Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

54:10137 Anderson, Keaven M.; Castelli, William P.; Levy, Daniel. Cholesterol and mortality: 30 years of follow-up from the Framingham study. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 257, No. 16, Apr 24, 1987. 2,176-80 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The relationship between cholesterol and mortality in the United States is examined using data from the Framingham Heart Study. These data concern 1,959 men and 2,415 women aged between 31 and 65 whose serum cholesterol levels were tested between 1951 and 1955 and followed up between 1981 and 1983. The results indicate that under age 50 a low cholesterol level is associated with longevity. "After age 50 years the association of mortality with cholesterol values is confounded by people whose cholesterol levels are falling--perhaps due to diseases predisposing to death."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10138 Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Effects of rural residence and low income factors on the mortality of total Japanese population by age and sex. Journal of Human Ergology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jun 1986. 47-56 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The effects of a wide variety of geographical and socioeconomic factors on age-specific mortality rates for males and females in 46 Japanese prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression analysis twice at a 5-year interval [between 1970 and 1975]. The results indicate that rural residence [adversely] affected the mortality of all male and female populations, except for boys of school age and middle-aged women; low income was another important factor for the mortality of the male population of working age. An international difference is suggested in the mortality effects of urbanisation between Japan and Western countries."
Correspondence: S. Araki, Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Medical College of Oita, Hazama-machi, Oita, 879-56 Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10139 Avalos Triana, Octavio. General methodological guidelines for the study of the different mortality components of a population. [Orientaciones metodologicas generales para el estudio de los distintos componentes de la mortalidad de la poblacion.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 13, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1987. 273-80 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Methodological aspects of the analysis of mortality using data from death registers are described. Consideration is also given to indirect methods of estimating mortality from inadequate data. Procedures to estimate infant, child, and adult mortality are mentioned, as well as procedures to calculate crude death rates and to evaluate the quality of available data sources.
Correspondence: O. Avalos Triana, Calle 12 No. 305, Miramar, Municipio Playa, Havana, Cuba. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10140 Bakker, M. L. The mortality situation in Papua New Guinea: levels, differentials, patterns and trends. 1980 National Population Census Research Monograph, No. 4, 1986. xvii, 305 pp. National Statistical Office: Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"This is the fourth in a series of monographs which present results derived from the data collected in the 1980 National Population Census [of Papua New Guinea]. The first three were concerned with urban boundary changes, urban spatial distribution, and internal migration; the present report focuses on mortality. Attention is given to mortality levels, differentials, patterns, and trends at the national and subnational levels and to the methodology used in the analysis. Abridged life tables by geographic sector and sex for 1980 are also included.
Correspondence: National Statistical Office, P.O. Wards Strip, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10141 Bayona Nunez, Alberto. Trends, determinants, and implications of mortality in Colombia. [Tendencias, determinantes e implicaciones de la mortalidad en Colombia.] Boletin Socioeconomico, No. 13, Jun 1985. 37-62 pp. Cali, Colombia. In Spa.
Trends and patterns of mortality in Colombia during the twentieth century are investigated. Mortality differentials are analyzed by sex, age, rural or urban area, department, and cause of death. The impact on mortality of various factors associated with modernization is examined, and effects on demographic, economic, and social behavior are considered.
Correspondence: A. Bayona Nunez, Departamento Economia, Universidad del Valle, Ciudad Universitaria, Melendez, Apdo. Aereo 2188, Apdo. Nacional 439, Cali, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

54:10142 Brzezinski, Zbigniew J. Mortality in Poland in relation to other European countries. [Umieralnosc w Polsce w porownaniu z innymi krajami europejskimi.] Przeglad Epidemiologiczny, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1986. 224-35 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality in Poland is analyzed in relation to trends in other European countries. The results indicate that not only is Poland's mortality higher than the mean European level, but the relative position of Poland in regard to the rest of Europe has worsened over the past 20 years, particularly for the population under age 65.
Correspondence: Z. J. Brzezinski, Instytut Matki i Dziecka, ul. Kasprzaka 17A, 01-211 Warsaw, Poland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10143 Caselli, Graziella; Vallin, Jacques; Vaupel, James W.; Yashin, Anatoli. Age-specific mortality trends in France and Italy since 1900: period and cohort effects. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 1, Nov 1987. 33-60 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
A comparative study of mortality patterns in France and Italy is presented. "Graphical presentation of the data since 1900 by age, period and birth cohort is used to explore in detail the differences in trends and to bring out, in particular, differences between the two countries in period and cohort effects. In addition to providing more details on well-known period effects--the secular decline in mortality in both countries (with Italy largely 'catching up' with France), and the immediate effects of the world wars--similarities and differences in cohort effects are also apparent. The two countries exhibit clear differences not only in terms of immediate casualties of the wars, but also in terms of the long-term impact of unfavourable wartime living conditions on the cohorts most affected."
Correspondence: G. Caselli, Dipartimento di Scienze Demografiche, Universita di Roma, Via Nomentana 41, 00161 Rome, Italy. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10144 Hardy, Anne. Diagnosis, death, and diet: the case of London, 1750-1909. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 18, No. 3, Winter 1988. 387-401 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The author questions the validity of recent research concerning the historical study of mortality trends in England. Specifically, she suggests that the available data concerning the relationship between diet and mortality in London between 1750 and 1909 are too faulty to permit the application of sophisticated statistical methods. A critique is presented of a study by Mary K. Matossian on this topic.
For the study by Matossian, published in 1985, see 51:40125.
Correspondence: A. Hardy, Research Fellow, Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington, London SW7 2AZ, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

54:10145 Imhof, Arthur E. Planning full-size life careers. Consequences of the increase in the length and certainty of our life spans over the last three hundred years. Ethnologia Europea, Vol. 17, 1987. 5-23 pp. [Berlin], Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Developments during the last three centuries in length of life are summarized, and consequences for social behavior are discussed. The focus is on developed countries, with particular attention to Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany.
Correspondence: A. E. Imhof, Department of History, Free University of Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-1000 Berlin West 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10146 Imhof, Arthur E. The extended life course. Reflections on a multidisciplinary European symposium in Berlin, 26-28 November 1986. Medical History, Vol. 31, 1987. 440-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reports on a conference held in 1986 in Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany, concerning the topic of extended life span. "The focus was on both the fundamental transitions witnessed in the life course in the last three to four centuries from an uncertain to a virtually secure lifespan, as well as on the effects this has had on our living together." Topics included the conditions related to increasing standardization of the human life span, the concentration of death at advanced ages, death from the point of view of the individual, and the relationship between the quality of life and quantity of years lived.
Correspondence: A. Imhof, Friedrich-Meinecke-Institute, Free University of Berlin, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-1000 Berlin (West) 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10147 Keiding, Niels. The method of expected number of deaths, 1786-1886-1986. International Statistical Review/Revue Internationale de Statistique, Vol. 55, No. 1, Apr 1987. 1-20 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The method of expected number of deaths is an integral part of standardization of vital rates, which is one of the oldest statistical techniques. The expected number of deaths was calculated in 18th century actuarial mathematics...but the method seems to have been forgotten, and was reinvented in connection with 19th century studies of geographical and occupational variations of mortality....It is noted that standardization of rates is intimately connected to the study of relative mortality, and a short description of very recent developments in the methodology of that area is included."
Correspondence: N. Keiding, Statistical Research Unit, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10148 Kunitz, Stephen J. Explanations and ideologies of mortality patterns. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, Sep 1987. 379-408, 568-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Over the past century, two ideas of disease causation have coexisted and sometimes competed: causal necessity, or the idea that specific diseases cannot occur in the absence of specific causes; and causal sufficiency, the idea that multiple causes can result in the same disease. With reference to, first, the evolution of epidemiology and public health in the United States since the mid-nineteenth century and second, the formulation of public health strategies for the developing countries from the 1940s to the 1980s, the article explores ways in which these notions of causality have been used to explain changes in mortality, to justify public policies, and to advance the claims of various groups of public health professionals. While the relative importance given to causal sufficiency and necessity reflects the state of knowledge about the most prevalent diseases in specific settings and about the disease process, it also reflects political ideologies and deeply held assumptions about the nature of society, the individual's responsibility for his own well-being, and moral responsibility."
Correspondence: S. J. Kunitz, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, Wilson Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14627. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10149 Kunitz, Stephen J. Mortality since Malthus. In: The state of population theory: forward from Malthus, edited by David Coleman and Roger Schofield. 1986. 279-302 pp. Basil Blackwell: New York, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from Europe and the Americas are used to examine mortality trends since the time of Malthus. The author suggests "that the course of mortality decline since the seventeenth century has been the result of differences in the ways nations have grown and their economies developed, or failed to develop. There seems to have been a more or less regular sequence in which the epidemic infectious diseases declined first, largely as a result of the emergence of relatively stable governments and the growth and integration of populations. By the late eighteenth century in North-western Europe and North America the epidemic diseases had largely receded, and the endemic diseases were beginning to recede as a result of a general increase in the standard of living. The recession of endemic diseases occurred more slowly in Eastern and Southern Europe and in Latin America, largely as a result of differences in the patterns of economic development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10150 Mao, Yang; Fortier, Louise; Wigle, Donald. Evolution of Quebec's mortality rates, by cause of death. [Evolution des taux de mortalite par cause au Quebec.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 16, No. 1, Apr 1987. 99-118 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"The evolution of mortality in Quebec over the past three decades is reviewed. Life expectancies and potential years of life lost from birth to age 75 are calculated. Also, interprovincial comparisons of mortality are included. Quebec's mortality experience, in comparison to the other provinces, is poor. Causes of death that are of particular concern are suicide and lung cancer. Mortality rates for cerebrovascular diseases, stomach cancer and kidney diseases have markedly declined, for males as well as females."
Correspondence: Y. Mao, Bureau d'Epidemiologie des Maladies Chroniques, Sante et Bien-etre Social Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10151 Menn, S. Mortality, excess mortality, fatalities, and the probability of survival. [Sterblichkeit, Ubersterblichkeit, Letalitat und Uberlebenswahrscheinlichkeit.] Lebensversicherungsmedizin, Vol. 39, No. 2, Mar 1, 1987. 45-7, 50 pp. Karlsruhe, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Concepts of particular concern in actuarial calculations of the mortality of dying from various causes are discussed. The emphasis is on concepts relevant to those whose prospects of survival are low. Some illustrations using data for the Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland are included.
Correspondence: S. Menn, Schweizer Ruckvers. Ges., Mythenquai 50/60, CH-8022, Zurich, Switzerland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10152 Palloni, Alberto. Assessing the levels and impact of mortality in crisis situations. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-38, [1987]. 48, [24] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the impact of mortality crises on population growth. "The aim of this paper is to study the nature of population crises, to describe the techniques for measuring their intensity, and to assess the potential role that they play as a check on population growth. In the second section, I present a model of the mechanisms leading to population crises....It will be used to formulate a typology of crises and to define the expected behavior of common demographic indicators. In the third section, I discuss the typical trajectory of demographic indicators immediately before, during and immediately after a crisis....In the fourth section, I present an assessment of alternative measures of the intensity of population crises....In the fifth section, I deal with the impact of population crises on prospective population growth and on selected aspects of the social structure. Here I contest the argument according to which the 'effectiveness' of crises as mechanisms of population control is only of minimum significance."
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10153 Qiao, Xiaochun. Age-specific mortality and life expectancy. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1985. 42-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author attempts to assess the degree of influence of infant mortality on average life expectancy and to develop a method to directly revise average life expectancy given a change in mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10154 Radovic, Ljubica. Mortality of the population of Montenegro, 1878-1978. [Smrtnost stanovnistva Crna Gora, 1878-1978.] 1984. 210 pp. Institut za Drustveno-Ekonomska Istrazivanja, Ekonomski Fakultet: Titograd, Yugoslavia; ISRO Obod Izdavacka Djelatnost: Cetinje, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
Mortality trends in the Yugoslav republic of Montenegro from 1878 to 1978 are examined. Topics covered include causes of death, differential mortality by socioeconomic group, rural-urban mortality differentials, infant mortality, the causes of persistently high mortality in certain areas, and life expectancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10155 Rychtarikova, Jitka. Mortality development in the Czech Socialist Republic by sex and age, 1950-1984. [Vyvoj umrtnosti v CSR podle pohlavi a veku v obdobi 1950-1984.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1987. 193-207 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Mortality trends in the Czech Socialist Republic in the period 1950-1984 are reviewed. Two distinct periods are identified. Up to the beginning of the 1960s, mortality declined significantly for all categories of age and sex. However, since the mid-1960s, the mortality of the older population has ceased to decline and in some cases has risen. For example, male mortality above age 40 has increased, although male mortality under age 40 and female mortality under age 50 have continued to decrease. The impact of these trends on the present mortality situation is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10156 Strnad, Ladislav. How some serious diseases affect the mean life span of the population of Czechoslovakia. [Vliyanie nekotorykh vazhnykh zabolevanii na srednyuyu prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni naseleniya ChSSR.] Sbornik Vedeckych Praci, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, 1985. 81-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Rus. with sum. in Eng; Cze.
The impact on life expectancy in Czechoslovakia of some major diseases is analyzed. The author notes that life expectancy was increasing until the year 1960 but that it has subsequently declined, particularly for men. The author concludes that the solution lies in improving preventive rather than curative medical care.
Correspondence: L. Strnad, Stredisko Vedeckych Informaci LFUK, Dlouha ul., 500 38 Hradec Kralove, Czechoslovakia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10157 Turpeinen, Oiva. Was hunger or disease the killer? The years of terror, 1866-1868. [Nalka vai tauti tappoi? Kauhunvuodet 1866-1868.] Historiallisia Tutkimuksia, No. 136, ISBN 951-9254-82-X. 1986. 307 pp. Societas Historica Finlandiae: Helsinki, Finland. In Fin. with sum. in Eng.
The causes of the exceptional rise in mortality that occurred in Finland in the late 1860s are investigated. The author notes that Finland remained a primarily rural society at the time and that medical treatment was based on traditional concepts of humoralist pathology. The primary question posed is whether famine or disease was the major killer. The author describes how both factors contributed to mortality and considers the role of famine-generated migration in contributing to the spread of disease.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10158 Vallin, Jacques. Theories concerning declining mortality and the situation in Africa. [Theorie(s) de la baisse de la mortalite et situation africaine.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 14, Jan 1988. 44 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author first reviews various theories concerning the causes of modern declines in mortality and summarizes the work of leading scholars in this area, including Preston, Johansson and Mosk, and Mosley. He then examines the situation concerning mortality in Africa and notes that progress concerning mortality has been considerably less than in the rest of the developing world. The study concludes with a review of the major factors affecting mortality and of the role of these factors in the African situation, including the malnutrition-infection linkage, maternal education, ethnic factors, and urbanization. The author concludes that major improvements in mortality are probably bound to the likelihood of changes in fertility.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10159 Viel, Benjamin; Campos, Waldo. The Chilean experience of infant and maternal mortality, 1940-1985. [La experiencia chilena de mortalidad infantil y materna, 1940-1985.] Perspectivas Internacionales en Planificacion Familiar, Special ed. 1987. 24-8 pp. New York, New York. In Spa.
Trends in infant and maternal mortality in Chile between 1940 and 1985 are analyzed, with a focus on the extent to which the incidence of induced abortion affects maternal mortality rates. The impact of family planning programs and increased contraceptive use on infant mortality, illegal abortion, and fertility is considered.
Correspondence: W. Campo, Asociacion Chilena de Proteccion de la Familia, Santiago de Chile, Chile. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

54:10160 Costa Rica. Ministerio de Salud. Unidad de Planificacion. Departamento de Estadistica (San Jose, Costa Rica). Perinatal mortality by canton of residence. [Mortalidad perinatal por cantones de residencia.] Apr 1986. [viii], 73 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
Data on births and on fetal and perinatal mortality in Costa Rica from 1971 to 1983 are analyzed. Both regional differences and differences over time are examined. The results indicate a decline in such mortality over time.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10161 Lie, Rolv T.; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Skjaerven, Rolv; Bergsjo, Per. Secular changes in early neonatal mortality in Norway, 1967-1981. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 6, 1987. 1,066-78 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Two five-year cohorts, 1967-1971 and 1977-1981, of the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, were utilized to analyze secular trends in early neonatal mortality rates, controlling simultaneously for birth weight, parity, maternal age, and sex." Reasons for the improvement in the crude early neonatal mortality rate from 6.5 to 2.9 per 1,000 observed are investigated.
Correspondence: R. T. Lie, Medical Birth Registry, University of Bergen, MFH Building, N-5016 Haukeland Sykehus, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10162 Macfarlane, Alison; Cole, Susan; Hey, Edmund. Comparisons of data from regional perinatal mortality surveys. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 93, No. 12, Dec 1986. 1,224-32 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the standard format in which National Health Service regions in the United Kingdom are invited to submit data from perinatal mortality surveys for comparative analysis. They describe how these data will be used to compare regional mortality differences. The extension of the analysis to cover stillbirths and neonatal deaths is considered.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10163 Singh, Meharban. Hospital-based data on perinatal and neonatal mortality in India. Indian Pediatrics, Vol. 23, No. 8, Aug 1986. 579-84 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author analyzes published data on perinatal mortality from some of the leading teaching hospitals in India. The need for improved standards in such hospitals in order to reduce perinatal mortality rates is emphasized.
Correspondence: M. Singh, Neonatal Section, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110 029, India. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

54:10164 Agyei, William K. A. Infant mortality levels, patterns, and differentials in Papua New Guinea. Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, Jun 1987. 77-96 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
"This paper presents new estimates of infant mortality levels, patterns, and differentials for Papua New Guinea through the application of direct and indirect techniques." The estimates are based on a survey of 3,986 females aged 15 to 49 conducted between November 1979 and March 1980, which addressed the issues of fertility, infant and child mortality, and contraception. Findings include a decline in infant mortality throughout the country during the past 15 years, a lower mortality rate for female infants, and rural-urban and regional differentials in infant mortality.
Correspondence: W. K. A. Agyei, U.N. Expert in Demography, Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10165 Akadli, Banu; Tuncbilek, Ergul. An evaluation on the relation between birth spacing and infant mortality in Turkey. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 9, 1987. 27-38 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The authors study the effects of birth spacing on infant mortality in Turkey, focusing on the effects of the previous birth interval on neonatal, post-neonatal, and infant death rates for subsequent births. Rural and urban differences in birth intervals and infant mortality are illustrated. For purposes of comparison, death rates by long or short intervals for selected other countries are presented. It is found that children born after a birth interval of less than two years are at twice the risk of dying as children born after an interval longer than two years. The study is based on data from the 1983 Turkish Fertility, Contraceptive Prevalence and Family Health Status Survey.
Correspondence: B. Akadli, Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10166 Akoto, Eliwo; Tabutin, Dominique. Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. [Inegalites socio-economiques en matiere de mortalite en Afrique au sud du Sahara.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 138, ISBN 2-87085-128-6. Sep 1987. 45 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
Differentials in infant and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa are examined according to selected socioeconomic variables. The data are from a variety of published sources, and multivariate analysis is used. Life expectancies at birth in the region and disparities in infant mortality rates among the regions' major cities are briefly reviewed. The authors then investigate differentials in infant mortality at the national level by ethnic group, religion, region, urban or rural residence, parents' educational status, parents' occupational status, and women's status as measured by employment. Ethnic group, region of residence, and education are shown to be the most significant determinants. Socioeconomic factors weigh more heavily in determining differentials in child mortality than in infant mortality.
Correspondence: Departement de Demographie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1 Place Montesquieu, Boite 17, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10167 Chaim Sheba Medical Center. Health Services Research Unit (Tel Hashomer, Israel); Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Mortality among infants of low birth weight in Israel, 1977-1980. Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, Vol. 38, No. 7, Suppl., Jul 1987. 49-94 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
Mortality among low-birth-weight infants in Israel in the period 1977-1980 is studied. The analysis, based on offical data, is performed separately for Jews and non-Jews. Factors considered include sex, maternal age, birth order, social class, and multiple births.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10168 Frank, Odile. A child health questionnaire for sub-Saharan Africa. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 132, Jun 1987. 119 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Much cultural diversity prevails in the range of human efforts to preserve health and life, and western medicine is a dominant current expression of these efforts. In populations that are medically underserviced, such as in Africa, nonmedical behavior is likely to be still quite important to health and survival. The questionnaire presented attempts to integrate measurement of morbidity and mortality and to take account--in addition to health service use--of a range of behaviors likely to mediate exposure to disease and the risk of death. The questionnaire is designed to focus on the conditions of health and survival of children under five in sub-Saharan Africa."
Correspondence: Population Council, Center for Policy Studies, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10169 Geronimus, Arline T.; Korenman, Sanders D. Comment on Pampel and Pillai's "Patterns and determinants of infant mortality in developed nations, 1950-1975". Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 155-61 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
The authors critically examine an article by Fred C. Pampel and Vijayan Pillai on the determinants of infant mortality in developed countries. A reply by Pampel and Pillai is included (pp. 159-61). The focus of the debate is on the extent to which teenage fertility raises infant mortality rates.
For the article by Pampel and Pillai, published in 1986, see 52:40187.
Correspondence: A. T. Geronimus, Department of Public Health Policy and Administration, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10170 Imhof, Arthur E. Historical and present day infant mortality: dialogues between the historian and the pediatrician and between developed countries and the third world. [La mortalite infantile historique et actuelle: dialogues entre l'historian et le pediatre, et entre pays developpes et tiers monde.] History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1986. 81-97 pp. Florence, Italy. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Drawing on data obtained by pediatricians, general physicians, ethnologists, sociologists and historians, the present day infant mortality rate in the Third World countries is compared with changes in infant mortality that have occurred throughout European history. The comparison between the historian and the pediatrician, on the one hand makes for a better evaluation of the historical data, and, on the other provides the pediatrician with notions from history that can contribute to decreasing infant mortality."
Correspondence: A. E. Imhof, Freie Universitat Berlin, FB Geschichtswissenschaften, Habelschwerdter Allee 45, D-1000 Berlin 33, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10171 Johnson, Jeanette H. U.S. differentials in infant mortality: why do they persist? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 227-32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Reasons for the continuing differentials in infant mortality in the United States are examined. The focus is on differences by race, but differences by income are also considered. The article consists of a review of the relevant literature.
Correspondence: J. H. Johnson, Family Planning Perspectives, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10172 Lentzner, Harold R. Seasonal patterns of infant and child mortality in New York, Chicago, and New Orleans: 1870-1919. Pub. Order No. DA8714077. 1987. 406 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This analysis investigates the nature of childhood gastrointestinal infection, its causes, and some possible reasons for the decline in its relative importance by examining mortality data from New York, Chicago, and New Orleans dating from the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The analysis focuses on monthly and seasonal mortality of infants, one year olds, and children ages 2-5....Monthly and seasonal mortality indices were created from ratios of actual to expected deaths for a 50-year period, from 1870-1919, for the three age groups in all three cities. Dummy variable regression analysis was employed to compute rates of change in the indices for several time periods. These results were then used in a detailed evaluation of important public health programs."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (48)3.

54:10173 Paim, Jairnilson S.; Costa, Maria da C. N.; Cabral, Vilma; Mota, Irani A.; Neves, Rozana B. B. Proportional infant mortality, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. [Mortalidade infantil proporcional, Salvador, Bahia, Brasil.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 103, No. 2, Aug 1987. 113-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"In 1980 a study was made of 11,521 death certificates, 3,146 of them for infants under one year of age, to trace the geographic distribution of proportionate infant mortality in Salvador municipality [Brazil] and examine its possible relationships with certain socioeconomic characteristics of the populations residing in the city's various neighborhoods that year. Because of the difficulties encountered in estimating the infant mortality rate by neighborhoods and lack of information on the numbers of live births in them, the proportionate mortality among infants under one year of age was used as a substitute indicator. The independent variables were income, availability of a water supply, type of dwelling, number of persons per household, medical and health care, and education, and the data for them were obtained from official sources. Proportionate infant mortality was found to vary considerably from one city neighborhood to another, and more significant correlations were found between indicators of socioeconomic variables (income, dwelling, number of persons per household, availability of a water supply) than between those of medical care and education."
Correspondence: J. S. Paim, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva, Rua Augusto Viana s/n, Canela, 40000 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10174 Paim, Jairnilson S.; Costa, Maria da C. N.; Cabral, Vilma; Mota, Irani A.; Neves, Rozana B. B. Spatial distribution of proportional infant mortality and certain socioeconomic variables in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 21, No. 3, 1987. 225-39 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in infant mortality in Salvador, capital of Bahia state, Brazil, are analyzed using data from official health sources for 1980. The focus is on differences among the various sections of the city. It is found that the major factors associated with high rates of infant mortality are the presence of low-income families, level of water consumption, poor housing, and crowding. No significant relationship was noted between high infant mortality and number of doctors, maternity beds, or education.
Correspondence: J. S. Paim, Department of Preventive Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, Rua Augusto Viana s/n, Canela, 40000 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10175 Piasecki, Edmund. Optimum timing of procreation and natural or controlled fertility. [Optymalny rytm rozrodu a plodnosc naturalna i regulowana.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 2/88, 1987. 63-77 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An analysis of the birth weight of infants born in Poland in 1979 by age of mother and birth order suggests that birth intervals are of critical importance in the development of the fetus. The optimal interval between births, which is associated with the highest average birth weight, is 3.3 years. The author proceeds to analyze historical data from the parish registers of Bejsce for the period 1746-1880 and establishes that the lowest infant mortality occurred among children born at intervals of three to four years. Although maternal age was not directly associated with infant mortality, it did affect child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10176 Piekkala, P.; Kero, P.; Tenuvuo, A.; Sillanpaa, M.; Erkkola, R. Infant mortality in a region of Finland, 1968-1982. European Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 145, No. 6, Dec 1986. 467-70 pp. Heidelberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The authors analyze trends in infant mortality in a region of Finland with a population of about 450,000 for the period 1968-1982. "Total infant mortality declined from 15.8 per 1,000 live births in 1968 to 5.0 in 1982. The lowering of the neonatal mortality accounted for the decline as post-neonatal mortality remained at the same level throughout the study period. Despite a decrease of nearly 80%, perinatal disorders remained the leading category of primary causes of death....The reasonably high standard of living, good educational level of mothers, well organized primary maternal and child health services and the rapid advances in obstetric and neonatal care equally available and regionalized, have contributed to the favourable progress in infant mortality in Finland."
Correspondence: P. Piekkala, Department of Public Health, Pediatrics and Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Turku, Lemminkaisenkatu 1, SF-20520, Turku, Finland. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10177 Puffer, Ruth R. Mortality in infancy and childhood in India: a report to the USAID, New Delhi. Oct 1985. 35 pp. Aruna Printing Press: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Infant and child mortality in India are reviewed. The author notes that "progress has been made in several fields and recommendations in 1984 supported immunization programs for all six diseases, tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, tetanus, measles and poliomyelitis. Oral rehydration packets are being provided. Nutrition supplements are given in the program of the Integrated Child Development services and health services are being extended." The major problem outstanding is identified as "mortality in the early neonatal period and improvement of the chances of infants for survival and healthy growth and development."
Correspondence: Aruna Printing Press, B-78, Naraina Ind. Area, Phase II, New Delhi 110-028, India. Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

54:10178 Rip, Michael R.; Keen, Cecil S.; Woods, David L. Intra-urban variations of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality in a developing city. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 8, 1987. 889-94 pp. Elmsford, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The results of a 1982 survey undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate spatial variations in neonatal and postneonatal mortality within an urban area are presented. "The results from this study clearly support the assumption of an inverse relationship between socio-economic status and infant death rates, particularly for the most socially deprived areas where the post-neonatal mortality rates were four to five times higher than compared with higher socio-economic suburbs."
Correspondence: M. R. Rip, Department of Community Health, Medical School, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory Drive 7925, Cape Town, South Africa. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10179 Sathar, Zeba A. Seeking explanations for high levels of infant mortality in Pakistan. Pakistan Development Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1987. 55-70 pp. Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"Here we seek explanations for the relatively high levels of infant mortality in Pakistan compared with those in other countries having middle-level per capita incomes. Data are mainly drawn from the birth histories of 9,810 ever-married women interviewed in the Population Labour Force and Migration Survey of 1979. The empirical evidence points to childbearing and childrearing practices, such as spacing, to be more important determinants of mortality than economic factors. Availability of health care is also an important determinant of mortality but parents' propensity to avail themselves of it may be more critical to child survival."
Correspondence: Z. A. Sathar, Senior Research Demographer, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10180 Suwarno, Bambang. Child mortality experience patterns among families in West Java. [Pola pengalaman kematian anak pada keluarga-keluarga di daerah Jawa Barat.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 14, No. 27, Jun 1987. i, 1-25 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Infant and child mortality in West Java, Indonesia, is examined using data from a 1982 sample survey of over 3,500 women. The results indicate an infant mortality rate of 188 per 1,000 with substantial variations among different regions. Comparisons are made with data from Latin America.
Correspondence: B. Suwarno, Pusat Komputer IKIP, Bandung, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10181 Ulusoy, Mahir; Tuncbilek, Ergul. Consanguineous marriage in Turkey and its effects on infant mortality. [Turkiye'de akraba evlilikleri ve cocuk olumlerine etkisi.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 9, 1987. 7-26 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the effects of consanguineous marriage on infant mortality in Turkey. An attempt is made to distinguish the influence of consanguineous marriage from that of selected regional and socioeconomic factors. It is found that "the differences of the average infant mortality rates between consanguineous and non-consanguineous marriages are parallel to the development differences between the regions as well as the conditions of the house which are thought to signify the socioeconomic differences. Although the differences in averages are insignificant statistically, this trend [indicates] that consanguineous marriages [affect] infant mortality." Data are from the 1983 Turkish Fertility, Contraceptive Prevalence and Family Health Status Survey.
Correspondence: M. Ulusoy, Nufus Etutleri Enstitusu Ogretim Gorevlisi, Hacettepe Universitesi, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10182 Waldron, Ingrid. Patterns and causes of excess female mortality among children in developing countries. [Profils et causes de la surmortalite feminine chez les enfants dans les pays en developpement.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1987. 194-210 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
"This article reviews the major hypotheses concerning the causes of higher female mortality in childhood and tests these hypotheses by analysing the contrasting characteristics of the situations in which girls or boys have higher mortality." Patterns of sex differences in mortality in developing countries are first described for infants under 1 year of age, children aged 1-4, and children aged 5-14. "Cause-of-death data are analysed to determine whether sex differences for specific causes of death vary in different situations and whether variation in the relative importance of specific causes of death contributes to variation in sex differences in total mortality. Finally, to evaluate the importance of sex discrimination as a cause of excess female mortality, evidence is analysed concerning the relationship between sex discrimination and sex differences in mortality."
Correspondence: I. Waldron, Associate Professor of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadephia, PA 19104. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10183 Zhou, Xizhang. A problem in measuring infant mortality. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1985. 46-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author examines the accuracy of methods used to measure infant mortality and analyzes the problem in estimating the infant mortality rate. Survey data for number of deaths in 1981 in the Haidian District of Beijing are used to support the author's method of measurement.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

54:10184 Thatcher, A. R. Mortality at the highest ages. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 114, Pt. 2, No. 457, Sep 1987. 327-38 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of mortality among the very old in England and Wales is presented. Consideration is given to life tables for the very old, the available sources of data, differentials in mortality by sex, and the maximum span of human life. The author concludes that mortality rates at old ages still look remarkably like Gompertz curves.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

54:10185 Bahamas. Department of Statistics (Nassau, Bahamas). Life table report, 1979-1981. Jun 1987. ii, 19 pp. Nassau, Bahamas. In Eng.
These life tables, which are presented separately by sex, are the second of this kind to be prepared for the Bahamas. They concern the period 1979-1981 and are based on data from the 1980 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10186 Dopico, Fausto. Regional mortality tables for Spain in the 1860s. Historical Methods, Vol. 20, No. 4, Fall 1987. 173-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Mortality trends by region for Spain in the nineteenth century are examined. The data are from those collected during the 1860s by the Instituto Geografico y Estadistico, and the Coale-Demeny model life tables are used. Findings concerning regional trends in infant mortality, male and female mortality, life expectancy at birth and at age 11, and survivors by age and region are provided in tabular form.
Correspondence: F. Dopico, Department of History and Economic Institutions, University of Santiago de Compostela, Plaza del Obradoiro, Palacio de San Geronimo s/n, Santiago de Compostela, Spain. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10187 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables 1985. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamislukuja 1985/Dodlighets- och livslangdstal 1985.] Tilastotiedotus/Statistisk Rapport, No. VA 1987:2, 1987. 14 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
This publication contains official life tables for Finland for 1985. The data show that the death rate increased for the first time since the 1970s; life expectancy fell slightly, to 70.1 years for males and 78.5 years for females. Data are included on infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10188 Hakkert, Ralph. Life table transformations and inequality measures: some noteworthy formal relationships. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 615-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The conventional entropy expresses how proportional age-specific mortality changes affect the life expectancy. It may also be interpreted as an inequality measure of ages at death in the stationary population. Other transformations, describing other age patterns of mortality change, yield alternative generalized entropies. Most are also inequality measures, Theil's index is the generalized entropy of the exponential accelerated failure time model, whereas Brass's logit transformation is associated with the Gini index. Where relative mortality gradients diminish with age, Brass's logit transformation more accurately describes mortality change than proportional hazards and the Gini index forms the most appropriate entropy concept."
Correspondence: R. Hakkert, Center for Regional Development and Planning, Federal University of Minas Gerais, 30170 Belo Horizonte MG, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10189 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 3. Geographical mortality differentials in Hungary, 1984 (complete and abridged life tables). 1987. 90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is the second in the series of annual publications presenting life tables for Hungary by sex. Abridged life tables are included for towns, villages, Budapest, and counties. The data concern 1984.
For the first report in this series, presenting data for 1983, see 53:30176.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10190 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 3. Geographical mortality differentials in Hungary, 1985 (complete and abridged life tables). 1987. 90 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is the third in a series of annual publications presenting life tables for Hungary by sex. Abridged life tables are included for towns, villages, Budapest, and counties. The data concern 1985.
For a report for 1984, also published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10191 Podhipak, Amornrath. Validation and application of U.N. model life tables against Thailand data, 1973-1983. Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 9, 1987. 39-54 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The author applies models of age and sex mortality, developed by the United Nations in 1982 for developing countries, to data for Thailand for the years 1973-1983. Following a discussion of the development of the four mortality patterns and their models, the author traces changes in Thailand's mortality trends using the U.N. model life tables. "This study reveals the change of mortality patterns in Thailand, moving from [the] Latin American to [the] Far Eastern pattern....The proportional mortality ratio of population over 60 years of age has gradually increased from 28.7% in 1973 to 42.0% in 1983 and the sex ratio of mortality in this group [has] also slightly increased during this decade."
Correspondence: A. Podhipak, Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Hacettepe Parki, Ankara, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10192 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1984. Volume 2, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1104. Mar 1987. 15 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Current life tables for the United States for 1984 are presented in this annual publication. In addition to abridged life tables by age and sex, data are included on number of survivors and expectation of life at single years of age by race and sex. Comparative data from 1900 to 1984 are provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10193 United States. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] (Hyattsville, Maryland). Vital statistics of the United States, 1985. Volume 2, Section 6. Life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 88-1104. Jan 1988. 13 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Current life tables for the United States for 1985 are presented. Data are included on abridged life tables by race and sex, number of survivors at single years of age by race and sex, and life expectancy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

54:10194 Akslen, Lars A.; Rotevatn, Svein; Bjelke, Erik. Differences in mortality among Norwegian men. The role of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and selected dietary habits. [Dodelighetsforskjeller blant norske menn. Betydning av royking, alkoholbruk, fysisk aktivitet og visse kostvaner.] Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening/Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association, Vol. 106, No. 28, Oct 10, 1986. 2,301-4, 2,353 pp. Oslo, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Differential mortality among 10,187 Norwegian men aged 35-74 over the period 1967-1978 is analyzed. Data are from postal surveys carried out in 1964 and 1967. The focus is on the impact on mortality of cigarette smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. The results indicate that a 40-year old man with good habits in these areas has a 56 percent probability of attaining age 80, compared to a 20 percent for a man with bad habits.
Correspondence: L. A. Akslen, Seksjon for Epidemiologi og Forebyggende Medisin, Universitetet i Bergen, 5016 Haukeland Sykehus, Norway. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10195 Farmer, Frank L. The ecology of poverty and mortality: impacts throughout the life range. Pub. Order No. DA8714815. 1987. 213 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study, which is based on information obtained from 2,303 U.S. counties around 1980, analyzes the effects of poverty on the mortality rates of various age groups. Factors such as female-headed households, race, rural residence, and educational status are considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Pennsylvania State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(4).

54:10196 Giersdorf, Peter; Lorenz, Rudolf. Regional differences in mortality in East Germany in the period 1980-1983. [Zu regionalen Unterschieden der Mortalitat in der DDR im Zeitraum 1980/1983.] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung, Vol. 80, No. 22, 1986. 947-50 pp. Jena, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Regional mortality figures for people aged 0 to 75 in the German Democratic Republic who died between 1980 and 1983 are compared. Age- and sex-specific differentials among the regions are noted, and attention is drawn to mortality figures for industrial centers, especially Dresden. The authors discuss the importance of standardized regional mortality rates for the analysis of early death and the need for accurate death certificate information for the analysis of regional mortality statistics.
Correspondence: P. Giersdorf, Institut fur Medizinische Statistik und Datenverarbeitung, Noldnerstrasse 34/36, Berlin 1134, German Democratic Republic. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10197 Hu, Yow-Hwey. Patterns of mortality differentials by marital status in low mortality countries. Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, Jun 1987. 97-128 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This study examined mortality differentials by marital status in 11 low-mortality countries [for the period 1950-1980]. The results show that, in general, unmarried populations have a higher mortality rate than that of married populations. A more detailed analysis indicates that each country has its distinctive marital mortality features which are associated with cultural regions (East and West) but are not related to developmental factors. When marital mortality patterns of the East and West are compared, it demonstrates that mortality rates of never-married Asian women are strikingly higher than that of their Western counterparts. This phenomenon has persisted during the last two decades. Two possible cultural interpretations are suggested: differential family support theses versus differential marital selection."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10198 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Mortality differentials by causes of death and by the population size of settlements (standardized mortality ratios) 1980-1985, XIV. 1987. 169 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications resulting from a project concerning the analysis of recent mortality trends in Hungary, including the reasons for mortality differentials. This volume provides data on mortality differentials by cause of death and size of settlement for the period 1980-1985. The data are presented separately by selected age group and sex.
For related publications, also published in 1987, see 53:20188, 20189, and 20190.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10199 Liaw, Kao-Lee; Hayes, Michael V.; McAuley, Ronald G. Analysis of local mortality variation: a Canadian case study. Journal of Population Studies, No. 10, Jun 1987. 55-76 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng. with sum. in Chi.
"This paper deals with the problems of measuring and explaining local mortality variation, based on a case study of the Hamilton region in the Province of Ontario, Canada." The data are from death registrations for males aged 55-64 for the 96 census tracts in the region for the years 1980-1982. "To explain local mortality variation by socioeconomic variables, we use the logit model and the maximum quasi-likelihood estimation method. We find that local mortality variation is substantial in our study area [and] that median family income can explain nearly half of the mortality variation among the census tracts...."
Correspondence: K.-L. Liaw, Professor of Geography, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10200 Mahadevan, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Reddy, P. R.; Reddy, P. J.; Gowri, V.; Sivaraju, S. Socio-demographic correlates of infant and childhood mortality. Rural Demography, Vol. 12, No. 1-2, 1985. 21-40 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The socioeconomic and demographic determinants of mortality in Andhra Pradesh, India, are analyzed using data on some 3,000 households from the three major cultural groups, Caste Hindus, Harijans, and Muslims. The focus of the study is on differences in infant and childhood mortality. The authors note differences in socioeconomic status among the three groups and consider the cultural, religious, and socioeconomic factors affecting mortality differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10201 Mare, Robert D. Socioeconomic careers and differential mortality among older men in the United States. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-30, Aug 1986. 33, [7] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The goals of this paper are: (1) to describe socioeconomic mortality differences among adult males in the United States; (2) to examine the effects of socioeconomic differentiation early in life on the timing of mortality in later adulthood; (3) to obtain estimates of socioeconomic effects that are relatively free from biases due to health-related selection into socioeconomic positions; (4) to illustrate a strategy for estimating the effects of several dimensions of socioeconomic statuses at multiple periods of life; (5) to show the value to mortality analysis of longitudinal data that are gathered for other purposes; and (6) to illustrate modern methods of survival analysis in the study of social differences in the timing of death." The data used in this paper are from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience of Mature Men, a panel study of men aged 45-59 in 1966.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10202 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Women's longevity advantage declines. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 69, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988. 18-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Official data are used to examine trends in mortality differentials by sex in the United States. A decline in the gap between female and male life expectancy is noted. Comparisons are made by sex for the leading causes of death in 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10203 Petrovic, Ruza. Types of mortality according to sex: Yugoslavia, 1953-1981. [Tipovi mortaliteta prema polu: Jugoslavija 1953-1981.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 24, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1986. 11-27 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality differentials by sex in Yugoslavia for the period 1953-1981 are examined. Four patterns of regional mortality differentials are identified, ranging from the traditional pattern of excess female mortality due primarily to reproduction-related causes to the modern pattern of excess male mortality.
Correspondence: R. Petrovic, Filozofski Fakultet, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade 6, Studenski trg 1, Yugoslavia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10204 Rundquist, Franz-Michael. Regional mortality differentials in Tanzania, 1978. [Regionala mortalitetsvariationer i Tanzania 1978.] Svensk Geografisk Arsbok, Vol. 61, 1985. 180-202 pp. Lund, Sweden. In Swe. with sum. in Eng.
Regional variations in life expectancy in Tanzania are analyzed using 1978 census data. Multiple regression analysis is used to identify the critical underlying variables affecting mortality and to assess their relative importance.
Location: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

54:10205 Valkonen, Tapani. Male mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland: relation to region of birth and region of residence. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 3, No. 1, Nov 1987. 61-83 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of the study is to shed light on the causes of the large difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) between East and West Finland. The study is based on the death certificate records on deaths from IHD in 1971-1975 among Finnish men aged 35-64. These records were linked with the records on persons in the 1970 census. Mortality from IHD is analyzed simultaneously by region of birth and region of residence, controlling for several socio-economic and demographic variables, by means of log-linear models. The analysis shows that being born in East Finland and living there both increase the risk of IHD, but that being born in East Finland is a more important risk factor than is living there."
Correspondence: T. Valkonen, Department of Sociology, University of Helsinki, Franzeninkatu 13, 00500 Helsinki, Finland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10206 Wing, Steve; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Casper, Michele; Riggan, Wilson; Hayes, Carl G.; Tyroler, H. A. Changing association between community occupational structure and ischaemic heart disease mortality in the United States. Lancet, No. 8567, Nov 7, 1987. 1,067-70 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"The changing association between community occupational structure and ischaemic heart disease mortality in white men and women of the United States from 1968 to 1982 [is] investigated....A negative association, with lower mortality in communities with higher levels of white-collar employment, emerged over the period in both men and women." Data are from those assembled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Health Effects Research Laboratory and other official sources. Comparisons are made with studies on the relationship between heart disease mortality and social class in the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: S. Wing, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:10207 Young, Christabel M. Migration and mortality: the experience of birthplace groups in Australia. International Migration Review, Vol. 21, No. 3, Fall 1987. 531-54 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Wide diversity exists in the mortality experience of different birthplace groups in Australia, and this also occurs with respect to their cause of death profiles. Most migrant groups experience lower mortality in Australia than in their country of origin, and most experience lower mortality than the Australian-born population. In the latter case the main [groups] are the Scots, Irish, Poles, South Pacific Islanders, Scandinavian men and North American women. Exceptionally high levels of survival occur among Greeks and Italians in Australia. The lower risk of mortality from heart disease is a principal reason for the deficit between observed and expected deaths of most migrant groups in Australia." The analysis is based on deaths of those aged 15-74 by birthplace, as recorded by the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the years 1980, 1981, and 1982.
Correspondence: C. M. Young, Australian National University, P.O.B. 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

54:10208 Aaby, Peter. Overpopulation, a factor affecting mortality from measles in Africa. [Le surpeuplement, un facteur determinant de la mortalite par rougeole en Afrique.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 15, Jan 1988. 53 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author challenges the hypothesis that mortality from measles in Africa is high because of malnutrition. Using data from studies undertaken in Guinea-Bissau, he suggests that measles mortality is linked instead to the intensity of exposure to risk. He concludes that for measles, as for certain other diseases, mortality is linked to overpopulation, and that a variety of social and cultural practices in Africa put children at greater risk of dying from certain diseases such as measles.
Correspondence: INED, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10209 Abel, Ulrich; Becker, Nikolaus. Geographical clusters and common patterns in cancer mortality of the Federal Republic of Germany. Archives of Environmental Health, Vol. 42, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 51-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper quantitatively analyzes the maps of the Cancer Atlas of the Federal Republic of Germany with respect to regional clustering in the patterns of rates and relations between the patterns for different localizations. Indices of clustering and association are introduced and compared with those values resulting from computer simulations assuming random distributions. For most localizations, the clusterings could not be considered random, even though they were more or less marked, a finding which, in some cases, is neither evident nor generally known. The clusterings and correlations found offer a wealth of material for generating etiological hypotheses."
Correspondence: U. Abel, Institute of Documentation, Information, and Statistics, German Cancer Research Center, IM Neuenheimer Feld 280, 6900 Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10210 Alderson, Michael. Trends in morbidity and mortality from asthma. Population Trends, No. 49, Autumn 1987. 18-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"During the last twenty five years there have been changes in the pattern of morbidity and mortality from asthma. This article reviews some of the literature relevant to the consideration of these trends, and data are presented on consultations with general practitioners, hospital discharges, and mortality from asthma in England and Wales."
Correspondence: M. Alderson, Medical Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, London, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10211 Aoki, Nobuo; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Horibe, Hiroshi. Projection of mortality from cerebrovascular disease, 1985 through 2000 A.D., in Japan. Japanese Circulation Journal, Vol. 51, No. 2, Feb 1987. 138-43 pp. Kyoto, Japan. In Eng.
"Trends of mortality from cerebrovascular disease [in Japan] from 1985 to 2000 were projected by a semi-logarithmic linear regression analysis based on the deaths and population by sex and age from 1973 to 1982. Crude death rates from cerebrovascular disease and cerebral hemorrhage in particular will continue to decrease but the change in death rate from cerebral infarction will remain relatively small. In the period from 1985 to 2000, the death rate from cerebral hemorrhage will decline sharply, and the death rate from cerebral infarction also is expected to decline steadily in every age group."
Correspondence: N. Aoki, Division of Basic Nutrition, National Institute of Nutrition, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:10212 Boes, E. G. M. Maternal mortality in southern Africa, 1980-1982: part I, pregnancy can be lethal. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 71, No. 3, Feb 7, 1987. 158-60 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"Statistics regarding the number of births and maternal deaths during the 3-year period 1980-1982, received from 267 hospitals in southern Africa, are presented." The data concern 737 deaths occurring mainly in South Africa. The maternal mortality rate was 8.3 per 10,000, 89.6 percent of which were direct obstetric deaths. "Avoidable factors could be shown to operate in 407 deaths. Important factors identified were that the patient presented very late for antenatal or intrapartum care, that inadequate therapy was administered and that therapy deviated from the accepted norm."
Correspondence: E. G. M. Boes, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10213 Boes, E. G. M. Maternal mortality in southern Africa, 1980-1982: part II, causes of maternal deaths. South African Medical Journal/Suid Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 71, No. 3, Feb 7, 1987. 160-1 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"Of 737 maternal deaths studied in southern Africa between January 1980 and December 1982, 660 were classified as direct obstetric deaths. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy were the most frequent cause of death (30%). Obstetric haemorrhage and infection were associated with 20% and 19% of maternal deaths respectively. Advancing age and increased parity were strongly associated with death from obstetric haemorrhage."
Correspondence: E. G. M. Boes, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Southern Africa, Pretoria, South Africa. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10214 Bonneuil, Noel. The estimation of case fatality rates in the absence of morbidity data. The case of measles in Senegal. [Construction de taux de letalite en l'absence de donnees de morbidite. Cas de la rougeole au Senegal.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1987. 746-54 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author presents a method for estimating the case fatality rate by age for a specific disease (in this case, measles), when the number of deaths from this cause is known, but the number of cases is unknown. The data are for the period 1975-1986 for Senegal.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10215 Damiani, Paul; Masse, Helene. Law of mortality by cause of death. [Loi de mortalite par cause.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 128, No. 3, 1987. 163-70 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors attempt to derive a law of mortality by cause, which will give probability of death by sex and age for a given cause of death. The concept of proper as distinct from observed time is central to the method outlined, as is a general law of mortality previously developed by Damiani. The data used are annual mortality rates by cause for France for the years 1966-1970.
For the article by Paul Damiani, published in 1985, see 51:40112.
Correspondence: P. Damiani, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, 18 Bouvelard Adolphe-Pinard, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10216 Doll, Richard. Major epidemics of the 20th century: from coronary thrombosis to AIDS. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: General, Vol. 150, No. 4, 1987. 373-95 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author reviews the major epidemics that have occurred over the past century in the United Kingdom. He notes that this period has experienced a dramatic overall decline in mortality due to a combination of changes in society, medical knowledge, and biological organisms. The new hazards that have caused major epidemics are described, including changes in personal behavior made possible by increasing affluence, changes due to industrial pollution, and changes in biological organisms. Epidemics considered include lung cancer, coronary thrombosis, influenza, and AIDS. The review is based primarily on official vital statistics of the United Kingdom.
Correspondence: R. Doll, ICRF Cancer Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit, Gibson Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6HE, England. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10217 Hanai, Aya. Estimation of the number of cancer survivors according to site in Japan. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research (Gann), Vol. 78, No. 6, Jun 1987. 537-46 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The numbers of cancer survivors by site in Japan are estimated for the period 1960-1984 using data from the Osaka Cancer Registry. The number of cancer incidents recorded was 4,776,100, and the number of survivors by the end of the 25-year period was 1,009,100. Among males, there were more survivors of stomach cancer (45 percent), followed by cancer of the rectum (7 percent) and colon (6 percent); among females, survivorship was highest among those with cancer of the uterus (26 percent), breast (22 percent), and stomach (18 percent).
Correspondence: A. Hanai, Department of Field Research, Center for Adult Diseases, 3-3, Nakamichi-1, Higashinari-Ku, Osaka 537, Japan. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10218 Hogberg, Ulf; Iregren, Elisabeth; Siven, Claes-Henrik; Diener, Lennart. Maternal deaths in medieval Sweden: an osteological and life table analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, Oct 1987. 495-503 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a medieval population of Stockholm only three cases of maternal death were proved out of 330 burials of adult females, and only in one of the cases was a contracted pelvis found. However, life table analysis indicates a shorter life expectancy of females in the reproductive ages. This suggests a higher maternal mortality in the Middle Ages than in the 18th and 19th centuries in Sweden."
Correspondence: U. Hogberg, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital of Umea, Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10219 Holinger, Paul C.; Offer, Daniel; Ostrov, Eric. Suicide and homicide in the United States: an epidemiologic study of violent death, population changes, and the potential for prediction. American Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 144, No. 2, Feb 1987. 215-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The authors found significant positive correlations between the suicide and homicide rates for 15-24-year-olds and the proportion of 15-24-year-olds in the U.S. population from 1933 to 1982. Significant negative correlations were found for most adult age groups (35-64 years). Since future numbers of adolescents and adults can be estimated on the basis of current population data for children and preadolescents, the epidemiologic patterns for suicide and homicide may be predictable for certain age groups. However, methodologic problems are inherent in using national mortality and population data, and many years are necessary to evaluate such epidemiologic propositions."
Correspondence: P. C. Holinger, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10220 Hoogendoorn, D. Maternal mortality in the Netherlands and in various other European countries. [Moedersterfte in Nederland en in enkele andere Westeuropese landen.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 131, No. 25, Jun 20, 1987. 1,084-7 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in maternal mortality in the Netherlands are reviewed. The results indicate a substantial decrease between 1966 and 1985, down to 4.5 deaths per 100,000 live births. Maternal mortality is considerably higher among older mothers. Comparisons are made with other Western European countries.
Correspondence: D. Hoogendoorn, Prins Bernhardlaan 11, 8131 DE Wijhe (Ov.), Netherlands. Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

54:10221 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric; Woodbury, Max A.; Riggan, Wilson B.; Creason, John P.; Mason, Thomas J. Statistically adjusted estimates of geographic mortality profiles. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 78, No. 5, May 1987. 805-15 pp. Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"The spatial variation of site-specific cancer mortality rates at the county or state economic area level can provide a) insights into possible etiologic factors and b) the basis for more detailed epidemiologic studies. One difficulty with such studies, especially for rare cancer types, is that unstable local area rate estimates, resulting from small population sizes, can obscure the underlying spatial pattern of disease risk. This paper presents a methodology for producing more stable rate estimates by statistically weighting the local area rate estimate toward the experience at the national level. The methodology is illustrated by the analysis of the spatial variation of two cancer types, bladder and lung, for U.S. white males over the three decades 1950-1979."
Correspondence: K. G. Manton, Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University, 2117 Campus Drive, Durham, NC 27706. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10222 Pickle, Linda W.; Mason, Thomas J.; Howard, Neil; Hoover, Robert; Fraumeni, Joseph F. Atlas of U.S. cancer mortality among whites: 1950-1980. Pub. Order No. DHHS (NIH) 87-2900. [1987]. iv, 184 pp. U.S. National Institutes of Health [NIH]: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
"This volume presents static maps of SEA [state economic areas] mortality rates for each decade from 1950 to 1980 among white males and females for 33 cancer sites along with dynamic maps illustrating the trends in these rates [in the United States] over time. Although the geographic distribution of mortality rates has become more uniform for most cancer sites, clusters of high-rate areas have persisted for several common tumors. However, some new patterns have appeared, notably the emergence of several high-rate areas for lung cancer among women. Possible explanations for the geographic peculiarities of cancer are considered, based on the results of correlation and analytic studies prompted by the earlier maps."
For a previous report, published in 1975, see 41:4286.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10223 Pison, G. Why does measles kill in Africa? Demography, family structure, and mortality from measles. [Pourquoi la rougeole tue-t-elle en Afrique? Demographie, structure des familles et letalite de la rougeole.] In: Colloque National du C.N.R.S. Actes du Colloque. Biologie des Populations. Lyon, 4-6 septembre 1986. 1986. 73-9 pp. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"Measles mortality is high in the less developed countries, in African ones in particular. Measles deaths have been associated with malnutrition. However, recent observations from West Africa show no or little correlation between state of nutrition and risks of measles death, but [do show the importance] of crowding. The case-fatality rate is high in families with multiple measles cases, because of severe measles for children infected at home by sick [siblings]. For them the severity of the disease might result from intense exposure to virus and high dose of infection. The relations between size and structure of family, frequency of multiple cases and measles case fatality rate are illustrated by results from a demographic study in a rural area of Senegal." Data are from a 1983 study of 6,906 people from 40 villages in Bandafassi.
Correspondence: G. Pison, Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10224 Plesko, Ivan; Dimitrova, Elena; Kramarova, Eva. Epidemiologic aspects of the incidence of malignant tumors in Slovakia. The position and structure of mortality statistics in malignant tumors. [Epidemiologicke pohlady na vyskyt zhubnych nadorov v SSR. Postavenie a struktura umrtnosti na zhubne nadory.] Bratislavske Lekarske Listy, Vol. 87, No. 1, Jan 1987. 62-75 pp. Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. In Slo. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Rus.
Trends in cancer mortality in the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia since 1950 are analyzed. The results indicate that mortality from this cause has remained relatively stable at about 20 percent of total mortality over the past 20 years. This positive trend is attributed to changes in cancer mortality as well as to improved medical treatment. Comparisons are made with the situation in other European countries.
Correspondence: I. Plesko, Ustav Experimentalnej Onkologie SAV, ul. Cs Armady 21, 81232 Bratislava, Czechoslovakia. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

54:10225 Ragland, Kathleen E.; Selvin, Steve; Merrill, Deane W. The onset of decline in ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 127, No. 3, Mar 1988. 516-31 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Temporal and spatial patterns of the onset of the decline in ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States for each of the 48 contiguous U.S. states and the District of Columbia are examined for the years 1955-1978 for age-sex-race-specific mortality....A quadratic regression equation is used to estimate the date of highest rate, which marks the beginning of the decline for each of the U.S. states. The temporal distribution of the onset of the decline among men occurred primarily between 1960 and 1965. Among women, the onset of decline was more variable." Data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. The existence of strong and regular spatial patterns suggests an underlying phenomenon accounting for the diffusion of the onset of the decline in ischemic heart disease mortality.
Correspondence: K. E. Ragland, Department of Biomedical and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720. Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

54:10226 Royston, Erica; Lopez, Alan D. On the assessment of maternal mortality. [De l'evaluation de la mortalite maternelle.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 40, No. 3, 1987. 214-24 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
Current global trends in maternal mortality are reviewed. Consideration is first given to questions concerning the measurement of maternal mortality and to the availability of data. The authors note that although 99 percent of maternal deaths occur in developing countries, there are considerable differences by region and country. The need to reduce high rates of fertility in conjunction with high rates of maternal mortality is noted.
Correspondence: E. Royston, Technical Officer, Division of Family Health, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10227 Starrs, Ann. Preventing the tragedy of maternal deaths. A report on the International Safe Motherhood Conference, Nairobi, Kenya, February 1987. [1987]. 56 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C.; World Health Organization [WHO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a report from the Safe Motherhood Conference, held in Nairobi, Kenya, in February, 1987. This conference, which was cosponsored by the World Bank, WHO, and UNFPA, focused on maternal mortality around the world and how it can be reduced. The report considers the dimensions of the problem, its causes, and ways to improve maternal health, including improving the status of women; changing attitudes, practices, and laws; health sector strategies; the importance of family planning; the affordability of safe motherhood; appropriate technology and proper management; and the role of nongovernmental organizations.
Correspondence: World Bank Publications, Department 0552, Washington, D.C. 20073-0552. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10228 United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC] (Atlanta, Georgia). Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost--United States, 1984. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 36, No. 42, Oct 30, 1987. 693-7 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost (YPLL) for 1984 are analyzed in this report." The data are from several official U.S. sources. "An estimated 315,120 deaths and 949,924 YPLL before age 65 years resulted from cigarette smoking in 1984....The smoking-attributable mortality rate among men is more than twice the rate among women, and the rate among blacks is 20% higher than the rate among whites...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10229 Walker, Mary; Shaper, A. G.; Cook, D. G. Non-participation and mortality in a prospective study of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 4, Dec 1987. 295-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Mortality rates and demographic characteristics are compared for middle-aged male participants and nonparticipants in the British Regional Heart Study, undertaken in 1978-1980. The focus is on the value of epidemiologic studies for the estimation of disease prevalence and incidence. The results suggest that "the social characteristics of the non-participant population appear to contribute to their significantly higher total mortality rate, and allowance needs to be made for this in interpreting the study findings. However the death rate from cardiovascular disease was similar in participants and non-participants, suggesting that any analysis related to this particular cause of death should not be biased by non-participation."
Correspondence: M. Walker, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and General Practice, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London NW3 2PF, England. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10230 Wasserman, Ira M. Cohort, age, and period effects in the analysis of U.S. suicide patterns: 1933-1978. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, Vol. 17, No. 3, Fall 1987. 179-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study employed multiple classification analysis to examine the impact of age, period, and cohort effects on U.S. white male suicide rates between 1933 and 1978....The Shazam ordinary-least-squares computer package was employed to estimate the logit coefficients for...seven models. Period effects were found to be weaker than age and cohort effects for explaining shifts in white male suicide patterns. In this study all of the three effects were measured indirectly, and this fact limits the validity of the findings. Causal analysis, which directly measures at least one of the effects, would have improved the robustness of the findings."
Correspondence: I. M. Wasserman, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI 48197. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10231 Weinstein, Milton C.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Williams, Lawrence W.; Pass, Theodore M.; Stason, William B.; Goldman, Lee. Forecasting coronary heart disease incidence, mortality, and cost: the Coronary Heart Disease Policy Model. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 11, Nov 1987. 1,417-26 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A computer simulation model was developed to project the future mortality, morbidity, and cost of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States population....The user of the model may simulate the effects of interventions, either preventive...or therapeutic, upon mortality, morbidity, and cost for up to a 30-year period. If there were no future changes in risk factors or the efficacy of therapies after 1980, baseline projections indicate that the aging of the population, and especially the maturation of the post-World War II baby-boom generation, would increase CHD prevalence and annual incidence, mortality and costs by about 40-50 per cent by the year 2010."
Correspondence: M. C. Weinstein, Institute for Health Research, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10232 West, Robert R. High death rates: more deaths or earlier deaths. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1987. 73-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Geographic differences in heart disease mortality in England and Wales are examined in an attempt to determine whether high death rates indicate more deaths (or more disease) or earlier deaths (or death at a younger age). The data are from official sources for the period 1980-1982. The author illustrates how the introduction of a control can show that much of the observed difference in mortality is not in the proportion who suffer heart disease mortality but is in the age at which such deaths occur.
Correspondence: R. R. West, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff, Wales. Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.


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