Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

54:10413 Anderson, Kathryn H.; Hill, M. Anne; Butler, J. S. Age at marriage in Malaysia: a hazard model of marriage timing. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 26, No. 2, Aug 1987. 223-34 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper estimates a proportional hazards model for the timing of age at marriage of women in Malaysia. We hypothesize that age at marriage responds significantly to differences in male and female occupations, race, and age. We find considerable empirical support for the relevance of economic variables in determining age at marriage as well as evidence of strong differences in marriage patterns across races."
Correspondence: K. A. Anderson, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10414 Beets, G. C. N. The stability of intentions of cohabitation. [De stabiliteit van plannen om samen te wonen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 10, Oct 1987. 15-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The value of stated intentions concerning consensual unions is examined using data from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey and a follow-up study undertaken in 1985. The results suggest not only that stated intentions accurately reflect future behavior, but also that consensual unions are becoming more prevalent than earlier data would have suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10415 Bertic, Berislav M.; Radojevic, Mladen; Topalski-Fistes, Nada; Bajic, Nada. Models of optimal age difference between spouses at the time of marriage. [Modeli optimalne starosne razlike medu supruznicima pri sklapanju prvog braka.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 24, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1986. 55-64 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The optimal age difference between spouses at marriage is considered. The authors assess the formula developed by Pavao Vara, which states that the optimal age for the wife is half the husband's age plus seven. Data from the Yugoslav town of Novi Sad and its surrounding region are analyzed. These show that the age difference between spouses decreased from 4.8 years in 1945 to 2.3 in 1985. A modified square function of the Vara formula is proposed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10416 Carlson, Elwood; Klinger, Andras. Partners in life: unmarried couples in Hungary. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 1, Nov 1987. 85-99 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Non-marital cohabitation in Hungary is documented using data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses and the 1984 microcensus. Observed patterns contrast with those in several other countries, particularly those of western and northwestern Europe. Firstly, in Hungary unmarried couples or 'partners in life' are more common, and their proportion is increasing more rapidly, among the previously married than among the single. Secondly, both among the single and the previously married, mothers are more likely than childless women to be cohabiting. Thirdly, although proportions cohabiting are higher in urban than in rural areas, partners in life are concentrated among those with the lowest educational level."
Correspondence: E. Carlson, Department of Sociology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10417 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Morgan, S. Philip; Rindfuss, Ronald R. When to marry and where to live? A sociological study of post-nuptial residence and age of marriage among central Thai women. IPSR Publication, No. 102, ISBN 974-586-082-4. Sep 1986. 51 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors examine patterns of postnuptial residence and household structure in Thailand. Data are from the Thailand Asian Marriage Survey, conducted from December 1978 through April 1979, in which 1,679 ever-married women under the age of 45 and 994 of their husbands were interviewed. Among the findings, it is noted that "living apart after marriage is, and has been for some time, quite common in Thailand. After demonstrating the plausibility of this finding, its theoretical implications are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10418 Cherlin, Andrew; McCarthy, James. Demographic analysis of family and household structure. Mar 1983. [151] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Department of Sociology: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report, prepared for the U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), consists of six papers on aspects of the demographic analysis of family and household structure in the United States. The first two papers concern the quality of the data in the June 1980 Current Population Survey on retrospective marriage histories and fathers' financial support for children from previous marriages. The next paper examines remarried couple households. The final three papers deal with marriage trends, including remarriage and separation.
Correspondence: A. Cherlin, Department of Sociology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218. Location: U.S. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD.

54:10419 Cherlin, Andrew; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Variations in marriage patterns in central Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 109, ISBN 974-586-166-9. Sep 1986. 54 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Recent changes in marriage patterns in central Thailand are studied, using data "from ever-married women aged 15 to 44 in three settings in 1978 and 1979: a Central Plains village, established areas in Bangkok, and a Bangkok squatter settlement. Three forms of entry into marriage were identified: ceremonial marriage with parental involvement in the choice of spouse, ceremonial marriage with self-choice of spouse, and nonceremonial marriage (elopement and living together). All three forms of marriage existed in each setting, and the dominant form differed in each. In general, a family background of higher socioeconomic status led to a greater likelihood of a marriage ceremony and greater parental involvement in spouse choice....[However,] higher education for daughters was associated with less parental involvement in spouse choice. These findings suggest that marriage patterns may remain diverse in Thailand even as further development occurs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10420 China. State Statistical Bureau. Population Statistics Division (Beijing, China). Preliminary report on China's first phase fertility survey. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1986. 7-10 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Preliminary results of a 1985 fertility survey conducted in the city of Shanghai and in the provinces of Hebei and Shanxi in China are reported. The survey concerned married women under the age of 50. The sample sizes were 0.5 per 1,000, 1 per 1,000, and 2 per 1,000 of the target populations of Shanxi, Hebei, and Shanghai, respectively. Topics covered included marital histories, fertility, pregnancy, and breast-feeding. General results of the survey are outlined, and particular attention is given to findings concerning marital status. It is found that the marriage rate is high, the divorce rate is low, and the rate of early marriage is decreasing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10421 Espenshade, Thomas J. Marital careers of American women: a cohort life table analysis. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 150-67 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Transitions that U.S. adults make between different marital statuses during their lifetimes are analyzed using multidimensional life table methodology and retrospective data on marital histories from the supplement to the June 1980 Current Population Survey. The marital behavior of black and white women in birth cohorts from 1905-1909 to 1940-1944 is studied. "For these women there is evidence of a decline in the age at first marriage, a decline that ended and then showed signs of reversing with the 1935-39 cohort of white females and even earlier for blacks....Successive birth cohorts have been characterized by rising fractions of first marriages ending in separation or divorce....Total remarriage rates for white women have increased, but they have remained stable for blacks. This has meant a rising amount of total lifetime spent in remarriage for white women, whereas this total lifetime proportion for black women has gone down slightly."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10422 Farley, Reynolds; Bianchi, Suzanne M. The growing racial difference in marriage and family patterns. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 87-107, Apr 1987. 15, [9] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Since 1960, major changes have taken place in marital status and family structure [in the United States], but their magnitude has been greater among blacks. In this paper, we review those changes and then consider two possible explanations of the growing racial difference. We find some empirical support for the explanation that the economic utility of marriage has declined more for black than for white women. We do not find support for the argument that the marriage market has become relatively worse for black than for white women."
Correspondence: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 S. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10423 Frisbie, W. Parker; Opitz, Wolfgang; Bean, Frank D. Cultural attachment and marital instability among Hispanics. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 9: 1987, No. 9.016, 1987. 22, [11] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research addresses the question of why certain Hispanic populations [in the United States], notably Mexican Americans and Cubans, are characterized by a relatively high degree of marital stability. In previous research, when controls for relevant socioeconomic and demographic variables failed to erase ethnic differences in marital stability, the residual was simply assumed to be attributable to cultural or subcultural differences. The present analysis subjects this assumption to empirical test using retention of the Spanish language as a primary indicator of cultural attachment. Results are consonant with the hypothesis that a higher degree of cultural attachment is associated with substantially greater odds of marital stability." The research is based on data from the 1980 Public Use Micro-Data files.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10424 Glenn, Norval D.; Kramer, Kathryn B. The marriages and divorces of the children of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 4, Nov 1987. 811-25 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The effect of parental divorce on the divorce-proneness of offspring was estimated separately for white males, white females, black males, and black females through analysis of pooled data from 11 U.S. national surveys conducted from 1973 to 1985. The estimated effect for white females was substantial and statistically significant, but any effects in the other race-sex categories appear to have been moderate. Analyses performed to test some common and plausible explanations for an intergenerational transmission of divorce-proneness yielded indirect support for a 'lower-commitment-to-marriage' explanation and revealed that a small proportion of the estimated transmission effect can be explained by a tendency for the children of divorce to marry at an early age."
Correspondence: N. D. Glenn, Department of Sociology, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-1088. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10425 Gray, Alan. Intermarriage: opportunity and preference. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3, Nov 1987. 365-79 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The two-sex problem in the analysis of nuptiality can be reduced to the problem of separating factors that determine the opportunity to choose a certain category of marriage partner from factors representing preference for the same type of partner. A theory that enables opportunity factors to be separated from preference factors is presented in this paper, in the context of analysing the phenomenon of intermarriage. An index called 'the marital index of social distance' is derived and its properties discussed. The index, representing preference factors free of opportunity factors, can be calculated easily from marriage statistics detailing group affiliations of brides and grooms. The theory is applied to data on in-marriage of Australian sub-populations defined by birthplace, for the period 1954-83. It is shown that marital indices of social distance have remained relatively constant over time compared with in-marriage rates which have fluctated according to representation in the marriage market."
Correspondence: A. Gray, Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10426 Gurumurthy, G. Marriage patterns, age at marriage and fertility behaviour among Yanadis--a study of tribal community in Andhra Pradesh. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 8, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1985. 236-45 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This paper deals with the marriage patterns, age at marriage and fertility behavior of a tribal community known as 'Yanadis' from Andhra Pradesh [India]. Marriage among Yanadis is not a stable union. Very often they remarry in succession. They practise elopement and are treated as husband and wife at their destination. Women who married twice or more had slightly...higher fertility. Age at marriage of women has a negative association with...fertility behaviour for the population as a whole." The analysis is based on random sampling of 600 couples who have had two or more live births.
Correspondence: G. Gurumurthy, Department of Population Studies, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh 517 502, India. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10427 Hayami, Akira. Another fossa magna: proportion marrying and age at marriage in late nineteenth-century Japan. Journal of Family History, Vol. 12, No. 1-3, 1987. 57-72 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"Using several heretofore neglected but very significant sources of demographic information for late nineteenth-century Japan, the study investigates the statistics for proportions marrying and age at first marriage in all the Japanese prefectures. It establishes the existence of two patterns of marriage--one of early marriage in eastern Japan and one of late marriage in western Japan. Several explanations for this division are considered."
Correspondence: A. Hayami, Faculty of Economics, Keio University, 2-15-45 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10428 Heekerens, Hans-Peter. Remarriage of widowed persons. [Wiederheirat Verwitweter.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1987. 243-64 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The remarriage of widowed people in the Federal Republic of Germany and studies of this subject are reviewed. Information is provided on frequency of remarriage, including remarriage after divorce; age of remarrying widowed people; new spouses' characteristics; and the amount of time between the death of a spouse and remarriage. The influence on remarriage of sex, age, pension status as determined by the previous spouse, level of education, and presence of dependent children in the household is discussed. Data are from official sources and are for the years 1967-1984.
Correspondence: H.-P. Heekerens, Fachhochschule Munchen, Bogenhauser Kirchplatz 3, 8000 Munich 80, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10429 Huang, Rongquing; Wei, Jin. Tabulation and analysis of the All Women's First Marriage Table of China in 1981. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1985. 54-7 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The authors discuss the tabulation of the All Women's First Marriage Table of China in 1981, based on data from the national census and the 1982 national 1-in-1,000 sample fertility survey. The national, urban, and rural women's first marriage tables for 1981 are included as well. Evidence is presented of changes in the traditional pattern of early marriage in China.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10430 Khoo, Siew-Ean. Living together. Australian Institute of Family Studies Working Paper, No. 10, ISBN 0-85924-446-6. Aug 1986. 50 pp. Australian Institute of Family Studies: Blackburn, Australia. In Eng.
Consensual unions in Australia are examined using data from the Australian Family Formation Project, carried out in 1981-1982 and involving 2,544 persons aged 18-34, of whom 194 were living in consensual unions. Reasons for the growing popularity of consensual unions are discussed, and the experiences of living together and marriage are compared. The consequences of trends in consensual unions for the future of the Australian family, including fertility trends, are examined. The social, economic, and demographic characteristics of those in consensual unions are described.
Correspondence: Australian Institute of Family Studies, 766 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne 3000, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10431 Koch-Nielsen, Inger. New family patterns: divorces in Denmark. Danish National Institute of Social Research Booklet, No. 23, ISBN 87-7487-318-0. 1987. 32 pp. Danish National Institute of Social Research: Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
The main results of a 1984 follow-up study on divorce in Denmark are presented in this report. The results show that four years after divorce, 60 percent of the individuals concerned had entered into a new stable relationship. The impact of divorce on children is considered.
For a related report, published by the same author in 1985, see 53:30418.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10432 Lee, H. Y.; Rajulton, F.; Wijewickrema, S.; Lesthaeghe, R. Family formation in Flanders: new patterns, different timing. [Gezinsvorming in Vlaanderen: nieuwe vormen, andere timing.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 35-68, 279 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The article presents a statistical study of the starting age and the speed of transitions in the process of family formation in Flanders. It contrasts two sets of generations, three groups according to educational achievement and three groups with differing religious practice. The methodology of shifted proportional hazard models is used and transition probabilities are fed into a semi-Markovian chain. Higher educational achievement results in later starting points, but not in a differing pace once started. By contrast, lower religious involvement speeds up the transitions to first sexual contact and premarital cohabitation, while it considerably retards the transition to parenthood among the generations born after 1950."
Correspondence: H. Y. Lee, Interuniversity Programme in Demography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10433 Lutinier, Bruno. The seasonality of marriage. [La saison des mariages.] Economie et Statistique, No. 204, Nov 1987. 21-8, 53, 55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Seasonal variations in marriages in France are analyzed using data from an official 1982 survey concerning families. The results indicate a decline in traditional prejudices concerning marriages taking place in certain months.
Correspondence: B. Lutinier, Service de la Demographie, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10434 Matthijs, K. Remarriage or cohabitation after divorce: the hypothesis of status integration. [Hertrouwen of samenwonen na echtscheiding: een statusintegratiehypothese.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 69-102, 280 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The aim of the research project is to assess which factors determine remarriage or cohabitation after divorce [in Belgium]. The research is based on data of 766 divorcees whose divorce took place in 1978. The chances of remarriage [or] cohabitation were evaluated using proportional hazard models and loglinear analysis. Special attention was paid to the effects of the number of children and age."
Correspondence: K. Matthijs, Sociologisch Onderzoeksinstituut, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 2C Van Evenstraat, B3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10435 Naceur, Gharsalli M. Nuptiality in Tunisia according to data from vital statistics records and the 1984 census. [La nuptialite en Tunisie d'apres les donnees de l'etat-civil et du recensement de 1984.] Serie: Etudes, Sep 1986. 38 pp. Institut National de la Statistique: Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Recent trends in nuptiality in Tunisia are analyzed using vital statistics and data from the 1984 census. The analysis covers changes in the marriage rate, 1958-1983; changes in nuptiality by age and sex; female age at marriage, 1970-1981; age differences between spouses; marital status; and marriage tables.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10436 Shelton, Beth A. Variations in divorce rates by community size: a test of the social integration explanation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 4, Nov 1987. 827-32 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This study tests the hypothesis that level of social integration may account for the correlation between community size and marital dissolution. Using data from the [U.S.] General Social Surveys, we find a strong correlation between the residential mobility rate and a measure of marital dissolution from which the effects of family background, religious background, socioeconomic background, and years of exposure to the divorce risk have been removed...."
Correspondence: B. A. Shelton, Department of Sociology, 430 Park Hall, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10437 Tan, Poo Chang. The study on marriage and marital dissolution in Peninsular Malaysia: the divorced men and women. Jun 1987. viii, 117, [46] pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
This is the third report from a study on marriage and marital dissolution in Malaysia conducted by the author beginning in 1981. Previous reports have dealt with singles and with married couples, while the focus here is on divorced men and women. This publication is in five chapters, the first of which presents a review of the literature and a description of the survey and the sample, which consisted of 111 men and 125 women. The second chapter considers divorce and its correlates. "The consequences of divorce are discussed in the third chapter while the fourth chapter looks at remarriage and the marriage ceremonies. The final chapter reviews the results and the implications of the survey findings."
Correspondence: Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 22-11, Malaysia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10438 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Marital status and living arrangements: March 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 418, Dec 1987. iv, 89 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States, based on the results of the March 1986 Current Population Survey. The text of this report compares current survey data with data collected from earlier surveys....Changes can be seen in areas such as the median age at first marriage for men and women, the ratio of divorced persons to persons in intact marriages (i.e., divorce ratio), the living arrangements of children under 18 years as related to the marital status of their parents, the living arangements of young adults, and the number of unmarried-couple households by age and marital status of partners."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10439 Veres, Pavel; Kocurova, Miloslava. Regional differences concerning divorce in Czechoslovakia. [Regionalni rozdily v rozvodovosti v CSSR.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1987. 310-7 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Regional differences in divorce rates in Czechoslovakia since the 1960s are considered. The authors note that such differences are declining but are still significant. The regions with the highest divorce rates remain Prague and Northern and Western Bohemia. Northern and Eastern Slovakia continue to have the lowest rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10440 Weigel, Ronald M.; Weigel, M. Margaret. Demographic factors affecting the fitness of polyandry for human males: a mathematical model and computer simulation. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1987. 93-133 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The suitability of polyandry as a mating system for the reproduction of a given population is examined. The authors note that polyandry is relatively infrequent in human society and does not appear to be a preferred mating strategy for human males. They present a mathematical model and derive a simple deterministic analytic solution, which suggests that polyandry can never be a preferred alternative to monogamy when fitness-related parameters are equal. They then develop an alternative stochastic computer model, which simulates the reproductive life history of a set of brothers under different demographic conditions, and show that there are conditions when polyandry could be preferred. It is noted that conditions similar to those assumed in the model exist in the Himalayas.
Correspondence: R. M. Weigel, Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:10441 Willekens, Frans. The marital status life table. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 125-49 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The marital status life table and its use in the analysis of family formation and transitions in the family life cycle are examined. Following a brief review of the existing literature on application of the multistate life table to the study of marriage patterns, the model is used to estimate transition probabilities. The author then calculates probabilities and expected amounts of time spent in various states given age and status characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10442 Wilson, Barbara F.; London, Kathryn A. Going to the chapel. American Demographics, Vol. 9, No. 12, Dec 1987. 26-31 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in marriage in the United States are examined, based on a variety of official sources. Patterns of remarriage and age at marriage as well as regional variations are discussed.
Correspondence: B. F. Wilson, U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10443 Witt, David D.; Davidson, Bernard; Sollie, Donna L.; Lowe, George D.; Peek, Charles W. The consequences of early marriage on marital dissolution. Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1987. 191-207 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the negative effects of early marriage on marital stability. "The focus on this paper is an analysis of a path model which includes the estimated effects of antecedents of early marriage, early marriage and education on the probability of divorce. Findings using the [U.S.] General Social Surveys support research that suggests that early marriage is the most important varialbe influencing divorce. Further, little influence of the early marriage measure through education was found."
Correspondence: D. D. Witt, Department of Home Economics and Family Ecology, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

54:10444 Al-Haj, Majid. The changing Arab kinship structure: the effect of modernization in an urban community. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jan 1988. 237-58 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The changing status of the Arab kinship structure [is] examined in order to identify the impact of modernization, structural economic factors, and sociodemographic factors on the normative level and behavioral patterns of the kinship structure." The data concern the Hamula, a patrilineal descent group in Shefar 'Am, an Arab urban community in Israel. The results indicate that "changes in the kinship structure accompanying socioeconomic modernization were complex and were affected by structural constraints. The analysis of the roles of the Hamula exemplified a diversification process that was the outcome of a number of distinct and even contradictory factors operating at the same time."
Correspondence: M. Al-Haj, Haifa University, Mount Carmel, Haifa, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:10445 Audirac, Pierre-Alain; Galant, Colette. Fewer and fewer large families. [De moins en moins de familles nombreuses.] Economie et Statistique, No. 204, Nov 1987. 7-19, 53, 55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent trends concerning large families in France are analyzed using census data. The authors note that the number of large families decreased by half between the 1968 and 1982 censuses, while the proportion of large foreign families increased significantly. Comparisons are made between the characteristics of large families of French nationals and foreigners residing in France. It is also observed that the standard of living of families decreases with size despite family allowances.
Correspondence: P. A. Audirac, Service du Demographie, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Boulevard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10446 Becker, Gary S.; Tomes, Nigel. Human capital and the rise and fall of families. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, Pt. 2, Jul 1986. 1-47 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper develops a model of the transmission of earnings, assets, and consumption from parents to descendants. The model assumes utility-maximizing parents who are concerned about the welfare of their children. The degree of intergenerational mobility is determined by the interaction of this utility-maximizing behavior with investment and consumption opportunities in different generations and with different kinds of luck. We examine a number of empirical studies for different countries. Regression to the mean in earnings in rich countries appears to be rapid. Almost all the earnings advantages or disadvantages of ancestors are wiped out in three generations." A comment by Robert J. Willis is included (pp. 40-7).
Correspondence: G. S. Becker, University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

54:10447 Bideau, Alain; Brunet, Guy; Plauchu, Henri. The elderly and their families: integration or rejection. The example of Chezery-Forens, 1856-1872. [Vieillards et familles: integration ou rejet. L'exemple de Chezery-Forens (1856-1872).] Population, Vol. 42, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1987. 685-97 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The residential situation of the elderly in the communes of Chezery and Forens in the Jura mountain region of France in the nineteenth century is explored. Data are from censuses from 1856 to 1872. The results indicate that only 25 percent of the elerly lived alone or with only their spouse in 1856. Changes in mortality caused changes in living arrangements subsequently, but a significant percentage of the elderly continued to live in extended families.
Correspondence: A. Bideau, Centre Pierre Leon, UA 223, CNRS, Paris, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10448 Bongaarts, John; Burch, Thomas K.; Wachter, Kenneth W. Family demography: methods and their application. International Studies in Demography, ISBN 0-19-829501-4. LC 86-31182. 1987. ix, 365 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the methodology of demographic analysis of families, households, and kin groups. It is a result of the work of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population's Scientific Committee on Family Demography and the Life Cycle. "The contributions to this volume document the substantial progress that has been made in a variety of areas, including the analysis of the family life cycle and the construction of multistate life tables and simulation models. The projection of the number and composition of families and households, a topic of great practical importance, is also addressed, and a number of refinements and alternatives to the simple conventional approaches are proposed." The intended audience for this volume includes not only demographers but also those studying the family in the fields of sociology, economics, anthropology, and history. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10449 Bongaarts, John. The projection of family composition over the life course with family status life tables. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 189-212 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The objective of the work described in this chapter is to construct and apply a family status life table. This technique takes the development of the multistate marital status life table the next logical step by adding a variety of maternal (or paternal) statuses in order to keep track of the number, age and sex of offspring of the life table cohort. State transitions in the family status life table therefore take place not only when marriages, divorces, or deaths of adults take place but also at the births, deaths, and departure from home of children. As a result, the family status life table can provide a detailed description of the number and composition of the nuclear families generated over the life course of a cohort." A computer program, FAMTAB, for calculating family status life tables is utilized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10450 Bouchard, Gerard. Concerning family reproduction in rural societies: open systems and closed systems. [Sur la reproduction familiale en milieu rural: systemes ouverts et systemes clos.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1987. 229-51 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Data from population registers for the Saguenay region of Canada for the period 1842-1911 are used to develop a model of family reproduction and the intergenerational transfer of wealth. The results indicate that families attempted to have as many children as possible and that migration played an important role in the general scheme of family reproduction.
Correspondence: G. Bouchard, SOREP, Universite du Quebec, 555 Boulevard de l'Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec G7H 2B1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10451 Bourguignon, Odile. The question of the child. [La question de l'enfant.] Annee Sociologique, No. 37, 1987. 93-118 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The factors that influence a couple to have a child are examined, with particular reference to the situation in contemporary France. Factors considered include cultural and social norms, family norms, psychological factors, and biological factors. Separate consideration is given to the decision to have a first child, a second child, and subsequent children.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10452 Burch, Thomas K.; Matthews, Beverly J. Household formation in developed societies. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 459-511, 570, 572 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A variety of demographic phenomena common to developed societies (e.g., declining fertility, rising divorce, rising proportions living alone) are viewed as part of a general trend toward separate living and smaller households and as different forms of an underlying coresidential decision-behavioral answers to the question 'With whom shall I live?' Household status is seen as a composite good and is discussed in terms of a demand-supply framework. Nine specific hypotheses to explain the trend toward separate living are discussed within this framework."
Correspondence: T. K. Burch, Department of Sociology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10453 Burch, Thomas K.; Halli, Shiva S.; Madan, Ashok K.; Thomas, Kausar; Wai, Lokky. Measures of household composition and headship based on aggregate routine census data. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 19-39 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the use of routine aggregate census data in the study of changes and differences in household composition, with a focus on data concerning number of households and population by age, sex, and marital status. Several measures based on these data are examined, including two standardized headship indexes and a number of simple ratios such as average household size, adults per household, and married persons per household. "These ratios are examined in the context of a decomposition of the 'crude headship rate'. The use of these simple ratios as proxies for more complex measures...is explored. Finally, decomposition is used to study the sources of variation in average household size."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10454 Cartwright, Ann. Trends in family intentions and the use of contraception among recent mothers, 1967-84. Population Trends, No. 49, Autumn 1987. 31-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The Institute of Social Studies in Medical Care has carried out a series of national studies [for England and Wales] of women who had recently had a baby in 1967-68, 1973, 1975 and, most recently, in 1984. The aims of the studies were different but in each of them information was collected about the women's attitudes to their most recent pregnancy, their use of contraception some three to seven months after the baby was born and their hopes for further children. In this article the trends in these factors revealed by the studies are presented and discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10455 Chuiko, L. V. The demo-economic development of the family as a realization of Friedrich Engels's scientific theories. [Demoekonomichnii rozvitok sotsialistichnoi sim"i yak zdiisnennya naukovich peredbachen' Fridricha Engel'sa.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 3-16 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Demo-economic and community aspects of family structure and formation in socialist countries are analyzed, drawing on Engels's theories concerning family origin and development as well as on modern scientific knowledge. The impact of financial factors on family formation and interrelationships is examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10456 Cornell, L. L. Hajnal and the household in Asia: a comparativist history of the family in preindustrial Japan, 1600-1870. Journal of Family History, Vol. 12, No. 1-3, 1987. 143-62 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
"When Hajnal...argued that different types of household formation rules determine whether fertility is adjusted to economic conditions in traditional peasant societies, he deliberately ignored societies with stem family formation rules. This study examines the relationship between household formation, fertility, and family relations in such a society--eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Japan. It summarizes previous work on the history of the family in Japan and discusses the role life-cycle service played in adjusting fertility to economic conditions."
For the study by John Hajnal, published in 1982, see 48:40531.
Correspondence: L. L. Cornell, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10457 De Vos, Susan. Latin American households in comparative perspective. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 3, Nov 1987. 501-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Comparative family sociology has had little to say about the Latin American family or household despite its links to a European colonial culture mixed with a distinct set of indigenous and historical circumstances. In this paper tentative judgements are put forward about the similarities and differences between the Western and Latin American household by examining four of its dimensions: the household's relative complexity, the separate residence of conjugal units, the incidence of households headed by women, and the incidence of household members being unrelated to the head. Data come from the World Fertility Survey household files gathered during the middle 1970s in six countries: Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, the Dominican Republic, Colombia and Peru. We find that household complexity in the six countries is intermediate between that of the West and East. Many of the households are extended laterally instead of vertically, because conjugal couples tend to reside in separate households, but often live with unmarried relatives as well. In addition, a high level of marital instability results in a significant proportion of households headed by women, many of them containing members of the extended family. Finally, whereas the circulation of young unmarried people of both sexes was common in rural areas in the West, being an unrelated individual in another's household is most common in urban areas among females between 15 and 19 years old."
Correspondence: S. De Vos, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10458 Edwards, John N. Changing family structure and youthful well-being: assessing the future. Journal of Family Issues, Vol. 8, No. 4, Dec 1987. 355-72 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
The declining prevalence of the nuclear family in the United States is examined, and the consequences for the healthy development of children are considered. Attention is given first to research supporting the claim that nuclear families provide the optimum environment for child rearing and then to studies presenting differing results. Methodological and conceptual issues concerning studies in family structure are discussed. The author concludes that family structure in and of itself has little effect on child development and that an alternative theory, de-emphasizing structural inputs, is needed.
Correspondence: J. N. Edwards, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10459 Feichtinger, Gustav. The statistical measurement of the family life cycle. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 81-101 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present chapter is to summarize a methodological framework by which the timing and the structure of the family life cycle can be estimated....In Section 1 some possibilities of measurement of the first marriage phenomenon are briefly discussed. Moreover, it contains a full analysis of the impact of mortality on the life cycle of the family. Here we deal with (dissolution specific) marriage duration, probabilities and periods of widowhood, and their dependence on survival rates. The third section provides some ideas on how to include fertility into the life cycle concept on a parity-specific basis. Finally, some concluding remarks, e.g. on divorce, remarriage etc., are made and some extensions of the basic model are mentioned. All analytical expressions are illustrated by Austrian data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10460 Fichtenkamm, Rosmarie. Family changes in transition: the social scientific and statistical literature concerning qualitative research and evaluation methods and the significance of these methods for family research. [Familiale Ubergange im Wandel: die sozialwissenschaftliche und die statistische Literatur uber qualitative Erhebungs- und Auswertungsmethoden und uber die Bedeutung dieser Methoden fur die Familienforschung.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 13, 1987. 181 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a literature review and report on research and evaluation methods in family research. References are largely to literature for a German-speaking audience. The report addresses itself to processes governing changes from one stage to another of the family cycle. In addition to social, structural, and sociopsychological aspects of these changes, it describes how the processes themselves have changed through time. Section 1 defines qualitative social research. Section 2 describes three interview methods. Biographical research and oral history are the subject of Section 3. Sections 4 and 5 consider qualitative evaluation methods and qualitative social and family research respectively.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10461 Gerner, Jennifer L.; Zick, Cathleen D. Changing roles of men and women. [1983?]. vi, 216 pp. Cornell University, Department of Consumer Economics and Housing: Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
This report examines what the consequences are for the lives of families of having children, and how the lives of men and women might differ in a world with fewer children. It has three main sections. "The first is concerned with how children affect time allocation. The second examines the value of non-market time and how children affect that value. The third considers the impact of children on family investment portfolios, including human capital investment." Both two-parent and single-parent households are considered. The geographic focus is on the United States.
Correspondence: Department of Consumer Economics and Housing, 137 Martha Van Rensselaer Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10462 Golini, Antonio. Family and household in contemporary Italy. [Famille et menage dans l'Italie recente.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1987. 699-714 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The challenge to traditional values of the family in Italy, as in neighboring countries, has led to a series of modifications in population profiles: a sharp drop in the number of marriages from 404,000 in 1972 to 294,000 in 1986, the appearance of free unions (1.3% of all couples), [and] the disappearance of the extended family households. And yet, other indicators reveal that Italians are still attached to certain traditional values of the family: for example, divorce only affects one of ten marriages, most divorcees remarry, premarital cohabitation is rare, and the percentage of illegitimate births (5%) has become one of the lowest in Europe."
Correspondence: A. Golini, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione, Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10463 Haugg, Kornelia; von Schweitzer, Rosemarie. Time budgets of families--a study of literature with annotations on household theory. [Zeitbudgets von Familien--eine Literaturstudie mit haushaltstheoretischen Anmerkungen.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1987. 215-41 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The authors review studies of time-budgeting theory. Following a general discussion of time budgeting, they focus on the use of time within families and the relationship between the presence of children in a family and the activity and productivity of parents. Factors examined include size of household, marital status, household income, children, type of employment, and housework and at-home activity. Literature pertaining to household theory is reviewed, and a critical analysis of the time-budgeting approach is presented. Results of time-budget studies from selected countries are compared.
Correspondence: K. Haugg, Universitat Giessen, Institut fur Wirtschaftslehre des Haushalts und Verbrauchsforschung, Bismarckstrasse 37, 6300 Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10464 Henretta, John C. Family transitions, housing market context, and first home purchase by young married households. Social Forces, Vol. 66, No. 2, Dec 1987. 520-36 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relation of family transitions and housing market context to home purchase by young married households. The effects of family, socioeconomic, and housing market characteristics are examined. Earnings of the husband and the wife, number of children, county-level median home value and county-level home ownership rate each predict the timing of home purchases. There is no evidence that the effects of family variables differ by housing market characteristics. This suggests that during the 1970s, families did not adapt to higher housing prices by different fertility or work behavior." The data are from the U.S. Panel Study of Income Dynamics.
Correspondence: J. C. Henretta, Sociology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10465 Hofferth, Sandra L. Recent trends in the living arrangements of children: a cohort life table analysis. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 168-88 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author seeks "to explore the implications of changes in [U.S.] adult marital behaviour for the lives of their children....The objective is to describe the proportion of children who ever experience a given family type and the proportion of childhood spent in that type. Age, race, birth cohort, and family type at birth differences are emphasized. The...analytic tool is the multistate life table, a variant of the increment-decrement life table." The data are from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for the years 1968-1979. It is found that a larger proportion of children's time than in the past will be spent with only one parent, there is a large amount of movement of children among family types, the family type into which a child is born is significant to understanding subsequent living arrangement experiences, nonmarital arrangements and temporary separations need further study, and black-white differentials have diminished over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10466 Hohn, Charlotte. The family life cycle: needed extensions of the concept. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 65-80 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The basic family life cycle model is examined, with emphasis on its limitations and on useful modifications. An extension of the family life cycle concept to the concept of life courses is suggested. "Otherwise unstable marriages, incomplete families, and remarriages would be neglected, along with never married persons with or without children. A typology of a maximum of 40 and a minimum of 12 life courses is suggested. Biographical data for cohorts should be gathered to use this enlarged concept of life courses for a meaningful analysis of change in the pattern and choice of different family life cycles and related life courses."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10467 Holmberg, Ingvar. Household change and housing needs: a forecasting model. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 327-41 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author describes a household flow model that is currently being developed and applied in Sweden as part of an integrated system of models for household and housing forecasts. Following a section on concepts and definitions, methodological considerations are discussed. The model is used to project the number and type of households for Greater Goteborg for 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10468 Italy. Istituto Centrale di Statistica [ISTAT] (Rome, Italy). An inquiry into family structure and behavior. [Indagine sulle strutture ed i comportamenti familiari.] 1985. xii, 448 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
These are the results of a survey of family characteristics in Italy, which was conducted in 1983 and involved 24,408 families. The methodology employed in the survey and the quality of the data are first reviewed. The results are then presented under the topics family structure, population, education, work, income and housing, handicaps, use of social and health services, networks of family interrelationships, and women and the family.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10469 Keyfitz, Nathan. Form and substance in family demography. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 3-16 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
In this introductory chapter to a book on methods in family demography, the author provides a context for the subsequent papers by various authors, which are concerned with measurement and estimation, family life cycle, multistate life tables, kin models and simulation, and projection of households. The focus is on methods, but a brief overview of the substantive problems to which they may be applied is also included. Four types of difficulties encountered in the demographic analysis of families are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10470 King, Elizabeth M. The effect of family size on family welfare: what do we know? In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 373-411 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author reviews economic and demographic literature concerning the consequences of high fertility for the well-being of the individual child, the mother, and other family members. Selected sociological and anthropological studies are included as well. The discussion centers on family size and its relations to child welfare, intra-family distribution, and parental welfare. "The focus is on...areas of decision making that constitute individual or family welfare--expenditures for improving the nutrition and health, education, shelter, leisure, and work of family members. The following questions are addressed: What are the connections between the fertility decisions of couples and other aspects of family life? Are the findings of past studies consistent with the economic paradigm--that is, are fertility and other aspects of family life inherently intertwined because the couple or household are the ultimate decision makers in these respects? If not, what theoretical frameworks lie behind these findings?" The majority of the data cited are from developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10471 Kono, Shigemi. The headship rate method for projecting households. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 287-308 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The headship rate method for projecting households is reviewed, and modifications are suggested. The development of the method is traced, and assumptions concerning future changes in headship rates are described. The need to extend the method in order to project households by size class, deal with the dynamics of family and household formation, and take into account co-residentiality of adult children with their parents is emphasized. A headship life table for Japanese males in 1980 is developed. It is concluded that "headship rate method projections based on available population projections seem to provide adequate figures, although not perfect....If the method can be expanded to make use of multiple decrement tables of headship life and micro-simulation, then the gaps inherent in the results of the conventional headship rate method would be filled in to some extent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10472 Krishnan, Vijaya. The family in Canada: a support system for the elderly. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 47, Oct 1987. 28 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper explores the widespread notion of the family's historical decline as an important supportive institution in the environment of older people. This is intended to provide additional insights on the extent to which the family can serve as an effective channel for the social and economic support of aged Canadians. The data come from a 1984 national probability survey of 5,315 women. The results indicate that in spite of the influence of forces growing out of industrialism, adult women in Canada do respond to the needs of their parents as best as they can. It appears that the aged are more integrated into industrial society than was previously thought, and that the family continues to be a significant source of support for older people. Evidence, however, suggests that Canadian families have been influenced a great deal by their cultural origins."
Correspondence: Population Research Laboratory, Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2H4, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10473 Kuijsten, Anton. Advances in family demography. Publications of the Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI] and the Population and Family Study Centre [CBGS], Vol. 14, ISBN 90-70990-04-0. 1986. xx, 383 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands; Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien [CBGS]: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
The author investigates issues and problems involved in the demographic study of families and households. The first chapter consists of theoretical reflections concerning the methodology of demographic analysis. "Chapter 2 [is] devoted to a description of the formal structure of a model for projecting numbers of women by age and by family life cycle stage...." Chapter 3 is a description of the data used, which concern females aged 15-49 in the Netherlands for the period 1975-1989. "Chapter 4 is divided into two parts. The first one discusses the projection results with respect to the obtained future marital status distributions of the model population. The second one discusses the results with respect to the simulated evolution in the model population's distribution by number of 0-14 years old children living in the women's homes....In Chapter 5 I developed a method for calculating cohort marital status projection tables and cohort family life cycle tables on the basis of the projection model presented before and of the input used in the projection....In Chapter 6 I applied the calculation procedures developed in Chapter 5 to the first-marriage cohorts 1950-1989 with age at marriage 20-24."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10474 Leppel, Karen. Household formation and unrelated housemates. American Economist, Vol. 31, No. 1, Spring 1987. 38-47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
An economic approach to household formation in the United States among unrelated individuals not living in consensual unions is presented. Data are from the March 1980 Current Population Survey. Factors considered include income and housing costs. The results suggest that the incidence of unrelated housemates is more common among householders who are male; unmarried; living in the west, north central, or southern regions of the United States; and living outside the largest SMSAs.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10475 Lesthaeghe, R.; Meekers, D. Demographic and ideational change in the European Community. [Demografische verschuivingen en de evolutie van waardenpatronen in de Europese Gemeenschap.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 131-200, 281 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"It is argued in this article that family formation is conditioned not only by economic factors (more particularly changes in opportunity structures for the two sexes), but also by ideational trends. The economic factors could be seen as responsible for period fluctuations that are superimposed on a long term ideationally driven trend with marked cohort contrasts. Value orientations are explored and compared across countries and age groups using the international data set of the European Values Studies. The analysis identifies a scale for the degree of tolerance towards non-conformism (e.g. divorce, abortion, one-parent family, rejection of marriage as an institution...) and the meaning of parenthood. Both are related to a set of other scales (religiosity, morality, leftism, nationalism, materialism, etc.). Theoretical links are also established with the theories of, respectively, Easterlin and Simons concerning the reasons for the recent fertility decline in the West."
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Centrum voor Sociologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10476 Lesthaeghe, R. Family formation and dissolution: the two transitions. [Gezinsvorming en -ontbinding: de twee transities.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 9-33, 279 pp. Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"The position is defended which considers the changes in fertility, family formation and dissolution since the previous century as expressions of two separate transitions. The first corresponds with a period of increased qualitative aspirations within the nuclear family, whereas the second transition, carried by the postwar generations, is the expression of growing secular individualism and the preoccupation with self-fulfilment. This corresponds largely with the view held by the French historian Ph. Aries." The geographical focus is on developed countries, primarily non-Communist Europe.
Correspondence: R. Lesthaeghe, Centrum voor Sociologie, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B1050 Brussels, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10477 Lesthaeghe, R.; Dumon, W. Generations and households: their evolution since the 1960s. [Generaties en gezinnen: hun reilen en zeilen sedert de jaren zestig.] Tijdschrift voor Sociologie, Vol. 8, No. 2-3, 1987. 287 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Sociologie: Louvain, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on changes concerning families and households since the 1960s. The primary focus is on the situation in Belgium, but consideration is also given to the rest of non-Communist Europe. Topics covered include family formation and dissolution.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Correspondence: Departement de Sociologie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Van Evenstraat 2C, 3000 Louvain, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10478 Link, Krzysztof. Household trends in Eastern Europe since World War II. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 71, Jun 1987. vii, 20 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper summarizes household trends in the countries of Eastern Europe [including Yugoslavia and the USSR] after World War II. It analyses data that are mostly drawn from population censuses, supplemented however by information from local sources. Demographic and socioeconomic factors influencing changes in the number and size of households in East European countries are discussed."
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2502 AR, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10479 Malacic, Janez. One-parent families in Yugoslavia. [Porodice sa jednim roditeljem u Jugoslaviji.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 24, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1986. 42-54 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
A review of the situation concerning one-parent families in Yugoslavia is presented. Available data on such families are examined by republic and autonomous region. The determinants and consequences of one-parent families are also considered. The need to resolve problems of data collection and to develop an interdisciplinary approach to research is stressed.
Correspondence: J. Malacic, Ekonomski Fakultet, Edvard Kardelj University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, trg Osvoboditve 11, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10480 Mason, Andrew. HOMES: a household model for economic and social studies. Reference guide for household projections, version 1.0. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 106, ISBN 0-86638-102-3. LC 87-22288. Aug 1987. x, 114 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper is a reference guide for the use of HOMES, a demographic model and computer package developed to project the number and demographic characteristics of households. To familiarize the reader with the range of information available from HOMES, a summary of its application to the Republic of Korea is provided. A detailed discussion of the principles that underlie the computer model is reported and illustrated using census and survey data from Thailand, Indonesia, the Phillipines, Taiwan, and Malaysia, in addition to the Republic of Korea. Detailed specifications of HOMES, sample output, and procedures for running HOMES on a mainframe computer are also provided."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10481 Matin, Khan A. The impact of female education on fertility desires in Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1985. 41-53 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The study deals with the impact of female education on the number of additional children desired in Bangladesh. The analysis is based on 2,791 currently married fecund women who had two or more live births at the time of the interview. The data set used is the Bangladesh Fertility Survey conducted during 1975-76. Using Maximum Likelihood method for truncated dependent variable developed by J. Tobin, the effect of several other variables like education of husband, present age, age at first marriage, female labour force participation, living male children and infant mortality have been controlled. The analysis has been carried out in the rural-urban context and also at different stages of the life cycle of the women. It appears that certain factors like infant mortality [and] preference for male children, ordinarily considered as antecedent to education are operating in Bangladesh to determine the number of additional children desired."
Correspondence: K. A. Matin, Institute of Statistical Research and Training, University of Dhaka, Ramna, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10482 McLanahan, Sara S. Family structure and dependency: early transitions to female household headship. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 1-16 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"This article looks at the intergenerational effects of family structure on family formation and economic dependency. Three explanations are examined: the economic-deprivation, socialization, and family-stress hypotheses. Daughters living in single-parent families at some point during adolescence are more likely to become household heads and to go on welfare than offspring of two-parent families. Differences in the incomes of one- and two-parent families can account for up to 25 percent of the difference in offspring behaviors. None of the hypotheses, however, provides a complete explanation of family structure effects. The analysis is based on data from the [U.S.] Panel Study of Income Dynamics and uses event-history analysis to estimate transitions into female headship and economic dependence."
Correspondence: S. S. McLanahan, Department of Sociology and Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10483 Moore, Maureen. Women parenting alone. Canadian Social Trends, Winter 1987. 31-6 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in female one-parent families in Canada are reviewed using data from official sources, including the 1986 census. Education and labor force characteristics of female lone parents are described.
Correspondence: M. Moore, Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10484 Peron, Yves; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Morissette, Denis. Family change: demographic aspects. [Le changement familial: aspects demographiques.] Recherches Sociographiques, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1987. 317-39 pp. Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Recent changes in fertility in Quebec province are analyzed using official Canadian sources. The authors note that the only indicator not to show a declining trend by the 1980s was the probability of having a first child. Changes in marriage patterns, including consensual unions and divorce, are also described. The authors conclude that these demographic changes are indications of the weakening of the personal ties that supported the traditional social system.
Correspondence: Y. Peron, Departement de Demographie, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale A, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10485 Pitkin, John R.; Masnick, George S. The relationship between heads and non-heads in the household population: an extension of the headship rate method. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 309-26 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this paper, we argue that...a greater precision in projection of households can be achieved if we give more attention to....the relationships between the demographic characteristics of non-heads and the characteristics of the households in which they are accommodated, and the heads of these households." A method for analyzing and projecting household formation trends that involves measurements of both membership rates and accommodation rates is described. This method, suggested as a complement to the headship rate method, is illustrated using a variety of official U.S. data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10486 Poulain, Michel. Some observations on changes in living space during the last years of the family life cycle. [Quelques observations sur les transformations de l'espace de vie au cours des dernieres annees du cycle familial.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 125, ISBN 2-87085-127-8. Sep 1987. 20 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author seeks to provide a dynamic explanation of changes in living arrangements during the final phases of the family life cycle using data on 167 Belgian families for a 20-year period from 1962 to 1982. "Limiting ourselves to the modal case of a family with child(ren), without early widowhood, divorce or re-marriage, we have established transition probabilities which enable [us] to estimate the average number of years elapsed in each state....Our interviews [also] demonstrate the intensity of old-age migration. Aggregate data from the National Population Register show by year of age a doubling of mobility between ages 70 and 90 for men and even more for women. The 1970 census data allow us to check that widowers experience a mobility level twice higher than married people at the same age."
Correspondence: Department de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10487 Preston, Samuel H. Estimation of certain measures in family demography based upon generalized stable population relations. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 40-62 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter presents new mathematical expressions for indices frequently encountered in family demography. These indices pertain to the survival of individuals in a defined social state or relationship. They include such functions as the likelihood of marrying, the expected duration of marriage, and the chance that a marriage will end in divorce. The new expressions are based upon a recent generalization of stable population relations....In general the estimation proceeds by substituting a second cross-sectional observation on the age--or duration--distribution of a population for certain flow data. These expressions are then applied to data and their utility for estimation is assessed. Estimation of the singulate mean age at marriage and of marital survivorship functions appear to be promising applications of these procedures."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10488 Pullum, Thomas W. Some mathematical models of kinship and the family. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 267-83 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter will attempt to describe specific instances in which formal modelling of kinship, the family or the household has been useful and holds the possibility of further utility....[The author] will review a set of research traditions which formally represent kinship and the family, arranged to highlight structural features first, and then passing on to increasingly dynamic models. This sequence will also lead from the rather diffuse notion of kinship as a part of the general social environment toward the more immediate and integrated unit of the co-resident family." Among the issues considered are "both the nature of modelling itself and, more importantly, the conceptual linkages between kinship structures, frequencies of kin, the child bearing of individual women, and the formation of the co-resident household."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10489 Reeves, Jaxk H. Projection of number of kin. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 228-48 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This chapter discusses the problem of estimating the number of relatives of various types that persons in a population now have, have had, or will have in the future. Section 1 discusses the relevance and implications of kinship estimation, while Section 2 discussed the use of various simulation methods. In Section 3, useful new techniques for combining deterministic and simulation methods are explored. The chapter concludes with Section 4, presenting results of the above concepts applied to the U.S. population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10490 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Swicegood, C. Gray; Rosenfeld, Rachel A. Disorder in the life course: how common and does it matter? American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 6, Dec 1987. 785-801 pp. Washington, D. C. In Eng.
"In this paper we explore the patterning of early adulthood by examining the ordering of activities that make up nonfamily careers and how that ordering affects the timing of family transitions, in particular the transition to parenthood." Data are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 and its follow-ups.
Correspondence: R. R. Rindfuss, Department of Sociology, CB No. 3210, Hamilton Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10491 Rothenbacher, Franz; Putz, Friedrich. Household and family statistics in the German Reich and the Federal Republic of Germany: lectures from the research and teaching section of the German Society for Demography during the 1987 conference. [Die Haushalts- und Familienstatistik im Deutschen Reich und in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland: Vortrage im Arbeitskreis Forschung und Lehre wahrend der Jahrestagung 1987 der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft e.v.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 51, 1987. 102 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Household and family statistics for Germany prior to World War II and the Federal Republic of Germany are presented in this publication, which is an expanded version of two reports prepared in March, 1987, by the German Society for Demography. In the first paper, separate consideration is given to each state and to selected large cities. The authors discuss the quality and availability of family and household tables from various places and times prior to the world wars. The second paper focuses on family and household statistics and their quality and availability since 1950. The authors discuss recent changes concerning households, families, women and mothers, and children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10492 Roussel, Louis. Demographic data and family structures. [Donnees demographiques et structures familiales.] Annee Sociologique, No. 37, 1987. 45-65 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The relationship between demographic changes that have occurred in developed countries over the past 20 years and changes in family characteristics is explored, with particular reference to the contribution that demographers can make to the study of sociological topics.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10493 Ryder, Norman B. Reconsideration of a model of family demography. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 102-22 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reappraises a macro-simulation model for demographic analysis of the family, which he developed in 1975. Three areas for improving the original model are discussed: the formation of families by marriage and remarriage, the consequences of the family histories that end with dependent individuals, and the absence of variance in family histories.
For a related study, published by the same author in 1975, see 43:1031.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10494 Santi, Lawrence L. Change in the structure and size of American households: 1970 to 1985. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 4, Nov 1987. 833-7 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
Changes in household size and structure in the United States from 1970 to 1985 are examined using data from official sources, including the census and Current Population Surveys. "During the first half of the [1970s], decreases in the size of family households were responsible for the bulk of the decrease in average household size. During the second half of the decade, decreases in the proportion of married-couple households began to exert a greater impact on the downward trend in the size of households. The slower rate of decline in household size observed during the first half of the 1980s represents a continuation of these trends, according to which the living arrangements of adults seem to be exerting an increasing impact on the average size of households."
Correspondence: L. L. Santi, Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10495 Schultz, Theodore W. The changing economy and the family. Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, Pt. 2, Jul 1986. 278-87 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the impact of changes in economic conditions on the family. "Three issues are considered in this paper. First, the reasons why the family is not fading away as an economic entity are discussed. The argument of this paper is that, despite the declines in various economic functions of the family and the increases in divorces and in other failures, the survival capacity of the family is both strong and robust." Second, the author contends that the economic approach should be extended to deal with the effects of the life-span revolution, shifts in prices and incomes, and the ability of the family to cope with these changes. Third, the hypothesis is put forward that intergenerational transfers are less important than increases over time in real per capita incomes and changes in income composition, its permanent and temporary components, and the sources of income. The geographical focus is worldwide.
Correspondence: T. W. Schultz, University of Chicago, 5801 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637. Location: Princeton University Library (IR).

54:10496 Simms, Madeleine; Smith, Christopher. Teenage mothers and their partners: a survey in England and Wales. Department of Health and Social Security Research Report, No. 15, Pub. Order No. HM629. ISBN 0-11-320860-X. 1986. ii, 122 pp. Department of Health and Social Security: London, England. Distributed by UNIPUB, 4611-F Assembly Drive, Lanham, MD 20706-4391 (for North America). In Eng.
This book is about the problems that face teenage mothers in England and Wales in the 15 months after the birth of their baby. The data are from a 1980 survey of 533 nationally representative teenage mothers as well as a survey of 59 percent of the fathers concerned. The authors examine the educational, medical, psychological, and social issues involved, with particular reference to implications for the development of future social policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10497 Smith, James E. The computer simulation of kin sets and kin counts. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 249-66 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
A method for generating model kin counts through the computer micro-simulation of kin sets is described. A CAMSIM algorithm is employed, and the mortality, fertility, and marriage parameters used are outlined. Results are produced for England under both preindustrial and modern conditions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10498 Tien, H. Yuan. Redirection of the Chinese family: ramifications of minimal reproduction. Asian Profile, Vol. 14, No. 4, Aug 1986. 305-13 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The implications for the family in China of the successful implementation of a policy of low fertility are explored. The author suggests that "full and continuous implementation will transform the family immediately and Chinese society eventually. With the scope, thrust, and intensity of China's population planning programs, the state and the family have been caught up in a classic confrontation: the vision, and promises of the country's development plan for a better future provide the major impetus for ending laissez-faire fertility patterns in the interest of society." Both short-term effects, such as female infanticide and brutality against women, and long-term effects, such as changes in women's status, are considered.
Correspondence: H. Y. Tien, Professor of Sociology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210. Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

54:10499 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Household and family characteristics: March 1986. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 419, Nov 1987. iv, 153 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent data on U.S. families and households are provided in this report. This publication "presents an overview of some of the major trends evident since 1970, and it provides detailed data on household and family characteristics for 1986 based on the March supplement to the Current Population Survey." Factors considered include ethnic group, residence, age, employment status, occupation, educational status, marital status, and number of children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10500 Wachter, Kenneth W. Microsimulation of household cycles. In: Family demography: methods and their application, edited by John Bongaarts, Thomas K. Burch, and Kenneth W. Wachter. International Studies in Demography, 1987. 215-27 pp. Oxford University Press: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Microsimulation of theories concerning household cycles is the subject of this general chapter. Setting microsimulation beside the companion approaches of analytic solution and macrosimulation, the early paragraphs discuss the kinds of problems amenable to simulation, the background literature, and the relative strengths and roles of the approaches. The testing of simulation programs is emphasized, and options for simulation design are reviewed. The later paragraphs consider hypotheses about household processes that have been tested in the recent past and that could be tested in the future, and reflect, finally, on the relationship between simulation and survey research."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10501 Wagner, Mazie E.; Schubert, Herman J. P.; Schubert, Daniel S. P. Family size effects: a review. Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 146, No. 1, Mar 1985. 65-78 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to clarify the effects of family size on the intelligence, academic achievement, occupation, personality, adjustment, morbidity and mortality [of children], as well as on the parents' health, happiness, and adjustment. The interaction with socioeconomic status (SES), family ideology, race, and spacing of children are detailed." The study is based on a review of the available literature, and the primary geographical focus is on the United States. "Larger families are more frequent with early marriage and rapid birth of the first child. In larger families, child rearing becomes more rule ridden, less individualized, with corporal punishment and less investment of resources. Smaller families tend to result in higher IQ, academic achievement, and occupational performance. Large families produce more delinquents and alcoholics. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are higher in large families as birth weights decrease. Mothers of large families are at higher risk of several physical diseases. Common methodological errors are indicated and exemplary studies are described."
Correspondence: D. S. P. Schubert, Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland Metropolitan Hospital, 3395 Scranton Road, Cleveland, OH 44109. Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

54:10502 Williams, Linda B. Migration, women's intra-familial decision-making power, and fertility: the case of rural Central Java. Pub. Order No. DA8715583. 1987. 326 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The dynamics of intrafamilial decision making in four villages in rural Central Java is explored. Issues considered include the effects of migration on decision making and how the woman's decision-making role influences contraception and fertility.
This work was prepared as as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(4).

54:10503 Young, Christabel. Young people leaving home in Australia: the trend towards independence. Australian Family Formation Project Monograph, No. 9, ISBN 0-7315-0060-1. 1987. xx, 188 pp. Australian National University, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia; Australian Institute of Family Studies: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This monograph is about children leaving home--about why they leave, how old they are when they leave, where they go, who they live with, whether or not they return and why they return....The aim of the monograph is to provide a description of the characteristics of the leaving home stage, to explore the demographic aspects of leaving home, to discuss the role of key background factors on leaving home, and to explore the existence of stress and conflict during the leaving home transition." The data are from the Family Survey, conducted in Australia during 1981-1982 and involving 2,500 persons aged 18-34.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10504 Zeng, Yi. The family status life table: an extension of Bongaarts' nuclear family model. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 70, May 1987. viii, 67 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents a general family status life table model, which is an extension of Bongaarts' nuclear family model. After a brief review and comment on Bongaarts' model, we present the system identification of the new extended model with an elaboration of Brass' marker concept in order to introduce both nuclear and three-generation families into the model. The estimation procedures for status transition probabilities are suggested in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 deal with the methods for the family status life table construction and the calculation of family as well as marital status of the female members. Two kinds of analyses can be performed with our extended model: family life course analysis, which yields estimates of the proportions of a typical life time spent in different status categories (marital, parity, maternal and responsibility to dependents) or the average duration of different states of family life [and the linkage of] demographic events with family dynamics, which answers questions such as how the changing fertility, mortality and nuptiality pattern could affect family size and structure."
Correspondence: NIDI, P.O. Box 11650, Lange Houtstraat 19, 2502 AR, The Hague, Netherlands. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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