for women to take rational steps to promote the survivorship and well-being of their children.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20328 Soomro, Ghulam Y. Determinants of aggregate fertility in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, Winter 1986. 553-70 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to investigate and identify policy-relevant factors which influence fertility at an aggregate level by looking at the supply, demand and cost factors of fertility regulation [in Pakistan]....The analysis of fertility determinants was carried out by employing socioeconomic development variables where unit of analysis was a district. The ordinary least-square method of regression was applied to study the effects. To avoid multicollinearity among the independent variables, a composite variable of socio-economic development variables was structured to study the effects of development and family planning programme on fertility. The results revealed that fertility was significantly affected by [school] enrolment and nuptiality variables." A comment by Margaret E. Greene is also included (pp. 567-70).
Correspondence: G. Y. Soomro, Research Demographer, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20329 Sundstrom, William A.; David, Paul A. Old-age security motives, labor markets, and farm family fertility in antebellum America. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 25, No. 2, Apr 1988. 164-97 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
The relationships among fertility, old-age security, and nonagricultural employment opportunities among farm families in the United States before the Civil War are explored. The authors develop a simple, two-period model of intertemporal resource allocation, which summarizes the effects upon desired family size of changes in the old-age asset value assigned to children. The results indicate that "the demand for children on the part of farm couples in antebellum America declined as labor market opportunities outside the agricultural sector improved. A connection between these two secular developments was forged by the operation of the old-age security motive for raising children. In exchange for their role in providing old-age security for their parents, the mature offspring of a farm couple expected to receive a portion of the farm family's wealth, either as an inheritance or as an inter vivos transfer." Measures of nonagricultural labor market opportunities are found to have a significant and negative effect on fertility and to explain geographical fertility differences. In contrast, the availability of cheap land is shown to have had little impact on fertility.
Correspondence: W. A. Sundstrom, Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:20330 Tol'ts, M. S. The relationship between matrimonial and reproductive behavior. [Vzaimosvyazi brachnogo i reproduktivnogo povedeniya.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 39-53, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"The association between marriage and childbearing patterns at the modern phase of demographic development [in the USSR] is examined. It is shown how the woman's age influences the length of the interval between the wedding and the first birth. The way current marriage patterns affect fertility is characterized."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20331 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Family building by fate or design: a study of relationships between child survival and fertility. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/74, 1987. ix, 103 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report attempts "to identify what is clearly and unambiguously known about the relationship between child survival chances and fertility, to formulate policy guidelines based on this knowledge and to identify promising areas for future research....[It is noted that] improvements in child survival generate various distinct but closely interdependent types of changes in patterns of reproduction resulting in lower fertility levels and these depend on prevalent family building strategies." Such changes in both the physiological effect and the replacement effect can lead to lower fertility. "Other effects of child survival operate on fertility by altering parents' perceptions about their environment, in particular their perceptions about their children's survival chances." These effects are identified as the transition effect and the insurance effect. Consideration is given to the different impact of such effects in the various developing regions of the world.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20332 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division. Fertility and Family Planning Section (Bangkok, Thailand). Female autonomy and fertility: an overview of the situation in South Asia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1987. 43-52 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article explores several dimensions of the socio-cultural milieu in countries of the South Asian subcontinent that account for the persistence of moderate to high fertility. It finds that, because the resistance to change is deep-rooted at the structural and cultural level, policy intervention, the emphasis of which is on service delivery only, is not likely to bring about any appreciable shift in the behaviour of the population. It concludes that fertility will tend to decline slowly until the forces of modernization help women in South Asia to resist pronatalist pressures."
Correspondence: Fertility and Family Planning Section, Population Division, ESCAP, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20333 Vaupel, James W.; Goodwin, Dianne G. The concentration of reproduction among U.S. women, 1917-80. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 723-30, 764-5, 767 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"For cohorts of U.S. women completing their fertility from 1917 to 1980, roughly a fifth to a quarter of the women had half the children. This concentration of reproduction is analyzed by tracing time series of various summary measures and by plotting concentration curves that display the relationship between proportions of women and proportions of children. Concentration analyses may be relevant to policy decisions, especially those relating to the targeting of an intervention. If a fifth of women are bearing half the children, perhaps policies to reduce (or to increase) births should be directed toward this group."
Correspondence: J. W. Vaupel, Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20334 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Taffel, Selma M.; Mosher, William D. Estimates of pregnancies and pregnancy rates for the United States, 1976-85. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 5, May 1988. 506-11 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates in the United States during the period 1976-1985 are analyzed. Differences in rates and in pregnancy outcomes are examined according to age and race. "The estimates of pregnancies in this article are based on data compiled by the Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and are prepared by summing the three outcomes of pregnancy: live birth, induced abortion, and fetal loss."
Correspondence: S. J. Ventura, Natality Statistics Branch, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics, Room 1-44, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20335 Watanabe, Yoshikazu. Age patterns of reproductive life stages in female cohorts of the Japanese: 1900-1930. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 183, Jul 1987. 23-33 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Ages at marriage, first birth, and last birth for Japanese women born in 1900 and in 1930 are compared. Fertility dropped between the two cohorts from 4.95 children per married woman in the 1900 cohort to 2.19 children per married woman in the 1930 cohort. Trends toward older ages at marriage and first birth and a younger age at last birth are observed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20336 Watkins, Susan C. The fertility transition: Europe and the third world compared. Sociological Forum, Vol. 2, No. 4, Fall 1987. 645-73 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
"This article compares the declines in fertility in Europe and the Third World. Lower levels of fertility were largely due to the adoption of innovative behavior within marriage. So far this transformation of reproduction has been monotonic and rapid. Socioeconomic development is associated with the timing of the onset of the transition and is responsible for differences among groups during the transition, although it is not yet possible to rule out alternative explanations such as ideational or institutional change. The pace and pervasiveness of the declines, however, suggest that a mechanism of diffusion is involved."
Correspondence: S. C. Watkins, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20337 Williams, Richard A. Indianapolis revisited: a new look at social and psychological factors affecting fertility. Pub. Order No. DA8620921. 1986. 272 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This is a reanalysis of the results of the 1941 Indianapolis Fertility Survey. "Based on a review of social-psychological and demographic research of the past twenty years, a model of fertility attitude-behavior consistency is developed....To test the model, parity progression models are estimated, using both logistic regression and event history analysis techniques. Results show that attitudes strongly influence behavior....Past fertility experiences, age, income and education, the husband's desires, and planning ability are all shown to affect the wife's attitude-behavior consistency and fertility outcomes."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(11).

54:20338 Wilson, Chris; Oeppen, Jim; Pardoe, Mike. What is natural fertility? The modelling of a concept. Population Index, Vol. 54, No. 1, Spring 1988. 4-20 pp. Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
"Our purpose in this paper is to assess the value of the concept of natural fertility through a detailed examination of the most widely used model that incorporates it, the Coale-Trussell model of marital fertility." The authors first describe Henry's formulation of the concept of natural fertility and the Coale-Trussell model of marital fertility and review the original data used by Henry. They then consider the determinants of the age pattern of natural fertility. They conclude that "natural fertility can best be thought of as the pattern of natural sterility, modified to a greater or lesser degree by various social factors. In this context it is wrong to say that a clear and universally applicable dichotomy exists between natural and controlled fertility." However, because the effect of the intervening factors is often weak, the concept of natural fertility remains a useful one. With regard to the Coale-Trussell model, they conclude "that maximum likelihood estimation offers by far the most informative way of implementing it. In particular, the calculation of joint confidence regions is a major step forward for analysts dealing with small populations."
Correspondence: C. Wilson, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20339 Wright, Robert E.; Maxim, Paul S. Canadian fertility trends: a further test of the Easterlin hypothesis. Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology/Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et d'Anthropologie, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 339-57 pp. Toronto, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The Easterlin hypothesis that the fertility rate of a given cohort is inversely related to the size of that cohort is examined using official Canadian data for the period 1922-1984. The results indicate that the data do not support the hypothesis. In general, larger cohorts have had relatively higher rates of fertility than smaller cohorts, despite the fact that fertility has declined for all cohorts in recent years.
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C2, Canada. Location: New York Public Library.

54:20340 Wright, Robert E.; Madan, Ashok K. Union instability and fertility in three Caribbean societies. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 37-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines empirically the relationship between sexual union instability and fertility in three English-speaking Caribbean societies, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad/Tobago, using data collected in the World Fertility Survey Programme. An index of cumulative fertility, the duration ratio, that controls for the biological effects of age and age at first union is used as the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis. The statistical findings are in general agreement with previous research that has found a positive association between fertility and the number of sexual unions in these societies. However, the estimated fertility effect of belonging to different union types (i.e. married, common-law and visiting) is not uniform across the three societies."
Correspondence: R. E. Wright, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20341 Wu, Cangping. Theoretical explanations of the rapid fertility decline in China. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, Jul 1986. 16-23 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author seeks reasons for the rapid decline in fertility that has occurred in China. Factors considered include social and economic changes brought about by the development of socialism as well as the successful development of a family planning program.
This is a translation of the Chinese article published in 1985 and cited in 54:10295.
Correspondence: C. Wu, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Hai Dian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20342 Yudina, S. P. The influence of changes in the age and sex distribution of the population on fertility levels in the Ukrainian SSR. [Vliyanie izmenenii v vozrastno-polovom sostave naseleniya na uroven' rozhdaemosti v Ukrainskoi SSR.] Demograficheskie Issledovaniya, Vol. 11, 1987. 104-9 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates the impact of changes in the age and sex distribution of the population on fertility levels in the Ukrainian SSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20343 Zhai, Zhenwu. Marital fertility models. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 1987. 41-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is firstly to re-examine Coale's marital fertility model, using an amount of data in order to discover precisely the conditions under which the model does not work, and secondly, to try to develop a new model of marital fertility which seems to be more precise than Coale's formulation." The revised model is tested using data for China and selected other countries.
This is a translation of the Chinese article published in 1986 and cited in 54:10297.
Correspondence: Z. Zhai, Institute of Population Research, People's University of China, 39 Hai Dian Road, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

54:20344 Abeykoon, A. T. P. L. Ethnic models of fertility behaviour in Sri Lanka. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1987. 29-42 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Ethnic and socioeconomic differentials in fertility behavior in Sri Lanka are discussed. "The data for the study come from the 1982 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey....The study sample consisted of 4,483 ever-married women aged 15 to 49 years. In order to explain the effects of ethnicity on fertility behaviour, predictive models of fertility behaviour were developed for each of the four ethnic groups....The models consist of four hierarchical sub-models focused on four dependent variables: (1) children ever born, (2) additional children wanted, (3) contraceptive knowledge and (4) effectiveness of contraceptive use, the ultimate dependent variable." The author examines how each of these four dependent variables is affected by socioeconomic and demographic factors, including education, current residence, work status, husband's occupation, age, marriage age, child mortality, and ideal family size.
Correspondence: A. T. P. L. Abeykoon, Population Division, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20345 Carvajal, Manuel J.; Geithman, David T. Empirical findings on socioeconomic determinants of fertility differentials in Costa Rica. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1986. 19-35 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper seeks to (1) identify socioeconomic variables that are expected to generate fertility differentials; (2) hypothesize the direction and magnitude of the effect of each variable by reference to a demand-for-children model; and (3) test empirically the model using evidence from Costa Rica. The estimates are obtained from a ten-percent systematic random sample of all Costa Rican individual-family households. There are 15,924 families in the sample...." The authors specifically seek "to capture the effects of changing relative prices and available income and time constraints on parental preferences for children. Least-squares estimates show statistically significant relationships between household fertility and opportunity cost of time, parental education, occurrence of an extended family, medical care, household sanitation, economic sector of employment, and household stock of nonhuman capital."
Correspondence: M. J. Carvajal, Department of Economics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20346 Goodwin, Norma J. Black adolescent pregnancy: prevention and management. Journal of Community Health, Vol. 11, No. 1, ISBN 0-89885-332-X. Spring 1986. 74 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This special issue is a product of a symposium on the prevention and management of black adolescent pregnancy sponsored by the Empire State Medical Association in 1984 at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. It contains 13 papers on various aspects of the selected topic. The geographical focus is on the United States.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20347 Han, Jing-Qing; Cho, Lee-Jay; Choe, Minja Kim; Tuan, Chi-Hsien. The fertility of Korean minority women in China: 1950-1985. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1988. 31-54 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article presents an analysis of the fertility, during the period 1950-1985, of Korean minority women residing in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in Jilin province, where 43 per cent of ethnic Koreans in China reside. The fertility levels and trends of this group are estimated and compared with those for women in China as a whole and in Jilin province. The timing of fertility is examined using estimated fertility rates by women's age and birth order. Fertility is also examined by women's level of education. The discussion includes a comparison of the fertility of Korean minority women in Yanbian with that for all women in China and Jilin province, as well as women in the Republic of Korea."
It is found that "three factors played a major role in the early and rapid fertility reduction: a) because they were relatively recent migrants, the Korean minority put less value on traditional norms and [were] willing to accept new norms; b) once accepted these norms could spread through their own communication and education networks; and c) the Chinese Government's family planning campaign provided the necessary techniques for implementing the norms and achieving fertility reduction."
Correspondence: J.-Q. Han, Institute of Systems Science, Academia Sinica, Beijing, China. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20348 Kollehlon, Konia T. Residence and fertility: some evidence from Liberia. Liberia-Forum, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1986. 61-78 pp. Mucke, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The relationship between residence factors and fertility in Liberia is analyzed using data from a 10 percent sample of the population from the 1974 census. The results indicate that the fertility of rural and urban women is similar. The author suggests that the reasons for this similarity may be found in the relative lack of urbanization in Liberia.
Correspondence: K. K. Kollehlon, Department of Social Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20349 Kulin, Howard E. Adolescent pregnancy in Africa: a programmatic focus. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 7, 1988. 727-35 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This report will discuss adolescent pregnancy in Africa as a controversial problem, still poorly defined, but very much in need of direction. Of particular note will be the relevance of tremendous efforts currently being expended in this field in the United States and the appropriateness of cross-cultural transference. Despite a paucity of background data in Africa, worldwide directions in adolescent health dictate a framework for effective programs. Most importantly, from the perspective of this observer, is the question of leadership of efforts dealing with teenage fertility. Kenya and Zimbabwe will be used as examples of countries where programmatic needs are great and the time appropriate to initiate action."
Correspondence: H. E. Kulin, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20350 Maciak, Barbara J.; Spitz, Alison M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Morris, Leo; Warren, Charles W.; Marks, James S. Pregnancy and birth rates among sexually experienced U.S. teenagers--1974, 1980, and 1983. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 258, No. 15, Oct 16, 1987. 2,069-71 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Pregnancy and birth rates among U.S. teenagers are reviewed for the years 1974, 1980, and 1983, using official data. "Between 1974 and 1980, the pregnancy rate among all teens increased; the pregnancy rate among sexually experienced teens declined. From 1980 to 1983, the pregnancy rate declined among all teens...." The results suggest that the decline in the birth rate from 1974 to 1980 was primarily due to abortion, whereas the decline from 1980 to 1983 was related to a decrease in the incidence of teenage pregnancy.
Correspondence: B. J. Maciak, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20351 Maxwell, Nan L. Influences on the timing of first childbearing. Contemporary Policy Issues, Vol. 5, No. 2, Apr 1987. 113-22 pp. Long Beach, California. In Eng.
The author develops the hypothesis that women from different population subgroups respond differently to economic and background influences when timing initial childbearing. Data are taken from the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience and concern some 5,000 U.S. women followed from 1968 to 1978. "Among all groups examined, age at first birth tends to increase as education levels increase, and married women with spouses present tend to be older than other women at first childbirth. Among whites, all economic influences considered--hourly pay rate, nonmarket income, and work during the year prior to childbearing--have a significant influence in deferring first childbirth, but family background does not. Among blacks, family background plays a significant role in determining age at first childbirth, but only one economic influence--the hourly pay rate--is significant."
Correspondence: N. L. Maxwell, Department of Economics, California State University, Hayward, CA 94542. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20352 Ridley, Jeanne C.; Myers, David E.; Young, Leila R.; Nassim, Janet. Farm background, socioeconomic status, and fertility: the two-generation hypothesis. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1987. 220-33 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper reports on an examination of whether the effects of farm background on socioeconomic differentials in fertility are diminished among nonfarm couples. The data are for a sample of white [U.S.] ever-married women belonging to the 1901-1910 birth cohorts. The research provides another test of the two-generation-urbanite hypothesis first advanced by Goldberg. Unlike a number of other studies, the findings do not support the hypothesis. Reasons for the lack of support are discussed, and methodological weaknesses of previous studies are identified."
Correspondence: J. C. Ridley, Department of Demography, Georgetown University, 37th and O Streets NW, Washington, D.C. 20057. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20353 Ross, G. Alexander. Fertility differentials in an agricultural society: Saginaw County, Michigan, in 1850. Michigan Academician, Vol. 20, No. 1, Winter 1988. 71-84 pp. Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The detailed examination of geographically limited areas reveals interesting patterns which are hidden when we aggregate data at the national or regional level. The discovery of such patterns is the main focus of this research, an analysis of fertility differentials in Saginaw County, Michigan, in 1850. Where possible, I have replicated other recent studies of fertility in selected areas of the United States in the nineteenth century by using a comparable methodology. My intention in the study is, therefore, not only to add to our information about Saginaw County but to help refine our understanding of general patterns of fertility in nineteenth-century America." The impact on fertility of woman's place of birth, duration of and age at marriage, husband's occupation, and extent of urbanization are considered.
Correspondence: G. A. Ross, Department of Sociology, Saginaw Valley State College, Saginaw, MI. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20354 Sindiga, Isaac. Fertility control and population growth among the Maasai. Human Ecology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1987. 53-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper inquires into the reasons for the comparatively lower fertility and population growth among the Maasai (than among other Kenyan communities, particularly cultivators). It hypothesizes that a number of factors including male elder control of society, sexually transmitted diseases, seasonal food shortages, and general environmental health hazards all act together to suppress fertility. This situation must certainly change with further socioeconomic progress."
Correspondence: I. Sindiga, Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43833, Nairobi, Kenya. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20355 van Hoorn, W. D. Number of Surinam- and Antillean-born children in the Netherlands. [Het kindertal van Surinamers en Antillianen in Nederland.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 1988. 18-21 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"A multivariate analysis of the 1985 Quality of Life-Survey among Surinam and Antillean born persons in the Netherlands reveals some telling results about their fertility. For both groups a low current number of children is associated with a high educational level, no religion, a long stay in the Netherlands, an urban environment and--only in the case of females--employment. To a lesser extent, the same holds true for education attended (partly) in the Netherlands and having a Dutch partner."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20356 Vicentijevic, Radmila. Socioeconomic position of women as a determinant of population reproduction in villages. [Drustveno-ekonomski polozaj zene kao faktor reprodukcije stanovnistva na selu.] Statisticka Revija, Vol. 36, No. 1-2, 1986. 104-7 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
The impact of women's socioeconomic status on fertility in Yugoslavia is examined. The data, which are mainly from the 1981 census, concern the rural population in the greater Belgrade metropolitan area.
Correspondence: R. Vicentijevic, Gradski Zavod za Statistiku, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20357 Vinovskis, Maris A. An "epidemic" of adolescent pregnancy? Some historical and policy considerations. ISBN 0-19-504997-7. LC 87-11075. 1988. xix, 284 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This is a historical analysis of adolescent pregnancy in the United States. The author first examines adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing in early America and attempts to determine whether there has in fact been an "epidemic" of teenage pregnancy. It is shown that the trend in adolescent pregnancy peaked more than 20 years before it was identified by the government as a major problem in 1978. Current administration policies such as parental notification and paternal involvement are evaluated. The author concludes with policy recommendations concerning teenage sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:20358 Wineberg, Howard. Education, age at first birth, and the timing of fertility in the United States: recent trends. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 157-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper enquires whether education and age at first birth, both strongly associated with completed fertility, are related to the timing of fertility, in particular the timing of the first three births, among once married white women. Analysis of data from the June 1985 United States Current Population Survey indicates that education is related to the timing of fertility; this relationship has remained relatively constant over time. Age at first birth is associated with the timing of fertility among older but not younger women."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Center for Population Research and Census, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20359 Wineberg, Howard. The timing of the second birth. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 72, No. 2, Jan 1988. 96-101 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Trends in the timing of the second birth among white and black U.S. women during the period 1969-1984 are examined using official statistics. Particular attention is given to education and race differentials in the timing of the second birth. It is found that "education was related to the mean interval from the first to second birth for black but not white women....[For both black and white women] the median interval between the first two births has increased from 1969 to 1984 while the proportion having the second birth within 18 months of the first birth has decreased. Little change, however, has occurred in these measures since the mid 1970's. Black women continue to have a greater percentage of closely spaced second births but since 1975 they have also had the longer median interval."
Correspondence: H. Wineberg, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20360 Wright, Kathleen H. Teenage pregnancy and abortion: demographic, epidemiological and anthropological considerations in relation to EuroAmerican family formation. Pub. Order No. DA8716950. 1986. 260 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author suggests that "current levels of teenage pregnancy reflect an endemic and periodic trend in EuroAmerican fertility. The cultural and historical foundations of this trend were traced to the AngloAmerican process of family formation. It [is] further shown that the neolocal rule of residence serves tacitly to mandate that a pregnant teenage daughter either have an abortion or face expulsion from her natal family unit. The hypothesis examined [is] that abortion is a culturally consistent strategy employed by pregnant white American teenagers to preserve the integrity of their natal family unit." Data are from surveys and interviews with U.S. adolescents.
This work was prepared as doctoral dissertation at Syracuse University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(6).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

54:20361 DeCherney, Alan H. Reproductive failure. ISBN 0-443-08346-0. LC 86-2654. 1986. xi, 308 pp. Churchill Livingstone: New York, New York/Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on infertility, early pregnancy wastage, and other clinical problems associated with reproduction. "Its major scope is one of total inclusiveness in the field of reproductive failure, starting with an historical perspective, and leading through epidemiologic and universal issues with regard to reproduction. Specific areas in male and female diagnosis and treatment are evaluated, as is human sexuality. Specific topics such as ovulation induction, infertility surgery, endometriosis, infection, and ectopic pregnancy are addressed. In addition, extensive current work is included in the section on in vitro fertilization. This is not only a book on infertility but includes early pregnancy wastage as well, addressing habitual abortion and the immunological factors responsible for the condition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

54:20362 Ahmed, Ghyasuddin; Schellstede, William P.; Williamson, Nancy E. Underreporting of contraceptive use in Bangladesh. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 136-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Problems concerning differences in contraceptive practice as reported by husbands and wives in Bangladesh are explored, with particular reference to differences in reported condom use. "The researchers believe that a reasonably accurate measure of prevalence can be obtained by interviewing couples and classifying them as users if either spouse reports that they use a method within marriage. Using this couple approach, they found that 11 percent of husbands in urban areas underreported condom use, as did 15 percent of their wives; in semirural areas, 12 percent of husbands underreported condom use, as did 44 percent of their wives."
Correspondence: G. Ahmed, Demography Department, University of Botswana, Private Bag 0022, Gaborone, Botswana. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20363 Akin, John S.; Schwartz, J. Brad. The effect of economic factors on contraceptive choice in Jamaica and Thailand: a comparison of mixed multinomial logit results. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 3, Apr 1988. 503-27 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The sensitivity of potential contraceptive users to changes in the prices charged for contraceptives in developing countries is examined. Specifically, a mixed conditional/unconditional multinomial logit econometric model is used to estimate contraceptive method choice in Jamaica and Thailand using survey data. The results indicate that in both countries, factors other than price tend to determine whether a woman or her partner will purchase contraceptives, particularly for methods such as the pill, IUD, injections, and sterilizations in Thailand, and the pill in Jamaica. However, prices do affect condom use in both countries and injections in Jamaica, and increased prices would probably lead to declines in use.
Correspondence: J. S. Akin, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:20364 Alimoeso, Sudibyo; Lewis, Gary L. Factors affecting the use of contraception in urban areas of Indonesia. Technical Report Series Monograph, No. 51, Sep 1987. 23 pp. National Family Planning Coordinating Board: Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present some characteristics of contraceptors and non-contraceptors in five cities covered by the 1983 Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (ICPS)." The focus is on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics associated with contraceptive use. The results show that contraceptive use in the cities examined varied from 40 to 64 percent. It is also indicated that although parental education is strongly linked to contraceptive use, the links between contraceptive use and age of woman, parity, presence of sons, female employment outside the home, and infant mortality are weak. Government employment and exposure to the media are also linked positively to contraceptive use.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

54:20365 Allman, James; Allman, Suzanne N. Women's status and family planning in Haiti. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 17, No. 1, Spring 1987. 109-20 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The paper argues that women's status in Haiti is a factor favorable to the spread of modern contraception and a potential rapid demographic transition from high to low fertility. After briefly reviewing recent theories on the determining of fertility declines, the paper considers women's status in Haiti. It discusses family patterns, conjugal unions, and economic activities. Finally, it reviews current patterns of contraceptive use and considers how these are related to various aspects of women's status."
Correspondence: J. Allman, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20366 Babin, E. B. Contraceptive behavior of spouses in urban families. [Kontratseptivnoe povedenie suprugov v gorodskikh sem'yakh.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 146-56, 201 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Contraceptive behavior of spouses living in urban areas of the USSR is analyzed. The distribution of various contraceptive methods and the attitudes of men and women toward their use and acceptability are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20367 Balassone, Mary L. Adolescents and birth control: a study of oral contraceptive use. Pub. Order No. DA8726121. 1987. 240 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This prospective study employs a sample of [U.S.] adolescent oral contraceptive users to investigate correlates of the continued use of birth control and family planning clinics....A sample of 76 teens, who made initial appointments at a family planning clinic for oral contraceptives, were interviewed at both their initial clinic visit and again three months later. Information was gathered in four major areas--demographics, reproductive health history, contraceptive decision-making, and actual contraceptive use experience. Data from the interview sample were complemented by information from case record reviews of a random sample of 218 adolescent oral contraceptive users. Multivariate analysis using data from both samples led to the development of a prediction model to assist family planning providers in distinguishing adolescents unlikely to return to the clinic for follow-up and to use oral contraceptives consistently."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(9).

54:20368 DaVanzo, Julie; Tan, Boon Ann; Othman, Ramli; Peterson, Jane R. Determinants of contraceptive method choice in Peninsular Malaysia, 1961-1975. Rand Note, No. N-2453-PC, Jul 1986. xv, 57 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This Note documents the trend over the period 1961-75 in the mix of contraceptive methods used in Peninsular Malaysia by women aged 35 [and] younger, and examines the influences on their choice of method over this period." Data are from the 1976-1977 Malaysian Family Life Survey. The authors note that contraceptive use increased significantly over this period. "The greatest increase occurred for the pill. By the mid-1970s, oral contraceptives accounted for over one-half of the total time Malaysian women were protected by some form of contraception. Female sterilization and condom use also increased over this period." Factors affecting the choice of method are assessed.
Correspondence: Rand Corporation, 1700 Main Street, P.O. Box 2138, Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20369 David, Paul A.; Mroz, Thomas A.; Sanderson, Warren C.; Wachter, Kenneth W.; Weir, David R. Cohort parity analysis: statistical estimates of the extent of fertility control. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 163-88 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Cohort parity analysis (CPA) is a method for indirect measurement of the extent and timing of the adoption of fertility control within marriage. It uses information on the parity distribution of a cohort of women of specified marriage ages and durations. A multinomial model of parity provides a convenient framework for the computation of distributional parameters describing the extent to which marital fertility control has been accepted and characterizing the way control has been used within specific durations of marriage. This leads to a pair of easily implemented formulas for upper- and lower-bound estimates of the expected proportion of the population ever controlling and the distribution of controllers by parity. The power of CPA is illustrated, using census data for currently married couples in Dublin, Belfast, and other county boroughs of Ireland in 1911."
Correspondence: P. A. David, Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-6072. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20370 de Silva, V.; Thapa, S.; Wilkens, L. R.; Farr, M. G.; Jayasinghe, K.; McMahan, J. E. Compensatory payments and vasectomy acceptance in urban Sri Lanka. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 143-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the effects of different levels of [compensatory] payment on the acceptance of vasectomy in urban Sri Lanka. Data from 496 vasectomized men are analysed by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, post-operative problems encountered and attitudes towards vasectomy by amount of payment. The findings show that higher levels of payments have significantly enhanced the adoption of vasectomy, particularly among the low economic status group. The time of vasectomy in relation to the youngest child's age was influenced by the payment scheme. Higher monetary payments have not induced men to become sterilized who would be considered ineligible for the operation."
Correspondence: V. de Silva, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20371 Dyrvik, Stale; Alsvik, Marit K. The introduction of birth control in the city of Stavanger, 1900-1935. [Gjennombrotet for fodselsregulering i Stavanger, 1900-1935.] ISBN 82-991618-0-0. 1987. 217 pp. Historisk Institutt: Bergen, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
This is a case study of the introduction of birth control in the city of Stavanger, Norway. "A random sample of 609 families was drawn from the censuses of 1920 and 1930. Demographic data were completed by information on occupation, habitation (including migration) and revenue. Analysis showed no connection between birth control and profession, income or standard of housing." The effects on fertility of residence, marriage age, infant mortality, marital fertility, socioeconomic status, and birth and first birth intervals are also studied.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20372 Ferreira, Monica. Incentives and disincentives: an overview of measures to achieve demographic objectives. RGN.HSRC Report, No. S-147, ISBN 0-7969-0360-3. LC 87-137223. 1986. vi, 94 pp. Human Sciences Research Council, Institute for Sociological and Demographic Research: Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
This is a review of the literature concerning the use of incentives and disincentives in family planning programs around the world. A major research shortcoming identified is the lack of demographic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of incentives and disincentives and their impact on fertility. The author concludes that they are probably only feasible in totalitarian or authoritarian societies, the ethical problems involved may outweigh considerations of their effectiveness, the promotion of socioeconomic well-being may be more effective in reducing fertility, and further demographic research into their effectiveness is required. The implications for developing an incentive and disincentive scheme in South Africa are discussed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:20373 Fox, Karen F. A. Social marketing of oral rehydration therapy and contraceptives in Egypt. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 95-108 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the antecedents, activities, results, and prospects for institutionalization of two large social marketing programs currently in operation in Egypt: the National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Project, which promotes oral rehydration therapy to treat diarrheal dehydration, and the Family of the Future, which is recognized as one of the most sophisticated and effective contraceptive social marketing programs operating today. This examination of two health-related social marketing programs operating simultaneously in the same country can highlight the factors that contribute to successful programs."
Correspondence: K.F.A. Fox, Leavey School of Business and Administration, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20374 Gallen, Moira; Lettenmaier, Cheryl; Green, Cynthia P. Counseling makes a difference. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 35, Nov 1987. 31 pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report is concerned with the importance of counseling in family planning programs, with a focus on developing countries. The authors explore the elements that contribute to good counseling, the role of counseling in informed consent and informed choice, and training for counseling. Consideration is given to the differing counseling needs of various types of programs.
Correspondence: Population Information Program, Johns Hopkins University, Hampton House, 624 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20375 Goldscheider, Calvin; Mosher, William D. Religious affiliation and contraceptive usage: changing American patterns, 1955-82. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 48-57 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents national estimates of contraceptive usage patterns among white women from 1955-82 for the major religious populations in the United States. Drawing on several surveys, the data show that in 1955 differences in contraceptive use between white Protestants and Catholics were very large and corresponded to the higher fertility levels among Catholics. By 1982, all the major religious groups had experienced downward changes in expected family size and all used effective contraceptive methods, including sterilization, the pill, and the IUD. Despite some convergence in the patterns of contraceptive usage over time, significant differences in contraceptive use styles remain among Catholics, Protestants, Jews, and those of no religious affiliation after multivariate controls eliminated socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences among these subpopulations....A series of hypotheses are proposed to account for these different contraceptive use styles...."
Correspondence: C. Goldscheider, Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20376 Green, Edward C. A consumer intercept study of oral contraceptive users in the Dominican Republic. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 109-17 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a consumer intercept study that was conducted in Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, between October and December 1986. The primary purpose was to obtain a detailed sociodemographic profile of those buying Microgynon, a low-dose oral contraceptive that was receiving marketing support from the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through a project known as Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC). Contraceptive social marketing (CSM) attempts to supply contraceptives to those who are too poor to buy commercial products yet are not reached by public distribution programs, by subsidizing the price of contraceptives, relying on existing commercial distribution networks, and using mass media for the commercial advertising of the subsidized product."
Correspondence: E. C. Green, John Short and Associates, P.O. Box 1305, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20377 Hammerslough, Charles R. Correcting survey-based contraceptive failure rates for abortion under-reporting. Pub. Order No. DA8704585. 1987. 208 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author seeks to improve the methodology for measuring contraceptive failure rates in the United States, using data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth. He "derives and applies an upward correction factor to use-failure rates to account for unreported contraceptive failures which resulted in abortions. A simple model of pregnancy and abortion reporting process leads to a correction factor which requires only (1) the probability of abortion as a pregnancy outcome and (2) abortion reporting on the fertility survey....This re-analysis correcting for abortion under-reporting paints a different picture of the covariates of contraceptive failure. After correction, failure rates vary by age and race, but not by marital status." Standardized failure rates for various contraceptive methods are provided.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(11).

54:20378 Isaacs, Stephen L.; Holt, Renee J. Contraceptive technology and the law. Technology in Society, Vol. 9, 1987. 339-58 pp. Elmsford, New York. In Eng.
"This article examines the status, trends and issues of law as it affects the availability of contraceptives. It begins with a review of the legality of contraception around the world, and then focuses on some specific issues of contraceptive distribution that are of particular importance in developing countries. These include legislation or regulations permitting health personnel other than physicians to deliver contraceptives as well as spousal and parental consent requirements. The article next examines two areas--drug regulation and product liability--of special importance in the United States where a long and expensive drug approval process, the unavailability or high cost of insurance, and the fear of high damage awards and litigation costs have reduced the varieties of contraceptives available to the public, and raise the possibility of a crisis in the near future. Finally, the article examines recent United States drug export legislation."
Correspondence: S. L. Isaacs, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20379 Isaacs, Stephen L.; Holt, Renee. Drug regulation, product liability, and the contraceptive crunch: choices are dwindling. Journal of Legal Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1987. 533-53 pp. Long Island City, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the reasons for the diminishing availability of contraceptives in the United States and propose some ways of reversing this trend. Among the topics considered are the approval process of the FDA, product liability litigation, and the future market for contraceptives. The solutions proposed involve the streamlining of FDA approval procedures and the development of a no-fault insurance principle whereby individuals injured by contraceptives would be fairly compensated without being required to prove liability.
Correspondence: S. L. Isaacs, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, 60 Haven Avenue, New York, NY 10032. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20380 Jacobson, Jodi. Planning the global family. In: State of the world, 1988: a Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society. ISBN 0-393-02515-2. 1988. 151-69 pp. W. W. Norton: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This is one of 10 chapters in the fifth edition of an annual state-of-the-world report prepared by the Worldwatch Institute. In this chapter, the author reviews progress in family planning and fertility control around the world. Topics covered include worldwide fertility trends, the role of family planning, family planning and health, changing contraceptive technologies, the components of successful programs, and filling the gap between family planning services and needs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20381 Klinger, Andras. Population, family planning, and fertility today and in the future. 1982 scientific congress. October 5-6. [A termekenyseg, csaladtervezes, szuletesszabalyozas jelene es jovoje. Tudomanyos kongresszus 1982. Oktober 5-6.] 1984. 259 pp. Magyar Csalad- es Novedelmi Tudomanyos Tarsasag: Budapest, Hungary; Statisztikai Kiado Vallalat: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun.
These are the proceedings of a 1982 conference on population, family planning, and fertility in Hungary. Papers are included on the importance of population statistics, knowledge of family planning, contraceptive methods chosen, and the role of individuals and society in family planning.
Correspondence: Statisztikai Kiado Vallalat, Kaszas u 10-12, PB 99, H-1033 Budapest, Hungary. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20382 Kuang, Minggao. Family planning carried out in line with actual conditions in national minority areas. Population Research, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1987. 46-9 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Family planning policy and practice among minority groups in Pingtang County, Guizhou province, China, are described.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1986.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20383 Mosher, William D.; Horn, Marjorie C. First family planning visits by young women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 33-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze characteristics of first family planning visits by young U.S. women. "Data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth indicate that among sexually active women aged 15-24, friends and parents are the main sources of referral for first family planning visits....Race, age at first visit and income influence women's choice of a provider (clinic or private doctor)....At their first visit, sixty-seven percent of women receive birth control counseling, and only 50 percent begin using a contraceptive method....Only 17 percent of young women make their first family planning visit before they begin having intercourse, and 73 percent wait an average of 23 months after first intercourse to begin using services."
Correspondence: W. D. Mosher, Family Growth Survey Branch, National Center for Health Statistics, Federal Center Building, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20384 Percival-Smith, R. K. L.; Abercrombie, B. Postcoital contraception: some characteristics of women who use this method. Contraception, Vol. 37, No. 4, Apr 1988. 425-9 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper describes some of the characteristics of the women who attended a medical clinic [in Vancouver, Canada] requesting postcoital contraception. The information is derived from 871 observations in 653 women who requested this contraception." Factors considered include age at time of first request for this method, time from first coitus to first request for method, previous pregnancy with therapeutic abortion, and method used before and after request for postcoital contraception.
Correspondence: R. K. L. Percival-Smith, Student Health Service, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20385 Population Crisis Committee (Washington, D.C.). Access to birth control: a world assessment. Population Briefing Paper, No. 19, Oct 1987. 8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The global situation concerning access to birth control is briefly reviewed. The report concludes that although most people in developed countries have easy access to contraception and legal abortion, adequate services to control fertility are not available in the majority of developing countries.
Correspondence: Population Crisis Committee, 1120 19th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20386 Rapkin, Andrea J.; Alcalay, Rina; Mitchell, Judith. Non-availability of the IUD and contraceptive choice. Contraception, Vol. 37, No. 4, Apr 1988. 383-90 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The present pilot study was undertaken to assess the impact of non-availability of the IUD [in the United States] on selection of alternative methods of contraception and subsequent satisfaction, number of unwanted pregnancies resulting from such alternative choice, and whether there was an increase in the number of sterilization procedures." Data are from the University of California at Los Angeles Family Planning Clinic and concern 154 women attending the clinic in 1985 or 1986. It is found that "women who no longer have their choice of the IUD represent a high risk for contraceptive dissatisfaction and failure, but have not made precipitous decisions to undergo permanent sterilization."
Correspondence: A. J. Rapkin, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California School of Medicine, 10833 LeConte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20387 Reboussin, David; DaVanzo, Julie; Starbird, Ellen; Tan, Boon Ann; Abdullah, S. Hadi. Contraceptive method switching over women's reproductive careers: evidence from Malaysia. Rand Report, No. R-3547-PC/RC, ISBN 0-8330-0838-2. Oct 1987. xiii, 64 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This Report considers how contraceptive use changes over women's reproductive careers, using contraceptive history data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey....[It examines] the individual-level dynamics of contraceptive method switching over women's reproductive careers that underlie the aggregate-level trend in contraceptive use and method mix." The results "reveal a remarkable persistence in individual couple's contraceptive practice, especially for nonuse and less effective methods; but an increasing acceptance over time of modern, effective methods by previous nonusers...which explains the overall increase in contraceptive use, especially with modern, more effective methods."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20388 Riphagen, F. E.; Fortney, J. A.; Koelb, S. Contraception in women over forty. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 1988. 127-42 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Contraceptive use among women over age 40 and the reliability of data on this subject are examined. "This paper compares data from surveys from the United States and five major countries in Western Europe. Consideration is given to the possible effect on these women of the threat of reduced availability of suitable contraceptive methods as a result of current developments within society at large. This is of particular importance as it appears that, especially in Western Europe, contraception is underutilized in this age group. The benefits and risks of various methods of contraception are discussed. Use of the pill by older women remains controversial. Misconceptions about pill use and the IUD seem to be widespread among women of all ages."
Correspondence: F. E. Riphagen, International Health Foundation, 1 Pl. du Port, CH-1204 Geneva, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20389 Sadik, Nafis. Women: central to development. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1987. 25-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The role that family planning plays in the health and welfare of mothers and children in developing countries is discussed. The emphasis is on the position of women as central to the balance between population size and economic development.
Correspondence: N. Sadik, United Nations Population Fund, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20390 Salleh, Nooriah M.; Tan, Boon Ann; Arshat, Hamid. Predictors of contraceptive use among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 57-64 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to examine some socio-economic factors that are associated with family planning practice in a metropolitan area of a developing country, namely Malaysia. Data collected during the 1977 Family and Health Survey in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya [are] utilized for the purpose of this analysis. The study population comprised currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya....It is determined that the best predictors of contraceptive use, in order of importance are ethnicity, age and area. However, the relationship between age and contraceptive use varies across ethnic groups....In general, Chinese women are more likely to be current users in comparison to Malays, while the Indians occupy an intermediate position."
Correspondence: N. M. Salleh, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, P.O. Box 12418, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20391 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Waguih, Maha M. A different single life table approach to study the dynamics of contraceptive use. CDC Working Paper, No. 14, 1987. 31 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
A life table method is used to examine the dynamics of contraceptive use in Egypt during the period 1980-1985. "Data related to all segments of use, throughout the childbearing period, will be used to describe the dynamics of contraceptive use and to examine the exit probabilities between different statuses, i.e. from the entrance to the successive segments of use...." The authors compare their findings with those of another life table technique and discuss the implications for family planning programs.
Correspondence: Cairo Demographic Centre, P.O. Box 73, Mohandiseen 12655, Cairo, Egypt. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20392 Siedlecky, Stefania. Current usage of and attitudes towards contraception in Australia. Healthright, Vol. 6, 1986. 7-16 pp. New South Wales, Australia. In Eng.
Current contraceptive practice and attitudes in Australia are reviewed using data taken from a variety of secondary sources. Among the methods discussed are oral contraception, IUDs, periodic abstinence, barriers and spermicides, injectables, coitus interruptus, and sterilization, as well as induced abortion.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20393 Simmons, Ruth; Baqee, Laila; Koenig, Michael A.; Phillips, James F. Beyond supply: the importance of female family planning workers in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 29-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Using participant observation data on worker-client exchanges from Bangladesh, this article examines the interface between a government family planning program and the rural women it serves. Case material focuses first on the program function typically identified in the literature: meeting unmet demand for contraception by providing convenient supply. Functions that have been less recognized are then illustrated: (1) the worker's role in reducing fear of contraceptive technology; (2) her effort to address religious barriers, child mortality risks, and high fertility preferences; and (3) her role in mobilizing male support." The authors conclude that female family planning workers play a key role as agents of change in helping women to make decisions concerning reproduction.
Correspondence: R. Simmons, Department of Population Planning and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20394 Veeramatha, C. S. Demographic characteristics of family planning acceptors and their implications: state-wise analysis--India, 1979-81. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 33-47 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The demographic characteristics of family planning acceptors in India are examined by state for the years 1979-1981, with a focus on factors affecting these characteristics. Official data are used, an overview of relevant literature is presented, and the methodology is outlined. The author analyzes the relationships among selected acceptor characteristics and literacy rate, mean age at marriage, and the infant mortality rate. It is found that "there is a strong relation between demographic characteristics of acceptors and the process of demographic transition. The states which have acceptors with low average age and [fewer] living children seem to be in an advanced stage of demographic transition.... The study further reveals that the literacy level is negatively related with average age at acceptance and average number of living children. On the other hand, the level of infant mortality has [a] strong positive relation with these characteristics."
Correspondence: C. S. Veeramatha, Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore-560 072, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20395 Vernon, Ricardo; Rocuts, Klifford; Medina, Jorge E. The provision of natural family planning services at public health centers in Colombia. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 121-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors report the results of a two-year project to increase the use of natural family planning (NFP) methods in Colombia through the development of a community outreach program for the provision of NFP methods through public health facilities. "NFP use increased in both groups in which an effort was made to include this method in family planning services, though the total prevalence of NFP at the end of the study was less than two percent of couples in each group."
Correspondence: R. Vernon, Population Council, Bogota, Colombia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20396 Warwick, Donald P. Culture and the management of family planning programs. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 1-18 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Integrating family planning programs with local cultures can increase or undermine their effectiveness. Program design and organization will be influenced by kinship and reproductive decision-making, which varies across regions, racial and communal divisions, and religions. Program implementation depends on four aspects of culture: (1) the understanding, acceptance, and continued practice of family planning by clients; (2) the climate in the organizations responsible for fieldwork, which affects the disposition to work and the tasks to be done; (3) the ability and willingness of field implementers to do their work; and (4) the communities in which clients live, including collective attitudes toward family planning and local pressures put on clients to participate. The Indonesian family planning program is a case in which these elements of culture are often positive. Other programs, such as that in Kenya, have a more negative environment for action."
Correspondence: D. P. Warwick, Harvard Institute for International Development, One Eliot Street, Cambridge, MA 02138. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20397 Westoff, Charles F. Contraceptive paths toward the reduction of unintended pregnancy and abortion. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 4-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The aim of our analysis is to estimate unintended pregnancy rates among women exposed to the risk of an unintended pregnancy. We calculate these rates for women who use different methods of contraception as well as for those who do not use any contraceptive methods but who report that they are not seeking to become pregnant. Next, we formulate a series of hypothetical models of improved contraceptive practice to derive the resultant reduction in the rate of unintended pregnancy. The relative reduction in the rate of unintended pregnancy is assumed to be closely related to the expected reduction in the abortion rate. Data for the analysis are from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)." The models "yield different estimates of the reduction in unintended pregnancy rates which are illustrated for various age-groups, for whites and blacks and for married and unmarried women."
Correspondence: C. F. Westoff, Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08540. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20398 Wolfson, Margaret; Fincancioglu, Nuray. Community action for family planning: a comparison of six project experiences. Development Centre Studies, ISBN 92-64-13032-2. 1987. 134 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
"This study examines a number of experiments which have tried to build up community support for family planning, usually in conjunction with health and other activities, by getting the people concerned to play an active part in the planning of those activities and in the actual work of carrying them out." The study is based on six case studies conducted in India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Mexico, and Peru. It is the result of a cooperative venture involving the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF, the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), and the OECD Development Centre. This report is a result of a seminar held at the OECD Development Centre at which papers written by the directors of the projects concerned were presented and discussed. It consists of an overview of the projects, including information on their environment, the extent of community participation, project management, and results in the areas of health, family planning, and community empowerment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20399 Zablan, Zelda C. Report on the 1984 Philippine Periodic Abstinence Survey: responses to structured questions, Volume II. Jan 1986. 126 pp. Demographic Research and Development Foundation [DRDF]: Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
The author reports on survey findings concerning natural family planning (NFP) among 13,000 households in the Philippines, who were interviewed in 1983 and followed up in 1984. The focus is on how knowledge, perceptions, and communication about natural family planning, which is defined to include breast-feeding and voluntary abstinence, have affected practice. This is the second of two volumes presenting results of the survey and contains responses to the structured questions on the 1984 survey as well as selected information from the 1983 survey. "The information includes the profiles of the NFP users, their awareness and experience of the various types of NFP, their perceptions about the variability of pregnancy risks during the menstrual cycles, possession of information on their menstrual cycles, types of NFP information/instruction received, husband's involvement in the adoption and practice of NFP, perceived advantages and problems encountered in the practice of NFP, their preferences for specific types of NFP, and their degree of motivation for fertility control. A separate section deals on the use-effectiveness of NFP practice between the time of the 1983 [National Demographic Survey] and the 1984 [Natural Family Planning Survey]."
For a related volume, published in 1985, see 52:20365.
Correspondence: Z. C. Zablan, Population Institute, College of Social Sciences and Philosphy, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

54:20400 Alvarez-Sanchez, Francisco; Brache, Vivian; Faundes, Anibal. The clinical performance of NORPLANT implants over time: a comparison of two cohorts. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 118-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study that compared the clinical performance of NORPLANT implants in two separate but similar cohorts [in the Dominican Republic and Chile]: 200 NORPLANT users from 1975 through 1978, when the method was first introduced in the clinic, and 212 users in the same population from March 1982 through December 1983....Continuation rates, at one and two years of use, were significantly higher in the second group of NORPLANT users....Statistically significant differences between the NORPLANT cohorts were observed in discontinuation due to bleeding, amenorrhea, other medical causes, total medical causes, and personal reasons."
Correspondence: F. Alvarez-Sanchez, Centro de Investigacion y Servicio en Reproduccion Humana y Anticoncepcion, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20401 Basnayake, Sriani; Thapa, Shyam; Balogh, Sandor A. Evaluation of safety, efficacy, and acceptability of NORPLANT implants in Sri Lanka. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 39-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents findings based on a one-year pre-introductory clinical investigation concerning safety, efficacy, and acceptability of the new contraceptive NORPLANT implants in Sri Lanka. The study is based on 400 acceptors of the implants at two clinics in Sri Lanka. Acceptors' mean age was 27 years, mean number of children was about two, and average educational attainment was eight years. Nearly half of the acceptors did not want to have another child. Follow-up was conducted at one, three, six, and twelve months. The one-year termination rate due to medical problems was very low, and the one-year life-table pregnancy rate was 0.5." Despite the side effects reported, including amenorrhea and bleeding, overall satisfaction with the implants was high. "The results of the study suggest that NORPLANT implants are safe, effective, and highly acceptable to Sri Lankan women."
Correspondence: S. Basnayake, Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka, 37/27 Bullers Lane, Colombo 7, Sri Lanka. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20402 Goldbaum, Gary M.; Kendrick, Juliette S.; Hogelin, Gary C.; Gentry, Eileen M. The relative impact of smoking and oral contraceptive use on women in the United States. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 258, No. 10, Sep 11, 1987. 1,339-42 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The prevalence of oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking is analyzed. Data for the United States were obtained through telephone surveys conducted between 1981 and 1983 and involved over 22,000 respondents, of whom 5,779 were women aged 18-44. The results indicate that 7.4 percent of U.S. women aged 18-44 smoke and use oral contraceptives; 1.1 percent smoke over 25 cigarettes a day and use oral contraceptives. Combined cigarette and pill use contributed significantly to the excess cases of myocardial infarction among women aged 35-44. The fact that smoking was the major cause of such excess mortality is noted.
Correspondence: Behavioral Epidemiology and Evaluation Branch, Building 3, Room 121, Division of Health Education, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20403 Hatcher, Robert A.; Guest, Felicia; Stewart, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Trussell, James; Bowen, Sylvia C.; Cates, Willard. Contraceptive technology, 1988-1989. 14th rev. ed. 1988. [x], 437, [31] pp. Printed Matter: Atlanta, Georgia; Irvington Publishers: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the fourteenth in a series of biennial publications designed to present the latest developments in contraceptive technology in summary form. It is intended primarily as a textbook for medical students. The focus of this edition is on AIDS and its relationship to family planning. It also includes new tables of contraceptive failure rates developed by James Trussell and Kathryn Kost; an expanded chapter on condoms; more information on RU486, the postcoital or menses-inducing pill; an update on the Norplant implant; and a revised chapter on human sexuality by Malcolm G. Freeman. The primary geographical focus is on the United States.
For a previous edition, published in 1986, see 52:20387.
Correspondence: Printed Matter, P.O. Box 15246, Atlanta, GA 30333. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20404 Ketting, Evert. The relative reliability of oral contraceptives; findings of an epidemiological study. Contraception, Vol. 37, No. 4, Apr 1988. 343-8 pp. Stoneham, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relative reliability of various types of oral contraceptives (OCs), using data on method failures resulting in requests for abortion in the Netherlands for the period 1982-1984. "From those data it is clear that the usage of sequential and triphasic OCs was found to be significantly more often amongst women who requested abortion than would have been expected on the basis of their usage in the general population. This over-representation of sequential and triphasic OCs could not be explained by gastro-intestinal disorders or by drug interaction."
Correspondence: E. Ketting, Vereniging Stimezo Nederland, P.O. Box 63565, 2502 JN The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20405 Lincoln, Richard; Kaeser, Lisa. Whatever happened to the contraceptive revolution? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 141-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine why the surge in contraceptive research and the development of new contraceptive methods in the 1960s has resulted in the present situation, with minimal research into developing new methods and the withdrawal of existing methods from the market. The steps needed to reverse the present situation are discussed. The primary geographic focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: R. Lincoln, Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20406 Mall-Haefeli, M. Sexuality and contraception in adolescence. [Sexualitat und Kontrazeption in der Adoleszenz.] Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde, Vol. 135, No. 7, Jul 1987. 380-6 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic. In Ger.
The author examines sexuality, contraception, and pregnancy among adolescents in industrialized countries. Age at the time of first sexual activity and the emotional and psychological aspects of early sexual experience are discussed. The author focuses on the medical aspects of contraception and the advantages as well as the hazards, side effects, and disadvantages of various contraceptive methods. Reasons for not using contraceptives are also discussed. The author suggests that a low-dose ovulation suppressor is the method of choice for adolescents.
Correspondence: M. Mall-Haefeli, Sozialmedizinischer Dienst, Universitats-Frauenklinik des Kantonsspitals Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20407 Sivin, Irving. International experience with NORPLANT and NORPLANT-2 contraceptives. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 81-94 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Experience encompassing more than 20,000 woman-years of use of NORPLANT capsules and 6,000 woman-years of trials of NORPLANT-2 rods is reviewed. Implant contraception repeatedly has been associated with low pregnancy rates and high continuation rates through five full years of use. Weight has proved to be a factor related to effectiveness. Women weighing less than 50 kg experienced cumulative five-year pregnancy rates well below 1 per 100, whereas the overall cumulative rate has been 3.5 per 100. Medical events reported during use that have led to discontinuation are analyzed from four large data sets."
Correspondence: I. Sivin, Center for Biomedical Research, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20408 Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Side effects of contraceptive methods in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 114, ISBN 974-586-284-3. Oct 1987. [iii], 22 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"Contraceptive side effects are of particular concern to health officials because lingering side effects may cause discontinuation of contraception altogether or a switch to less effective methods. The sociodemographic correlates of self-reported side effects are considered here for Thailand, a country with an extremely successful family planning program. Distinct variations in the reporting of side effects were found by contraceptive method, but side effects were highest for the pill and injectables, regardless of duration of use, education of women, or source of contraception." Data are from the third national Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, conducted in 1984, and concern 4,117 currently married women aged 15-44. Factors considered include religion, urban or rural residence, educational status, and source of contraception. Current and previous contraceptive use and reasons for discontinuation are also discussed.
Correspondence: Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, 25/25 Puthamontol, Nakornpathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20409 Strobino, Barbara; Kline, Jennie; Warburton, Dorothy. Spermicide use and pregnancy outcome. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 78, No. 3, Mar 1988. 260-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The relation between periconceptional vaginal spermicide use and sex ratio at birth, birthweight, and the frequency of congenital anomalies was examined in a cohort of 2,712 New York City obstetric patients, 149 of whom (5.5 per cent) became pregnant while using spermicides or had used spermicides before and after conception. Periconceptional spermicide use was not associated with any important variation in the expected sex ratio at birth, nor with major or minor congenital anomalies. Exposure to spermicides in the periconceptional period, defined dichotomously as present or absent, was not associated with decreased birthweight in male or female infants."
Correspondence: B. Strobino, Pediatric Epidemiology Section, Department of Pediatrics, Munger Pavilion, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

54:20410 Duncan, Richard. The management of UNFPA programmes in the field. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1987. 4-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is an overview of the management of UNFPA field programs, their objectives, and the evolution of these objectives during the period 1969-1986. Interactions with governments as well as monitoring and evaluating procedures are discussed. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20411 Goyal, R. S. Family planning programme: role of services. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 23-32 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The role of the program factor in contraceptive acceptance in India is examined from two perspectives. "In the first instance, a macro-level analysis of the contraceptive prevalence has been attempted, wherein three important inputs in the programme are compared with the programme performance for the 14 major states of India for whom the data are comparable. In the second approach, these relationships are studied at the micro-level using the data available from a family planning evaluation study conducted by the Population Research Centre, Chandigarh, in 1981 in one district of Punjab."
Correspondence: R. S. Goyal, Population Research Centre, Department of Sociology, Punjab University, Chandigarh-160 014, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20412 Kay, Bonnie J.; Kabir, Sandra M. A study of costs and behavioral outcomes of menstural regulation services in Bangladesh. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 6, 1988. 597-604 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports the results of a program evaluation of menstrual regulation (MR) services provided by the Bangladesh Women's Health Coalition, a nongovernmental organization formed in response to a concern about the availability of quality MR services to Bangladeshi women. The program emphasizes individual counseling which stresses informed choice in reproductive health care. The evaluation examines the cost of this process as a function of behavioral outcomes which include the percentage of clients who are post-MR contraceptive acceptors and the percentage which return for follow-up care and consultation 2 weeks after the procedure. The average cost per post MR contracepting client is $3.75; the average cost per returning client is $5.68, figures which appear to be well within the range of costs reported by family planning programs in developing countries."
Correspondence: B. J. Kay, Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 1420 Washington Heights, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20413 Menard, Scott. Fertility, development, and family planning, 1970-1980: an analysis of cases weighted by population. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 22, No. 3, Fall 1987. 103-27 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of family planning program effort on the reduction of fertility in developing countries. He develops a comparative analysis using cross-sectional models for 1970 and 1980 in which the data are weighted by population size. The results suggest that the first priority should be given to reducing mortality; the second, to increasing school enrollment; and the third, to improving family planning program efforts. The results also support the basic tenets of traditional demographic transition theory.
Correspondence: S. Menard, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20414 Palmore, James A.; Park, Chai Bin; Yap, Mui Teng; Cho, Lee-Jay. Family planning accessibility and adoption: the Korean Population Policy and Program Evaluation Study. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 108, ISBN 0-86638-106-6. LC 88-3761. Dec 1987. xii, 125 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper describes an experiment with a community-based contraceptive distribution system in Cheju, an island province of the Republic of Korea. The use of village-level canvassers to encourage couples to accept contraception was the principal innovation. This paper summarizes the study design, field operations, cost effectiveness, and findings on changes in contraceptive prevalence and fertility levels in the experimental area. The role of accessibility of birth control methods in these changes is also assessed. The new delivery system increased contraceptive use dramatically and lowered fertility considerably, particularly in the rural areas of the island. The cost per acceptor and per couple-years of protection in the experimental area was competitive with that of the national program."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20415 Phillips, James F. Translating pilot project success into national policy development: two projects in Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 4, Dec 1987. 3-28 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article reviews the experience of two pilot projects in Bangladesh that have addressed the question of how [operations] research can be designed to foster its utilization. In a rural field experiment [begun in 1972] in Matlab subdistrict, research has demonstrated that contraceptive services, if carefully designed and properly implemented, can influence demographic dynamics even where social and economic circumstances are not conducive to fertility change. Despite the success that Matlab represents, the project was not systematically utilized for policy until a second study [begun in 1981] was launched to address government questions concerning its replicability in the public sector programme. Results suggest that pilot projects, if fielded in conjunction with research systems for testing their replicability, can foster organizational development in contexts that are not conducive to bureaucratic change."
Correspondence: J. F. Phillips, Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20416 Prasartkul, Pramote; Porapakkham, Yawarat; Sittitrai, Werasit. Report on birth order distribution as a family planning programme evaluation indicator. IPSR Publication, No. 112, ISBN 974-586-231-2. Apr 1987. v, 51 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The use of birth order distribution as a fertility indicator to measure family planning program performance in Thailand is discussed. The current status and location of birth order data at the central, provincial, and district levels are outlined. Particular attention is given to the FSB indicator, or the proportion of first- and second-order births to total registered births, and to trends in that measure from 1971 to 1983. The FSB is favorably assessed as a measure of family planning performance at both provincial and national levels because of its ease of computation, correlation with other fertility indexes, and use in the identification of particular administrative areas in need of more program emphasis.
Correspondence: IPSR, Mahidol University, 25/25 Salaya, Nakorn Pathom 73170, Thailand. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20417 Ray, S. K.; Nair, Sanjiv. Evaluation of a target oriented programme: a case study of sterilization in U.P. Demography India, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1987. 1-22 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The use of numerical targets to evaluate a family planning program involving sterilization in Uttar Pradesh, India, is discussed using data from a 1986 survey. "We first present in Section II, a brief account of the governmental efforts for attaining the sterilization targets. The procedure adopted for fixing the targets and the consequent responses of the state administration for attaining these targets at district and lower levels in U.P. are also described in this section. We then provide in Section III, the socio-economic background of the study area, and the details of the sample design used for the purpose of testing several hypotheses." Limitations to the usefulness of targets in such programs are outlined, and alternative factors contributing to the success of the sterilization efforts are identified.
Correspondence: S. K. Ray, Institute of Economic Growth, University Enclave, Delhi-110 007, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20418 Ross, John A.; Donayre, Jose; McNamara, Regina. Perspectives on operations research. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 128-36 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
This report concerns a meeting on the use of operations research in family planning programs, held at Columbia University's Center for Population and Family Health in December 1986. "The meeting's purpose was to discuss the donor's perspective toward the promotion, organization and conduct of operations research in developing countries, in order to develop guidelines for improved donor policies." The authors conclude that "operations research need not be long-term, sophisticated or academically oriented. Instead, it should be an effective way to find corrective measures, identify viable alternatives and discover useful innovations."
Correspondence: J. A. Ross, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, Morningside Heights, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20419 Tata, J. R. D. The search for a new population strategy for India. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1987. 38-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
India's family planning program is assessed, and specific measures pertaining to age at marriage, literacy, communications, and incentives are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20420 United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA] (New York, New York). UNFPA: the field experience. Populi, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1987. 15-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of comments by UNFPA Deputy Representatives/Senior Advisors on Population (DRSAPs) concerning their relationships with local governments. The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Correspondence: UNFPA, 220 East 42nd Street, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

54:20421 Amin, Ruhul; Mariam, A. G.; Faruqee, Rashid. Trends and differentials in knowledge, ever use, current use, and future intended use of contraceptives in rural Bangladesh: evidence from three surveys. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, Summer 1987. 201-14 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The study examines the trends and differentials in knowledge, ever use, current use, and future intended use of contraceptives in rural Bangladesh. Using data from three national-level surveys between 1968 and 1977, the study finds that there had been an increase in contraceptive knowledge, ever use, current use, and future intended use over the years. Although estimated logit regression models indicated that more educated women and women having higher parity were significantly more likely to adopt or to intend to adopt contraceptives in the future, other socio-economic indicators such as regional development or non-agricultural occupations did not lead to higher contraceptive use or future intended use of contraceptives. Somewhat similar levels of differences in ever, current, and future intended use of contraceptives among socio-economic groups persisted over the years. Implications of these findings are discussed in the paper."
Correspondence: R. Amin, Morgan State University, Hillen Road and Coldspring Lane, Baltimore, MD 21239. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20422 Ampofo, Kofi. Attitudes towards family size and family planning among women at an antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Biology and Society, Vol. 4, No. 4, Dec 1987. 183-90 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This report describes a family planning survey [involving 172 women] conducted at an antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, Nigeria between June and August 1984. The level of education of respondents is generally low and appears to have a negative effect on knowledge, approval, and use of family planning. Breast feeding is widespread but not many respondents practiced it as a method of family planning. While there is limited knowledge and some approval of family planning, a desire for large families continues and there is relatively little practice of family limitation. The prospects for a decrease in fertility in the near future is not encouraging."
Correspondence: K. Ampofo, Department of Community Medicine, University of Papua New Guinea, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20423 Arkhangel'skii, V. Reproductive behavior and value systems in the urban population. [Reproduktivnoe povedenie i tsennostnye orientatsii gorodskogo naseleniya.] Narodonaselenie, 1987. 21-44 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author examines the relationship between reproductive behavior and value orientation among an urban population in the USSR. The study is based on a survey of 212 families in Moscow. Differences in the value systems and reproductive behavior of men and women are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20424 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Is the Asian family planning program model suited to Africa? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1988. 19-28 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines four Asian countries where fertility declines between the early 1960s and early 1980s ranged from 29 to 57 percent and contrasts their situations with seven African countries where fertility either remained constant or rose. It is shown that the difference is not explained by the African countries being at an earlier stage of socioeconomic development nor by the failure to provide family planning programs. The explanation is a lack of African demand for limiting family size, the result of family structures and economies quite different from Asia, and of essentially religious attitudes toward fertility that have an impact both on family economics and the acceptability of various forms of fertility control. These attitudes, together with the nature of the African state, mean that governments could not implement the forceful family planning policies that have at times characterized the programs of China, India, and Indonesia."
Correspondence: J. C. Caldwell, Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, G.P.O. Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20425 Chapman, Beatrice E. Relative sex role gratification: egalitarianism and fertility decisions. 1987. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research investigated the importance of the degree of egalitarianism in the sex role relationship between husband and wife for the outcome of their fertility decisions....Data from the Canadian Fertility Survey of a subsample of 2,997 married women, 18-49 years of age, in intact first marriages were employed. Gender role egalitarianism was measured by the degree of egalitarian attitudes and behaviour with regards to the division of household labour and childcare, and attitudes towards cohabitation, premarital sex, marriage, and abortion. Results of the analysis indicated that the inverse relationship between sex role egalitarian attitudes and expected and actual fertility remained statistically significant after the effects of the other variables were taken into account."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(9).

54:20426 DeLamater, John. Self-efficacy and fertility regulation by single women. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-8, 1987. 27, [3] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between perceptions of self-efficacy and contraceptive use based on data collected by questionnaire from three samples of single U.S. women. Self-efficacy is defined as involving the beliefs that a given behavior will lead to an outcome and that the behavior can be successfully executed. Two hypotheses are tested and supported by the analysis: "Direct experience with a birth control technique increases self-efficacy for that technique....[and] self-efficacy affects behavioral choice." Particular attention is given to oral contraceptive use.
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20427 Heller, Peter L.; Tsai, Yung-Mei; Chalfant, H. Paul. Voluntary and nonvoluntary childlessness: personality vs. structural implications. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1986. 95-110 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"A 'deviant behavior' interpretation of childlessness has led many researchers to view this phenomenon as psychosocial in nature. Married persons who decide to remain childless are seen as having a unique set of personality and behavioral characteristics that go beyond the simple decision not to have children. An alternative explanation for these differences could center around the structural factor of childlessness per se, in that a family with one or more children may be a totally different social system than the dyadic-type relationships which comprise the childless couple. This paper reports research findings from an empirical test of the extent to which a national sample of [U.S.] respondents who are members of voluntary or nonvoluntary childless couples differ in terms of 12 psychosocial characteristics selected either on the basis of past research findings, or predicted on the basis of these findings....Findings showed that the two groups of respondents did strongly differ, but in ways opposite to those predicted on the basis of past research. An argument is presented that these strong, but contrary findings might be better explained by structural, as opposed to psychosocial, factors."
Correspondence: P. L. Heller, Department of Sociology, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 4349, Lubbock, TX 79409. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20428 Kikhela, Nzita. Crisis and survival strategy in Zaire: the beginning of a demographic revolution? [Crise et strategie de la survie au Zaire: est-ce le debut d'une revolution demographique?] Travaux et Recherches Demographiques Document, No. 4, Jun 1987. 10 pp. Universite de Kinshasa, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Departement de Demographie: Kinshasa, Zaire. In Fre.
Recent demographic developments in Kinshasa, the capital of Zaire, are analyzed. The focus is on the demographic impact of the economic crisis that led to rapid price increases between 1975 and 1979. Data are from a survey of 45 households. The results show a decrease in the desired number of children from 9.6 to 7.8 and an increase in the desired interval between children from 2.3 to 4 years. Some consideration is also given to trends in mortality and migration and to changes occurring in kinship networks.
Correspondence: Universite de Kinshasa, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Departement de Demographie, B.P. 176, Kinshasa XI, Zaire. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20429 Lightbourne, Robert E. Reproductive preferences and behaviour. In: The World Fertility Survey: an assessment, edited by John Cleland, Chris Scott, and David Whitelegge. 1987. 838-61 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author summarizes evidence on the quality of World Fertility Survey data concerning fertility preferences and presents a selective review of the substantive survey findings on this topic. He argues that WFS data on reproductive motives imply that if women fully implement their stated fertility preferences, substantial fertility decline is likely in a majority of countries. Reasons why desired and actual fertility may differ are discussed. The focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20430 Mason, Karen O.; Taj, Anju M. Differences between women's and men's reproductive goals in developing countries. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1987. 611-38, 763, 765-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A review of fertility determination theories indicates there are plausible reasons for expecting similar fertility desires among women and men, greater desires among women, and greater desires among men in pretransition settings. Most theories agree, however, that social, economic, or demographic modernization should reduce any pre-existing differences. Statistics from more than three dozen published studies show, on average, only small differences between women's and men's family size desires, with women wanting more children than men in some studies and wanting fewer in others. Thus, claims that women consistently want fewer or more children than men appear to be incorrect. In hihg-fertility settings, however, there is some tendency for women to express the desire to cease childbearing more frequently than men do. Differences in the preference for sons are common (men typically prefer sons more strongly than do women) and may help to explain differences between the sexes in the desire for additional children."
Correspondence: K. O. Mason, Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20431 Medkov, V. M. Socio-demographic characteristics of spouses and their attitudes toward childbearing. [Sotsial'no-demograficheskie kharakteristiki suprugov i ikh ustanovki na detnost'.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, Vol. 94-103, 200-1, 1986. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The author investigates the relationship between selected socio-demographic characteristics of spouses and attitudes toward childbearing in the USSR. Data on age and educational status from surveys conducted in 1978 and 1983 are used to determine the level of socio-cultural and demographic homogeneity of the couples and the impact on childbearing attitudes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20432 Ranganekar, G.; Sapre, S.; Singh, H. K.A.P. survey of contraception in Bhopal and surrounding villages. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 6, Jun 1987. 119-23 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors report the results of a KAP survey of 450 couples, conducted in Bhopal, India, and the surrounding villages in 1984-1985. Consideration is given to differences among religious groups in contraceptive attitudes and practice. The authors conclude that "contraceptive prevalence and fertility differ in various religions more than in rural and urban populations and this may be due to differences in their socioeconomic status....Encouraging trends toward KAP in villages reflect that even in poor socioeconomic conditions a strong family planning programme can make a difference. The strongest components of four national family planning programmes [are] policy, stage setting activities, and making family planning services available and affordable to most of the population...."
Correspondence: G. Ranganekar, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ghandi Medical College, Bhopal, India. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20433 Reed, Fred W.; McBroom, William H. The effect of marriage on fertility intentions: an approximation with cross-sectional data. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1986. 111-23 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"Cross-sectional data are used to create a quasi-longitudinal design to explore the effect of marriage upon fertility intentions. It is found that as a result of marriage, men are likely to become more inclined towards fertility while women become less so. These results are in part due to differential values regarding marriage and the family." The data are for 800 individuals who were students at a university in the western United States in 1974.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20434 Rengin, Erdal; Saka, Osman. Fertility survey in semi-urban. Acta Reproductiva Turcica, Vol. 7, No. 3-4, 1986. 53-65 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng.
These are the results of a KAP survey carried out in 1982 and involving 622 married women with children living in the semi-urban area surrounding Ankara, Turkey. A contraceptive use rate of 64 percent is observed, with withdrawal being the most commonly used method. Greater use of more effective methods is noted among younger women.
Correspondence: E. Rengin, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20435 Rodzinskaya, I. Yu. Factors influencing the reproductive attitutes of spouses. [Faktory vliyayushchie na reproduktivnye ustanovki suprugov.] In: Detnost' sem'i: vchera, segodnya, zavtra, edited by L. L. Rybakovskii. Demografiya: Problemy i Perspektivy, 1986. 70-80, 200 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
"Reproductive attitudes of...families and factors affecting them are presented and examined. Factors, divided into three groups--living conditions of the family, socio-demographic and socio-psychological characteristics of the spouses--are analysed as to their relationship with childbearing attitudes. Stratification of the families by their reproductive attitudes allows [the elaboration of] specific policy approaches aimed at fertility elevation." The geographical focus is on the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20436 Salleh, Nooriah M.; Tey, Nai Peng; Arshat, Hamid. Socio-economic correlates of contraceptive knowledge among women in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 65-71 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"Knowledge about contraception was examined in relation to selected socio-economic variables. A total of 2,567 currently married women aged 15-49 years residing in Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya were interviewed. The majority of the women knew of at least one contraceptive method. An index termed Contraceptive Knowledge Score (CKS) was used to measure the level of knowledge about contraception. The CKS achieved differed significantly by age, area of residence and ethnic group. The other socio-economic variables significantly associated with CKS are schooling, occupation, income, childhood residence and age at marriage. These relationships persisted even after adjusting for differences in age, ethnicity and area of residence. Overall the CKS attained have a wide range and there is no significant difference of the mean CKS attained, between users and non-users of contraceptives."
Correspondence: N. M. Salleh, Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, P.O. Box 12418, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20437 Shepherd, Gill. Attitudes to family planning in Kenya: an anthropological approach. Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1987. 80-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study untertaken in Kenya on behalf of Oxfam with a view to identifying appropriate inputs to child spacing or birth control programmes. The approach was sociological rather than medical and was designed to investigate: attitudes to child spacing and birth control in rural Kenya, the opinion-making forces which shaped these, community-level needs, and whether there was a role for Oxfam to play in helping to answer them."
Correspondence: G. Shepherd, Overseas Development Institute, London, England. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20438 Shrestha, Ashoke; Stoeckel, John; Tuladhar, Jayanti M. Factors related to non-use of contraception among couples with an unmet need for family planning in Nepal. Jan 1988. i, 80 pp. Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS]: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study is to move beyond previous research on the KAP-GAP by conducting an in-depth investigation which would identify the reasons for non-use of family planning among women in Nepal who want to space or limit their births. This objective is realized through the application of focus group methods followed by a survey [of 5,152 women] which includes an open-ended question regarding reasons for non-use." The primary reasons for nonuse were health reasons associated with side effects of contraception and insufficient income to provide the level of nutrition to compensate for those perceived side effects.
Correspondence: Demographic and Health Surveys Program, Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, P.O. Box 866, Columbia, MD 21044. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20439 Ukoli, F. A. M.; Oyarebu, K. A. An evaluation of contraceptive knowledge and practice in an urban community in Benin City in Nigeria. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 31, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 33-9 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
The results of a survey of contraceptive knowledge and practice in Nigeria are presented. The data concern a random sample of 175 female students at an urban teachers' training college and 260 women attending an urban health center. Comparisons in contraceptive practice are made between the two groups.
Correspondence: F. A. M. Ukoli, Department of Community Health, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Bendel State, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20440 Whicker, Marcia L.; Kronenfeld, Jennie J. Men and women together: the impact of birth control technology on male-female relationships. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Vol. 16, No. 1, Spring 1986. 61-81 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors argue that "birth control technologies have fundamentally altered the nature of male-female relationships....New sequences of love, intimacy, sex, and marriage in male-female relationships emerged. The expanded number of choices for individuals has simultaneously created new freedom and opportunity, as well as uncertainty and confusion in male-female relationships. New norms for cross-sex interactions and the new post-birth control morality are still evolving." The geographic focus is on developed countries.
Correspondence: M. L. Whicker, Department of Government and International Studies, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

54:20441 Jacobson, Jodi L. Choice at any cost. World Watch, Vol. 1, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1988. 30-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Factors associated with the demand for induced abortions are discussed using data for selected countries. Reasons for unplanned pregnancies are considered, and the ongoing debate between pro-life and pro-choice advocates is outlined. Changes in abortion laws and trends in migration for the purpose of obtaining an abortion are described.
Correspondence: J. L. Jacobson, Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20036. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20442 Kushner Lopez, Luis; Llano Saavedra, Luis; Bailey, Patricia E. An investigation of social and medical aspects of pregnancy loss: analysis of results. [Investigacion de los aspectos sociales y medicos de la perdida de embarazo: analisis de resultados.] [1986]. 76 pp. Sociedad Boliviana de Ginecologia y Obstetricia: La Paz, Bolivia. In Spa.
The authors investigate social and medical aspects of pregnancy loss due to abortion in Bolivia. Factors considered include type of abortion, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of women, conditions of medical treatment, number of living children, and use and knowledge of contraception. Maternal mortality, hysterectomy, and other complications due to abortion are also considered. The analysis is performed both for the country as a whole and for selected cities.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

54:20443 Lovenduski, Joni; Outshoorn, Joyce. The new politics of abortion. Sage Modern Politics Series, Vol. 2, ISBN 0-8039-8006-X. LC 86-061460. 1986. vii, 175 pp. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, California. In Eng.
This is a collection of articles by different authors on the politics of abortion. The focus is on "the impact the abortion issue has had on a variety of liberal democratic political systems. Each of the chapters...traces its progress in one or more states, illustrating the interplay of the issue with particular institutional, political and cultural arrangements....The case studies assembled in this volume have as their common concern the identification of major similarities and differences in the systemic handling of abortion politics. The aim of the collection is to highlight the key variables in the determination of abortion politics, providing thereby a basis for future comparative research." It is found that "different countries have produced different solutions in their legislation. The experience of the countries examined in detail--the U.S.A. and seven European countries--leads to the conclusion that the effect of such legislation has in many respects been marginal. The availability of abortion is ultimately less dependent on the law than on the existence of good medical facilities, which make access to abortion a reality for women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20444 MacKenzie, Betsy. Therapeutic abortion in Canada. Canadian Social Trends, Spring 1988. 2-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author discusses trends in therapeutic abortion in Canada. Comparative data from 1975, 1980, and 1985 are presented in tabular format for age, marital status, and provincial differences. A brief background on the political issues affecting therapeutic abortion in Canada is offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:20445 Olukoya, A. A. Pregnancy termination: results of a community-based study in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1987. 41-6 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"A community survey in the Shomolu area of Lagos Nigeria showed the incidence of induced abortion to be 5.6%. Most of the abortions were carried out under medical supervision, using a combination of methods. Reasons for the abortions suggest that many were carried out on pregnancies that could have been prevented."
Correspondence: A. A. Olukoya, P.M.B. 21178, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20446 Rodman, Hyman; Sarvis, Betty; Bonar, Joy W. The abortion question. ISBN 0-231-05332-0. LC 87-5219. 1987. xi, 223 pp. Columbia University Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors provide an overview of the issue of abortion in the United States, including discussions of the dynamics of fertility control, the legislative history of abortion, and attitudes toward abortion. "Our overriding goal is to inform readers about abortion in the United States. By taking a concise, factual, objective approach--insofar as we possibly could--we hope to provide an understanding of the historical, moral, legal, medical, emotional, and cultural aspects of abortion in the United States." Both pro-life and pro-choice sides of the controversy are presented, and there is also a chapter containing predictions for the future of the debate.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:20447 Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Hynne, Stine V. Abortion and birth rate epidemiology. Sor-Trondelag County, 1970-1984. [Abort- og fodselsepidemiologi. Sor-Trondelag fylke, 1970-84.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 107, No. 9, Mar 30, 1987. 833-5, 873 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in induced abortion and births from 1970 to 1984 in Sor-Trondelag County, Norway, are analyzed using official data. The results show that the rapid decline in fertility has slowed since the mid-1970s. The abortion rate peaked in 1976-1977 and has subsequently declined slowly. Comparisons in the abortion rate by marital status are made. The results suggest that the liberalization of the abortion law in 1975 and the introduction of abortion on demand in 1979 have led to a small decrease rather than an increase in the number of abortions.
Correspondence: F. E. Skjeldestad, Institutt for Samfunnsmedisinske, Universiteteti Trondheim, 7000 Trondheim, Norway. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:20448 Takeshita, Yuzuru J.; Tan, Boon Ann; Arshat, Hamid. Attitudes towards induced abortion in Peninsular Malaysia--a Guttman scale analysis. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 73-90 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
The authors investigate attitudes toward induced abortion in Peninsular Malaysia, where abortion is illegal, using a Guttman scale analysis. It is found that although there is a "generally conservative orientation of the Malaysian women towards induced abortion, as compared to U.S. adults in particular, there is considerable variation in degree of conservatism among the different groups of women. The most conservative tend to be the Muslim women, who are predominantly Malay in ethnic background, and the older, uneducated, low income, rural residents. By contrast, the most liberal are found among the Indians, who are mostly Hindu, and the younger, college educated, higher income, metropolitan residents. The Chinese, the majority of whom are Buddhists, are nearly as liberal as the Indians." The data are from the 1974 Malaysian Fertility and Family Study, a World Fertility Survey project, and concern approximately 6,000 women.
Correspondence: Y. J. Takeshita, Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

54:20449 Gardin, Susan K. The laws of Taharat HaMishpacha: potential effects on fertility. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 9-17 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The laws observed among Orthodox Jews regulating coital activity according to menstrual cycle phase (the laws of Taharat HaMishpacha), in a population that generally does not use contraception, have potentially important effects on fertility. Analysis of these effects based on menstrual cycle and ovulatory phase lengths for women in the childbearing years shows that the majority of cycles are potentially exposed to coital activity during a fertile period and the increased likelihood of coitus following abstinence has potentially fertility-enhancing effects. For the individual woman with a predominance of short cycles, delays in conception are probable."
Correspondence: S. K. Gardin, Division of Population, Family, and International Health, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20450 Hull, Valerie J. Breast-feeding and fertility: the sociocultural context. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 77-109 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author attempts to provide a framework of the relationship between breast-feeding and fertility. "This framework is used to identify specific topics to which research has been, or could be, directed in order to clarify the role played by specific sociocultural variables in explaining variations in breast-feeding and fertility. This section draws upon the available anthropological literature, on the author's field experience in rural Java [Indonesia] and on relevant research in other fields. A final section presents suggestions for future research...."
Correspondence: V. J. Hull, Australian Development Assistance Bureau, P.O. Box 887, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20451 John, A. Meredith; Menken, Jane A.; Trussell, James. Estimating the distribution of interval length: current status and retrospective history data. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, Pub. Order No. 115-27. Mar 1988. London, England. In Eng.
"In response to recent questions about the relative merits of sampling from different groups of births when studying the birth interval and its components, we derive analytically the implications of sampling births according to several different schemes and of estimating the distribution of waiting times from both current status and retrospective history measures. Breastfeeding is used as an example to illustrate that the distributions of weaning times estimated from the open birth interval or from the open and last closed birth intervals are not the same as the distributions of weaning times in the population, either for mothers or for infants. Furthermore, the distribution of weaning times estimated from current status data differs from that estimated from retrospective history data. If, however, a sample of all births that occur in a fixed period or a sample of all births of a given parity is drawn, then the distribution of weaning times estimated from both current status and retrospective history data is the same as the distribution of weaning times for infants in the population."
Correspondence: A. M. John, Food Research Institute, Institute for Population and Resource Studies, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20452 Kahn, Joan R.; Kalsbeek, William D.; Hofferth, Sandra L. National estimates of teenage sexual activity: evaluating the comparability of three national surveys. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 189-204 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"In this article, we examine the reliability with which teenage sexual activity was reported in three recent [U.S.] national surveys. Unlike other study-effects analyses of objective demographic phenomena such as births and marriages, ours focuses on a more sensitive question--age at first intercourse as reported in three very different surveys. Specifically, we compare reports for the 1959-1963 cohort in the 1979 Kantner-Zelnik Study of Young Women, the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, and the 1983 wave of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. For the ages when the majority of teens become sexually active (16-19), the three surveys provide comparable estimates of early sexual activity. For the younger teen ages, however, there is some disagreement among the estimates. Nevertheless, all three studies produce consistent estimates of the determinants of sexual activity throughout the teen years."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 440).
Correspondence: J. R. Kahn, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20453 Lesthaeghe, R. Lactation and lactation related variables; contraception and fertility: an overview of data problems and world trends. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 143-73 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the distribution of the postpartum variables affecting contraception and fertility, such as breast-feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and postpartum abstinence, and with the parameters of these distributions. The first part is concerned with data sources and data reliability. "In the second part of this chapter we attempt a brief overview of worldwide differentials and trends in the three postpartum variables as far as these can be identified and measured, and we compare and contrast their levels with those of current contraceptive use." The relationships among these variables are considered.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Inter-University Programme in Demography, Vrije Universiteit, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20454 Liestol, Knut; Rosenberg, Margit; Walloe, Lars. Breast-feeding practice in Norway, 1860-1984. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 1988. 45-58 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from birth records with information on previously born children from three maternity hospitals in Norway have been used to study the trend in breast-feeding practice from 1860 to 1984." The results show that over the whole period, 90 percent of women breast fed for at least one week. Up to 1920, 80 percent of women breast fed for at least three months. Breast-feeding declined significantly after 1920, reaching its lowest level in the 1960s, when only about 30 percent of mothers breast fed for at least three months. However, by the 1980s, this percentage had increased to 80 percent again. Multiple regression was used to examine variables associated with duration of breast-feeding. "Married women lactated for 1.5-3 months longer than unmarried, the difference being largest before 1920. First-born children were breast-fed for a little shorter time than second and later-born children. Until World War II women of lowest social strata had the longest durations of breast-feeding, and then the situation was reversed, women of highest social strata continuing the longest."
Correspondence: K. Liestol, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Box 1072, Blindern, 0316 Oslo 3, Norway. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20455 Ramachandran, Prema. Breast-feeding and fertility: sociocultural factors. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 191-206 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between breast-feeding and fertility. "The physiological consequences of variations in breast-feeding practices and their impact on nutrition, fertility and mortality under the existing sociocultural milieu in different communities will be reviewed briefly in the following pages. Special emphasis will be placed on lacunae in our existing knowledge of the subject."
Correspondence: P. Ramachandran, Indian Council for Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20456 Short, Roger. The biological basis for the contraceptive effects of breast feeding. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 25, Suppl., 1987. 207-17 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The author broadly reviews the factors affecting fertility in animals in order to examine the evolutionary factors influencing the relationship between breast-feeding and fertility in humans. Two types of species are identified: those that are highly prolific and those in which the rate of reproduction is related to the carrying capacity of the habitat.
Correspondence: R. Short, Department of Physiology, Monash University Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:20457 Williamson, Nancy E. Breastfeeding women and family planning programs: special needs and opportunities. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 1, No. 5, Nov 1987. 1-8, 20-1 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This article examines the evidence of breastfeeding's effect on child spacing, considers why family planning programs in developing countries have overlooked this effect, and suggests how programs can help lactating women get the maximum contraceptive effect from breastfeeding while also helping them to adopt family planning methods at the appropriate time." Demographic evidence from a variety of published sources is used to illustrate and support the arguments presented.
Correspondence: N. Williamson, Program Evaluation Division, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20458 Wood, James W.; Weinstein, Maxine. A model of age-specific fecundability. Population Studies, Vol. 42, No. 1, Mar 1988. 85-113 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A new model of the behavioural and physiological causes of age-specific variation in marital fecundability is presented. Total fecundability is decomposed into a series of susceptibility factors (the length of ovarian cycles, the length of the fertile period within each cycle, the probability that a cycle is ovulatory, and the likelihood that an act of unprotected intercourse within the fertile period results in conception) and an exposure factor reflecting the effect of duration of marriage on coital frequency. The impact of intra-uterine mortality on effective fecundability is also modelled. Data on western women, from which standard age curves of fecundability are estimated, suggest that any decline in fecundity between ages 30-40 is attributable to changes, not in the ability to conceive, but in the capacity to carry pregnancy to term. Sensitivity tests suggest that the most important potential sources of inter-population variation in fecundability are intra-uterine death and the incidence of anovulatory cycles."
This is a revised version of a paper presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, pp. 463-4).
Correspondence: J. W. Wood, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

54:20459 Bumpass, Larry; McLanahan, Sara. Unmarried motherhood: a note on recent trends, composition, and black-white differences. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-23, [1987]. 15, [3] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The National Survey of Family Growth (1982) is used to determine whether race differences in premarital birth rates [among blacks and whites in the United States] can be explained by differences in parents' socio-economic status, family structure, and residential characteristics. The findings document large diversity in premarital births within both populations....Most importantly, we...document very large diversity within the black population....The second finding is that we are not able to explain all of the racial differences in premarital fertility, particularly among presumably low-risk groups."
This paper was originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 389).
Correspondence: CDE, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:20460 Smith, Herbert L.; Cutright, Phillips. Thinking about change in illegitimacy ratios: United States, 1963-1983. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1988. 235-47 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"What has been the recent trend in illegitimacy in the United States? The answer depends on what is being measured. If the focus is on illegitimacy rates, then the trend is mixed. Illegitimacy ratios, however, have been skyrocketing. We show that this is primarily the result of declining nuptiality (and rising marital dissolution) and secondarily the result of decreases in marital fertility. We argue that the illegitimacy ratio is the better index of the social consequences of out-of-wedlock childbearing and that the high ratios of recent decades are unlikely to abate in the foreseeable future."
Correspondence: H. L. Smith, Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 3718 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6298. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.