Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

53:30657 Rosenzweig, Mark R. Human capital, population growth and economic development: beyond correlations. Economic Development Center Bulletin, No. 87-8, Jul 1987. 36 pp. University of Minnesota, Department of Economics, Economic Development Center: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly impede human capital formation, and (c) the inability of couples to control fertility is an important determinant of investment in human capital. The evidence suggests that widely-observed correlations among population growth, human capital and economic variables, which admit to alternative interpretations, are far stronger than are the estimates from studies whose objective is to quantify the causal mechanisms underlying the three assertions; however, there is empirical support for each."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30658 Salehi-Isfahani, Djavad. On the generalization of the Boserup model: some clarifications. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 35, No. 4, Jul 1987. 875-84 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author responds to a critique by W. C. Robinson and W. A. Schutjer of his 1977 paper concerning the model of agricultural intensification developed by Ester Boserup. The emphasis is on the role of population growth in this process. A brief reply by Robinson and Schutjer is included (p. 884).
Author's address: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
For the original work by Salehi-Isfahani, published in 1977, see 44:1016 and 44:1921.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30659 Schmale, Helmut. Demographic variables in neoclassical growth models. [Demographische Variablen in neoklassischen Wachstumsmodellen.] Contributions to Quantitative Economics/Beitrage zur Quantitativen Okonomie, Vol. 10, ISBN 3-88339-563-3. 1987. 285 pp. N. Brockmeyer: Bochum, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
A comparative dynamic analysis of the relationships between demographic and economic development is provided using neoclassical growth and stable population models. The influence of fertility on population growth rates, age structure, and the economic system is examined. Specifically, the author investigates the influence of population growth on the quality and quantity of the supply of labor, discusses the relationship between trends in productivity and population growth, and tries to determine the impact of demographic variables on consumer and capital goods production. The influence of population growth on the distribution of labor and capital is also discussed. The focus is on economics at the national level.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30660 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Implications of changing age structure for current and future development planning. Population Research Leads, No. 25, 1987. 10 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Development planning for countries in the Asian and Pacific region is examined in view of changes in the age structure. Following a discussion of trends in mortality and fertility, consideration is given to the impact of these developments on the social and economic sectors and to implications for development planning. Population growth rates for 1985 and projections to the year 2000 are shown. Demographic trends in countries undergoing a transition from high to low fertility and mortality and in countries in a low-growth stage are compared. Planning for ongoing reallocation of resources and changes in consumption patterns is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30661 United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Subcommittee on International Trade, Finance, and Security Economics (Washington, D.C.). Population growth and development in the world economy. Hearing, March 20, 1984 (98th Congress, 2nd session). 1984. iii, 218 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report concerns a hearing before the Subcommittee on International Trade, Finance, and Security Economics of the Joint Economic Committee pertaining to the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in the world. Particular attention is given to the impact of global population trends on the United States, including political factors, security, and immigration. It includes statements by Representative James H. Scheuer, Representative Sander M. Levin, Sharon L. Camp, Paul Demeney, Steven W. Sinding, Allan Rosenfield, Jason L. Finkle, Marshall Green, Michael S. Teitelbaum, and Michael J. Piore. A record of the discussion accompanying these statements is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

53:30662 Cassen, Robert H. India: population, economy, society. Pub. Order No. DA8704395. 1986. 438 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study examines the interdependence of population growth and economic and social development in post-Independence India. The first section introduces India's population history, with comparative examples of the demographic transition in England, France and Japan. The second examines contemporary trends in India's fertility, mortality and internal migration....The third section provides an assessment of India's family planning programme as a distinct factor in fertility." The fourth section examines the interaction of population and economy as well as trends in education, health, employment, and income. "The final section reviews the prospects for Indian society under moderate population growth and slow improvement in living standards."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Harvard University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(12).

53:30663 Gauvreau, Danielle; Gregory, Joel; Kempeneers, Marianne; Piche, Victor. Demography and underdevelopment in the third world. [Demographie et sous-developpement dans le Tiers-Monde.] Centre for Developing-Area Studies Monograph, No. 21, ISBN 0-88819-068-9. 1986. 316 pp. McGill University, Centre for Developing-Area Studies: Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
This is a collection of studies by various authors on aspects of the relationship between population factors and underdevelopment in the third world. These papers are the product of work undertaken at the Department of Demography at the University of Montreal, Canada. Following a general introduction, five studies are presented on Africa: these include case studies of Niger, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), and Morocco. The next section contains three studies concerning the Americas: these include Guadeloupe, Costa Rica, and the Dominican Republic. The next section consists of a study on China. A final paper attempts to develop a materialist theory of reproduction. The studies deal with several aspects of population reproduction, including fertility in the context of social class, migration as a contributor to population growth, and attempts by the state to control fertility. The general focus is on the interrelationship between the social processes of production and reproduction.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30664 Khalatbari, Parviz. The interrelationships among population growth, underdevelopment, and the preservation of peace. [Zusammenhange zwischen Bevolkerungswachstum, Unterentwicklung und Erhaltung des Friedens.] Wirtschaftswissenschaft, Vol. 34, No. 7, Jul 1986. 1,000-13, 1,015 pp. Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The interrelationships among population growth, underdevelopment, and the preservation of peace are considered. The author first argues that the dilemma of developing countries is not simply population growth but population growth in the absence of the regulating and stabilizing forces need to employ and nourish its numbers. Among the topics discussed are the global history and current trends of population growth, natural resources, demographic transitions, social change and its consequences in third world countries, malnutrition, and the growth of slums in the nuclear age. He also discusses the increased involvement of developing countries in the arms race.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30665 Kikhela, Nzita. The socio-demographic situation in Zaire on the eve of the first quinquennial plan: observations and suggestions for a trade-union movement. [La situation socio-demographique au Zaire a la veille du premier plan quinquennal: constats et suggestions pour une action syndicale.] Travaux et Recherches Demographiques Document, No. 1, Jan 1987. 16 pp. Universite de Kinshasa, Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Departement de Demographie: Kinshasa, Zaire. In Fre.
The author discusses general aspects of the relationship between economic and demographic conditions in Zaire. Major demographic and economic terms are defined, and an overview of recent economic and demographic trends in Zaire is presented. Information from official and other published sources is provided concerning age distribution, social class, fertility, mortality, and internal and international migration. Issues of special concern to trade unionists, including rapid population growth, elevated mortality rates, and immigration, are listed.
Publisher's address: B.P. 176, Kinshasa XI, Zaire.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30666 Liu, Paul K. C.; Hwang, Kuo-Shu. Relationships between changes in population, employment and economic structure in Taiwan. Studies of Modern Economy Series, No. 8, Jun 1987. xi, 173 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Chi. with sum. in Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to make use of the population, employment and economic statistics in Taiwan, starting from the turn of this century, to enquire into the economic structure changes in relation to employment and demographic transition in Taiwan. Based on these findings [the authors attempt] to project their patterns and trends into the near future....Following the introduction in the first chapter, the second chapter reviews the major theories of population, employment and economic structure developed in China and the West [with the aim] of establishing a theoretic framework for analyzing the empirical experience of Taiwan. The third chapter analyzes the relationships between population growth and economic structural changes. The fourth chapter enquires into the demographic transition in relation to employment. The last chapter is a summary of the main findings and their policy implications....Among the major findings are a strong favorable effect of [the] Chinese family system on the development of small and medium size family enterprises and a favorable effect of Chinese education systems on upward mobility of labor. Quantitative analysis suggests that changes in aggregate demand in [the] international market have exerted profound influences on the levels and patterns of economic activities, employment structures and population dynamics in Taiwan."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30667 Njoku, John E. E. Malthusianism: an African dilemma. Hunger, drought, and starvation in Africa. ISBN 0-8108-1906-6. LC 86-10182. 1986. xxix, 181 pp. Scarecrow Press: Metuchen, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
The relationships between Africa's current problems, particularly regarding the supply of adequate food and its rate of population growth, are examined. Consideration is given to Malthusian theory and its relevance to the African situation and to ways of increasing food production.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30668 Pante, Filologo. Population and development planning integration: the case of the Philippines. Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1985. 94-105 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
The experience of the Philippines in implementing the integrated Population and Development Planning and Research project since 1981 is the focus of this paper. The author "discusses the issues which had to be resolved in the planning of the project, including questions about the operational meaning of population-development planning integration and the appropriate strategy as well as organization for integration; cites the gains made towards integration and indicates a number of gaps and issues which need further resolution; and argues that, despite the inability to quantify population-development interactions at this time, opportunities exist for population-development planning integration at various stages and levels of planning."
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, MD.

53:30669 Plath, Joel C.; Holland, David W.; Carvalho, Joe W. Labor migration in Southern Africa and agricultural development: some lessons from Lesotho. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jan 1987. 159-75 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors examine policy issues with regard to attempts by Lesotho to develop agriculture as a viable alternative to out-migration for employment and income. They argue that "an appropriate agricultural development strategy for Lesotho would emphasize relatively labor- and land-intensive agricultural enterprises, such as horticultural operations and closely managed livestock activities. The suggestion is that only agriculture of this kind will generate sufficient returns on a limited land base to dissuade men from going to the mines. Our paper develops a more complete theoretical and empirical foundation for examining this as well as other agricultural strategies."
Author's address: Cooperative Extension Service, Virginia State University, Petersburg, VA 23803.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30670 Sirisena, N. L.; Stoeckel, John. Fertility impacts of development programs in Sri Lanka. In: Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects, edited by John Stoeckel and Anrudh K. Jain. 1986. 25-54 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors assess the impact of three specific development programs in Sri Lanka on selected socioeconomic factors and, in turn, on fertility. The data are from a sample survey conducted in areas where the government's guaranteed agricultural price system, land settlement system, and rural electrification programs are in effect, as well as in areas where no development programs exist. Fertility data are for the years 1977-1981. "In the first section we analyze the impact of development programs upon the socioeconomic status of males and females separately, using multiple regression; and in the second section we utilize path analysis to illustrate the relationships and linkages between development programs, socioeconomic status, family planning and fertility." It is found that "development programs and their different combinations will exert an effect on the socioeconomic structure of a population. The second portion of the hypothesis which states that the socioeconomic structure will affect fertility through family planning is supported for all programs, either through the effect of occupation or income or both variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30671 World Bank (Washington, D.C.). Population growth and policies in sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Policy Study, ISBN 0-8213-0773-8. LC 86-11017. 1986. x, 102 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The present report focuses on the economic consequences of rapid population growth in Africa and on policies and programs to reduce population growth" and is written in response to recent actions by sub-Saharan governments to officially support family planning. Written for a broad audience, this report is designed to help sub-Saharan countries identify and address their population problems. Demographic analyses prepared by the World Bank are based primarily on data from the World Development Report 1985. Chapters are included on recent trends and projections to 2045, the effects of high fertility on maternal and child health and of rapid growth on the economy, slowing population growth through measures that encourage a desire for smaller families, family planning services and program implementation, and the role of the government in reducing population growth. A statistical appendix and a population data supplement are included.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, NY.

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

53:30672 Asian Population and Development Association (Tokyo, Japan). Demographic transition in Japan and rural development. Population and Development Series, No. 1, Feb 1985. 144 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on the demographic transition in Japan, with particular emphasis on the issue of rural development. Topics covered include rural-urban fertility and mortality differentials and changes over time, migration and rural development, population change in rural areas, and the rural-urban demographic balance. The overall objective is to examine the relevance of the Japanese experience for contemporary developing countries.
Publisher's address: Nagatacho TBR Building, Room 710, 10-2, Nagatacho 2-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, NY.

53:30673 Baran, Alina. Relations among demographic and socioeconomic processes in 22 European countries for the period 1950-1980. [Zwiazki miedzy procesami demograficznymi i spoleczno-ekonomicznymi w 22 krajach europejskich w latach 1950-1980.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/87, 1987. 87-102 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author summarizes the results of studies concerning the relations among 9 demographic and 21 socioeconomic variables in 22 selected European countries between 1950 and 1980. The hypothesis examined is that countries with similar levels of socioeconomic development exhibit similarity in certain demographic indicators. Two groups of countries are identified on the basis of the relationships between the two types of variables. It is noted that the United Kingdom fits into neither category.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30674 Easterlin, Richard A. The new age structure of poverty in America: permanent or transient? Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 195-208, 373, 375 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Since the late 1960s a slackening in the growth of aggregate demand and an increase in the supply of younger relative to older adults have caused a severe deterioration in the wage and unempolyment rates of young adults [in the United States]. This deterioration has raised poverty rates of children and young adults directly, through its impact on income within families of given types, especially married-couple families, and indirectly, through its impact on the demographic composition of young adults, especially through the rise in female-headed families due to increased divorce and nonmarital fertility rates. The prospect over the next 15 years is for a favorable shift in relative labor supply and, less confidently, in the growth of aggregate demand that would, by the 1990s, reverse the recent trend toward higher poverty rates at younger adult ages and among children."
Author's address: Department of Economics, University of Southern California, University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30675 Florea, Stefan. Population, labor force, and socioeconomic development. [Populatia, forta de munca si dezvoltarea social-economica.] Revista de Statistica, Vol. 36, No. 2, Feb 1987. 25-35 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
The relationships among population trends, the labor force, and socioeconomic development in Romania are explored. The focus is on the period 1950-1985. The author describes the growing urbanization of the population, the declining proportion of the work force engaged in agriculture, and changes in the occupational structure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30676 Gauthier, Herve; Malo, Renee; Dallaire, Louise; Desrosiers, Denise. Demography and technological transformations. [La demographie et les transformations technologiques.] In: Sciences sociales et transformations technologiques. Les actes d'un colloque tenu a Montreal, le 25 avril 1986. Pub. Order No. 87.02. ISBN 2-550-17501-8. Jun 1987. 31-81 pp. Conseil de la Science et de la Technologie: Sainte-Foy, Canada. In Fre.
The relationships between demographic factors and technological change are explored, with a focus on the situation in the province of Quebec in particular, and Canada in general. The first part examines the effects of technological change on fertility, mortality, and migration. In the second part, the authors discuss the influence of demographic changes on technological change. Factors considered include population growth, demographic aging, and the spread of new ideas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30677 Kroupova, Alena. Decisive factors in population reproduction. [Rozhodujici faktory reprodukce obyvatelstva.] Populacni Zpravy, No. 1-2, 1986. 5-14 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
The author discusses the relationship between economic development, in particular improvement in living standards, and replacement-level population growth. The geographic focus is on Czechoslovakia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30678 Owens, Emiel W. Demographic trends and saving propensities: "a revisit with life cycle theory". Atlantic Economic Journal, Vol. 14, No. 4, Dec 1986. 106 pp. Edwardsville, Illinois. In Eng.
This one-page paper uses the life cycle theory of savings to explain why the personal savings rate in the United States has failed to respond to supply side tax cut therapy. The author concludes that the increase in the ratio of younger households during the period 1980-1985 was the main reason why the rate of savings fell, since these households are at the point in the life cycle when they tend to borrow and spend the money their elders have been saving.
Author's address: University of Houston, 4600 Gulf Freeway, Houston, TX 77023.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30679 Paillat, Paul. The aging of the population: challenge and contradiction. [Le vieillissement de la population: defi et contradiction.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1987. 304, 311-5 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author provides an overview of the process of demographic aging and discusses economic, social, psychosocial, and demographic implications at the national and local levels. Reference is made to the situation in France.
Author's address: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30680 Steshenko, V. S.; Boginya, D. P.; Dolishnii, M. I.; Nazimov, I. N. Reproduction of population and the labor force under conditions of developed Socialism. [Vosproizvodstvo naseleniya i trudovykh resursov v usloviyakh razvitogo sotsializma.] 1985. 319; 279 pp. Naukova Dumka: Kiev, USSR. In Rus.
This collective work in four volumes, the first two of which are cited here, is concerned with theoretical aspects of population reproduction in centrally planned, or Socialist, countries. The demographic and economic characteristics of developed Socialist countries are first analyzed. The authors then consider the reproduction of the labor force and how this can be simplified through the development of appropriate policies. Future labor force trends are also discussed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:30681 Taylor, Bryan J. R.; Taylor, Elizabeth A. Planning responses to demographic change. Research in Higher Education, Vol. 26, No. 2, 1987. 148-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The United Kingdom faces a decline in the 18-year-old cohort from 900,000+ in the mid-1980s to 600,000+ in the mid-1990s. Will a third of the universities close? More important, will industry and commerce cope with the potential reduction in skilled manpower production? A method is described for forecasting graduate numbers and their quality by discipline, and suggestions are made about ways in which society could react so as to influence unacceptable trends."
Author's address: Planning Officer, University of Bath, Bath, Avon BA2 7AY, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30682 Wattenberg, Ben J. The birth dearth. ISBN 0-88687-304-5. LC 83-63759. 1987. viii, 182 pp. Pharos Books: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the consequences of the trend toward below-replacement fertility in industrialized Western countries. The primary focus is on the United States. He suggests that this trend will have adverse consequences in many sectors, including the economy, personal happiness, ethnic balance, and the geopolitical sector. He concludes that developed industrialized Western countries, including the United States, have approximately one generation in which to understand the problem and take steps to raise fertility to replacement levels. Specific measures to encourage childbearing are proposed, including provision of day care and other services for working mothers and awarding cash bonuses to parents unitl their children reach age 16.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

53:30683 Cruz, Ma. Concepcion J. Integrated summary report: population pressure and migration: implications for upland development. CPDS Working Paper, No. 86-07, Aug 1986. 52, [8] pp. University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Center for Policy and Development Studies [CPDS]: Laguna, Philippines. In Eng.
The relationship between the exploitation of natural resources, specifically in forests and woodlands, and migration in the Philippines is explored. The data sources are first described. "Part II discusses the methodology for delineation of upland areas in relation to the existing allocation of forest land uses. A profile of upland population and migration is provided in Part III based on the 1980 Census of Population and Housing. In Part IV, a model using macro-migration functions is presented using national census data. Part V summarizes the case study results. Lastly, policy implications and a research agenda are presented in Part VI."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30684 Heilig, Gerhard; Krebs, Thomas. Population growth and food supply in Africa South of the Sahara: models of future development. [Bevolkerungswachstum und Nahrungsversorgung in Schwarzafrika: Modellrechnungen zur kunftigen Entwicklung.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1987. 81-119 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Our paper first examines the demographic dimension of the present African food crisis. We will argue that the food problems are primarily the result of an interaction between population growth and a strong neglect of agriculture during the last 20 years. The widening gap between domestic food supply and demand has increased the vulnerability to drought, which finally triggered widespread famines. A model was developed to determine the future consequences of population growth for the agricultural system. It demonstrates that in the year 2025 domestic cereal production would have to be more than tripled only to meet the (low) present standards of consumption. We have also calculated the cereal demand of a 'stationary population' according to the long-term population projections of the World Bank. In the main section of our paper we argue that future population growth in Sub-Saharan Africa severely restricts the options for a development strategy. According to our calculations it would be impossible to meet growing food demand during the next 40 years through domestic production without a 'Green Revolution'."
Author's address: Universitat Bamberg, Lehrstuhl fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Hornthalstrasse 2, 8600 Bamberg, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30685 Nort, Egon. Why are there food deficiencies? Causes and practical solutions. [Por que faltamos alimentos? Causas e solucoes viaveis.] 1987. 173 pp. Editora da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina: Florianopolis, Brazil. In Por.
The author examines the impact of rapid population growth on food production in Brazil, with a focus on the feasibility of rapid birth rate reductions. Alternative ways of food production involving self-reliance programs are described. Chapters are included on the population explosion, disarmament, food production, alternative solutions for food production, public affairs administration, and the author's proposals.
Publisher's address: Department of Food Science and Technology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88000 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30686 Okafor, Francis C. Population pressure and land resource depletion in southeastern Nigeria. Applied Geography, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul 1987. 243-56 pp. Guildford, England. In Eng.
The extent of population pressure on agricultural land resources in the Awka-Nnewi region of southeastern Nigeria is explored. "Three related indices, namely, farmland size per capita, fallow index and fragmentation index were calculated from field data to aid in the assessment of severity of land resource depletion. The merit of each index is discussed together with the procedure of calculating and applying it." The results indicate that some sections of the region are badly depleted.
Author's address: Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30687 Otto, Johannes. Population growth and food supply. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 30. September bis 3. Oktober 1985 in Dijon. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 49, 1986. 73-86 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author projects world population growth by calculating the carrying capacity of given areas and their maximum population density using three different levels of farming technology. "The computation and analysis [were] carried out for the developing world excluding East Asia. [This study] covers a total of 117 countries....Two time-frames are used in the study, namely the 'present' as represented by the year 1975, and the 'projected' as represented by the year 2000." The author discusses the degree to which the food supply situation is or will be critical.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30688 Repetto, Robert. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future. Population Bulletin, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul 1987. 44 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of the relationships among population growth, resource use, and environmental quality worldwide and considers prospects for the future. The history of the debate concerning population growth and resources is first traced. Anticipated world population growth to the year 2100 is considered. Consequences of population expansion in terms of living standards, poverty and income distribution, and the effects on renewable and nonrenewable resources and on environmental quality are examined using a variety of published sources for recent years. Attention is then given to the implications of future population growth, including energy consumption, nonfuel minerals, and agricultural resources. Finally, suggestions as to governments' role in sustaining a beneficial balance between population, resources, and the environment are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

53:30689 Akyeampong, Ernest B. Involuntary part-time employment in Canada, 1975-1986. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 26-9 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author examines part-time employment in Canada among people who are unable to find full-time jobs, with a focus on the social implications of involuntary part-time employment. Data are for the period 1975-1986 and illustrate trends in the type of work available, age and sex factors related to full- and part-time employees, and geographic variation in levels of involuntary part-time work.
Author's address: Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30690 Barsotti, Odo; Giannini, L.; Venturi, S. Demographic changes, spatial mobility, and the availability of employment: a study in the province of Pisa. [Trasformazioni demografiche, mobilita spaziale e offerta di lavoro: un' indagine nella provincia di Pisa.] 1986. 229 pp. Franco Angeli: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Recent demographic trends in the Italian province of Pisa are analyzed. The first chapter describes the changes that occurred between 1971 and 1981, including changes in the age distribution, labor force participation, and spatial distribution. The next chapter focuses on labor force questions, including the mobility of labor. A final chapter uses demographic methodology to forecast the future demand for labor.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30691 Bernhardt, Eva M. Labour force participation and childbearing: the impact of the first child on the economic activity of Swedish women. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 41, ISBN 91-7820-028-8. Sep 1987. ii, 26, 5 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The author considers various aspects of female labor force participation following the birth of a first child in Sweden. Data are from the 1981 Swedish National Fertility Survey of 4,300 Swedish women. Patterns in labor force participation and home attachment as well as factors influencing the timing and choice of full- or part-time work are examined in terms of woman's educational level, social background, marital status, age at first birth, and other socioeconomic variables. "Swedish women have become more and more inclined to take up part-time work when they return to the labour market after first birth. A decline in home attachment has gone hand in hand with the increasing popularity of part-time work." The implications for sex-role equality are also dicussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30692 Bernhardt, Eva M. The choice of part-time work among Swedish one-child mothers. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 40, ISBN 91-7820-027-X. Sep 1987. 38, 5 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
The author discusses a current trend among Swedish mothers to choose part-time work following the birth of a first child. "The analysis is based on data from the Swedish Fertility Survey undertaken by Statistics Sweden in 1981 in which 4,300 Swedish women in the ages between 20 and 44 were interviewed." The significance of education, socioeconomic status, and career orientation and position in the labor market prior to the first birth is considered. Sections are included on the transition from full-time to part-time work, the move from part-time to full-time work, and employment stability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30693 Briggs, Vernon M. The growth and composition of the U.S. labor force. Science, Vol. 238, No. 4824, Oct 9, 1987. 176-80 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in the growth and composition of the U.S. labor force. "In sharp contrast with the experiences of all other industrialized nations, the size of the labor force of the United States is growing rapidly while, simultaneously, its age, gender, and ethnic composition are changing markedly. Consequently, human resource issues present an unprecedented challenge in the nation's quest to achieve a fully employed and equitable society." Explanations for U.S. labor force growth are suggested, with a focus on female labor force participation, the changing age distribution of the population, and increased immigration to the United States. The lower labor force participation rate of black males relative to white males is also considered.
Author's address: New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14851.
Location: Princeton University Library (SQ).

53:30694 Clemenson, Heather A. Unemployment rates for the full-time and part-time labour forces. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 30-3 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The author describes the use of unemployment rates for the full-time and part-time labor forces as supplements to the official Canadian unemployment rate. Attention is given to the definition of these rates and to how they are calculated. These supplementary rates "reveal differences in the labour force market experiences of men and women of different ages which cannot be seen in the official unemployment rates. Among full-time labour force participants, women generally experience the greatest difficulty in finding employment. In contrast, while women predominate in the part-time labour force, it is men who have the highest part-time unemployment rates." Data are for the period 1980-1986.
Author's address: Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30695 Espenshade, Thomas J.; Goodis, Tracy A. Demographic trends shaping the American family and work force. In: America in transition: benefits for the future, edited by the Employee Benefit Research Institute. [1987?]. 5-24 pp. Employee Benefit Research Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Recent demographic trends in the United States are reviewed with particular reference to their impact on the adequacy of the current system of employee benefits. The paper is in three sections. "First, we discuss macrodemographic changes in relation to the work force, concentrating on the most recent projections of the size and composition of the U.S. population. Second, microdemographic changes relating to changing family economics--especially the rise in the number of working mothers--and the increasing number of elderly dependents are reviewed in relation to their implications for families and the work force. A third and concluding section summarizes the policy implications of these key demographic changes for the future of employee benefits."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30696 Fridman, Samuel; Lee, Sharon M.; Falcon, Luis M. Estimating income-dependent occupational scores for 1940. Social Science Research, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1987. 260-83 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Recently released public use microdata sample files (PUMS) from the 1940 United States census represent important additions to census time-series data. However, the usefulness of this data set for stratification analysis is limited by missing data on self-employment earnings and the absence of an interval scale for the 1940 classification of occupations. In this paper, we report the methodology used to derive these measures and the results. 1940 census-based occupational SEI [socioeconomic index] scores are estimated, following O. D. Duncan (1961), and additional method of ranking occupations, mean occupational earnings (MOE), is also described. These two measures of occupational rank should add to the sociological literature on scaling occupations and model testing, and are currently being analyzed in an ongoing research project on patterns of ethnic and immigrant group stratification during the 1940-1950 decade."
Author's address: International Population Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30697 Fullerton, Howard N. Labor force projections: 1986 to 2000. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 110, No. 9, Sep 1987. 19-29 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Projections of the U.S. labor force to the year 2000 made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) are analyzed. "According to BLS projections, there will be 139 million persons in the 2000 labor force, representing a slowdown in the rate of growth after 1986; because of population or participation growth rates, blacks, Hispanics, and Asians and others are expected to increase their representation in the labor pool."
Author's address: Office of Economic Growth and Employment Projections, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20212.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30698 Hayghe, Howard V.; Haugen, Steven E. A profile of husbands in today's labor market. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 110, No. 10, Oct 1987. 12-7 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
A profile of married men in the U.S. labor force is presented, based on 1987 data from the Current Population Survey. The results indicate that "historically, high earnings and low unemployment have typified the labor market experience of married men, yet, their labor force participation rate is much lower today than in the past."
Location: Princeton University Library (DOCS).

53:30699 Hohn, Charlotte. Trends of female employment in the Federal Republic of Germany: integration or segregation. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 30. September bis 3. Oktober 1985 in Dijon. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 47-71, No. 49, 1986. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author considers two issues concerning women in the labor force in the Federal Republic of Germany, namely women's integration into the economy and women's wages. She attempts "to show the importance of some demographic characteristics of women such as family status and number and age of children, and of socio-cultural characteristics like education and professional [training] on patterns of participation in the labour force. To this aim [the author presents] a number of tables and graphs from the official statistics of the Federal Republic of Germany." Differing levels of economic activity over time are noted among women by marital status, number of children, economic sector, occupational status, educational status, number of hours worked, age, and cohort. Determinants of wage discrepancies between the sexes are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30700 Israel. Central Bureau of Statistics (Jerusalem, Israel). Labour force survey, 1985. Central Bureau of Statistics Special Series, No. 801, 1987. 282, xli pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng; Heb.
"This publication presents data [on Israel] from the Labour Force Surveys 1985. The labour force survey is the Central Bureau of Statistics' main survey of families. It serves as a current follow-up of the development in the labour force in Israel, its size and its characteristics, extent of unemployment, etc....The data in this publication were prepared on the basis of population estimates for 1985, not yet updated according to the results of the 1983 Census." Results of the survey are summarized for participation in the civilian labor force by age and sex and by years of study. Attention is also given to part-time employment, unemployment, temporary unemployment, and non-Jews and women in the work force. Tables are in both English and Hebrew.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30701 Methot, Suzanne. Employment patterns of elderly Canadians. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 7-11 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
Trends in employment among Canadians aged 65 and older are reviewed. The author discusses sex differences in employment, part-time employment, elderly agricultural workers, regional variations, and mandatory retirement legislation and its abolition in certain areas. It is found that "if mandatory retirement based on age were completely eliminated in Canada, there would be very limited immediate upward pressure on labour force participation."
Author's address: Labour and Household Surveys Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OT6, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30702 Picot, W. Garnett; Wannell, Ted; Lynd, Doug. 1976 and 1982 postsecondary graduates: selected highlights of their labour force experience. Canadian Social Trends, Autumn 1987. 38-42 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The authors compare the employment experiences of postsecondary graduates of 1976 and 1982 in Canada, with a focus on unemployment by field of study and occupational changes for university graduates. It is found that "while both 1982 university and community college graduates...experienced higher unemployment rates in 1984 than did 1976 graduates in 1978, the effect of changing economic conditions on unemployment rates was considerably less for postsecondary graduates than for the labour force as a whole."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30703 Sanchez-Albornoz, Nicolas. Population and manpower in Latin America. [Poblacion y mano de obra en America Latina.] ISBN 84-206-4206-1. 1985. 326 pp. Alianza Editorial: Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This is a collection of papers by different authors concerning the historical relationship between labor force and demography in Latin America. Papers are included on the exploitation of the labor force among the indigenous population of the Brazilian coastal areas of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo; population size and human resources in Guatemala in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the demographic transition in Bolivia in the sixteenth century; manpower and migration in the central mining region of the Andes in 1683; market demands and land supply in Bolivia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; temporary employment and human resources in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1850-1880; population and human resources in Uruguay, 1870-1930; slaves as wage earners in coffee-producing countries, 1880-1914; labor supply and agrarian expansion in Venezuelan agriculture, 1873-1889; and labor force migration and policy in Venezuela, 1945-1961.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30704 Saw, Swee-Hock. Growth and structure of the ASEAN labour force. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1986. 106-17 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
Trends in population growth and labor force dynamics in the countries of Southeastern Asia are explored. Consideration is given to differences in labor force developments among countries, labor force participation rates, and the industrial structure of the labor force.
Author's address: Department of Economics and Statistics, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30705 Sprague, Alison. Post-war fertility and female labour force participation rates. Applied Economics Discussion Paper, No. 9, Jun 1986. 35, [5] pp. Oxford University, Institute of Economics and Statistics: Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper provides an explanation for the change in fertility and female labour supply over the post-war period [in England and Wales]. A model of fertility and labour force participation is outlined and estimated over the period 1953-82 for six age groups of women. The most significant factors to influence fertility and participation are found to be male and female earnings and education. Interest rates, number of children and the state of the labour market are also important."
Author's address: Hertford College, Oxford University, Oxford, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30706 Szentgali, Tamas. A study of the labor force by means of working life tables. [A munkaero vizsgalata gazdasagi aktivitasi es inaktivitasi tablakkal.] Demografia, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1986. 384-416 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Life table methods are used to analyze labor force trends in Hungary. Particular attention is given to structural rather than quantitative changes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30707 Taylor, J. Edward; Espenshade, Thomas J. Foreign and undocumented workers in California agriculture. Impacts of Immigration in California Policy Discussion Paper, No. PDS-87-2, Jun 1987. 25 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents preliminary findings from a study of the role of undocumented workers in California agriculture." Data are based on a 1983 sample of 1,286 farm workers, categorized by type of crop, type of employment activity, and region. "Despite the growers' contention, there is no evidence that the most perishable crops and harvest activities depend more heavily on undocumented workers than do other crops and farm tasks. Moreover, there is no evidence that growers' reliance on undocumented workers is greatest where legal labor is most costly and scarce. Indirectly, a large-scale replenishment worker program will tend to benefit all growers by exerting downward pressure on agricultural wages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30708 Wander, Hilde. Employment problems in cities of the third world. [Beschaftigungsprobleme in den Stadten der Dritten Welt.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1987. 53-67 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"Starting from the historical experiences of the industrial countries and from the theory of W. A. Lewis which is based upon these experiences and which has influenced development policies in large parts of the Third World, the author outlines the particular demographic conditions relevant to the employment situation in the cities of developing countries. The important role of the informal sector in serving the poor strata of the population is emphasized, but its contribution to economic development is called into question. The potentials for promoting progress which are doubtlessly inherent in the informal sector need still to be realized by pin-pointed measures within the framework of a comprehensive development policy."
Author's address: Herderstrasse 4, 2300 Kiel, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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