Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

54:10677 Bolivar Chollet, Miguel. Capitalism and population: a study of demographic trends in capitalist societies since the Industrial Revolution. [Capitalismo y poblacion: estudio sobre el comportamiento demografico en el capitalismo desde la Revolucion Industrial.] Coleccion Libros, 1984. 397 pp. Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
This study is concerned with demographic developments since the Industrial Revolution, particularly with the impact of capitalist developments on demography. The author discusses the demographic setting in eighteenth-century Europe at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and traces the demographic impact of industrial changes up to the early twentieth century. The second part of the volume is concerned with the demography of present-day, developed, capitalist countries. In these first two parts, a critique of demographic transition theory is presented. The third part focuses on the demographic aspects of underdevelopment and capitalism in contemporary developing countries, with emphasis on the consequences for mortality and fertility of economic dependency, heterogeneity, and unequal development.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10678 Deardorff, Alan V. Trade and capital mobility in a world of diverging populations. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 561-88 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Prospects for trade and capital mobility among developed and developing countries, which are experiencing increasingly divergent factor endowments, are discussed. Particular attention is paid to growing differences among countries' labor forces. A two-country, one-sector growth model with international investment and differing population growth rates is outlined. Simulations are produced using a modified version that allows for different technologies and imperfect capital mobility. Based on these models, the author anticipates insufficient long-term capital flows from developed to developing countries and the continuing export of capital-intensive goods from developed (North) countries and labor-intensive goods from developing (South) countries. "Furthermore, as both labor and capital endowments grow in South relative to North, the range of goods that South will provide will expand, requiring that the least capital-intensive of those industries still in North be displaced."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10679 Lam, David. Distribution issues in the relationship between population growth and economic development. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 589-627 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence that rapid population growth has negative distributional consequences are examined. The author "first briefly summarizes the existing cross-national evidence on the effects of population growth on inequality. The next two sections represent an attempt to disentangle the compositional and welfare effects of population growth: first is a discussion of compositional effects associated with changing age structure, household composition, and differential fertility; this is followed by a discussion of welfare effects, including effects on wages, and on intrahousehold distribution and intergenerational mobility." It is found that "some widely held arguments for negative distributional consequences appear theoretically sound and receive support from empirical evidence; other arguments either appear less convincing theoretically, are contradicted by data, or in many cases simply cannot be tested carefully given the data currently available."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10680 Mason, Andrew. National saving rates and population growth: a new model and new evidence. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 523-60 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter presents new analysis and evidence on the link between population growth and national saving. The analysis is based on the variable rate-of-growth effect model [developed earlier by the author], which distinguishes two population growth effects: the rate of growth effect and the dependency effect. As in the traditional life-cycle model, an increase in the growth rate of aggregate income, given life-cycle patterns of household saving, leads to higher aggregate saving. To the extent, then, that population growth leads to higher growth of aggregate income, saving increases with population growth. An increase in child dependency operates in the opposite direction." The model is tested using international cross-sectional data for the period 1960-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10681 Nigoul, Claude. Underdevelopment and demography: factors of uncertainty in the Mediterranean region. [Unterentwicklung und Demographie: Unsicherheitsfaktoren im Mittelmeer-Raum.] Europa Archiv, Vol. 42, No. 17, Sep 10, 1987. 489-96 pp. Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Problems of underdevelopment and demography in the Mediterranean region are examined. Attention is given to economic inequalities between the Mediterranean countries and the wealthy industrial nations of Europe, regional and rural-urban differences within the Mediterranean countries, and problems of economic dependency.
Correspondence: C. Nigoul, Institut Europeen des Hautes Etudes Internationales, Palais de Marbre, 9 Avenue de Fabron, 06200 Nice, France. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10682 Willis, Robert J. Externalities and population. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 661-702 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The major focus of this chapter is on possible externalities and other failures of market and nonmarket institutions that are associated with the size, distribution, and growth of population, and that may lead to socially undesirable outcomes. However, a large portion of the discussion is devoted to presenting and examining a simple version of a theoretical model that produces socially optimal outcomes....[The chapter] begins with a brief look at the concept of externalities and market failures and applies these to some demographic phenomena in which conventional tools of analysis are adequate. The discussion turns first to technological externalities, and then to pecuniary externalities and the distribution of welfare. The chapter then examines a set of questions concerning the conditions under which the private and social costs and benefits of parental fertility decisions coincide or diverge; this set of questions requires the explicit treatment of intergenerational issues" involving transfers through both market and family institutions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

54:10683 Academia Sinica. Institute of Economics (Taipei, Taiwan). Conference on economic development and social welfare in Taiwan, January 6-8, 1987. [1987]. [xiv], 898 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
This publication, issued in two volumes, contains the proceedings of a conference on the impact of rapid industrializaion and modernization in Taiwan. It includes consideration of such issues as social security and the elderly, the family and household, and employment and the labor force.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10684 Ahlburg, Dennis A. The impact of population growth on economic growth in developing nations: the evidence from macroeconomic-demographic models. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 479-521 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This chapter reviews several economic-demographic models of developing countries, focusing on the predicted impact of population change on economic development. Early models found a very large negative impact of population growth on economic development. More recent models have found this negative impact to be smaller than previously thought, and a few have found the impact to be positive in the long run. Other models have shown the impact of population change to vary widely across countries and to have little impact on the degree of urbanization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10685 Chanana, H. B.; Talwar, P. P. Aging in India: its socioeconomic and health implications. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1987. 23-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Socioeconomic and health consequences of aging in India are analyzed. By the year 2000, India will have the second largest elderly population in the world, according to official projections. The growth rate, sex ratio, and marital, labor, and literacy status of the elderly are predicted to result in a higher dependency ratio by the 2001. Socioeconomic aspects of this aging population will affect government policy and also the family unit, which has traditionally provided care for the elderly.
Correspondence: H. B. Chanana, Department of Statistics and Demography, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10686 Chen, Kuanjeng; Tu, Jow-ching. The effect of population change on family resources for retirement. In: Conference on economic development and social welfare in Taiwan, January 6-8, 1987, Volume 1. [1987]. 323-35 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to summarize the composition of population aging and explore its effects on individuals and households in terms of family resources for retirement. The first section provides a brief interpretation of the population aging in Taiwan, in light of population transition beginning from the early 1920's and until the end of the first quarter of the next century. The second section examines the provisions for retirement within one's own household and family. It is shown that since the availability of descendent and collateral kin determines the probability of having relatives and descendents to help meet the necessities of retirement life, changes in mortality and fertility can have a profound impact on the well-being of the aged." Comments by Arland Thornton and Ching-lung Tsay are included (pp. 331-5).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10687 Holzhausen, Walter. The population problem in Turkey (as seen from the perspective of a foreign donor). Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 9, 1987. 63-73 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
"This article focuses on the population problem of Turkey from a foreign donor's point of view. Within this frame, political, social and economic implications of the population growth are discussed. Besides concentrating on the economic growth argument, the ethical questions that population control and family planning pose are emphasized as well." Arguments are placed in an international context using references to the relationship between economic growth and population growth as experienced in other countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10688 Hurd, Michael D. Mortality risks and bequests. In: Conference on economic development and social welfare in Taiwan, January 6-8, 1987, Volume 1. [1987]. 281-322 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"I analyze an extended life cycle model of consumption in which utility depends on the path of consumption and bequests. The theoretical section gives conditions under which consumption and wealth will decline with age. Using panel data on the wealth of the elderly, I estimate the degree of mortality risk aversion, the subjective time rate of discount and the marginal utility of bequests. An important part of both the theoretical and empirical work is to account for the boundary condition on the consumption path caused by annuities. The results indicate that the consumption path is sensitive to variations in mortality rates, and that the marginal utility of bequests is small." A summary of the subsequent discussion is included (pp. 317-22).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10689 James, Jeffrey. Population and technical change in the manufacturing sector of developing countries. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 225-56 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The impacts of population on the rate and direction of technical change in the manufacturing sector of developing countries are examined, with attention first given to historically distinctive aspects of latecomers to industrialization. "The focus will be on the four mechanisms through which these impacts are transmitted: (1) the dampened inducement to innovate; (2) the permissive effect of scale economies; (3) population density, urban concentration, and infrastructural investment; and (4) population size, the domestic capital goods sector, and indigenous technical change." No evidence is found of a simple relationship among the population and technical change variables. Instead, the author postulates a more complex set of relationships and identifies in a summary table the circumstances in which several proposed causal relationships will hold.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10690 Jemai, Hedi. Population and development in Africa. [Population et developpement en Afrique.] Serie des Livres du CODESRIA, 1987. iv, 389 pp. Conseil pour le Developpement de la Recherche Economique et Sociale en Afrique [CODESRIA]: Dakar, Senegal. In Eng; Fre.
This book contains papers in either English or French by various authors concerning aspects of the relationship between population and development in Africa. The papers are organized under three themes: population movement, including rural exodus, international migration, and population redistribution; relationships between demographic and economic growth in the precolonial, colonial, and post-colonial periods; and mortality changes. Specific analyses are presented for the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Senegal.
Correspondence: CODESRIA, Publication Section, BP 3304, Dakar, Senegal. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10691 Johnson, D. Gale; Lee, Ronald D. Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence. Social Demography, ISBN 0-299-11130-X. LC 86-40447. 1987. xiii, 702 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The 17 chapters in this volume review the available empirical evidence on the complex set of interrelationships between population growth and economic development in developing countries from a variety of perspectives. The issues examined include the relationship between population growth and natural resources; agriculture; savings, investment and trade; health, education, and welfare; and labor and urbanization. In addition, several chapters attempt to unravel the conceptual issues involved in understanding how population change affects economic development....Taken together, the chapters provide a review of much, although not all, of the literature on the subject. In addition to a review of literature, many of the chapters contain original theoretical or empirical research."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10692 Khalatbari, Parviz. Demographic and demo-economic problems in developing countries. [Demographische und demo-okonomische Probleme der Entwicklungslander.] Asien, Afrika, Lateinamerika, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1984. 821-31 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Demographic, social, and economic problems confronting developing countries are discussed. Issues addressed include differences between former and current demographic transitions, factors influencing the balance of mortality and fertility, the effects of foreign capital on traditional economies, the introduction of modern production techniques and the means of lowering mortality, strains on local food supplies, and the inability of developed countries to absorb their own potential work forces.
Correspondence: P. Khalatbari, Sektion Wirtschaftswissenschaften der Humboldt-Universitat zu Berlin, Bereich Demographie, 102 Berlin Spandauer Strasse 1, German Democratic Republic. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10693 Lin, Chung-Cheng. Demographic transition and financial support for the aged in Taiwan. Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, Jun 1987. 1-14 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
Policy issues related to demographic aging in Taiwan are discussed. The old-age dependency burden anticipated by the year 2030 is outlined, and the need for new economic and social policies to support the growing retired population is stressed.
Correspondence: C. C. Lin, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10694 Pingali, Prabhu L.; Binswanger, Hans P. Population density and agricultural intensification: a study of the evolution of technologies in tropical agriculture. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 27-56 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter describes the process by which agricultural societies have traditionally coped with increasing population densities. It explores the impact of population density on the overall nature of the farming system, on land use patterns and yields, on the location and nature of land investments, on the use of mechanical technology, and on the production of organic fertilizers. In the process, it also briefly addresses causes of agricultural intensification other than population growth and the problem of environmental degradation that can result from population growth. The focus of the chapter is on how societies have been able to achieve agricultural growth resulting from farmer-based innovations rather than science-based inputs."
Examples cited are from a compilation of cases for a World Bank research project on agricultural mechanization in sub-Saharan Africa. A worldwide data set containing specific farming information for 52 locations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America is used to empirically test four hypotheses concerning the farming intensity, labor input, yields, and fertilizer use. The authors identify systematic, predictable changes in farming systems and land-use patterns in response to changes in population densities and observe that these changes are generally associated with increased labor requirements, a slight drop in labor productivity, and, in certain areas, soil degradation. The authors conclude that these problems are not entirely attributable to population densities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10695 Universite du Benin. Unite de Recherche Demographique (Lome, Togo). Demography in the service of the nation. Proceedings of the national seminar on the integration of demographic variables in development planning, Kara, July 20-23, 1987. [La demographie au service de la nation. Actes du seminaire national sur l'integration des variables demographiques dans la planification du developpement, Kara, 20-23 juillet 1987.] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 12, 1987. ii, 211, [28] pp. Lome, Togo. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a national conference on the integration of demographic variables in development planning in Togo held in Kara in 1987. Papers are included on employment statistics, education, methods of demographic data collection and analysis, population trends and prospects, and demo-economic models.
Correspondence: Unite de Recherche Demographique, Universite du Benin, B.P. 12971, Lome, Togo. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10696 Willis, Robert J. Public and private intergenerational transfers, economic growth and demographic transition. In: Conference on economic development and social welfare in Taiwan, January 6-8, 1987, Volume 2. [1987]. 717-51 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The author examines hypotheses concerning the relationships among economic growth, intergenerational transfers, and fertility decline using data for Taiwan, with particular attention to the fact that the economic and demographic transition occurred very rapidly in Taiwan before the development of an extensive system of social welfare. The author outlines "some theoretical approaches on demographic transition and intergenerational relations that economists and demographers have been pursuing during the last decade. [He then considers] how these theoretical ideas might apply to the Taiwanese situation and to policies such as the introduction of social security." A summary of the subsequent discussion is included (pp. 741-51).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10697 Wolfson, Margaret. Population and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Habitat International, Vol. 9, No. 3-4, 1985. 201-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In the following paragraphs an attempt will be made to examine the intricate inter-relationships between population and development in sub-Saharan Africa today, and to consider what are the prospects for converting the human resources so abundantly available into an effective development asset."
Correspondence: M. Wolfson, OECD Development Centre, 94 Rue Chardon-Lagache, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

54:10698 Ben-Porath, Yoram. Market, government, and Israel's muted baby boom. Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel Discussion Paper, No. 85.06, Jun 1985. 50 pp. Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The impact of the baby boom that occurred in Israel in the 1950s is examined, with particular reference to the effects on the labor market and the government sector. The author describes how the school system evolved to cope with these demographic changes. The role of the army in absorbing the increasing population of working age is noted. The author concludes that governments may be able to react effectively to such demographic shocks but have trouble adjusting downward once the pressure subsides.
Correspondence: The Maurice Falk Institute for Economic Research in Israel, P. Naphtali Building, The Hebrew University, Mount Scopus, 91905 Jerusalem, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10699 Boskin, Michael J. Intergenerational aspects of government policy under changing demographic and economic conditions. Business Economics, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1987. 18-24 pp. Cleveland, Ohio. In Eng.
"The population is aging, which, coupled with declining productivity, changes the features of the U.S. economy. Growth in real per capita income has slowed dramatically, although it was masked initially by an increase in the fraction of the population working. Slowing income growth raises questions of government policy, particularly financing social security benefits and reducing the burden of the national debt. The equity of the transfer of benefits and costs across generations is considered, together with the extent the transfers may be offset by private interfamily transfers."
Correspondence: M. J. Boskin, Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10700 Carlino, Gerald A.; Mills, Edwin S. The determinants of county growth. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1987. 39-54 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper explores the determinants of population and employment densities interregionally. The theoretical model, due to Steinnes and Fisher, permits simultaneous determination of population and employment densities. This is applied to data for about 3,000 counties in the U.S. to analyze the effects of economic, demographic, climatic, and policy-related variables on the growth of population and employment, during the 1970s. Considering employment, differential county growth is explained in terms of economic and demographic conditions; regional and policy variables matter less. For population, climate matters as a preference for sunbelt states is found. Local government programs regarding education and tax policy seem to play a role."
Correspondence: G. A. Carlino, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10701 Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G. Population change and the Canadian economy: a survey of the issues. QSEP Research Report, No. 186, Jan 1987. 68 pp. McMaster University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population: Hamilton, Canada. In Eng.
The authors aim "to provide an overview of the demographic changes that have taken place in recent decades in Canada, the changes that are in prospect for the next several decades, and the manner in which the Canadian economy is likely to be affected by these changes....Our concern is principally the economic implications of population change....We begin...with a brief review of Canada's population history. We consider next the historical relationship between the labour force and the population. Some basic demographic projections to the year 2036, and an associated projection of the labour force, are presented. We then return to the subject of how the population and the economy interact with each other, giving detailed attention to issues on both the supply and the demand sides of the economy. A separate section is provided on the role of immigration in the determination of economic-demographic change....A section on the demographics of subpopulations then follows....We shall try to make the case that the age structure and efficiency of the stock of plant, equipment, and other types of capital are closely linked to changes in population...."
Correspondence: Program for Quantitative Studies in Economics and Population, Faculty of Social Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10702 Fortin, Bernard; Fortin, Pierre. Three studies on the economic impact of the demographic decline. [Trois essais sur l'impact economique du declin demographique.] Departement d'Economique Cahier, No. 8704, Dec 1986. 45 pp. Universite Laval, Faculte des Sciences Sociales, Departement D'Economique: Laval, Canada. In Fre.
This publication contains three studies on aspects of the economic effect of population decrease. The first study compares a population growing at one percent a year with one declining at one percent a year. The second considers the effect of a population decrease on the economic situation of young people. The final study examines the effect of population decrease on public sector costs. The general concern is with the situation in Canada.
Correspondence: Departement d'Economique, Faculte des Sciences Sociales, Universite Laval, Cite Universitaire, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10703 Hohn, Charlotte. Social consequences of a population decline. [Soziale Konsequenzen eines Bevolkerungsruckgangs.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1987. 289-302 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is a speculative examination of the social consequences of declining population using the Federal Republic of Germany as an example. The author bases her presentation on a continuation of current trends and focuses on the problems of demographic aging that she predicts will occur after the year 2015. Topics include financing care for the elderly, the dependency burden, the changing role of guestworkers and other foreigners, and the effects of demographic aging on intergenerational relationships. The article concludes with a discussion of social values and the role they will play in an aging society.
Correspondence: C. Hohn, Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung, Postfach 55 28, 6200 Wiesbaden 1, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10704 Loriaux, Michel. The emergence of a new scientific paradigm concerning an old phenomenon: demographic aging. [Emergence d'un nouveau paradigme scientifique concernant un phenomene ancien: le vieillissement des populations.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 1, Nov 1987. 1-5 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre.
The author develops the concept that demographic aging in Western societies imposes a challenge rather than a threat. He describes the research activities that are being developed by institutions to meet this challenge.
Correspondence: M. Loriaux, Departement de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10705 Morrison, Peter A. Changing demographics: what to watch for. Business Economics, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1987. 5-8 pp. Cleveland, Ohio. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the importance of current U.S. demographic trends to business. "The article considers changes in several areas: household reconfiguration, new employment patterns, changing age mix, and the new geography of growth. The significance of these changes for the work of the business economists in spotting emerging growth markets and identifying long-term strategic issues is discussed."
Correspondence: P. A. Morrison, Population Research Center, The RAND Corporation, 1700 Main Street, Santa Monica, CA 90406. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10706 Sauvy, Alfred. Living better or living longer. [Vivre mieux ou vivre plus.] Cahiers de Sociologie et de Demographie Medicales, Vol. 27, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1987. 191-219 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
An overview of long-term demographic trends in France is presented, with attention to factors associated with and consequences of demographic aging. Declines in mortality and fertility rates in various regions of the world during the last 200 years are discussed, and the baby boom of the 1950s as well as persistently high fertility rates in certain developing areas are mentioned. The focus is on a range of social, economic, and political consequences of increased life expectancy, including projected health care costs and implications for social security.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

54:10707 Chao, Kang. Man and land in Chinese history: an economic analysis. ISBN 0-8047-1271-9. LC 84-51715. 1986. xii, 268 pp. Stanford University Press: Stanford, California. In Eng.
This book examines the historical response of the people of China to mounting population pressure and its economic consequences. In the first chapter, the author constructs a theoretical model to illustrate how people in a market economy change their preferences for economic institutions and production techniques when population and available land fail to grow in the same proportions. The next two chapters are concerned with the measurement of population and arable land in traditional China, followed by two chapters on land fragmentation and land distribution. Tenure systems are examined to determine whether adjustments postulated by the author in the face of increasing population pressure in fact occurred. A chapter is also included on agricultural technology.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10708 Chen, Wei. A brief account of the contradiction between the size of our population and the amount of cultivated land and its consequences. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1985. 21-2 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author provides an overview of trends in population size and quantity of cultivated land in China during the last four decades. The importance of family planning in curbing rapid population growth in recent years and the beneficial consequences of this development are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10709 Fauve-Chamoux, Antoinette. Agrarian trends and demographic growth. [Evolution agraire et croissance demographique.] ISBN 2-87040-041-1. 1987. 389 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; Commission Internationale de Demographie Historique: Paris, France. In Eng; Fre.
This is a collection of papers that were presented at a colloquium held in Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany, August 29-30, 1985, sponsored by the International Commission on Historical Demography. One of the themes at the meeting was agrarian trends and demographic growth. This selection of papers, in either English or French, is organized under the four session headings: non-European growth models, Southern European models, European (west-central and northwestern) models, and the Belgian example. Among the geographic areas discussed are Japan, China, southern Brazil, Mexico, Peru, the Saguenay region in Canada, Spain, Corsica, Italy, England, Schleswig-Holstein under both Danish and German rule, Switzerland, Finland, and Belgium. The papers focus on historical developments occurring, for the most part, between 1500 and 1900. The final section is a brief conclusion and outline of the arguments presented. A list of the colloquium participants and a list of papers presented at the meeting but not included in this volume are also provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10710 Hayami, Yujiro; Ruttan, Vernon W. Population growth and agricultural productivity. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 57-101 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between population growth and agricultural productivity is examined from the perspective of recent development thought. A model of induced technical innovation in agriculture, involving land-power, power-labor, and fertilizer-land ratios, is outlined and tested using data for the United States and Japan for the years 1880-1980. Recent experiences in the Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, and Korea are used to illustrate the interrelationships among population pressure, land infrastructure investment, and technical change. Attention is given to the implications of agricultural development for factor productivity and income distribution, and illustrations are provided from a published study concerning Indonesia.
In concluding, the authors state that "in the agriculture of developing countries, with land becoming increasingly scarce and expensive relative to labor as population pressure against land resources increases, the development of biological and chemical technologies is the most efficient way to promote agricultural growth....The development of more productive biological and chemical technologies capable of offsetting the effect of growing population pressure appears to be a necessary condition for the simultaneous achievement of both growth and equity in developing countries today."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10711 Howell, Nancy. Feedbacks and buffers in relation to scarcity and abundance: studies of hunter-gatherer populations. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 156-87 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between resources and the regulation of population size. The emphasis is on the integration of models of population regulation in animals with the understanding of the various forms of population control found in humans. The author attempts this by examining population regulation among hunter-gatherer populations, focusing specifically on the !Kung San of Botswana. She suggests that "hunter-gatherers tend to be thin not because they have exhausted the food in their environment, but because they have evolved a culture which gives them security, leisure and egalitarianism at the price of chronic hunger and undernutrition. When they avoid the hunger and thinness, by environmental plenty or by harvesting more of their potential food supply, they experience higher fertility and either experience population growth or resort to infanticide."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10712 MacKellar, F. Landis; Vining, Daniel R. Natural resource scarcity: a global survey. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 259-329 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter is a broad review, at the global level, of recent scarcity trends for a spectrum of important natural resources: energy (mostly conventional crude petroleum, with brief references to unconventional oil and other energy sources); food (mostly agricultural resources, with a short comment on fish); forest resources; and species....For each resource, the authors ask whether the evidence suggests, on balance, that supply-side constraints will be serious in the next generation; if so, appropriate policy responses are briefly described. The conclusions reached are mainly mixed....Some resources are becoming more scarce, while others are not; selective policy responses are indicated, but no broad reordering of priorities is necessary."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10713 Slade, Margaret E. Natural resources, population growth, and economic well-being. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 331-69 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author summarizes principal issues in the ongoing debate as to whether scarce natural resources will eventually constrain population growth and economic well-being. Both theoretical and empirical sources are used in an effort to identify problems likely to emerge in the next 50 years, resources most likely to be constraining, and economies most apt to be constrained. First, "the economic theory of growth with natural resources is summarized. For both nonrenewable and common-property resources, a basic model is established, the effects of population growth on the model predictions are discussed, and the efficiency properties of a market solution are analyzed....Many of the problems encountered when one attempts to apply theoretical models to real-world situations are described, with particular emphasis on measurement problems....It is the author's belief that the problems associated with common-property resources will be more constraining than those associated with nonrenewable resources. These problems include the destruction of watersheds, deforestation, desertification, and acid rain....Petroleum was identified [as the nonrenewable] resource that is both likely to be in short supply and apt to pose serious adjustment problems."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10714 Srinivasan, T. N. Population and food. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 3-26 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author "briefly describes the methods and conclusions of four important world food models: studies based on population carrying capacity (the maximum population that can be sustained indefinitely into the future) and projections of population size; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) projections; the grain-oilseed-livestock model underlying the food supply-demand projections of the Global 2000 Report; and the linked system of country models under the auspices of [the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis]....The discussion then turns to feedback effects in the food-population nexus that these models either address inadequately or neglect altogether, and sets forth the implications of these effects for understanding the relation of population to food production and consumption. In a final section, conclusions are presented."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

54:10715 Bloom, David E.; Freeman, Richard B. Population growth, labor supply, and employment in developing countries. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 105-47 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter examines the nature and magnitude of the principal effects of population growth on labor supply and employment in the developing economies of the world. On the supply side of labor markets, it addresses key features of the interrelations between population growth and the labor force....On the demand side, it describes and analyzes the nature of labor markets in developing economies and attempts to identify the key factors that condition their labor absorption capacity. Descriptive statistics on the characteristics of developing country labor markets and on the relationships between population growth, labor supply, employment shifts, and growth of output per worker are presented and discussed. The key result of the analysis is that, despite the unprecedented magnitude of population growth and the existence of imperfections in labor markets, developing economies tended to shift between 1960 and 1980 from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity service and industrial sectors, and, albeit with some exceptions, to raise real income per capita."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10716 Dzienio, Kazimierz. The qualified labor force in the national economy: current status and forecasts to 1995. [Kadry kwalifikowane w gospodarce narodowej--stan obecny i przewidywania do 1995 r.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 143-75 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The skilled labor force in Poland is examined. Developments since 1958 are first reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the supply of and demand for university graduates. The author discusses probable future trends in the demand for graduates up to 1995.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10717 Foigt, N. A. The influence of women's professional activity on family status. [Vpliv profesiinoi diyal'nosti zhinki-vchenogo na ii simeinii status.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 47-50 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact on family status of professional activity among women scientists in the USSR is investigated, with a focus on role expectations of women within the family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10718 France. Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques [INSEE] (Paris, France). 1987 employment survey: detailed results. [Enquete sur l'emploi de 1987: resultats detailles.] Collections de l'INSEE, Serie D: Demographie et Emploi, No. 122, Sep 1987. 272 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the latest in a series of annual reports presenting results from the official French employment survey, which began in 1968. The data concern the labor force in 1987. Data are provided on the total population by major age category, occupations, profession, employment status, hours of work, the foreign labor force, unemployment, qualifications, households, regional and communal data, social and geographic origin, and changes relative to previous years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10719 Gluchanova, G. L. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the formation of the labor force in the Ukrainian SSR. [Vpliv sotsial'no-ekonomichnich i demografichnich faktoriv na formuvannya trudovogo potentsialu naselennya Ukrains'koi RSR.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 32-41 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The impact of various socioeconomic and demographic factors on the occupational structure and potential of the labor force in the Ukrainian SSR is analyzed. The influence of changes in the population's educational level and scientific and technological progress is also investigated.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10720 Gruzdeva, E. B.; Chertikhina, E. S. The occupational status and wages of women in the USSR. Soviet Sociology, Vol. 26, No. 3, Winter 1987-1988. 67-81 pp. Armonk, New York. In Eng.
The author profiles the female labor force in the USSR. Changes since the 1930s in types of occupation, especially in the number of women employed in agriculture, are outlined. The impact of urbanization and high rates of industrialization on the nature of women's labor force activity is analyzed. Reasons for the continuing wage differentials between males and females are discussed, and measures being taken to correct income inequality are described.
This is a translation of the Russian article in Rabochii Klass i Sovremennyi Mir, No. 3, 1986, pp. 57-67.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10721 Holzer, Jerzy Z. Labor force participation of the elderly population. [Aktywnosc zawodowa ludzi starych.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 19-32 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The consequences of demographic aging in developed countries are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the impact of this process on labor force participation among the elderly and on pension schemes. Other topics discussed include factors that encourage older people to leave the labor force and factors that encourage them to remain employed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10722 Howe, Wayne J. Education and demographics: how do they affect unemployment rates? Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 111, No. 1, Jan 1988. 3-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article concentrates on the relationship between the changing [U.S.] demographic composition and educational level of the labor force and the impact of these factors on the structural rise in unemployment. Its focus is on how the labor market has adjusted to the increased supply of relatively young and inexperienced but well-educated workers, with particular emphasis given to the job market experiences of high school and college graduates. It will be shown that the labor market's response to the rising educational level of an expanding labor force was a relative weakening of the labor market position for high school graduates, compared with those with higher levels of education."
Correspondence: W. J. Howe, Division of Labor Force Statistics, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212. Location: Princeton University Library (DOCS).

54:10723 Kekovole, John. Aspects of female labor force participation in Kenya: a study of the impact of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. Pub. Order No. DA8714063. 1987. 443 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study focuses on the determinants of female labor force participation in Kenya by utilising panel data collected in a labor force survey carried out during 1977/1978 and data from the annual census of employment and earnings in the modern sector. We have employed mainly cross tabulations, graphic representation of some of the results, and multivariate regression analysis....Overall the empirical results indicate diverse aspects of female labor force participation. Women's participation in the rural labor force is high and is determined by availability of land, sexual division of labor, seasonal labor demand, environmental factors such as morbidity and relative household economic status....Their participation in wage employment and urban labor force is alarmingly low....The major determinants of female labor force participation in urban areas apparently relate to industrial and occupational demand, education and economic necessity."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (48)3.

54:10724 Kim, Won Bae. Urban unemployment and labor force participation in Korea. Annals of Regional Science, Vol. 21, No. 1, Mar 1987. 44-55 pp. Bellingham, Washington. In Eng.
"This paper examines urban unemployment patterns in [the Republic of] Korea using a simultaneous model of unemployment and labor force participation. Urban demographic characteristics and economic conditions are put forward to explain inter-urban variations in the rates of unemployment and labor force participation. The estimation results indicate the importance of local demographic characteristics and economic conditions in determining labor force participation rates and unemployment rates. The results clearly indicate that 'sexual dualism' is pervasive in the urban labor market in Korea. Market discrimination against women is quite evident. "The analysis is based on data from the 1980 Population and Housing Census of Korea and the 1974 Special Labor Force Survey.
Correspondence: W. B. Kim, East-West Center, Population Institute, 1777 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10725 Kraut, Robert E.; Grambsch, Patricia. Home-based white collar employment: lessons from the 1980 census. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 2, Dec 1987. 410-26 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
Home-based employment in the United States is studied using data from the 1980 census. The results indicate that only 1.6 percent of the work force worked at home as a primary place of employment in 1980, a percentage that has been declining since 1960. Consideration is given to reasons for working at home, the characteristics of those so employed, and income in comparison to those working outside the home.
Correspondence: R. E. Kraut, Bell Communications Research, Room 2E-232, 435 South Street, Morristown, NJ 07960. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10726 Larson, Eric M. International migration and the labor force: a study of members of migrant households versus members of domestic households in the Dominican Republic. Pub. Order No. DA8717463. 1987. 349 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The effects of emigration on the Dominican Republic labor force were examined by contrasting return migrants and other members of migrant households with members of domestic households. Overall, the effects of return migrants and other members of migrant households upon the labor force is insignificant because of their relatively small numbers; however, there were important differences between return migrants, other members of migrant households, and members of domestic households when these groups were examined separately."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(5).

54:10727 Lazarova, Fani. Professional activity of Bulgarian women during the period 1946-1984. [Profesionalnata aktivnost na Balgarskata zhena prez perioda 1946-1984 g.] Naselenie, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 36-47 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Female labor force participation in Bulgaria from 1946 to 1984 is reviewed. Consideration is given to changes in the status of women over time, the relationship between family responsibilities and women's work outside the home, and the relationships among economic activity, educational status, and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10728 Lichter, Daniel T.; Costanzo, Janice A. Nonmetropolitan underemployment and labor-force composition. Rural Sociology, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1987. 329-44 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
The authors identify the major compositional sources of underemployment in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. "Specifically, we examine the roles of metro-nonmetro differences in (1) demographic composition, (2) education, and (3) industrial mix in explaining metro-nonmetro differences in underemployment, as measured by the Labor Utilization Framework of Clogg and Sullivan....Using data from the March annual demographic file of the 1980 Current Population Survey, we document the higher prevalence of 'discouraged workers,' unemployment, and underemployment by low hours and low income in nonmetropolitan areas. We use demographic standardization and decomposition methods to show that composition alone accounts for about 40 percent of the difference in underemployment between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas. Educational composition is the single most important component accounting for this differential."
Correspondence: D. T. Lichter, Department of Sociology and Population Issues Research Center, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10729 Lin, Kenneth Shang-Kai. Estimating asymmetric information equilibrium labor market models from aggregate time series data. Institute of Economics Monograph Series, No. 34, Aug 1987. 105 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The purpose of this paper is to estimate and test equilibrium labor market models "in which households and firms solve intertemporal optimization problems under uncertainty but cannot wait until all conceivable information is available before making their decisions." The models are tested using U.S. time series data for the period following World War II.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10730 Mashika, T. O. Socioeconomic preconditions for and factors influencing the participation of women in social production under socialism. [Sotsial'no-ekonomichni peredumovi i faktori uchasti zhinok u suspil'nomu virobnitstvi pri sotsializmi.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 29-31 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Aspects of female labor force participation in the Ukrainian SSR are analyzed, focusing on socioeconomic factors, economic motives of growth, and demographic factors limiting female employment. Interrelations between demographic processes and women's occupations in social production are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10731 Mason, Andrew. The replacement effect and comparisons of per capita income across countries: a short note. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 141-4 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article is intended to clarify two aspects of Leibenstein's replacement effect that have not been adequately addressed in print. First, formal analysis of the replacement effect demonstrates that it is not determined by the quality of entering and departing workers alone but, rather, by the entire age schedule of labor quality. Second, a simple model is used to demonstrate the absence of welfare implications associated with the replacement effect and to quantify the magnitude of the replacement effect."
Correspondence: A. Mason, East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10732 Mason, Karen O. The perceived impact of child care costs on women's labor supply and fertility. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 87-110, Jun 1987. 13, [11] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In a 1986 survey of [1,383] mothers of preschool-aged children residing in the Detroit [Michigan] metropolitan area, one-quarter of the sample reported that they would work or work more hours if they could find better or less costly child care. Poor women and those living without a male partner reported that child care problems constrained their employment most frequently. Only one-tenth of the sample reported that they would have had more children or would have had them sooner if better or less costly child care were available....The results suggest that policies designed to improve child care facilities or to lower their cost could increase female labor supply substantially without increasing fertility, and might also help to reduce the public welfare burden."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, pp. 404-5).
Correspondence: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10733 Norwood, Janet L. The labor force of the future. Business Economics, Vol. 22, No. 3, Jul 1987. 9-14 pp. Cleveland, Ohio. In Eng.
Future trends in the U.S. labor force are explored. The author notes that "the labor force of the future will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in services industries." Topics considered include the impact of these changes on the wage structure, female employment, productivity, retirement, minorities, and family life.
Correspondence: J. L. Norwood, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10734 Pan, Jiyi; Guo, Shenyang. Prospects for China's labor transfer. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1986. 16-20 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Using 1982 census data for China, the authors analyze the movement of the country's labor force from the agricultural sector into the industrial and service sectors during the past 30 years. From 1952 to 1982, the agricultural labor force declined relative to other sectors, while the absolute number of agricultural workers increased and is expected to continue to increase. Three projections of agricultural labor force trends for the next 20 years are outlined. It is suggested that the development of the service sector will help to absorb the large volume of surplus labor, given the saturation of labor markets in agriculture and existing industries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10735 Polachek, Solomon W. Measuring the opportunity costs of children: the role of labor force intermittency. [1985?]. i, 77 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between labor force intermittency and market earnings power. The geographical focus is on the United States; the data are from the 1960 and 1970 censuses. The primary emphasis is on the effect of marital status and family size on women's intermittent labor force participation.
Correspondence: S. W. Polachek, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10736 Riche, Martha F. America's new workers. American Demographics, Vol. 10, No. 2, Feb 1988. 34-41 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
A summary analysis of probable changes in the U.S. labor force up to the year 2000 is presented based on U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projections. The implications for business are assessed.
Correspondence: M. F. Riche, American Demographics, 108 N. Cayuga Street, Ithaca, NY 14850. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10737 Romaniuk, Kazimierz. Changes in the utilization of labor resources in Poland since World War II. [Zmiany w wykorzystaniu zasobow pracy w Polsce po drugiej wojnie swiatowej.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 7-17 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Labor force trends in Poland since the end of World War II are described. The author notes that the number of economically active persons has increased significantly, as have national income and productivity. Changes in the structure of employment are also noted. The impact of the economic crisis of the 1980s is then considered. The author states that this has resulted in declining national income, the stabilization of employment, and a drop in productivity. Future trends to 2000 are also reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10738 Sacharova, N. O.; Gartik, S. S. Forecasting the size of the work force by sex and region (as measured by examining the sex ratio of the labor force in Kiev in the period 1980-1985). [Prognozuvannya chisel'nosti robitnikiv i sluzhbovtsiv za stattyu v regional'nomu aspekti (na prikladi rozrobki balansu trudovikh resursiv mista Kieva za stattyu na 1980-1985 rr.).] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 25-9 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Methodological aspects of projecting the size and sex distribution of the labor force in large cities are examined. Data are for Kiev, USSR, for the period 1980-1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10739 Shaw, Lois B.; Shapiro, David. Women's work plans: contrasting expectations and actual work experience. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 110, No. 11, Nov 1987. 7-13 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience of Young Women in the United States to examine how young women's plans affect their subsequent work experiences and earnings. The results suggest that "eighty percent of women with work plans were in the labor force, while 50 percent who did not plan to work were employed; those women with consistent work expectations earned higher wages."
Correspondence: L. B. Shaw, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, D.C. Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10740 Wander, Hilde. Population, labor supply, and employment in developing countries. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 492, Jul 1987. 69-79 pp. Beverly Hills, California. In Eng.
"This article consists of three parts. The first one gives a general outline of the relationships between population, labor supply, and employment, while the second one deals with empirical trends and structural changes in labor supply in the second half of this century. Both analyses bring forth the arguments for comprehensive approaches to the employment problem, which are presented in part three." The geographical focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10741 Xie, Cheng; Shi, Xiangyun. The movement of rural labor and the establishment of small towns as suggested by factors of production. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1986. 21-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The movement of the labor force from rural areas into urban areas, specifically into small cities and towns, is examined using data from a survey of the Yiyang area of China. It is noted that a surplus in the agricultural labor force has resulted from changes in agricultural productivity. Consequently, the authors point out, farmers are either transferring from rural areas into industrial and service sectors in small cities and towns or are remaining in the rural areas to be employed by collective enterprises. Advantages and disadvantages of these trends are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1988-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.