Volume 54 - Number 1 - Spring 1988

C. Spatial Distribution

Studies with an emphasis on locational patterns and their interpretation.

C.1. General Spatial Distribution

Studies of rural and urban populations considered together. Studies that are concerned primarily with the movement of population are classified under H. Migration . Studies concerned with the definition of urban or rural areas and with boundary changes are classified here or in O.1. Population Statistics, General Aspects .

54:10044 Bai, Jianhua. The situation of China's urban and rural population. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1986. 11-4 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The accuracy of measurements of the ratio of urban to rural population in China is critically assessed, using data from the 1953, 1964, and 1982 censuses. As explanations for the inaccuracies, the author points to political conditions and to the use of different measurements at different points in time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10045 Nairn, Alasdair G. M.; O'Neill, Gerard J. Population density functions: a differential equation approach. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1988. 89-102 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper introduces a new mathematical technique to describe population density functions. Two length scales, which characterize the variation of these density functions within a region, are identified. A differential equation is derived and asymptotic solutions obtained. Two specific techniques, the method of matched asymptotic expansions and the method of multiple scales, are introduced and illustrated by application to population densities at both the metropolitan and regional levels."
Correspondence: A. G. M. Nairn, Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Strathclyde, 16 Richmond Street, Glasgow GI 1XQ, Scotland. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10046 Rowland, Richard H. Geographical patterns of the Jewish population in the Pale of Settlement in late nineteenth-century Russia. Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Summer-Fall 1986. 207-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author attempts a structured presentation of population distribution in the Jewish Pale of Settlement in Imperial Russia (including Poland) in the late nineteenth century. The focus is on the degree of segregation of the Jewish population from the population as a whole. Data are primarily from the 1897 census of the Russian Empire.
Correspondence: R. H. Rowland, Department of Geography, California State University, 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10047 Sarfoh, Joseph A. Population, urbanization, and rural settlement in Ghana: a bibliographic survey. African Special Bibliographic Series, No. 8, ISBN 0-313-26073-7. LC 87-19627. Oct 1987. xvi, 124 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
This is an unannotated bibliography to the literature on spatial aspects of Ghana's population. It is intended for researchers and planners and is divided into five parts: bibliographies, books, periodical articles and book chapters, doctoral dissertations, and official documents and unpublished manuscripts. The entries in each section are arranged alphabetically by author. An author index is also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10048 Zinyama, Lovemore; Whitlow, Richard. Changing patterns of population distribution in Zimbabwe. GeoJournal, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1986. 365-84 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper critically evaluates the causes and consequences of changes in population distribution in Zimbabwe during the colonial period and since independence in 1980. Five main aspects of population geography are examined. Firstly...the history of tenure policies is outlined. Secondly, the distribution of the African population as revealed in the 1982 census is described and major changes between the census years of 1962, 1969, and 1982 are discussed. Thirdly, changing patterns of settlement and land use within the peasant farming areas (Communal Lands) are examined in the context of increasing population pressures. Fourthly, trends in the...urbanisation of the African population are described. Fifthly, post-independence development policies directed at effecting changes in the distribution of population are discussed with particular reference to the land resettlement programme."
Correspondence: L. Zinyama, Department of Geography, University of Zimbabwe, POB MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. Location: New York Public Library.

C.2. Urban Spatial Distribution

Studies of urban populations, including those of metropolitan areas and suburban and semi-urban zones. Also includes studies on urbanization insofar as they relate to the effects of migration on urban areas or the socioeconomic and demographic structure of urban populations. Studies on the actual process of rural-urban migration are coded under H.6. Rural-Urban Migration .

54:10049 Abbasi, Nasreen. Urbanization in Pakistan, 1951-1981. PIDE Research Report Series, No. 152, Apr 1987. 89, [7] pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
"The objective of the present study is to see the trends and patterns of urbanization in Pakistan particularly after 1947, and explore what factors over time have shaped the spatial distribution into its present form....The paper is divided into four sections. The first section relates to the general background. The second section analyzes the trends and patterns of urbanization in the light of various socioeconomic and political factors. The third section deals with patterns of urban concentration in various size categories at four points of time, 1951, 1961, 1972, and 1981. This is followed by summary/conclusions and policy implications."
Correspondence: Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Post Box No. 1091, Islamabad, Pakistan. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10050 Abbott, Carl. The new urban America: growth and politics in Sunbelt cities. 2nd rev. ed. ISBN 0-8078-4180-3. LC 86-40490. 1987. xi, 336 pp. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The development of the southern region of the United States known as the Sunbelt as an economic and demographic area is examined using data on five case-study cities to study "ways in which rapid growth in total metropolitan population and rapid suburbanization have affected intrametropolitan politics in the Sunbelt. The organizing idea for the analysis is the importance of social geography within metropolitan areas....A basic question of the present study is therefore the ways in which political issues within metropolitan areas have been defined in spatial terms."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10051 Angotti, Thomas. Urbanization in Latin America: toward a theoretical synthesis. Latin American Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 2, Spring 1987. 134-56 pp. Newbury Park, California. In Eng.
Four theoretical approaches to the analysis of urbanization in Latin America are reviewed, namely, classical urban sociology, dependency, structuralism, and Marxism. The author suggests that Marxism has the greatest potential as a framework for understanding urban and regional questions. The basic theoretical categories for the analysis of these issues are outlined, and problems with the existing literature are detailed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10052 Barnard, Jerald R.; Krautmann, Anthony C. Population growth among U.S. regions and metropolitan areas: a test for causality. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1988. 103-18 pp. Peace Dale, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper explores theories of population growth, and implied economic growth, among the major U.S. metro areas and regions. One set of theoretical arguments [favors] the growth of large cities, while an alternative set of arguments [favors] the growth of the smaller urban areas. Still another set of arguments [combines] economic space and urban size in the concept of regional growth centers as the engines of regional growth. Granger causality tests are applied to determine the role of urban size or growth centers as engines of regional growth. The test results indicate no causal relationship exists."
Correspondence: J. R. Barnard, Institute for Economic Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10053 Batten, David; Johansson, Borje. The dynamics of metropolitan change. Geographical Analysis, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 189-99 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
"A collaborative research project entitled 'Nested Dynamics of Metropolitan Processes and Policies' was initiated at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in 1982. The ultimate objective is to enhance our primitive understanding with respect to interacting metropolitan change processes which are operating at significantly different speeds. In this introductory paper, some aspects and results of the project are summarized...."
Correspondence: D. Batten, Department of Economics, University of Umea, S-901 87 Umea, Sweden. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10054 Becker, Charles M.; Morrison, Andrew R. The determinants of urban population growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 2, Jan 1988. 259-78 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Urbanization trends in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa are analyzed using an economic model of a stereotypical African economy that includes both push and pull factors. Particular attention is given to those variables that can be controlled to some degree by the government. The model is tested using data from a cross-country sample of African countries. The results suggest that push factors have played a major role in African urbanization. They also indicate that urban population growth is only weakly linked to employment growth and that policies to promote rural development can reduce rural push forces.
Correspondence: A. R. Morrison, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37240. Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

54:10055 Bourne, L. S. Evaluating the aggregate spatial structure of Canadian metropolitan areas. Canadian Geographer/Geographe Canadien, Vol. 31, No. 3, Autumn 1987. 194-208 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Few attempts have been made to develop and test a conceptual framework for the comparative analysis of urban spatial structure and growth. This paper offers one aggregate approach as well as a series of empirical tests based on Canada's 27 largest urban areas. Six composite indices are introduced: population densities, rates of change, intraurban population redistribution, mobility rates, incidence of low-income populations, and degree of social polarization. Regression analyses reveal that differences among urban areas in spatial patterning and structural change are consistent with the hypothesized effects of city size, age, transport usage, social heterogeneity, production base, and physical setting. Yet immense regional and intraurban diversity remains. No single model of urban structure is sufficient to capture this diversity."
Correspondence: L. S. Bourne, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10056 Brady, J. E.; Parker, A. J. The socio-demographic spatial structure of Dublin in 1981. Economic and Social Review, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul 1986. 229-52 pp. Dublin, Ireland. In Eng.
"The small area statistics of the 1981 Census of Population [of Ireland] are analysed with a view to identifying the spatial patterns associated with the socio-demographic structure of Dublin. Factors identify the Socio-Economic Status structure; the Family Status (on stage in the life cycle) structure; the New Residential Areas (which result from post-1971 planned growth) and the Rented Sector. The factors are described and mapped, indicating the varied spatial structures of these differentiating characteristics of the city. The policy implications of these patterns are discussed. The problems of infrastructural resource allocation are commented upon, particularly in the context of Dublin's highly segmented geography of family status."
Correspondence: J. E. Brady, Carysfort College, Blackrock, Ireland. Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

54:10057 Burke, Mary A. Urban Canada. Canadian Social Trends, Winter 1987. 12-8 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Recent trends in urbanization in Canada are reviewed using data from official sources, including the 1986 census. Differences by province are considered, as well as in- and out-migration and the urban distribution of immigrants.
Correspondence: M. A. Burke, Canadian Social Trends, 11th Floor, Jean Talon Building, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10058 Chang, Sen-dou. Distribution of China's city population, 1982. Urban Geography, Vol. 7, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 370-84 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to evaluate the definition of city population as employed in the 1982 China population census, to interpolate a set of nonagricultural population for all designated cities as city population in 1982 for statistical analysis, and to display and interpret the hierarchical and spatial distribution of cities in China as related to regional economic development in terms of rank-size rule, primacy index, regional patterns, and relevant explicit and implicit causes and sources of city growth during the interim between 1953 and 1982."
Correspondence: S. D. Chang, University of Hawaii, 2444 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10059 Clark, David; Kahn, James R.; Ofek, Haim. City size, quality of life, and the urbanization deflator of the GNP: 1910-1984. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 54, No. 3, Jan 1988. 701-14 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The authors attempt to determine the net effect of city size on quality of life by developing a welfare measure of urbanization. "The estimation procedure suggested in the theoretical part of the paper (section II) is implemented in the empirical part (section III) using 1980 census data from the [U.S.] PUMS (Public Use Micro Data Sample). The results indicate there is no single optimal city size, but rather a worst city size, and about 90 percent of the U.S. population reside in cities smaller than worst city size. If quality of life is related to the degree of urbanization, then long-term trends in the locational distribution of the population should be accounted for in any welfare-oriented measure of national income. One application of our results is, as indicated, the derivation of a GNP welfare deflator reflecting changes in the degree of urbanization (section IV). The findings suggest an urban deflator on the order of six to seven percentage points, which is steadily increasing at a rate of about half a percentage point per decade."
Correspondence: D. Clark, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10060 Clark, W. A. V. The Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography: urban restructuring from a demographic perspective. Economic Geography, Vol. 63, No. 2, Apr 1987. 103-25 pp. Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The central argument of this paper is that recent research has overemphasized the notions of urban restructuring and undervalued the role of spatial demographics in understanding urban and [regional] spatial patterns. The paper examines the notions embedded in urban restructuring and suggests that a focus on several elements of demographic processes is an equally important component of understanding urban and [regional] spatial structure. A specific discussion of the Los Angeles region indicates that there is a high level of complexity in social-spatial change. Social-spatial change is not simply explained by reference to an unspecified urban restructuring."
Correspondence: W. A. V. Clark, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

54:10061 Cori, Berardo. The national settlements system of Italy. Ekistics, Vol. 53, No. 316-317, Jan-Apr 1986. 18-25 pp. Athens, Greece. In Eng.
"This paper is a concise introductory account of the Italian urban settlement system. It takes up and develops basic topics and characteristic aspects of the 'components' of the system, ie the communes,... the relationships linking these components, as well as the organization and evolution of the system." The author discusses commune attributes, including size, urban function, location, division of labor, and demographic behavior. Consideration is then given to the relationships among communes such as population exchange and communication flows. The data are from a variety of published sources and deal primarily with the 1970s.
Correspondence: B. Cori, Institute of Geographical Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. Location: Princeton University Press (UES).

54:10062 Costello, Michael A.; Leinbach, Thomas R.; Ulack, Richard; Palabrica-Costello, Marilou; Suwarno, Bambang. Mobility and employment in urban Southeast Asia: examples from Indonesia and the Philippines. International Studies in Migration, No. 103, ISBN 0-8133-7352-2. LC 87-10649. 1987. xvi, 191 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
"Although the literature on rapid urbanization in the Third World is considerable, the role of intermediate-sized cities in this process is not well documented. In this comparative study, the contributors examine urbanization and development in five intermediate-sized cities in Indonesia and the Philippines. Their focus on population movements (both permanent and temporary) and patterns of employment illuminates how the complex relationships between the two phenomena influence the growth of cities. Some of the specific variables analyzed include characteristics, problems, and perceptions of migrants, nonmigrants, and circulators; the role of the formal and informal sectors; labor creation; and the alleviation of poverty."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

54:10063 de Cola, Lee. Urban concentration in Africa. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, Aug-Nov 1986. 176-90 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"Urban concentration may be measured by the extent to which a region's population resides in the largest cities. Three indices of concentration are computed based on 1975 populations of 39 African countries. Relative concentration is shown to be high, while absolute and national concentrations are moderate. The indices are used to classify African urban systems into Territorial, Primate, and National, and the various dimensions of the phenomenon suggest different political and policy conclusions. It is suggested that 'primacy' is not in itself a pressing issue to absolute urban size."
Correspondence: L. de Cola, Department of Geography, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10064 Dokmeci, Vedia F. Turkey: distribution of cities and change over time. Ekistics, Vol. 53, No. 316-317, Jan-Apr 1986. 13-7 pp. Athens, Greece. In Eng.
Patterns of urbanization in Turkey from 1945 to 1975 are examined, with emphasis on the analysis of rank-size patterns. Attention is given to changes over time in the national rank-size distribution of cities, the growth rates of new cities, and the rank-size distribution of cities in various regions. "In general, the patterns of distribution of cities in Turkey are quite regular when compared with other developing countries. Since 1945 the city system has moved to a state more adjusted to the rank-size rule, paralleling the economic development of the country."
Correspondence: V. F. Dokmeci, Faculty of Architecture, Istanbul Technical University, Taksim, Istanbul, Turkey. Location: Princeton University Press (UES).

54:10065 Faissol, Speridiao; Ferreira, Marilourdes L.; Moreira, Lana L. The process of Brazilian urbanization: a contribution toward the formulation of a policy of urban/regional development. [O proceso de urbanizacao brasileiro: uma contribuicao a formulacao de uma politica de desenvolvimento urbano/regional.] Revista Geografica, No. 103, Jan-Jun 1986. 111-58 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Por.
Aspects of urbanization and industrialization in Brazil are analyzed. Data are from a variety of sources including the 1980 census. The focus is on regional differences and their causes.
Correspondence: S. Faissol, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana, 20550 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10066 Fuchs, Roland J.; Jones, Gavin W.; Pernia, Ernesto M.; Ward, Sandra E. Urbanization and urban policies in Pacific Asia. ISBN 0-8133-7426-X. LC 87-6105. 1987. xx, 370 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of urbanization in Asian countries bordering the Pacific. The papers were presented at a conference held April 8-12, 1985, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The 16 papers are grouped under 8 general headings: the implications of demographic and economic change for urbanization; the international economy and national urbanization; mobility, labor markets, and the welfare implications of urbanization; effects of implicit policies and institutional factors; effectiveness of decentralization policies; urban management issues and policies; national urban goals and policies; and issues for further research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10067 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Heaton, Tim B.; Lichter, Daniel T. Monitoring the metropolitanization process. Demography, Vol. 25, No. 1, Feb 1988. 115-28 pp. Alexandria, Virginia. In Eng.
"Alternative approaches have led to different interpretations of the metropolitanization process in the United States. We identify and illustrate several methods and procedures for monitoring metropolitan-nonmetropolitan population change using the 1950-1980 U.S. decennial censuses. Two basic approaches are compared: constant area approaches and component methods. In addition, we assess the effects of changing metropolitan definitions on metropolitan-nonmetropolitan growth. The results clearly reveal that the underlying mechanics of metropolitanization not only are complex but have changed substantially during the 1950-1980 period. We conclude with observations regarding the use of these procedures in future research."
Correspondence: G. V. Fuguitt, Department of Rural Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10068 Gibson, Campbell. The population in large urban concentrations in the United States, 1790-1980: a delineation using highly urbanized counties. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 4, Nov 1987. 601-14 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Although there is a historical series on the urban population of the United States for the period covered by national population censuses (1790-1980), no corresponding historical series exists on the population in metropolitan areas or urbanized areas. The paper presents a time series on the population in highly urbanized counties. The series, which combines the metropolitan-area and urbanized-area concepts, facilitates compilation of social, economic, and other data and permits quantification of the effect of reclassification of territory on the growth of this population. The growth of the population in highly urbanized counties in the United States is discussed briefly, with an emphasis on the effect of reclassification."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 53, No. 3, Fall 1987, p. 422).
Correspondence: C. Gibson, Population Division, U.S. Bureau of the Census, Suitland, MD 20233. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10069 Goodman, Allen C. Using Lorenz curves to characterise urban elderly populations. Urban Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 77-80 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"This study measures urban elderly distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients estimated from 1980 [U.S.] Census data. The results suggest ways that such summary measures can be used to examine population distributions among urban areas. The paper considers three metropolitan areas, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh. The elderly are more concentrated in the central cities of Philadelphia and Baltimore than in Pittsburgh, even though the Pittsburgh SMSA has the largest elderly percentage of the three. The elderly and the poor elderly are more concentrated in Baltimore than in Philadelphia, and both are more concentrated than in Pittsburgh."
Correspondence: A. C. Goodman, Department of Economics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10070 Hardoy, Jorge E.; Satterthwaite, David. Urban change in the third world: are recent trends a useful pointer to the urban future? Habitat International, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1986. 33-52 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper has three aims. The first is to examine the reliability of the data base for the statistics which are used as the basis for commenting on urban change in 'the Third World'. The second is to explore whether valid generalisations about urban change can be made for the Third World. And the third is to examine the validity of United Nations projections for the Third World's urban future."
Correspondence: J. E. Hardoy, International Institute for Environment and Development, 3 Endsleigh Street, London WC1H 0DD, England. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10071 Henderson, J. Vernon. Industrialization and urbanization: international experience. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 189-224 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This chapter examines urbanization experience in various parts of the world. Based on a variety of scientific papers, it identifies common features of the urban sector across countries. These features include trade relations and production patterns among cities in an economy and their relationships to city size distributions, location of economic activity, and regional development. In the course of the analysis, the relationships among population growth, economic development, urbanization, industrialization, centralization, and urban concentration are examined. In the discussion, the role of population size, or scale, and the various types of economies of scale in production are detailed. The international experience drawn upon consists of both overviews of large samples of countries and more detailed looks at Brazil, Korea, and the United States, as well as some aspects of Japan, India, Taiwan, and the U.S.S.R."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10072 Hsu, Mei-Ling. Chinese cities: controlled growth and employment problems. Urban Geography, Vol. 7, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 336-69 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"This study examines population growth--both natural and that due to migration--in Chinese cities over the past 35 years and analyzes the interaction of population growth and socioeconomic development in urban centers, particularly the problem of employment. China has a unique demographic history, although some aspects of its demography conform to the world pattern. The general and unique aspects of Chinese urban population dynamics are distinguished where appropriate. The pattern of natural increase of Chinese cities is characterized by two periods of highs. The major migratory movements were set in motion by actions of the government. Over the decades, the characteristics and structure of the city population have changed. One change has been the faster growth of the working-age population as compared with the dependent groups. This growth has resulted in increased demand for new jobs, aggravating the employment problem."
Correspondence: M. L. Hsu, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10073 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). Census of India 1981. Urban growth in India, 1951-1981 (a statistical analysis). Census Monograph, No. 1, [1986]. vi, 72 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in urbanization in India from 1951 to 1981 are analyzed based on census data. Topics covered include the evolution of urban centers; the degree, growth, and tempo of urbanization; variations in levels of urban population concentration; growth and contribution of satellite towns; regional differences in urbanization; and migration and urban growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10074 Kahimbaara, J. A. The population density gradient and the spatial structure of a third world city: Nairobi, a case study. Urban Studies, Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug 1986. 307-22 pp. Harlow, England. In Eng.
"A generalized Newling function to the fourth degree is used as a regionalizing technique to analyze population density data from the 1969 national census of Kenya in order to identify the spatial structure of Nairobi, Kenya's primate city." Various hypotheses based on Nairobi's colonial origins and development experience are tested.
Correspondence: J. A. Kahimbaara, Department of Geography, National University of Lesotho, Roma, Lesotho. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10075 Kojima, Reeitsu. Urbanization and urban problems in China. IDE Occasional Papers Series, No. 22, ISBN 4-258-52022-5. 1987. x, 142 pp. Institute of Developing Economies: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
Urbanization trends and associated problems in modern China are reviewed. Topics covered include the concept of urban areas in China, the classification and distribution of urban areas by population and rural-urban migration characteristics, housing, environment, transport, center city renovation, and urban planning.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

54:10076 London, Bruce. Structural determinants of third world urban change: an ecological and political economic analysis. American Sociological Review, Vol. 52, No. 1, Feb 1987. 28-43 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Quantitative, cross-national studies of peripheral urbanization have been rooted in human ecology or political economy. Studies in the human ecology tradition cite rural adversity as a major determinant of Third World urban growth. Studies in the political economy mode emphasize economic dependency. This paper (a) argues that no quantitative analysis of Third World urbanization can be complete if it fails to incorporate determinants suggested by one or the other theory and (b) conducts such a 'complete' quantitative, cross-national analysis, which examines simultaneously both rural adversity and dependency as predictors of urban change. Findings suggest that both factors are important."
Correspondence: B. London, Department of Sociology and Social Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10077 Ma, Laurence J. C.; Cui, Gonghao. Administrative changes and urban population in China. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 77, No. 3, Sep 1987. 373-95 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The lack of well-defined and standardized terms for urban settlements in China has created much confusion among Chinese as well as Western scholars regarding the size of China's urban population and the nation's urbanization level. In this paper we identify the major types of China's urban population and explain their relationships to areal units. The aggregate population of the officially designated cities and towns, which has been widely used in China and elsewhere as an indicator of China's urbanization level, should no longer be used because of changes after 1979 in the designation of urban areas: these changes had the effect of adding agricultural households to the urban population. According to the official indicator, China's population was 31.9 percent urban in 1984. A more realistic measure of urbanization, which excludes the agricultural population of cities and towns, shows that China was actually 15.7 percent urban in 1984."
Correspondence: L. J. C. Ma, Department of Geography, University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

54:10078 Ma, Laurence J. C.; Noble, Allen G. Chinese cities: a research agenda. Urban Geography, Vol. 7, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 279-90 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
This is an introduction to a special issue of Urban Geography devoted to urbanization in China, particularly the role of urbanization in the development process that has occurred in the post-Mao period since 1976. The papers included here were presented at a conference on Asian urbanization, held at the University of Akron, Ohio, April 19-20, 1985. The authors of this introduction identify a number of important issues related to urbanization in China and suggest areas for future research.
Selected papers from this conference are cited elsewhere in this issue.
Correspondence: L. J. C. Ma, University of Akron, 302 E. Buchtel Avenue, Akron, OH 44325. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10079 Ma, Qingyu. Preliminary analysis of population distribution in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1985. 31-3 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The author analyzes population distribution in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan, China. According to the author, the population distribution of these areas is characterized first by high population density. The forms of distribution are found to be many and varied: network distribution, cluster distribution, star distribution, bar distribution, and point distribution in rural residential areas. The ratio of urban population to rural population is high, but the distribution is concentrated. The factors affecting population distribution are natural environment, economic development, and historical heritage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10080 Montgomery, Mark R. The impacts of urban population growth on urban labor markets and the costs of urban service delivery: a review. In: Population growth and economic development: issues and evidence, edited by D. Gale Johnson and Ronald D. Lee. Social Demography, 1987. 149-88 pp. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, Wisconsin; National Research Council, Committee on Population, Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The economic consequences of high rates of natural increase in urban areas and rural-urban migration in developing countries are examined. "The emphasis here is on the impact of labor transfer on urban and rural earnings levels and on the role played by differential rates of technological change....Simple empirical associations between urbanization, sectoral labor force shares, and per capita income levels are then briefly reviewed....Next are three more detailed discussions concerning the economic consequences of rural-to-urban migration for the individual migrant, the consequences of urban population growth for urban labor markets, and, finally an important but still poorly understood set of issues--the impact of outmigration on rural, sending regions. The next major section of the chapter addresses policy issues involved in the provision of urban services....[The final section] reviews the available literature on antiaccommodationist schemes designed to deter rural-urban migration, and also considers those employment deconcentration or decentralization policies that aim to divert urban growth from primate cities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10081 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). The demographic dynamics of urban centers in Morocco, 1960-1982. [La dynamique demographique des centres urbains au Maroc (1960-1982).] Sep 1987. 59 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Recent urbanization trends in Morocco are analyzed using primarily data from the 1982 census. The report is concerned with the 240 urban centers in the country, with emphasis on the role of rural-urban migration in their rates of growth. An attempt is made to develop a general typology of the country's urban centers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10082 Motorin, R. M. Dynamics of population size and composition in Kiev during the past 110 years. [Dinamika chisel'nosti ta skladu naselennya Kieva za ostanni 110 rokiv.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 89-95 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Demographic trends in Kiev, USSR, for the period 1874-1984 are analyzed. Aspects considered include the dynamics of natural increase and changes in age, sex, and ethnic structures.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10083 Pannell, Clifton W. Recent increase in Chinese urbanization. Urban Geography, Vol. 7, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 291-310 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"Recent evidence indicates a faster growth in level of urbanization than population in China during the last 35 years, despite some years during the 1960s when urban population experienced an absolute decline. Official estimates show an increase in the level of urbanization from 10.7% (1949) to 23.5% (1983). Changing policies have led to adjustments in the definitions of city, town, and urban population as well as the official statistics....Regional differences in level of urbanization were identified, with the highest levels found in the three national municipalities--Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin--as well as the three northeastern provinces--Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. Analysis of different variables indicated level of commercialization of agriculture as measured by the per capita value of agricultural output explained best the regional level of urbanization. Continued increase in the level of urbanization in China is anticipated in step with the overall economic growth and development that has occurred with recent policy shifts and economic reforms."
Correspondence: C. W. Pannell, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10084 Papail, Jean; Picouet, Michel; Canas, Jose. Towns and oil. Historical and future aspects of urban populations in Venezuela. [Des villes et du petrole. Aspects historiques et prospectifs des populations urbaines au Venezuela.] Travaux et Documents de l'ORSTOM, No. 203, ISBN 2-7099-0823-9. 1987. 171 pp. Editions de l'ORSTOM: Paris, France; Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Spa.
Recent urbanization trends in Venezuela are studied. A general introduction to the demography of Venezuela precedes a description of the origins and development of the country's urban system. Recent changes affecting the development of the urban system are reviewed, including natural increase, rural-urban migration, and the development of regional urban systems. A final section examines the factors that will affect future rates of urban growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10085 Petsimeris, Petros. Growth, distribution and rank stability of urban settlements in Greece. Ekistics, Vol. 53, No. 316-317, Jan-Apr 1986. 54-62 pp. Athens, Greece. In Eng.
"This paper aims at analyzing the structure of the system in Greece of urban settlements, from 1870 to 1981. It is based on a study by the author concerning the process of urbanization and the problems of the 'residential subsystem' in countries of intermediate development with special reference to Greece. The analysis takes as sole indicator of the evolution of the urban centers network, the long term variation of population of urban settlements in Greece and as tools of analysis, the Rank-Size Rule (RSR) and Hoover's Index." Distinctions are drawn between the urban settlement patterns in the pre-capitalist and capitalist periods, the latter being marked by an unbalanced hierarchy dominated by Athens and without medium-sized cities, other than Thessaloniki.
Correspondence: P. Petsimeris, Centre d'Etudes Regionales et d'Amenagement, Universite de Caen, Espl. de la Paix, 14032 Caen Cedex, France. Location: Princeton University Press (UES).

54:10086 Pribadi, Krishna N.; Berry, Brian J. L. Urbanization in Indonesia: application and extension of a model suggested by Tolley. Urban Geography, Vol. 7, No. 6, Dec 1986. 447-96 pp. Silver Spring, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to develop a demoeconomic model that explains historic urbanization in terms of the level of productivity in Indonesia. We first examine an economic model of urbanization proposed by Tolley and apply it to the Indonesian case. The model performs well for the country as a whole, but not for the major islands separately because it excludes interisland migration. In the second part of the paper, an extension of Tolley's model that includes demographic variables is offered and again applied to the Indonesian data, permitting estimates to be made of the components of the interisland migration."
Correspondence: K. N. Pribadi, Bandung Institute of Technology, Jl. Tamansari 64, Bandung 40132, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10087 Schmelz, U. O. Modern Jerusalem's demographic evolution. Jewish Population Studies, No. 20, 1987. 136 pp. Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Institute of Contemporary Jewry: Jerusalem, Israel; Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies: Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
This study provides an account of the demographic development of modern Jerusalem and a description of the city's current population characteristics. The author traces the demographic development of the city from the late Ottoman period through the British mandate and the post-independence period, concentrating finally on the period since reunification in 1967.
Correspondence: Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10088 Skinner, Elliot P. Urbanization in Francophone Africa. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3-4, Aug-Nov 1986. 191-5 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"The urbanization in Francophone Africa has developed because of rural to urban migration resulting mainly from push and pull factors. The urbanization process is characterized by the development of large primate cities which failed to manage the lives of their residents as well as those of the ones living in the rural hinterlands. The cities accelerate the rhythm of urbanization, economic dependence and underdevelopment, diffusion of innovation, mutation of traditional institutions, and political conflict and revolution. All the Francophone African urban centers have closer links with Paris than with their hinterlands because of the nature of their historical development."
Correspondence: E. P. Skinner, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10089 Stepanenko, A. V. The demographic balance of towns. [Demografichna zbalansovanist' rozvitku mist.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 73-80 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author analyzes demographic processes in cities of the Ukrainian SSR. Aspects considered include fertility, mortality, population growth, migration, age and sex distribution, and family relationships.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10090 Syafrizal. Urbanization control policies in Indonesia. [Kebijaksanaan pengendalian urbanisasi di Indonesia.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 14, No. 27, Jun 1987. iii-iv, 51-76 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
Urbanization policy in Indonesia is outlined. Elements of this policy include the issuing of residency permits for major urban areas, the migration program to assist jobless urban residents in moving to underpopulated areas, and rural development and the encouragement of growth in smaller urban centers. The effectiveness of existing policies in controlling urbanization is assessed.
Correspondence: Syafrizal, Fakultas Ekonomi, Universitas Andalas, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan 77, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10091 Taamallah, Malika. Urbanization and its consequences for socio-demographic structures in Tunisia. [L'urbanisation et ses consequences sur les structures socio-demographiques en Tunisie.] Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 23, No. 84-87, 1986. 377-96 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Comparisons are made between rural and urban populations in Tunisia in terms of selected demographic and social factors using official and other published data for the late 1970s and early 1980s. The focus is on the consequences of imbalances created by Tunisia's urbanization for population composition, health, economic development, and certain social structures. The history of urbanization in Tunisia since the end of the nineteenth century is outlined. Urban and rural populations are compared on the basis of sex distribution, age distribution, mortality, and fertility. The relationships among urbanization and economic development, public health, and family structure are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10092 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Bangkok. Population Policy Paper, No. 10; ST/ESA/SER.R/72, 1987. vii, 47 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series concerning population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies designed to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the inhabitants of the world's largest cities. This study concerns Bangkok, Thailand. A chapter is included on demographic characteristics, including population growth, migration, and population projections.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10093 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Population growth and policies in mega-cities: Madras. Population Policy Paper, No. 12; ST/ESA/SER.R/75, 1987. vii, 30 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This is one in a series concerning population policies and planning issues in the mega-cities of the developing world. The focus is on the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies designed to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the inhabitants of the world's largest cities. This study concerns Madras, India. A chapter is included on demographic characteristics, including population growth, migration, and population projections.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10094 Wood, William B. Urbanization within the Indonesian economy: a policy dilemma. Cities, Vol. 3, No. 3, Aug 1986. 219-27 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
"Most Third World countries have serious problems relating to rapid urban growth but attempts to solve urban problems have generally failed. This paper looks at the urban issues of one country, Indonesia, and the attempts by the Indonesian government to control rural to urban migration. Contradictions between macroeconomic and urban policies, however, have undermined government programmes."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

54:10095 Young, Frank W. Export and urbanization: a comparative study of the province of sub-Saharan Africa. African Urban Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1986. 75-85 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"One variant of the export impact hypothesis states that export agriculture or mining retards urban growth, even though some single city control centers may develop. The counterposition claims that export activity fosters economic growth and with it urban development. These two positions are explored and tested using data coded from detailed maps of what turned out to be 253 subnational regions in the 40 sub-Saharan African countries. The analysis distinguishes towns (under 25,000 population) from cities, and the coastal provinces (300 kilometers or less) from hinterland subregions. Likewise, mining contrasts with agricultural exports. Given these distinctions, the breakdown analysis of means for towns and cities showed that mining is positively related to both town-based and city-based urbanization, regardless of distance from the coast. Agricultural export activity is also related to the number of towns in both zones and rather strongly related to the number of cities in the hinterland, but not in the coast. Mineral export activity generally fosters town-based urbanization while agricultural export activity fosters city-based urbanization, but only in the hinterland."
Correspondence: F. W. Young, Department of Rural Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

C.3. Rural Spatial Distribution

Studies of agricultural and farming populations.

54:10096 Bobrishchev, O. V.; Dudnik, I. M. The interrelations of population settlement and services in rural administrative regions. [Pro vzaemozv"yazok rozselennya i obslugovuvannya naselennya v sil's'komu administrativnomu raioni.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 86-9 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors investigate the use of territorial systems in settling and servicing the population in the rural administrative regions of the Ukrainian SSR. Measures are suggested for promoting development in the region by improving the management of these systems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10097 Dottin, Milagros. Indicators concerning women and rural families in the Dominican Republic. The National Survey of Rural Women, 1985. [Indicadores sobre mujer y familia rurales en Republica Dominicana. Encuesta Nacional de Mujeres Rurales, 1985.] Mar 1987. 150 pp. Centro de Investigacion para la Accion Femenina [CIPAF]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The results of a survey of rural women in the Dominican Republic carried out in 1985 are presented. The data concern a population of 12,243 living in 2,152 households. Data are included on population characteristics, migrants, socioeconomic indicators, labor force participation, housing, educational status, and marital status.
Location: New York Public Library.

54:10098 Fedoseev, V. I. Rural population of a region. [Sel'skoe naselenie regiona.] 1986. 144 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
The author investigates socio-demographic differences among rural settlements in the USSR, particularly in Western Siberia, with the aim of developing a method of analysis that can be used in demographic and socioeconomic development planning in rural regions. Sections are included on methods of investigating socio-demographic differentiation in a village of a major rural region, specifics of demographic and socioeconomic development in rural regions of Western Siberia, and a complex typology of rural regions in Western Siberia.
Correspondence: Izdatel'stvo Mysl', Leninskii Prospekt 15, 117071 Moscow, USSR. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10099 Fuguitt, Glenn V.; Lichter, Daniel T.; Pfeffer, Max J.; Jenkins, Robert M. Nonmetropolitan population deconcentration in the 1980s. CDE Working Paper, No. 87-34, 1987. 23, [6] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Our paper has three objectives aimed at providing evidence regarding recent patterns of concentration/deconcentration within the nonmetropolitan U.S. First, we examine relative rates of urban and rural growth during the 1960-70, 1970-80, and 1980-84 periods....We document spatial variation in urban-rural shifts for nonmetropolitan counties differentiated by: (1) region; (2) metropolitan adjacency status; and (3) local urbanization, as measured by size-of-largest place in the county. Second, we examine shifts in the proportion of nonmetropolitan counties experiencing rural growth during 1960-84, and we document the changing proportion of counties experiencing urban-rural deconcentration. Finally, we examine temporal shifts in the character of nonmetropolitan urban-rural deconcentration." The data are from U.S. censuses and other official Census Bureau sources.
Correspondence: Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin, 1180 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1393. Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

54:10100 Krisanov, D. F. Means of retaining and increasing the viability of populated rural areas. [Shlyachi zberezhennya i pidvishchennya zhittezdatnosti sil's'kich naselenich punktiv.] Demografichni Doslidzhennya, Vol. 10, 1986. 80-5 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Economic and mathematical models are used to study the viability of populations in rural areas in the Ukrainian SSR. The author discusses methods of maintaining and strengthening the viability of villages and of stabilizing the rural settlement system.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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