Volume 53 - Number 3 - Fall 1987

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

53:30241 Adegbola, O. Regional and socio-economic fertility differentials in Nigeria, 1981-82. IPD Working Paper, No. 1987-6, 1987. 83, [4] pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
The reproductive behavior of Nigerian women is analyzed using data from the 1981-1982 Nigerian Fertility Survey, part of the World Fertility Survey. The author first presents a set of tables on various measures of the proximate determinants of fertility. Aggregate analyses are undertaken for each variable for different age groups. The variables are grouped into three main themes: those affecting the starting of a family, including age at first birth, capacity to bear children, sexual union, and contraception and abortion; those affecting child spacing, including components of birth intervals such as breast-feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and postpartum abstinence; and those concerning stopping, specifically age at last birth. The relative contribution of each of the proximate determinants to fertility levels and differentials is assessed. The results indicate that although fertility levels are almost universally high, they are so for different reasons in various parts of the country because reproductive behavior is undergoing significant changes, particularly in urbanized and developed areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30242 Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa. Fertility in Cuba. [La fecundidad en Cuba.] Demografia, 1985. ix, 182 pp. Editorial de Ciencias Sociales: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
The author analyzes Cuban fertility trends from a Marxist-Leninist perspective. Data sources and historical trends are first reviewed. Fertility trends in the 1970s are then analyzed, and future trends are considered.
Publisher's address: Calle 14, No. 4104, Playa, Havana, Cuba.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30243 Arango, Joaquin. Fertility decline in Spain. [El descenso de la fecundidad en Espana.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 162-71 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author reviews and comments on papers presented at the First Congress on Historical Demography concerning Italy, Spain, and Portugal, held in April 1987. The papers discussed focus on the modern decline of fertility in Spain.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30244 Asociacion Demografica Salvadrena (San Salvador, El Salvador); Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development. Demographic and Health Surveys [DHS] (Columbia, Maryland). National Survey of Family Health, FESAL-85. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud Familiar, FESAL-85.] Sep 1987. xv, 157, 22 pp. San Salvador, El Salvador. In Spa.
These are the results of El Salvador's 1985 National Survey of Family Health (FESAL-85), part of the Westinghouse Demographic and Health Surveys, which covered 5,207 women aged 15-49. The aim of the survey was to provide information on fertility levels and their determinants, including nuptiality, lactation, contraceptive use, and reproductive behavior; levels of infant mortality and other factors related to maternal and child health; and socioeconomic differences in levels of fertility, nuptiality, contraception, and infant mortality. Chapters are included on nuptiality and exposure to risk of pregnancy; fertility levels and trends; contraception, including knowledge and use of various methods, attitudes toward family planning, and availability of contraceptive methods; fertility preferences, including the relationship between desired number of children and contraceptive use; and mortality and health, particularly infant mortaltiy and maternal and child health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30245 Bansal, R. D.; Ramachandran, V.; Narayan, K. A. Live births trend in a semi-urban community of Pondicherry. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1984. 176-83 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The authors study aspects of 1,646 live births recorded in Pondicherry, India, between 1973 and 1981. Attention is given to sex ratio, parity of mothers, utilization of health services for delivery, and seasonal variation in births.
Author's address: Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Pondicherry 605006, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30246 Barrett, J. C. Sampling errors and correlations in a fertility simulation. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 123-35 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate reproductive histories incorporating heterogeneity of natural fecundability and natural sterility in order to find their effect on sampling errors of birth rate and correlation between birth intervals. The sampling errors of age specific fertility rates were found not to increase much by heterogeneity of fecundability between women. Correlations between consecutive birth intervals were positive...." The simulation runs were constructed to represent either natural fertility or the fertility of a developing country.
Author's address: Department of Medical Demography, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 31 Bedford Square, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30247 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Nath, D. C. Analytical models for number of births--a review. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 147-60 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The author reviews analytical models developed in the last three decades concerning the number of births to a female or group of females during a given period. The review is restricted to models based on biological factors and excludes computer simulation models. The geographic focus is worldwide.
Author's address: Department of Statistics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30248 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K. On a probability model for interior birth interval. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 7, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1984. 287-98 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"Under simplified assumptions a model is derived for an interior birth interval: a closed birth lying entirely within a given segment of marriage duration. It may [also be] used to describe a closed birth interval lying between two survey dates." Three data sets from a 1978 sample survey of India are applied to the model.
Author's address: Department of Statistics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30249 Broussard, Cynthia A. The timing of first birth for women in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8702531. 1986. 158 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation attempts to solve some of [the problems of researching the timing of first birth] by examining first birth timing within an interdisciplinary framework that outlines three dimensions of the first birth process: (1) historical time; (2) individual time; and (3) socioeconomic background characteristics. The covariate estimates are derived by fitting the proportional hazards model to survey data from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Washington State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(10).

53:30250 Burr, Jeffrey A. Urbanization, fertility and social change: a demographic response to social and economic conditions. Pub. Order No. DA8705966. 1986. 364 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study develops a macro-level model of human fertility in order to test the nature of the combined economic, demographic and social contributions to the varying fertility levels and change processes for local labor markets [in the United States]. There are five major goals for this study. First, a community based model of fertility is put forth to help account for the level and change in this process since World War II....Second, a descriptive analysis is presented to demonstrate that economic and social conditions at the local community level influence demographic behavior. Third, a sample issue relating specifically to metropolitan area analysis is accomplished....The last two goals concern the ability and usefulness of formally testing the macro-model of fertility at the cross-sectional level and at the cross-sequential level. The major findings suggest that the metropolitan area is a viable unit of analysis for studying human fertility in the United States for the post-World War II era."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas, Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(12).

53:30251 Chaudhry, Mahinder. Transition from natural to semi-controlled birth rate in India. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1-2, 1987. 45-66 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author first notes that over the past 30 years, the rate of growth of India's population has been low in comparison with most large developing countries, and only slightly greater than that of China. Prospects for the decade 1981-1991 are still unclear; however, in light of current levels of socioeconomic development and contraceptive practice, the official target of achieving replacement-level fertility by 2001 seems unrealistic. In the context of regional differences in fertility, the author notes that there are great differences among states and union territories and that the states containing a large percentage of the majority Hindi-speaking population have not yet registered any meaningful declines in the birth rate. "The last section traces trends in the selected proximate determinants of fertility, such as: proportions married, mean age at marriage, widowhood, abortion, contraceptive use, and breast-feeding practices in India."
Author's address: Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30252 Chen, Jain-Shing A.; Bendaraf, Ibrahim B.; Hicks, W. Whitney; Johnson, S. R. The "synthesis framework" and determinants of fertility in Syria. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 1, Oct 1987. 145-59 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"The present analysis applies a statistical model to relate use of contraceptives and the number of children ever born in Syria. The model specification is motivated by the work of Easterlin and Crimmins. Departures from the Easterlin and Crimmins model relate to the estimation method for the choice model and the introduction of socioeconomic variables in contraceptive utilization equations directly. Our results show that these simultaneous models, when appropriately specified and estimated, can be utilized effectively in policy simulations designed to evaluate the consequences of changes in education, urbanization, and other indirect modernization variables on fertility....Data for the analysis were from a household survey conducted in Syria during 1978, in which 4,487 households were surveyed....The final analysis was for 941 women ages 35-44, with two or more live births, who had been married only once and had remained married up to the survey date....The model specification for Syria emphasized the importance of education and other socioeconomic variables as factors directly influencing the decision to regulate and indirectly influencing fertility."
Author's address: University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

53:30253 Chen, Shengli; Zhao, Wei-gang. Levels and trends of fertility in Jilin and Hebei provinces, China. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-G, 1986. iv, 36 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report on fertility levels and trends in China is divided into two chapters. "The first chapter analyses levels and trends of fertility during the period 1971-1981 in Jilin Province. It compares estimates from the 1982 census with estimates from a sample survey of fertility also conducted in 1982. It also presents fertility rates at the level of the 46 cities and counties for 1971-1976 and 1976-1981....The second chapter analyses levels and trends of fertility in Hebei Province during the period 1964-1981. It presents separate estimates of fertility for each of twelve prefectures and cities for each year in this period." The reverse survival method is used to estimate fertility rates in both provinces. Tables provide information on geographic factors and parity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30254 Choi, Bong Ho. Levels and trends of fertility for small geographical areas in the Republic of Korea: using census data of 1970, 1975 and 1980. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-C, [1985?]. iii, 39 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"In this study [the author attempts] to estimate the levels and trends of fertility for small geographical areas during the period 1961-1980 in the Republic of Korea, based primarily on the sample enumeration data of the 1970, 1975 and 1980 censuses. For this, the own-children method was employed, after adjusting the data for the underenumeration of children and women, and mortality conditions experienced by them." Tables include data on age-specific fertility rates for the whole country and provinces and for rural and urban areas; age-specific fertility rates derived from other sources; and estimated total fertility rates for small areas by five-year age group, 1961-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30255 Choi, Jeong-Soo. A study on another pregnancy and contraceptive use in postpartum women. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1986. 38-55 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
The author studies fertility in the two years following a live birth using data collected in 1984-1986 from 403 women involved in an urban primary health care project in the Republic of Korea. Evidence is found of a reduction in the duration of both postpartum amenorrhea and breast-feeding. Contraceptive use and pregnancy incidence rates are compared with similar statistics for other countries. The need to provide family planning services in the early postpartum period is stressed.
Author's address: Korea Institute for Population and Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30256 Chui, James. Youth, population and development: integrated strategies. Populi, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1986. 38-46 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author discusses early childbearing in developing countries and its impact on the individual, the economy, the rate of population growth, and social and economic development. The significance of population control and family planning is considered for both the individual and society. Other socioeconomic concerns related to adolescent fertility are discussed, and some data for developed countries are provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30257 Cliquet, R. L. Sub-replacement fertility: a paradox in human evolution? [Benedenvervangingsvruchtbaarheid. Een paradox en de menselijke evolutie?] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1986. 51-66 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author considers below-replacement-level fertility from the perspective of evolutionary biology. He argues that "modern living circumstances have changed so fundamentally that phenotypic fitness, which in the human is to a certain degree a condition for but not a cause of reproductive fitness, does not anymore guarantee reproductive fitness. Demographic transition is of such a recent nature that it has not yet allowed selection to readjust reproductive fitness to phenotypic fitness. On the basis of selection theory, the present below replacement fertility is not to be considered as an [irreversible] phenomenon and, hence, as the last stage of the demographic transition."
Author's address: Centrum voor Bevolkings- en Gezinsstudien, Nijverheidsstraat 37, 1040 Brussels, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30258 Colombia. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica [DANE] (Bogota, Colombia). Registered births, 1973-1984. [Nacimientos registrados, 1973-1984.] 1986. 133 pp. Bogota, Colombia. In Spa.
Data are presented on registered births for Colombia by year, sex, and municipality for the period 1976-1984.
Publisher's address: Centro Administrativo Nacional, Avenida Eldorado, Apartado Aereo No. 80043, Bogota, Colombia.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30259 Costello, Michael A.; Palabrica-Costello, Marilou. Female employment, occupational setting and fertility in a Philippine city. In: Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects, edited by John Stoeckel and Anrudh K. Jain. 1986. 85-109 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors investigate aspects of the relationship between female employment patterns and fertility in Cagayan de Oro, the Philippines, using data from 1982 interviews of 1,257 married women aged 20-44. They make "a comparison between the fertility patterns predicted by role incompatibility theory and those based on the three-way relationship between employment, infant feeding practices, and fertility. The former perspective hypothesizes that fertility levels should be lowest among factory employees, followed in order by women working within the informal sector...and the housewife group; the latter hypothesizes that the relationship between occupational setting and fertility should be negligible or may even run in the opposite direction. Role incompatibility theory also posits a positive relationship between access to maternal surrogates and fertility, while the breastfeeding argument assumes that this relationship will be negligible." The findings show little support for the role incompatibility theory and confirm instead the hypotheses concerning the role of breast-feeding.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30260 Davis, Kingsley; Bernstam, Mikhail S.; Ricardo-Campbell, Rita. Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies. ISBN 0-521-34324-0. LC 87-6371. 1987. ix, 360 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This collection of 18 papers and 11 commentaries, by noted economists, demographers, and sociologists, combines systematic discussions of the demographic effects of below-replacement fertility with efforts to explain its social origins, to determine the likely societal consequences, and to assess potential policy responses. The articles, which are based on papers presented at a 1985 seminar held at Stanford University, are presented under the headings trends, models, interpretation, consequences, and policies.
This book originally appeared as a supplement to Vol. 12 of Population and Development Review for 1986, and was cited in 53:20252. The individual papers it contains were also cited in Population Index at that time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30261 de Cooman, Eric; Ermisch, John; Joshi, Heather. The next birth and the labour market: a dynamic model of births in England and Wales. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jul 1987. 237-68 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The object of this paper is to assess how far developments in the labour market can help to explain the fluctuations in births which have been recorded in England and Wales between 1952 and 1980. We examine separately the period rate of women from each of the first four parities proceeding to another birth. Our analysis shows that different birth orders respond differently to economic variables, and that women of different ages but the same parity respond differently. We have found that growing real wages for both men and women tend to deter older parents from adding to existing families. During the early stages of family building, births are inhibited by labour markets favourable to women. But conditions in the labour market for men have the opposite effect on early breeding."
Author's address: Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30262 de Jong, A. H. Some aspects of the first and second birth interval. [Het eerste en tweede geboorte-interval nader belicht.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 5, May 1987. 14-23 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"This article presents an analysis of the influence of demographic, socio-cultural and socioeconomic variables on the birth spacing pattern of women [in the Netherlands] with the aid of data from the Netherlands Fertility Survey 1982 and the follow-up study in 1985 (NFS'82/'85). Only the first and second intervals of women married for the first time and born between 1945-1964 are taken into account." The results indicate that 18 percent of the variance in the length of the first birth interval is due to such factors, suggesting that the influence of personal factors on fertility behavior is substantial. However, such variables account for only 8 percent of variance in the length of second birth intervals.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30263 de Oliveira, Luiz A. P. The Northeast: fertility and recent dynamics of the labor force. [Nordeste: fecundidade e dinamica recente da forca de trabalho.] Boletim sobre Populacao, Emprego e Renda no Nordeste, Vol. 4, No. 2-3, May-Dec 1985. 241-67 pp. Recife, Brazil. In Por.
Data from the 1970 and 1980 censuses of Brazil are analyzed to examine the economic growth of the Notheast, changes in the region's population dynamics, and changes in fertility. Consideration is given to the segmentation of the urban labor market, the income of the economically active population, children in the labor force, female education versus fertility, and family income versus female participation in the work force.
Author's address: Fundacao Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica [IBGE], Av. Franklin Roosevelt 166, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Press (SPR).

53:30264 de Saboulin, M. Fertility during the first years of marriage in France. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 30. September bis 3. Oktober 1985 in Dijon. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, No. 49, 1986. 97-105 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
The author examines trends in France in fertility during the first years of marriage for the period 1952-1982 using vital registration and 1982 census data. First birth interval, age at marriage, mother's social and educational status, premarital pregnancy resulting in legitimate births, and postponement of first birth are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30265 Falaris, Evangelos M. An empirical study of the timing and spacing of childbearing. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 54, No. 2, Oct 1987. 287-300 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The author presents evidence concerning the economic determinants of the timing and spacing of births in the United States, with particular reference to the effects of shifts in a woman's wage profile and shifts in her husband's earnings profile. The data are from the young women's cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience and concern 314 white women whose husbands were present during the period 1968-1978. The author develops an empirical model of the probability that a woman will give birth in a given time period. The results suggest that an increase in the woman's income tends to lead to a postponement of childbearing and a tendency toward closer spacing of births. An upward shift in husband's income involves a shift away from very close or very wide spacing toward intermediate spacing.
Author's address: University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30266 Fargues, Philippe; Courbage, Youssef. Reconstitution of past fertility rates from a single census in countries with incomplete statistics. [Reconstitution de la fecondite passee a l'aide d'un seul recensement dans les pays a statistiques incompletes.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 449-68 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The use of census and sample surveys to collect data on parity (P) and cumulative fertility (F) in developing countries is first described. The authors note that these data have been used to study fertility in populations where fertility was constant over time (the P/F method). They then proceed to "show how, by inverting the traditional hypotheses on fertility rates (which are now considered as variable) and on retrospective survey data (considered as sufficiently good), these data can reflect the decline in fertility rates among populations in which the second stage of demographic transition has begun. A new method used to reconstitute fertility rates by five years age groups and by periods is explained, and applied to census data from Morocco (1982). This simulation leads to results very similar to those obtained by the World Fertility Survey."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30267 Frank, Odile; McNicoll, Geoffrey. An interpretation of fertility and population policy in Kenya. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 131, Feb 1987. 49 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"Two decades of government antinatalist efforts in Kenya have had negligible effect on fertility levels. The total fertility rate, about eight births per woman, is higher than it was in the 1950s. This paper seeks to explain why Kenyan fertility is so high and to locate what went wrong in the design or execution of the government's past efforts to lower fertility, and considers possible directions for population policy that might be more effective."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30268 Ghetau, Vasile. Fertility by duration of marriage. [Durata casatoriei si fertilitatea.] Viitorul Social, May-Jun 1986. 249-56 pp. Bucharest, Romania. In Rum.
Fertility by duration of marriage is analyzed for Romania for the years 1966-1984. The trends are shown to be approximately the same as the trends in the total fertility rate. The author notes that fertility was below the replacement rate in 1966 and 1982-1983. Most children are conceived early in marriage: approximately 75 percent are conceived in the first 5 years, and 90 percent in the first 10 years.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30269 Grunewald, Werner. The long-term development of fertility in the Federal Republic of Germany. Arbeiten aus der Statistik, 1987. 16, [2] pp. Universitat Bamberg, Lehrstuhl fur Statistik: Bamberg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
"To analyse the long-term development of fertility in the Federal Republic of Germany, [the] intensity and tempo of fertility of several cohorts are compared. For this purpose, different measures like the crude birth rate, age-, marriage-duration-specific birth rate, parity progression ratio or selected functions of fertility life tables are used measuring different aspects of fertility...." Birth cohorts, 1935-1948, marriage cohorts, 1962-1972, and parity cohorts, 1964-1972, are studied. It is found that "altogether, the intensity of fertility is continuously reduced. The crude birth rate fell from the birth cohort 1935 to the birth cohort 1948 by about 14 per cent." Analysis of the tempo of fertility indicates a tendency to postpone childbearing and a rise in the length of birth intervals since the end of the 1960s.
Publisher's address: Feldkirchenstrasse 21, D-8600 Bamberg, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30270 Holla, Mahabaleshwar. Levels and trends of fertility in India: using the census data of 1971 and 1981. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-B, 1985. iii, 43 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This report compares information on fertility [in India] from the sample registration system (SRS) with estimates of fertility from the 1981 census. It shows that although the two sources give results which are approximately equal for most states, estimates from the SRS are generally more reliable." Methods of estimation and analysis, error sources, and reliability are discussed. A statistical appendix provides data by state on parity, percentage of children who have died, and age-specific fertility rates; proportion surviving from birth to age 5; and counts of children, aged 0-4, and women, aged 15-49, in the 1971 and 1981 censuses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30271 Hongladarom, Chira; Prasith-rathsint, Suchart; Robinson, Warren C. The economic and social impact of declining fertility: a case study of Thailand. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1987. 3-22 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the socio-economic consequences for Thailand of past, present and future declines in fertility. It finds that the declining rate of population growth has made it much easier for Thailand to sustain the shock of falling economic growth and the temporary uncertainty about the economic future which existed between 1982 and 1985. Moreover, by removing the continued pressure of rapid population growth on the labour force, Thailand's unemployment problem, while real in the short term, will be very manageable over the longer term. Also, it shows that pressure will be eased on increasing the quantity of public services, such as education and health, thus enabling an increase in the quality of those services."
Author's address: Human Resources Institute, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30272 Houdaille, Jacques; Blum, Alain; Tugault, Yves. Declining fertility rates in the Garonne Valley (1740-1860). [Baisse de la fecondite dans la Vallee de la Garonne (1740-1860).] Population, Vol. 42, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 503-26 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Fertility trends in the Garonne Valley of France from 1740 to 1860 are analyzed using data from a reconstitution of records from parish registers, vital statistics, and baptismal records. The results show a rapid decline in fertility among marriage cohorts formed on the eve of the Revolution. However, an analysis of changes in the period fertility rate indicates that the process of family limitation seems to have progressed in stages that had a close relationship to significant historical events. These developments are analyzed using indexes developed by Ansley Coale and Etienne van de Walle. The authors note that "differences in fertility rates by social status were small before the Revolution, but increased afterwards when birth control was more widely practised among 'landowners' than among peasant share croppers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30273 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Summary of the 1986 fertility surveys. 1987. 21 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This report summarizes the results of two 1986 fertility surveys in Hungary. The first survey questioned 3,800 married females; the second covered five percent of young couples married in 1983. Questions concerned ideal family size, contraceptive use, marital status, and number of children desired. "The survey aimed to assess--besides family life, housing and changes in family plans--also the reaction to and the impact of the population policy measures taken during the past couple of years. While the former survey characterizes all married females of reproductive age, the latter presents primarily the specific situation of the young married couples." The purpose of the study is, in part, to determine what measures can be taken to promote childbearing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30274 Hwang, Chun-Sin. Income and substitution effects in fertility decision. Pub. Order No. DA8709500. 1986. 119 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study contains two chapters: (1) Demographic Transition in an Economic Growth Model: a Simulation Study and (2) Countercyclical Fertility and the Cost of Time. Both papers examine the income-fertility relationship after World War II. The long run association between the crude birth rate and income is discussed in the first paper, where a simulation model is used to explain the fertility transition which occurred about 1960. My finding is that, in a growth model, the price effect eventually becomes more important than the income effect....The second paper studies the short term income-fertility relationship....Empirical results from the data of the United States suggest positive effects from assets and current income and negative effects from expected future income."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Rochester.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 48(1).

53:30275 Kanbargi, Ramesh; Kulkarni, P. M. Child labour, schooling and fertility in rural Karnataka, South India. In: Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects, edited by John Stoeckel and Anrudh K. Jain. 1986. 110-34 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study investigates the relationships between child labour, child schooling and fertility in a sample of villages in South India." The data are from individual, household, and village-level surveys. "Although no direct relationship was found between child labour and fertility, child labour did significantly affect fertility indirectly by reducing the time spent in school. Since schooling has an antinatalistic effect on fertility, the overall effect of child labour on fertility is positive....Hence, it would appear that both reductions in the incidence of child labour and increases in the proportions of children going to school and remaining in school will contribute to a reduction in fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30276 Kemmer, Debbie. Victorian values and the fertility decline: the case of Scotland. Critical Social Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Winter 1986. 1-31 pp. Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
The author examines the final phase of the demographic transition in Scotland during the late nineteenth century. Particular attention is given to explanations developed by Joseph Banks concerning the fertility decline in England and Wales. Banks's analysis is reevaluated by applying it to data for Scotland. No clear pattern of fertility by occupation is found. It is suggested instead that both family size limitation and emphasis on higher education were results of value reorientations.
For the book by Banks, published in 1981, see 48:20566.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30277 Kim, Doo-Sub. Working experience of married women and fertility in Korea. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 15, 1986. 19-30 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng; Kor.
"The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between [the] working experience of married women and fertility in [the Republic of] Korea. Analyses of fertility differentials with respect to woman's working experience, place of work, occupation, and working status are provided." The analysis is based on data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey. "Findings suggest that [the] working experience of women imposes a negative effect on fertility when current age of wife, age of wife at first marriage and socioeconomic status of the couple are controlled. However, farmers and family workers are found to have higher fertility than those who have never worked....It is found that women living with parents or grandparents tend to have high fertility in general. However, contrary to our expectation, household structure does not [alter] the negative effect of women's working experience on fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30278 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Births in Denmark, 1984. [Fodsler i Danmark 1984.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 148, No. 24, Jun 9, 1986. 1,496-8 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Births occurring in Denmark in 1984 are analyzed using official data. Tables of medical statistics provide information on place of residence and woman's age, place of residence and type of birth facility, medical intervention, birth weight, and infant mortality.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30279 Kong, Sae Kwon; Cho, Ae Jeo. Recent fertility transition and its secondary effects in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1986. 3-23 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine implications of the recent fertility decline in the Republic of Korea for the society and population as a whole and for the family. Factors contributing to the reorientation of attitudes toward family size are discussed. Attention is given to the impact of declining fertility on population growth rates and demographic aging, as well as the related labor, health, and social security implications. In terms of the family, declining fertility has shortened the childbearing periods in the family life cycle and altered women's social and economic status. The emerging norm of the small nuclear family is considered in terms of its impact on family welfare.
Author's address: Korea Institute for Population and Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30280 Kuevi, Dovi. A survey on fertility and infant mortality in Lome: November 1980-February 1981. [Enquete sur la fecondite et la mortalite infantile a Lome: novembre 1980-fevrier 1981.] [1986?]. v, 109 pp. Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique: Lome, Togo. In Fre.
The results of a survey on fertility and infant mortality undertaken in Lome, Togo, are presented. The data concern a sample of 2,000 women attending health clinics.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30281 Kwok, Kwan Kit. Estimates of levels and trends of fertility of administrative districts, Peninsular Malaysia, 1970 and 1980. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-H, 1986. 59 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report contains the results of the Malaysia country study, part of a project conducted by the U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) in which 1970 and 1980 census data are used to study fertility levels and trends for small geographic areas in participating countries. "Chapter I provides background information on the socio-economic characteristics of Malaysia, on its statistical system and on the principal data sources used in the study. Chapter II describes the four techniques used in making the district fertility estimates presented in the report. These are the Bogue-Palmore, Rele, synthetic and synthetic-regression methods....Chapter III presents the results of the study as well as the residence-based vital registration data for 1982. Chapter IV summarizes the main conclusions of the study and gives an overall evaluation of the project."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30282 Li, Dina; Suarez, Flor. Fertility, maternal and child health, and family planning in Lima, 1985. [Fecundidad, salud materno infantil y planificacion familiar en Lima--1985.] Cuadernos CNP, No. 14, Jul 1986. 68 pp. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CNP]: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This report contains results from a 1985 survey of fertility, maternal and child health, and contraception, conducted in the department of Lima, Peru. Information is included on various aspects of reproduction, with a focus on the impact of socioeconomic and cultural differences. Tables and graphs present data on the population by sex and age, education, marital status, economic activity, and general characteristics of women aged 15-49; fertility and mortality rates, pregnancies, and desired family size; maternal and child health; family planning knowledge and contraceptive methods used; and attitudes toward family planning and sex education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30283 Lindgren, Jarl; Ritamies, Marketta. The European below replacement fertility. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 25, 1987. 30-9 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
"The article demonstrates the similarity of fertility decline [among countries] in Europe. The authors show that fertility has reached the below replacement level in almost all European countries. Geographical differences...caused by measures aimed to influence fertility or by differences in the time [of] departure from the pretransitional society are examined. The comparison is performed by using annual total fertility rates since 1950 and completed fertility for cohorts born since the beginning of the 1900s. The total fertility is given for all countries surveyed while the completed fertility is presented for only some countries. Causes, assumptions and views explaining the divergency from the long run trends on the country level as well as between countries are presented."
Author's address: Population Research Institute, Kalevankatu 16, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30284 Lutz, Wolfgang; Vaupel, James. The division of labor for society's reproduction: on the concentration of childbearing and rearing in Austria. Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Statistik und Informatik, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, 1987. 81-96 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
"Using data from the birth history of the German-Austrian census of 1939 and recent Austrian sample surveys, changes in the distribution and concentration of fertility are analyzed from the beginning of the century up to completed parity distributions implied by current period fertility. The extent of concentration is described by Lorenz curves and 'havehalf' statistics as well as by the difference between mothers' and children's mean family sizes. Generally, declining fertility was accompanied by increasing concentration while the baby boom period saw unprecedented low concentration. The labor of rearing children is even more concentrated than fertility, especially when men's participation in childcare is taken into account."
Author's address: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30285 Martin, Linda G. Female education and fertility in Bangladesh. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 1, No. 3, May 1987. 1-7 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author describes two pilot projects that were designed to "reduce fertility by providing secondary-education scholarships to girls in Bangladesh....[She] reviews the theoretical link between education and fertility, the educational situation in Bangladesh, and the projects' design and their effects as evaluated by a USAID/International Science and Technology Institute team...." Data are from the 1975 Bangladesh Fertility Survey and unofficial sources. While noting that only a few years of experience have been documented, the author finds evidence that keeping a girl in school through secondary school graduation does avert births.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30286 Mathews, Georges. The demographic shock: convergences and divergences between France and Quebec. [Le choc demographique: convergences et divergences entre la France et le Quebec.] Journal de la Societe de Statistique de Paris, Vol. 128, No. 1, 1987. 4-14 pp. Nancy, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in fertility and population growth in Quebec are reviewed. The author notes that the postwar decline in fertility has affected Quebec more than any other developed region. The consequences of the baby bust are considered, including demographic aging and its socioeconomic effects. The author suggests that an actual decline in population numbers may occur within 15 years. The need for a resolute family policy to counteract these trends is stressed.
Author's address: Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Quebec, Quebec, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30287 Mburugu, Edward K. Some notable patterns of fertility behaviour in Africa: the case of Kenya. International Sociology, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1986. 203-11 pp. Cardiff, Wales. In Eng.
"The high rate of population growth in Africa has led to government attempts to encourage fertility control, but economic development does not seem to be following Western demographic transition theory. Kenyan total fertility was 8.1 children in 1979 and mean desired number of children for ever married women is 7.2. Key patterns of fertility contributing to these figures are high levels of pre- and non-marital fertility, traditional orientations to fertility, low prevalence of modern orientations to family size and contraception, regional and ethnic variations and high fertility among young urban women." The value of existing theories of fertility in explaining these trends is considered.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Milton S. Eisenhower Library, Baltimore, MD.

53:30288 National Research Council. Committee on Population and Demography. Panel on Indonesia (Washington, D.C.). Recent trends in fertility and mortality in Indonesia. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 105, ISBN 0-86638-092-2. LC 87-11178. May 1987. xvi, 96 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to estimate the levels and trends of fertility and mortality for Indonesia using all relevant data sources. Both traditional and recently developed demographic techniques are employed. In addition to estimates for the country as a whole, fertility and mortality patterns for the major regions are discussed. The scope of this study does not include the determinants of the demographic trends revealed....It does, however, include information on two of the proximate fertility determinants: nuptiality and prevalence of contraceptive use." The major sources of data are 1961, 1971, and 1980 population censuses, the 1973 Fertility-Mortality Survey, and the 1976 Intercensal Population Survey. A glossary of demographic terms is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30289 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Household and economy: welfare economics of endogenous fertility. Economic Theory, Econometrics, and Mathematical Economics, ISBN 0-12-515752-5. LC 86-10764. 1987. xiii, 155 pp. Academic Press: Orlando, Florida/London, England. In Eng.
"This is a book about socially optimal population size and the social consequences of individual choice with respect to family size within each generation....The purpose of this book is to examine the general equilibrium implications of endogenous fertility for a number of issues of population policy. In our analysis we adopt the simplest possible formulation: In addition to their own consumption, the number of children and the utility of each child is assumed to enter the utility function of the parents. Subject to whatever economic opportunities and constraints they face, parents are assumed to maximize their own utility functions in making choices with respect to numbers of children and investments in them." The book begins with a review of welfare economics and the economics of externalities, followed by a summary of the traditional theory of household behavior and its modification to cover parental decisions with respect to fertility and investments in children. Next, the authors discuss optimal population size according to various social criteria and the real and potential externalities generated by the endogeneity of fertility. They also "explore the principal alternative reason for having children thought to be important in developing countries--namely, to transfer resources from the present to support the future consumption of parents in old age--and examine what difference parental altruism may make in such situations. Finally, the implications of endogenous fertility for within generation income distribution policies are explored."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30290 Niehof, Anke. Women and fertility in Madura (Indonesia). ISBN 90-6624-060-1. 1985. xvi, 373 pp. Instituut voor Culturele Antropologie en Sociologie der Niet-Westerse Volken: Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Dut.
Social and cultural factors affecting fertility in the Indonesian island of Madura are analyzed. Topics covered include kinship, marriage, domestic life, women's status, pregnancy and childbirth, infant mortality, and adoption. The study was conducted during the period 1977-1979.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

53:30291 Obafemi Awolowo University. Department of Demography and Social Statistics (Ile-Ife, Nigeria); University of Pennsylvania. Population Studies Center (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). The cultural roots of African fertility regimes. Proceedings of the Ife conference, February 25-March 1, 1987. 1987. iv, 363 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Nigeria in 1987 on the cultural roots of African fertility. "As a general working hypothesis, the Conference organizers adopted the view that the high levels of African fertility have cultural explanations and that particular combinations of the proximate determinants--nuptiality, abstinence, breastfeeding, sterility...--find their origin in specific customs and institutions rather than in socioeconomic characteristics. The participants were invited to look at cultural mechanisms that would either influence the demand for children or, on the supply side, affect the operation of the proximate variables." Half of the papers concern Nigeria; other papers consider Senegal, Mali, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Kenya, or are concerned with more than one sub-Saharan country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30292 Pacheco, Antonio; Engracia, Luisa T. Indirect estimates of fertility for small geographic areas in the Philippines. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-D, 1985. iii, 33 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper is an attempt to estimate levels of the fertility of small geographic areas in the Philippines for the periods around 1970 and 1980. It seeks to illustrate the application of estimation techniques which are not dependent on high-level technology such as the computer, and which provide estimates of fertility for small populations that are reliable enough for practical purposes." The purpose is to provide demographic data for small geographic areas to help area planners identify delivery sites for contraceptive services. Data are included on age distribution and sex ratio; a statistical appendix shows selected demographic indicators, 1970 and 1980, and estimated fertility rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30293 Pathak, K. B.; Ram, F. On application of the Gompertz relational model to estimate fertility from the CEB data of 1981 census of India. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 258-68 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Age-specific fertility rates are estimated using data on children ever born from the 1981 census of India and a relational Gompertz model. The validity of the estimates is then compared with the rates observed in surveys conducted in 1972 and 1978. Methodological issues concerning the application of the procedure and the impact on estimates are discussed.
Author's address: International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30294 Piampiti, Suwanlee. Fertility effects of electrification in northeast Thailand. In: Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects, edited by John Stoeckel and Anrudh K. Jain. 1986. 55-72 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the relationship between rural electrification and fertility patterns in northeast Thailand using data from two surveys conducted in 1981, in which information was collected concerning women aged 15-44 in 5,000 households; women in 1,000 households were selected for a more detailed interview. Equal numbers of households in electrified and non-electrified villages are included. Multivariate analyses are used to examine the impacts of electrification on socioeconomic status and fertility. "The general working hypothesis of the study, that electrification alters the socioeconmic structure of household members which affects norms of family size, the intermediate variables and ultimately fertility, has been supported by the results of the analysis presented in this chapter." It is found that "village-level availability and household utilization of electricity exerted a positive effect on employment of males and females in non-agricultural occupations, which exerted a negative effect on desired family size."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30295 Prasith-rathsint, Suchart; Sookasame, Kanikar; Roodmanee, Laddawan; Srikhagorn, Manu. Fertility effects of agricultural irrigation in northeast Thailand. In: Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects, edited by John Stoeckel and Anrudh K. Jain. 1986. 73-84 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between agricultural development, specifically agricultural irrigation, and fertility in northeastern Thailand. It is hypothesized that "the availability and utilization of irrigation systems in combination with other development projects alters the social and economic structure of households, which affects norms of family size, the intermediate variables and consequently fertility. Specifically, irrigation contributes to a more effective land use pattern, higher cropping intensity, and increases in farm production, which results in higher household income....The increased income and female labor force participation are then expected to decrease the demand for children, resulting in lower norms of family size, higher practice of family planning and lower fertility." The fieldwork for the study involved 4,500 household interviews conducted in 1980. Mixed results are found, depending on the intermediate variable emphasized and the level of analysis--either village or household--used.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30296 Rao, K. Vaninadha. Childlessness in Ontario and Quebec: results from 1971 and 1981 census data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987. 27-46 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The purpose of this paper is to analyze trends and correlates of childlessness among ever-married women in Ontario and Quebec [Canada], drawing data from 1971 and 1981 Public Use Sample Tapes. Logistic regression is used for detailed multivariate analysis of parity status as a dichotomous dependent variable. Results from the analysis indicate an increase in the proportion childless among ever-married women in the reproductive ages. Age at marriage, marriage duration, income, other income, labour force participation, religiously non-Catholic or no religious affiliation and large urban residence are found to be the major associates of childlessness....Comparisons among cohorts of women who were present in 1971 and 1981 are discussed."
Author's address: Population Studies Center, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 3K7, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30297 Romaniuc, A. Transition from traditional high to modern low fertility: Canadian aboriginals. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987. 69-88 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The aboriginal people of Canada are in the midst of a rapid fertility transition. To control their fertility they resorted to such strategies as: parity-dependent limitations of births, later starting and wider spacing of childbearing. The first was dominant at the earlier stage of their deomographic transition; the latter two came into play somewhat later. Thus the grounds for birth control have been progressively broadened to accommodate considerations of both family size and timing of childbearing."
Author's address: Statistics Canada, Ottowa, Ontario, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30298 Rwanda. Office National de la Population (Kigali, Rwanda). Rwanda 1983: National Fertility Survey. Vol. 1: analysis of results. [Rwanda 1983: Enquete Nationale sur la Fecondite. Volume I: analyse des resultats.] [1986?]. xxxiv, 426 pp. Kigali, Rwanda. In Fre.
This report presents and analyzes the findings of the 1983 National Fertility Survey of Rwanda. Separate chapters are included on the objectives, methodology, and organization of the survey; general population characteristics at both the household and individual levels; nuptiality; fertility; mortality; preferences concerning family size and sex of children; knowledge and use of contraception; factors other than contraception affecting fertility; an overview of the demographic situation; and the results of a survey of husbands' attitudes toward family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30299 Sanderson, Warren C. Below-replacement fertility in nineteenth century America. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, Jun 1987. 305-13, 374, 376 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author critically examines various hypotheses concerning the low fertility of white, native-born U.S. women in the nineteenth century. "Many reasons given for current below-replacement fertility, such as programs of the welfare state, modern coitus-independent means of contraception, high labor force participation rates of married women, and low- fertility social values, are not appropriate for explaining the nineteenth century episode. Moreover, below-replacement fertility may have become the norm among long-term urban residents throughout the United States by the end of the nineteenth century. The task of explaining below-replacement fertility in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries within a consistent framework remains ahead of us."
Author's address: Department of Economics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11790.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30300 Sharma, B. B. L.; Jain, P. K.; Dubey, D. C. Analysis of factors related with birth rate. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 7, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1984. 184-208 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The authors examine the influences of selected program, health, demographic, and socioeconomic factors on birth rates for 14 Indian states for the years 1951-1960, 1961-1970, and 1971-1980. The factors studied include family planning program performance, per capita expenditure on medicine and public health, levels of literacy, population density, proportion of urban population, per capita income, female age at marriage, crude death rate, infant mortality rate, and expectation of life at birth.
Author's address: Department of Management Sciences, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30301 Siegers, Jacques J. An economic analysis of fertility. Economist, Vol. 135, No. 1, 1987. 94-111 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this article, the results of an empirical application for ten [developed] countries of Willis' economic theory of fertility are presented. In a further analysis for The Netherlands the model developed by Willis is confronted with some alternative models. It is concluded that among the models considered the Willis model is the most satisfactory one. However, in conformity with Leibenstein's proposition that economic factors are only relevant with respect to the question whether parents want more than two children, Willis' model proves to offer only an explanation for the question whether a married couple which has already two children wants to have a third child."
Author's address: Economic Institute, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30302 Singh, S. N.; Yadava, R. C.; Pandey, A. On estimating the mean birth interval characteristic of women. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987. 1-8 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"An alternative procedure to the method suggested by Wolfers (1968) for obtaining the mean birth interval characteristic of women from the data on birth interval (births) has been suggested. It has been shown that the Wolfers procedure involves some methodological problems. The present procedure, having been applied to an observed set of data taken from the Varanasi [India] Survey 1969-70 and to the data cited by Wolfers, is found to be relatively simple, and free from those methodological problems."
Author's address: Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30303 Soliani, Lamberto. The fertility decline of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Presentation and summary of the relationships. [Il declino della fecondita. Secoli XIX e XX. Presentazione e riassunto delle relazioni.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987. 144-61 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Ita.
The author reviews and evaluates the findings of various authors concerning the modern decline of European fertility, with a focus on the situation in Italy. Particular attention is given to the work of Massimo Livi-Bacci.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30304 Srinivasan, K. Has modernization increased fertility in Karnataka, India? Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 281-97 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by C. Chandrasekaran, P. H. Reddy, V. S. Badri, and K. N. M. Raju concerning the impact of modernization on fertility in Karnataka, India. Attention is given to increases in natural fertility, decline in the duration of breast-feeding, taboos on sexual intercourse, and the effect of improved health conditions on natural fertility.
Author's address: International Institute for Population Sciences, Deonar, Bombay 400 088, India.
For the article by Chandrasekaran et al., published in 1985, see 52:20274.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30305 Swanson, David A. Timing the second birth: fecundability models for selected race and age groups in Hawaii. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 2, Dec 1986. 81-113 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This study addresses the timing of fertility through the construction of models of fecundability for non-contracepting women in the second birth interval. Following earlier theoretical work, the fecundability of non-contracepting women is found to be adequately modelled by the exponential distribution. Further, more variability is found by age than by race, which suggests that in the absence of physiologically caused subfecundity and sterility, fecundability rates are more determined by age-related factors associated with coital frequency than by race-related factors associated wth coital frequency." The models are developed using data for 15,707 pregnancy outcomes recorded in 1972-1974 in Hawaii.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30306 Thapa, Shyam. Determinants of fertility in Nepal: applications of an aggregate model. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 351-65 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Bongaarts' aggregate model of the proximate determinants of fertility is applied to data from the 1976 National Fertility Survey in Nepal. Breast-feeding is shown to be the most important limiting factor, resulting in a reduction of about six children per woman. Decline in the duration of breast-feeding by one-fourth would increase fertility by one additional child per woman. The temporary separation of spouses due to migration is conjectured to be the second most important fertility inhibiting factor, not explicitly accounted for in the standard model. Results are presented for the three major ecological regions, urban-rural residence and educational attainment of the women."
Author's address: Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30307 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Fertility behaviour in the context of development: evidence from the World Fertility Survey. Population Studies, No. 100; ST/ESA/SER.A/100, Pub. Order No. E.86.XIII.5. ISBN 92-1-151161-5. 1987. xix, 383 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication is the culmination of a comparative analysis of data from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) concerning the 38 participating developing countries. The first part is concerned with the proximate determinants of fertility, including fertility preferences, nuptiality, breast feeding, and contraception. The second part examines the socioeconomic factors affecting fertility, including rural or urban residence, education, and female employment. Part 3 focuses on regional perspectives and consists of four papers prepared by the U.N. Regional Commission. Part 4 presents a comparison with fertility and family planning in developed countries as well as a final summary of the lessons from WFS concerning fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30308 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). Study of levels and trends of fertility in Bangladesh using the census data. Asian Population Studies Series, No. 62-J; ST/ESCAP/440, [1986?]. iv, 61 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This study of fertility trends in Bangladesh uses census data from 1961, 1974, and 1981, with emphasis on the more recent data. "This paper's contribution is threefold. First it shows that the census data are sufficiently accurate for measuring geographic variations in fertility, and it shows how the census can be used for this purpose. Second, it presents a detailed geographic picture of fertility in Bangladesh according to the census of 1981. Third, it advances a technique for locating populations with characteristics of special interest to policy makers in family planning."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30309 Venkatacharya, K.; Teklu, Tesfay. A simplified robust estimate of the birth rate. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 1, No. 4, Aug 1987. 9-12, 23-4 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This article "shows Coale's robust birth rate estimate to be equivalent to the birth rate estimate obtainable by the well-known reverse-survival method. The authors suggest a simplified birth rate estimate that does not require reference to model stable populations or model life tables." The adjusted birth rates are illustrated using age and sex data from two censuses for each of four Asian and nine African countries.
Author's address: Regional Institute for Population Studies, Legon, Ghana.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30310 Ventura, Stephanie J. Births of Hispanic parentage, 1983 and 1984. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 36, No. 4, Suppl. 2, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1120. Jul 24, 1987. 20 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Information is provided on 346,986 births to mothers of Hispanic origin in the United States recorded in 23 states and the District of Columbia in 1983 and 1984. In addition to 14 tables providing the data, brief analyses are included concerning geographic distribution, race of child, birth and fertility rates, maternal age and live-birth order, illegitimacy, mother's educational status, mother's place of birth, prenatal care, birth weight, premature births, Apgar scores, and birth attendants and place of delivery.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30311 Vining, Daniel R. Comment on Sweet and Rindfuss "Those ubiquitous fertility trends: United States, 1945-1979". Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 122-3 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author comments on a 1983 article by James A. Sweet and Ronald R. Rindfuss concerning fertility trends in the United States. The focus is on differences in family size by socioeconomic group.
For the article by Sweet and Rindfuss, published in 1983, see 50:40314.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30312 Wang, ShaoXian; Chen, Yu-De; Chen, Charles H. C.; Rochat, Roger W.; Chow, L. P.; Rider, Rowland V. Proximate determinants of fertility and policy implications in Beijing. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 222-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1982 sample survey of 3,830 married women below age 50 in a district of Beijing City are applied to the Bongaarts model of the proximate determinants of fertility. A total fertility rate (TFR) of 0.75 births per woman is estimated from the model, compared with a TFR of 1.24 actually observed from the survey. The estimated TFR (0.75) results from the assumed total fecundity (TF) of 15.30 births per woman being inhibited by the indexes of the proximate determinants of fertility, most notably non-marriage (.280), contraception (.315), and induced abortion (.586). The effects of two other proximate determinants, lactational infecundability and spousal separation, were negligible. Comparative data from other countries confirm that the study area has very low levels of fertility and marriage, a very high prevalence of induced abortion, and a small effect of lactational infecundability. The extremely low level of fertility was, thus, achieved through a high level of induced abortion. Future research needs and policy implications associated with the study are discussed."
Author's address: Department of Health Statistics, College of Public Health, Beijing Medical University, Beijing City, China.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30313 Werner, Barry. Fertility statistics from birth registrations in England and Wales, 1837-1987. Population Trends, No. 48, Summer 1987. 4-10 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article describes some of the trends in fertility [in England and Wales] during the last 150 years using statistics which the [General Register Office] first began to collect when the Act requiring the civil registration of births came into force in 1837." Topics considered include changes in the birth rate, the proportions of births outside marriage, family size, and age-specific fertility.
Author's address: Population Statistics Division, Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30314 West, Kirsten K. Education, age at marriage or first birth and labour force participation as predictors of parity transitions: an application of discrete multivariate analysis to the study of conditional life table probabilities. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 14, No. 1, 1987. 89-109 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"Parity transition probabilities are examined for the United States white women using female education, age at marriage or first birth and labour force participation as the independent variables. Two subgroups are considered: women who were 30 or less in 1970 and women who were more than 30. The findings support the proposition that different determinants come into prominence at different parities. Also, the patterns found are not uniform for the two groups of women, suggesting that cohort effects are important to consider. Sign reversals on the labour force participation variable underscore the complexity of the relationship between female work status and fertility."
Author's address: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30315 Wineberg, Howard. Recent trends in the timing of the second and third births among black American women. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 4, Jul 1987. 298-307 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"In this study the relationship between certain socioeconomic and demographic variables and the timing of the second and third birth is examined for black women [in the United States]." Data from the June 1980 Current Population Survey concerning 808 once-married black mothers aged 25-44 are used to determine the influence of age, education, and income on child spacing. It is found that "education appears to be strongly negatively related to the timing of the second and third birth by black women but not white women."
Author's address: Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30316 Wongboonsin, Kua. The synthesis framework of the determinants of fertility: the case of Thailand, 1975. Institute of Population Studies Paper, No. 54, Oct 1986. 37 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This study examines the determinants of fertility using the example of Thailand in 1975 and focuses on two main issues. "The first one is the link between fertility control and underlying socio-economic determinants. The second one is observed fertility based on 'the synthesis framework' of fertility determination."
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, HI.

53:30317 Yadav, R. C.; Singh, B. N. Presence of daughters-in-law in the household: a good contraceptive. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 249-52 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between the presence of daughters-in-law in the household and the fertility of the mothers-in-law using data from a 1978 survey of 3,514 households in eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. Attention is given to measurement of the difference between the ages of a couple's youngest child and oldest grandchild.
Author's address: Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 220 001, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30318 Yang, Quanhe. Fertility and some determinants of fertility decline in Huaibei Plain, Anhui province, China, 1982. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 323-44 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the level and trend of fertility in Huaibei Plain, Anhui province, China, since 1950 and considers some determinants of fertility decline. The data used are from the 1/1,000 survey of China which was conducted by the Family Planning Commission in 1982. Fertility decline among younger women (aged under 30) is largely due to later age at marriage, the marriage pattern of Huaibei Plain having changed from early and universal marriage to later and universal marriage. Current use of contraception suggests that the family planning programme, in particular the one-child policy (1979), has been the major determinant in fertility decline. The greatest decline in marital fertility occurred among women aged 35+ and is primarily due to contraceptive practice and induced abortion."
Author's address: Department of Demography, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30319 Yen, Eva Chung-Chiung. Determinants of fertility in the LDC's: the household production approach revisited. Chier Economic Monograph Series, No. 14, Jan 1986. xiv, 88 pp. Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The author extends the household-production model of fertility determination to take into account the production time of family members other than the wife as well as the impact of residence location on fertility. The model is applied to data from four KAP studies conducted in Taiwan over the period 1965-1980. Evidence is found of higher fertility among couples living in an extended family than among those forming a nuclear family and among rural as opposed to urban couples.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

53:30320 Yu, Mei-Yu. Patterns of distribution and fertility of the overseas Chinese. Pub. Order No. DA8706139. 1986. 272 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation is a demographic study of the overseas Chinese. Based on the numbers of overseas Chinese population in five continents and more than 140 countries and areas from the 1950s to the 1980s, this study has three foci: the distribution of the overseas Chinese in the contemporary world, the fertility levels and trends of the overseas Chinese in recent decades, and some factors influencing the patterns of distribution and fertility of the overseas Chinese." It is found that "generally speaking, the overseas Chinese had a higher fertility rate in the earlier decades, but are now experiencing a fertility transition....Both practical and theoretical implications of the research are discussed."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas, Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(12).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

53:30321 Ahmad, Sultan. Work status of women and marital fertility in four Muslim populations. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 215-27 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between women's employment status and marital fertility among Muslims in Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, and Pakistan is investigated using World Fertility Survey data. Lower fertility among working women is found only in Java, Indonesia. "The reason for the absence of the inverse relationship in the other three populations may be due to the fact that [only] a small group of women work outside home in these populations; variation in the definition of work status may be another possibility."
Author's address: Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30322 Berquo, Elza S.; de Morell, Maria G. G.; de Souza e Silva, Rebeca; Marques, Rubens M. Sao Paulo and its fertility: a study of intermediate variables and socioeconomic fertility differentials. [Sao Paulo e a sua fecundidade: um estudo das variaveis intermediarias e dos diferenciais socio-economicos da fecundidade.] Serie Sao Paulo 80, Vol. 1, 1985. xxi, 124 pp. Fundacao Sistema Estadual de Analise de Dados [SEADE]: Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
This is the first in a planned series of five volumes concerned with various aspects of socioeconomic growth in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In this volume, socioeconomic determinants of fertility are considered. The authors first examine the dynamics of Brazilian population growth. They then analyze fertility in Sao Paulo using models developed by the United Nations, Bongaarts, and Coale and Trussell. Finally, they examine the socioeconomic factors affecting fertility in the state.
Publisher's address: Av. Casper Libero 464, 01033 Sao Paulo, S.P., Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30323 Halli, Shivalingappa S. How minority status affects fertility: Asian groups in Canada. Contributions in Ethnic Studies, No. 18, ISBN 0-313-25534-2. LC 86-19453. 1987. xviii, 196 pp. Greenwood Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines "Asian ethnic fertility differentials in the multi-ethnic society of Canada based on the 1971 Census of Canada. The extent of fertility differentials as well as possible sources of variation in fertility behaviour of the major Asian ethnic groups--Chinese, Japanese, East Indian, and others--are studied. Ethnic fertility differentials are examined in their socio-economic and historical context." The opening chapter is concerned with the minority group status hypothesis, which holds that "even when groups are similar on socio-economic characteristics, minority group membership will continue to exert an independent effect on fertility." The author then discusses the historical background of Asian immigration to Canada as well as fertility-related socioeconomic characteristics of these migrants. Attention is given to the analysis of fertility differentials by ethnic group and to a reexamination of the minority group status hypothesis. "Finally, the re-conceptualized minority group status hypothesis [is] used to explain the family size differences of Chinese and Japanese groups in Canada."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30324 Kim, Ik-Ki. Urban-rural differentials in fertility behavior in Korea: preliminary analysis for multilevel approach. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 15, 1986. 1-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng; Kor.
"This paper describes the preliminary phase of the analysis of fertility behavior in [the Republic of] Korea prior to the multilevel analysis. The basic reason for the study of urban-rural differentials in the fertility behavior as a preliminary phase is to treat social contexts, reflecting location along a traditional-transitional continuum. This paper thus discusses for urban and rural areas, the main differences of the macro variables, the mean levels of the fertility measures, and the regression coefficients of the micro models. It evaluates the variables which show different effects in urban and rural areas for age at first birth (AFB), early fertility (EF), and later fertility (LF) structural equations. As a result, some of the micro variables were found to show significantly different effects on fertility-related behavior in urban and rural areas." Data are from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey and other official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30325 Leridon, H. Recent trends in late childbearing. [Evolution de la frequence des grossesses tardives.] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 1987. 271-4 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in fertility among women in France over age 35 are analyzed using data from official sources and surveys. It is noted that the number of births to mothers aged 35 or over has been increasing since 1978, primarily because of changes in age distribution. Fertility outside of marriage has, however, increased. The author suggests that most pregnancies at older ages are now wanted, in contrast to 10 years ago when about half the births to women around age 40 were unplanned.
Author's address: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris Cedex 14, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30326 Lopez, Diego; de Grisanti, Mireya. Regional variations in fertility in Venezuela. [Diferencias regionales de la fecundidad en Venezuela.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 27, Sep 1986. 78 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Regional differences in fertility in Venezuela are analyzed. Two different estimates of the fertility rate in 1981 are presented by age of mother for each federal entity. The first method uses the ratio between registered births and the size of the female population; the second is based on the application of an indirect estimation technique using data from the 1981 census. The estimation techniques are described, and the accuracy of the results is assessed. Fertility trends among regions are compared, with a focus on socioeconomic and geographic conditions that may be responsible for differences.
Publisher's address: Urb. Montalban, La Vega, Apartado 29068, Caracas 1021, Venezuela.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30327 Pohl, Katharina. Social differences in spacing--results of the study of the BIB. In: Referate zum deutsch-franzosischen Arbeitstreffen auf dem Gebiet der Demographie vom 30. September bis 3. Oktober 1985 in Dijon. Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 87-95, No. 49, 1986. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
This study considers determinants of birth spacing among 1,976 women in the Federal Republic of Germany. Actual figures for age at marriage, interval between marriage and first birth, age at first birth, and interval between first and second birth are related to responses on a survy concerning ideal and acceptable ages and intervals. The women are grouped in five social classes using the husband's social class as the indicator. Social class differences between actual ages and spacing on one hand and desired ages and spacing on the other are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30328 Reddy, P. Govinda. Effects of consanguineous marriages on fertility among three endogamous groups of Andhra Pradesh. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 68-77 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"For the present study [of the effects of consanguineous marriage on fertility] three castes representing three socioeconomic levels have been selected from Andhra Pradesh, South India. Members of the wealthier castes married consanguineously more frequently than did the members of the lower-ranking castes. The consanguineous unions among all the castes are found to be more fertile than are nonconsanguineous unions. Indeed, fertility increases with degree of relationship of the spouses. Number of pregnancies and live births are significantly...higher among consanguineous unions (among all castes). However, the difference in the number of surviving offspring between consanguineous and nonconsanguineous unions is not significant among the wealthier castes. This suggests that child mortality is higher among the offspring of consanguineous unions in spite of their greater wealth."
Author's address: Department of Physical Anthropology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, District Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh 517 502, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30329 Spitz, Alison M.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Maciak, Barbara J.; Morris, Leo. Teenage pregnancy and fertility in the United States, 1970, 1974, and 1980. CDC Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 36, No. 1SS, Feb 1987. 1-10 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
"This current report is a preliminary analysis of data reflecting changes that occurred in [U.S.] teenage fertility between 1970 and 1980, as well as changes that occurred in teenage pregnancy (live births plus induced abortions) between 1974 and 1980....The epidemiology of teenage fertility, as characterized by race and marital status, is described for all females and for sexually experienced females (those who have ever had sexual intercourse) ages 15-19 within each state and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) region....Between 1974 and 1980, the pregnancy rate for all females ages 15-19 increased by 8.2%. However, the rate for sexually experienced females declined from 204.5 pregnancies per 1,000 sexually experienced females to 192.8--a decrease of 5.7%. In the same period, the fertility rate for sexually experienced 15- to 19-year-olds declined by 20.9%, from 146 births per 1,000 to 115.5. The number of pregnancies among females ages 15-19 increased 10.5% from 1974 through 1980, whereas the number of births decreased 7.3%."
Author's address: Center for Health Promotion and Education, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30330 United States. Congress. House. Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families (Washington, D.C.). Teen pregnancy: what is being done? A state-by-state look. A report (99th Congress, 1st session). Dec 1985. xv, 397 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This document reports the findings from questionnaires sent in 1985 to U.S. state governors by the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families on issues concerning adolescent pregnancy. Background information concerning national trends in adolescent pregnancy between 1970 and 1982 is provided. Barriers to serving at-risk, pregnant, and parenting teenagers are discussed. Consideration is given to both federal and state programs. Individual statements on the subject from members of Congress are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

53:30331 Akam, Evina. Infertility and expected length of fertility. [Infecondite et esperance de vie feconde.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 135, ISBN 2-87085-109-X. Feb 1987. 13 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
A new approach to the measurement of infertility is proposed, which is based on the probability of infertility calculated from age-specific fertility rates. A process of elimination permits the development of infertility tables and estimates of length of fertility status. The method is applied to data concerning the Nzakara of the Central African Republic and American Hutterites. The results indicate that the method can be used to calculate rates of infertility among populations where data on infertility are scarce, as in sub-Saharan Africa.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30332 Barrett, John C. The estimation of natural sterility. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1986. 23-31 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"A Monte Carlo simulation model of fertility is used to calibrate ages represented for proportions of women naturally sterile, estimated by Henry's method, i.e. by finding the age group after which the woman has no further children. The results are compared with those of Trussell and Wilson who used a very similar model, and confirm that the mid-point of the five-year age-group is too low an estimate of the true age represented, for age groups above 35. Some discrepancies below that age are considered. Such a calibration of ages is needed in order to allow for the bias inherent in estimating the extent of sterility in all natural fertility data."
Author's address: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London University, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30333 Blondel, Beatrice; Kaminski, Monique; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Breart, Gerard. Pregnancy outcome and social conditions of women under 20: evolution in France from 1972 to 1981. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 3, Sep 1987. 425-30 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Two studies based on national samples of births in France in 1972 and 1981 have enabled a comparison of the changes in perinatal risk and social situation of women under 20 years of age with those of women 20 and over. Preterm delivery among women under 20 remained stable during the 10-year period, while it declined significantly among older women. Also, the social situation of teenagers deteriorated in terms of occupational activity, educational level, presence of the child's father in the home, and his occupation. The changes in these social characteristics do not adequately explain the increased relative risk of preterm delivery among women under 20."
Author's address: INSERM U 149, 16 Avenue Paul Vaillant Couturier, 94807 Villejuif Cedex, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30334 Lilford, Richard J.; Dalton, Maureen E. Effectiveness of treatment for infertility. British Medical Journal, Vol. 295, No. 6591, Jul 18, 1987. 155-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors outline various forms of treatment for infertility and discuss the methods' limitations. Areas for future research are summarized.
Author's address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds LS9 7TF, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

53:30335 Ahmed, Bashir. Determinants of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh: the demand for children, supply of children, and costs of fertility regulation. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 361-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using the World Fertility Survey data, this study examines how the demand for children, supply of children, and costs of fertility regulation influence the likelihood of contraceptive use in rural Bangladesh. The study shows that both higher demand for and lower supply of children lead to lower contraceptive use, other things remaining equal. It also shows that the lower the costs of fertility regulation, the higher is contraceptive use, other things remaining equal. The research and policy implications of the findings are discussed."
Author's address: Bureau of Economic and Business Research, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30336 Ahn, Kye-Choon; Rhee, Kyung-Yong; Jung, Bong-Hwa; Kong, Jung-Ja. The "unreached" in family planning: a case study of the Republic of Korea. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1987. 23-44 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The family planning programme of the Republic of Korea has been quite successful, yet it has not been able to extend its services to all couples of childbearing age. There still exists a group of couples who want no more children and yet are not currently using any contraceptive method. National surveys have shown that the proportion of women of reproductive age in this group is significant. The study on which this article is based focuses on the psychosocial characteristics of the group to provide policy makers, family planning administrators and workers with the specific information they need in order to reduce its size."
Author's address: Institute of Population and Health Services Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30337 Ang, Eng Suan; Arshat, Hamid. Pregnancy after contraceptive use. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 6-11 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This paper presents the initial results of a study conducted to develop guidelines for the clinical management of family planning acceptors [in Malaysia] with regard to return of fertility following contraceptive use. 193 parous women attending an urban family planning clinic were interviewed regarding their last pregnancy conceived after stopping a method of contraception. The average interval to pregnancy was 3.9, 2.8 and 1.8 months for ex-users of oral pills, intrauterine devices and conventional methods of contraceptive respectively, with median delays to conception of 1.9, 1 and within the 1st month for the 3 categories. In comparison 149 women who had not used any method at all took 7.3 months before becoming pregnant. Selected variables including age and parity, duration of use and problems encountered, and outcome of pregnancy are further analysed."
Author's address: National Population and Family Development Board, No. 22, Jalan Murai Dua, Wisma Keluarga, Batu Kompleks, Off Jalan Ipoh, 51100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30338 Areni, A.; Mannetti, L.; Sabino, G. The influence of socially shared traditional beliefs on contraceptive choice. [Influence des schemas culturels traditionnels sur le choix de la contraception.] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 14, No. 3, Mar 1986. 235-45 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
A review of the literature concerning the effect of traditional and cultural factors on the choice and practice of contraceptive methods is presented. The authors note that use of effective modern methods is associated with the rejection of women's traditional role. It is noted that coitus interruptus is most favored by women with traditional outlooks and the diaphragm by those with the most modern attitude.
Author's address: Dipartimento di Psicologia dei Processi di Sviluppo e Socializzazione, Universita La Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30339 Benjamin, A. I. A longitudinal follow-up study of women undergoing laparoscopic tubal ligation in Ludhiana Block of Punjab. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 19-28 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
A follow-up study of 374 acceptors of laparoscopic tubal ligation in Ludhiana, India, is presented. Characteristics of the acceptors, including age, caste, and parity, are considered, and attention is given to the timing of the operation and postoperative complications. According to the author "the study...revealed that whereas laparoscopic tubal ligation is a safe, effective and acceptable method of sterilisation, the demographic profile and fertility pattern of acceptors show that it cannot be expected to influence the birth rate...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30340 Ceballos, Zenon. Dominican Republic: female sterilization in recent years. [Republica Dominicana: la esterilizacion femenina en los ultimos anos.] Feb 1987. 44 pp. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The characteristics of 15,489 women accepting contraceptive sterilization in the Dominican Republic in 1985-1986 are analyzed. Comparisons are made with a previous study for 1980-1983. Consideration is given to age at sterilization, marital status, contraceptive practice, reasons for sterilization, rural or urban residence, regional differences, educational status, and desired family size.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:30341 Chow, L. P.; Rider, Rowland V.; Su, Sol I. H.; Hou, William I. Contraceptive and fertility behavior of family planning clinic dropouts: a Maryland study. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 8, Aug 1987. 975-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"A study to examine the acceptance of and drop-out from family planning clinic services in Maryland was undertaken during 1984-85 by interviewing a random sample of 1,020 women who came to the clinics as 'new clients' during 1980 through 1982 when they were 20 through 39 years of age. This article examines the contraceptive and fertility behavior after their last clinic visits. The results showed that most of these women were 'protected' from pregnancy risk considerably beyond their last clinic visit. However, the analysis also revealed that in spite of the reported high contraceptive use rate, unplanned pregnancies occurred after the client's last clinic visit, suggesting that contraceptive use was either inconsistent or ineffective." The need to effectively educate the clients during their clinic attendance is stressed.
Author's address: Department of Population Dynamics, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30342 David, Paul A.; Sanderson, Warren C. The emergence of a two-child norm among American birth-controllers. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 1-41, 189, 191 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"A 'two-child norm,' which implied below-replacement fertility for the population group concerned, came to be achieved surprisingly early among white native-born couples who were established urban dwellers in the nineteenth century United States. Application of newly devised methods for analyzing parity distributions among older married women recorded in the censuses of 1900, 1910, and 1940 enables us to show this by studying the parity distributions of couples who ever controlled their fertility, and to date the emergence of a two-child mode in that distribution early in the post-Civil War era. Although farm-dwelling couples also exercised effective fertility control, the pattern of regulated fertility among them remained different from the urban pattern until well into the twentieth century."
Author's address: Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30343 Davies, John; Mitra, S. N.; Schellstede, William P. Oral contraception in Bangladesh: social marketing and the importance of husbands. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 157-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This is a report on a study that examined the characteristics of three types of commercial providers of oral contraceptives [in Bangladesh], as well as users and users' husbands. The study also examined how and from whom users and/or their husbands obtain oral contraceptives and instructions for use. The socioeconomic level of providers and user-couples was, on average, higher than for the general population. Husbands were particularly important for obtaining supplies from the commercial sector and acting as instructors. The findings suggest that: (1) a special effort will be required if social marketing techniques are to increase oral contraceptive prevalence among the rural poor in Bangladesh, and (2) family planning researchers and managers should give more attention to husbands in countries where men dominate communication networks."
Author's address: Academy for Educational Development, c/o Population and Health, USAID, American Embassy, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30344 Doring, G.; Baur, S.; Frank, P.; Freundl, G.; Sottong, U. Results of a representative survey of family planning behavior in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. [Ergebnisse einer reprasentativen Umfrage zum Familienplanungsverhalten in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1985.] Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde, Vol. 46, No. 12, Dec 1986. 892-7 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a family planning survey carried out in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1985 are presented. The survey involved a representative sample of 1,267 women aged 15-45. The results indicate that 6.1 percent of the women had been sterilized, as had 1.3 percent of their partners. Reversible methods reported include the pill, 37.1 percent; IUD, 10.3 percent; condom, 5.9 percent; rhythm method, 3.9 percent; withdrawal, 3.4 percent; diaphragm, 2.1 percent; mini-pill, 1.3 percent; and spermicides, 0.8 percent. Differences in method by age, marital status, educational status, religion, number of children, profession, and income are analyzed. Comparisons are made with results of other recent studies in West Germany and in other countries.
Author's address: Seeleite 9, 8031 Seefeld 2, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30345 Geeraert, A. Prediction factors of contraceptive behavior of single girls aged 15-19. Prediction through theory formation and testing by analogy with the Fishbein model. [Predictiefactoren van contraceptiegedrag bij ongehuwde meisjes van 15- tot 19 jaar. Predictie via theorievorming en toetsing naar analogie met het Fishbein-model.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Aug 1987. 95-124 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author uses data from a 1983-1984 survey of 389 single females aged 15-19 of Belgian nationality and Flemish residence to assess factors predictive of contraceptive behavior. Attention is given to the connections between the teenagers' concepts and behavior concerning premarital sexual intercourse. It is found that "the contraceptive behavior of adolescent girls can be explained and predicted in a more efficient way. J. Nuttin's general theory (1981) about human behavior and motivation can be used as a general explanatory theoretical basis. The application of the Fishbein-model can--in a general theoretical context regarding human motivation--contribute a great deal (40%) to explaining and predicting contraceptive behavior among adolescent girls."
Author's address: Bosstraat 153, 3060 Bertem, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30346 Janowitz, Barbara; Bailey, Patricia; Ochoa, Jose; Suazo, Margarita. Contraceptive use and fertility in Honduras, 1981-84. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 291-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents data on contraceptive use and fertility in Honduras obtained from a household survey conducted in 1984, and compares these data with similar information obtained from surveys carried out in 1981 and 1983. About half of the increase that has taken place in contraceptive use in Honduras is accounted for by sterilization. In 1981, 27 percent of women in union aged 15-49 years were practicing contraception; in 1984, the percentage of those 15-44 was 35 percent. The increase in urban areas was smaller (from 47 percent to 51 percent) than in rural areas (from 16 percent to 24 percent). Also, fertility remained almost unchanged in urban areas while declining in rural areas....The duration of breastfeeding in Honduras has increased, with the greatest changes occurring among women in urban areas and women with the highest levels of education. Efforts have been made to promote breastfeeding in urban areas and these results suggest that the efforts have been successful."
Author's address: Family Health International, P.O. Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30347 Kakar, D. N.; Chopra, Suksham. Women and family planning. 1984. viii, 124 pp. Sterling Publishers Private: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Factors affecting women's acceptance of contraception in India are analyzed. The data concern 360 women who accepted IUDs, oral contraception, or injectable contraceptives in Chandigarh during the course of a World Health Organization research project in the late 1970s and who were followed-up subsequently. The primary emphasis is on the factors affecting the contraceptive choices of the women concerned.
Publisher's address: L-10, Green Park Extension, New Delhi 110016, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30348 Kidane, Asmeron. Unwanted fertility and the demand for family planning services in Northwest Ethiopia. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 202-14 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author assesses the demand for family planning services by measuring unwanted fertility and shows that "supply constraints and not the deficiency of demand for family planning services is one of the reasons for high fertility in North West Ethiopia." The data are for 500 married, urban mothers interviewed in a 1982 demographic survey. A multiple linear regression is used to relate unwanted last birth with six socioeconomic and demographic variables, including marriage age, age at first birth, marriage duration, occupation, educational attainment, and residence. It is shown that "in spite of a low level of economic and social development, women in Northwest Ethiopia have a high demand for family planning services as indicated by the incidence of unwanted last birth. Such a demand seems to be prevalent irrespective of educational, occupational, residential and other differentials."
Author's address: Department of Statistics, Addis Ababa University, Box 1167, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30349 Landman, Lynn. Summary report of a workshop on community-based distribution and alternative delivery systems in Africa, Harare, Zimbabwe, 3-7 November 1986. Mar 1987. 16 pp. Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]: New York, New York,. In Eng.
This report concerns a conference on community-based distribution and alternative delivery systems in Africa, held in Harare, Zimbabwe, in November 1986. The focus is on the African experience in this area. Particular attention is given to community-based programs in Zimbabwe, Nigeria, and Kenya. The focus is on family planning programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30350 Leridon, H. Reasons for satisfaction and dissatisfaction with contraceptive methods. [Motifs de satisfaction et d'insatisfaction dans l'utilisation des methodes contraceptives.] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 14, No. 11, Nov 1986. 1,007-11 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
These are the results of a 1978 survey of 3,000 women aged 20-44 living in France who were interviewed concerning levels of satisfaction with contraceptive method used. The results indicate "that users of modern methods (pill or IUD) appreciate mostly the effectiveness of these techniques and, to a lesser degree, their easiness of use; on the other hand, users of traditional methods favor their 'natural' side. However, 47% of pill users mentioned at least one disadvantage, and 16% were considering the possibility of a change; the situation seems better for IUD users: 36% reported a disadvantage, and only 5% were prepared to give up, but 22% feared an unplanned pregnancy. On the whole, 80% of women think they are 'well informed' on contraception, and 86% are 'pleased of their choice'."
Author's address: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75014 Paris, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30351 Leridon, H.; Toulemon, L.; Cohen, Jean. The use of the IUD in France (1976-1985). [L'usage du sterilet en France (1976-1985).] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 14, No. 5, May 1986. 421-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
A method for calculating the number of IUD users in France over the period 1976-1985 is presented. The method is based on the volume of IUD sales combined with estimates of duration of use drawn from a survey of 300 physicians who prescribe IUDs. The authors conclude that between 13 and 16 percent of women aged 15-49 were using the IUD in 1985, compared with 27 percent who were using the pill.
Author's address: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, 27 Rue du Commandeur, 75675 Paris, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30352 Leridon, Henri; Charbit, Y.; Collomb, P.; Sardon, J. P.; Toulemon, L. The second contraceptive revolution: birth control in France from 1950 to 1985. [La seconde revolution contraceptive: la regulation des naissances en France de 1950 a 1985.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 117, ISBN 2-7332-0117-4. 1987. vii, 380 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
Changes in contraceptive practice in France since World War II are analyzed in the context of general social changes that have occurred during this period. The emphasis is on the social changes that occurred in the early 1960s, with particular reference to the introduction and general diffusion within French society of two new methods of contraception, the pill and the IUD. The development of family planning over the past 200 years is first reviewed. The authors describe changes since 1955 in legislation concerning contraception as well as the accompanying debate. The spread of modern contraceptive methods is analyzed using data from many sources, including the national fertility surveys of 1971 and 1978. A separate chapter concentrates further on contraceptive practices in 1978. Consideration is given to attitudes toward contraception, continuation of contraception, and length of use of individual methods. Attitudes of both men and women toward family size and contraception are examined. A chapter on induced abortion before and after the abortion legislation of 1975 is included. In a summary chapter, it is concluded that there are now both fewer unwanted pregnancies and fewer children desired by couples. The concluding chapter is concerned with some international comparisons and future prospects.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30353 Lowe, Candace S.; Radius, Susan M. Young adults' contraceptive practices: an investigation of influences. Adolescence, Vol. 22, No. 86, Summer 1987. 291-304 pp. San Diego, California. In Eng.
Contraceptive behavior and attitudes among young U.S. adults are investigated using a social-psychological approach incorporating the Health Belief Model. The data concern 283 unmarried students around 19 years old. "Results suggested that effective contraceptive behavior associated most strongly with respondents' perceiving relatively few barriers to their use of contraception, their maintenance of extensive interpersonal skills, and their regarding peer norms as consistent with effective contracetptive behavior." The authors emphasize the need to take into account both individual and social factors affecting sexual and contraceptive practices if unplanned pregnancy is to be reduced.
Author's address: Consortium for Pregnant and Parenting Teens, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

53:30354 Ogino, Hiroshi. Current status of family planning in Japan. Asian Medical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 11, Nov 1986. 601-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper discusses some problems related to...family planning, induced abortion, contraceptive methods and the current sex education actually practiced in Japan, by...life stages from adolescence to [the] menopause period."
Author's address: Family Planning Section, Department of Public Health Demography, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, Japan.
This is a translation of the Japanese article in Journal of the Japan Medical Association, Vol. 29, No. 11, 1986, pp. 1,885-91.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30355 Pfeffer, C.; Engel, D.; Jans, N.; Clauss, S. Young girls and contraception. A survey conducted in the MFPF family planning center, Strasbourg, in 1985. [Les jeunes filles et la contraception. Enquete realisee dans le centre de planification du MFPF a Strasbourg en 1985.] Contraception--Fertilite--Sexualite, Vol. 15, No. 5, May 1987. 511-6 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a survey on contraception among 513 adolescent women attending a family planning clinic in Strasbourg, France, in 1985 are presented. "Eighty percent of them were attending school. In over half the cases, this was their first consultation for contraceptive advice. 33% of the subjects did not return after this initial consultation. The age at which sexual intercourse first occurred was between 14 and 17, with a peak at 15-16 years of age. Most of the girls attending this Family Planning Center were told about it by friends or a sister (78%) and they rarely told their parents what they were doing (76%). Most of them (63%) preferred a woman doctor for a contraceptive consultation."
Author's address: MFPF, 3a Rue du Marais-Vert, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30356 Potter, Joseph E.; Mojarro, Octavio; Nunez, Leopoldo. The influence of health care on contraceptive acceptance in rural Mexico. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 144-56 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper offers two types of evidence in support of the idea that family planning services are most expediently provided as an integral part of the health and medical organization for maternity care. First, prenatal care and medical attention at delivery are found to be closely associated with postpartum contraceptive acceptance in a 1981 survey of family planning in rural Mexico. Second, interviews of a sample of doctors, nurses, and auxiliaries who provide maternal health services to the rural population reveal that these practitioners favor long birth intervals and small completed families, that they recommend the use of modern contraceptive methods including female sterilization, and that those in the employ of public institutions are motivated to recruit acceptors of these methods. The main impediment to contraceptive acceptance in this context is believed to be fear of side effects and permanent health consequences rather than the desire for additional children."
Author's address: Center for Population Studies, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30357 Reddy, P. Jayarani. Differential contraceptive use among the slum and non-slum dwellers: a study of Hyderabad City. Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 7, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1984. 115-28 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
"The primary objective of this study is to examine the differentials in the practice of [contraception] between the slum and the non-slum dwellers [in Hyderabad City, India] and the effect of a few selected variables such as present age, duration of marriage, number of living sons and socio-economic status on contraceptive behaviour." The data are from a sample survey of 480 Hindu couples. Each of the variables studied exhibits a strong positive relationship to current contraceptive use. Contraceptive methods chosen by the two groups are also reviewed.
Author's address: Population Studies Centre, Sree Venkateswara University College, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30358 Soonthorndhada, Amara. The effects of informal communication on vasectomy practice in rural areas of Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 104, ISBN 974-586-123-5. 1987. 71, [23] pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Concentrating on rural areas of Thailand, "this study aims at describing the male role in family planning responsibility, specifically, the adoption of vasectomy and in diffusing family planning issues through informal communication. The methodology utilized in the study consisted of a sample survey of 201 non-adopters and 53 adopters living in Buriram Province. Findings from the study indicate that although knowledge about a vasectomy and the procedures [it] entails is fairly high, the majority of men have decided not to undergo a vasectomy." Further analysis indicates that "negative information about a vasectomy remains as a prominent obstacle to [the method's] adoption especially among those who refuse to accept a vasectomy as a means of birth control."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30359 Swenson, Ingrid; Erickson, Deanne; Enlinger, Edward; Swaney, Sheldon; Carlson, Gertrude. Contraceptive practices and fertility among Southeast Asian, black, and white mothers attending a maternal infant care program. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 47-56 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The purpose of this analysis was to determine if there were differences in selected fertility characteristics including parity, pregnancy spacing, age at first pregnancy, age of menarche, breastfeeding postpartum, and contraceptive practices among white, black, Hmong, and other Southeast Asian mothers attending a maternal infant care program in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during 1980-1982. White and black mothers were younger than the Hmong and other Asian mothers. The lowest mean age of first pregnancy was among blacks. Ages of first pregnancy were similar for whites, Hmong, and other Asians....Maternal age and age at first pregnancy were significant predictors of parity for whites, blacks, Hmong, and the other Southeast Asians. Ever-use of contraception was a significant predictor of parity only for Hmong. The highest proportion of ever-users of contraception was among the white mothers (80 per cent) followed by the blacks (69.3 per cent) and other Asian mothers (34.8 per cent). Hmong mothers had the lowest proportion having used contraception (17.1 per cent)."
Author's address: School of Nursing and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30360 Tey, Nai Peng; Tan, Boon Ann; Arshat, Hamid. Voluntary sterilization: an analysis based on service statistics of the national program. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 3, No. 2, Dec 1985. 160-6 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
Voluntary sterilization in Malaysia is studied using data from the National Population and Family Development Program. "In 1983, about 8% of the acceptors chose sterilization as their method of family planning. [The] majority of the procedures were performed on the women. In line with the selection criteria, sterilization acceptors are drawn mainly from the older and high parity women. The evidence suggests that the decision to undergo sterilization is influenced by the sex composition of the children, as well as experience of voluntary and involuntary pregnancy wastage." Differentials among ethnic groups are also noted.
Author's address: National Population and Family Development Board, P.O. Box 10416, 50712 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

53:30361 Affandi, Biran; Prihartono, Joedo; Lubis, Firman; Sutedi, Hermini; Samil, R. S. Insertion and removal of NORPLANT contraceptive implants by physicians and nonphysicians in an Indonesian clinic. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 302-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study in which the performances of physicians were compared to those of nonphysician health personnel in inserting and removing NORPLANT subdermal contraceptive implants. The study was conducted in Raden Saleh Clinic at the University of Indonesia, Jakarta, from September 1982 to August 1984. In a group of 828 women who accepted NORPLANT, 285 insertions were performed by physicians and 543 by nonphysician health personnel. During the study period, 122 removals were performed (43 by physicians and 79 by nonphysicians). This small proportion of removals reflects the high continuation rate for NORPLANT. There was no significant difference between the two groups of acceptors regarding age, parity, education or side effects....Complications during and following insertion and removal were minimal for both groups, and no significant differences were found. It was concluded that nonphysician health personnel are qualified to administer the NORPLANT contraceptive implants."
Author's address: Subdivision of Reproductive Health, Raden Saleh Clinic, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of Indonesia, P.O. Box 3180, Jakarta, Indonesia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30362 Fisher, Martin; Marks, Andrea; Trieller, Katherine. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the diaphragm and birth control pill during the first year of use among suburban adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, Vol. 8, No. 5, Sep 1987. 393-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the diaphragm and oral contraception among 124 U.S. adolescents over a one-year period is presented. The results indicate that the diaphragm should be seriously considered as an alternative to the pill for sexually active adolescents.
Author's address: Division of Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

53:30363 Kong, Sae Kwon; Chi, I-Cheng; Cho, Ae Jeo; Meng, Kwang Ho; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Park, Chan Moo; Higgins, James E.; Siemens, Albert J.; Potts, Malcolm. Vasectomy and cardiovascular deaths in Korean men: a community-based case-control study. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1986. 165-90 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between vasectomy and risk of cardiovascular death is investigated using data concerning 413 deaths reported among males in four cities in the Republic of Korea in 1982 and 1983. "Each case was matched on age and parity to a living male from the same neighborhood....[The authors] did not detect an association between vasectomy and cardiovascular death in Korean men, nor did [they] detect a statistically significant increased risk for those subjects who had a vasectomy 15 years or longer....The results coincide with those from Western epidemiologic studies and do not support the vasectomy-atherosclerosis hypothesis originating from animal research."
Author's address: Korea Institute for Population and Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30364 Liskin, Laurie; Blackburn, Richard; Ghani, Rula. Hormonal contraception: new long-acting methods. Population Reports, Series K: Injectables and Implants, No. 3, Mar-Apr 1987. [31] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors discuss methods of hormonal contraception that have been recently developed or are in stages of testing. Separate attention is given to Norplant implants, biodegradable implants, injectable microspheres and microcapsules, monthly injectables, vaginal rings, and long-acting injectable contraceptives. Each method is described, its advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and its effectiveness is outlined. The need to set up an effective distribution and information system for introducing the new contraceptive methods is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30365 Piper, Joyce M.; Kennedy, Dianne L. Oral contraceptives in the United States: trends in content and potency. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 2, Jun 1987. 215-21 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Data from the National Prescription Audit, a nationwide pharmaceutical marketing research data base, were reviewed to study changes in the type of oral contraceptives marketed in the U.S., their content and their relative oestrogen and progestin potency over the 21-year time period of 1964-84. Three major types and 42 brands of oral contraceptives were marketed in the U.S. during this time period....A comprehensive classification listing all 42 brands of oral contraceptives by content and strength is presented....Over the time period studied, oral contraceptives have evolved from high strength, high potency drugs to much lower strength, lower potency drugs. The epidemiological implications of these shifts in oral contraceptive content and potency are discussed."
Author's address: Epidemiology Branch, HFN-733, Division of Epidemiology and Surveillance, Office of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Center for Drugs and Biologics, Food and Drug Administration, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30366 Sivin, Irving; Schmidt, Frederick. Effectiveness of IUDs: a review. Contraception, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jul 1987. 55-84 pp. Los Altos, California. In Eng.
The use-effectiveness of several of the most frequently used IUDs is reviewed. "Large, multicenter, randomized trials of IUDs conducted between 1970 and 1986 encompass more than 50,000 women-years of experience in the two-year interval following device insertion. Taken singly and collectively, these trials demonstrate that IUD failure rates are strongly affected by the age of the participants, notably by the proportion of women under age 25 admitted to the studies." Pearl pregnancy rates are compared. "Long-term IUD failure rates derived from straight assignment as well as randomized trials indicate 4-year gross cumulative failure rates do not exceed 10 per 100 for any of the standard copper devices or the Lippes loop D."
Author's address: Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30367 Trussell, James; Kost, Kathryn. Contraceptive failure in the United States: a critical review of the literature. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 237-83 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The overall goal of this paper is to provide for the first time a comprehensive critical review of the literature on contraceptive failure in developed countries, primarily the United States. The first two sections of our paper lay the groundwork for a critical assessment of the extensive body of studies on this subject, by systematically exploring the concepts and measurement of contraceptive efficacy and the methodological pitfalls that snare many investigators and compromise their results. The next two sections focus on results in the literature. First we provide a method-by-method critique of the available studies and then we summarize our conclusions in a single table that provides efficacy information necessary for women and couples to make an informed choice of a method of contraception. We close with a set of substantive observations and also a set of methodological recommendations intended to improve the quality and comparability of findings from future research."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1987 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America; see elsewhere in this issue for that abstract.
Author's address: Office of Population Research, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

53:30368 Bair, William D.; Astawa, Ida B.; Siregar, Kemal N.; Sudarmadi, Diddy. Evaluation of village family planning program, USAID Indonesia Project: 497-0327, 1983-1986. Population Technical Assistance Project Report, No. 86-099-056, Jul 15, 1987. ix, 66, [35] pp. International Science and Technology Institute, Population Technical Assistance Project: Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
A U.S. AID-supported village family planning project carried out in Indonesia between 1983 and 1987 is evaluated. The authors investigate "the degree to which the Village family planning program had reached its expansion and improvement objectives; the prospects for self-sufficiency; how planned future programs emphasizing urban and private sector initiatives will affect the Village populations; and what might be left out in the Village program by this shift." They conclude that the project has made remarkable progress over the four-year period in providing greater access to services, achieving significantly higher levels of new acceptors and continuing users, and realizing an increase in contraceptive prevalence. Some further improvements that need to be made are also discussed.
Publisher's address: 1601 N. Kent Street, Suite 1101, Arlington, VA 22209.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30369 Coeytaux, Francine M.; Kilani, Taoufik; McEvoy, Margaret. The role of information, education, and communication in family planning service delivery in Tunisia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 229-34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In an effort to measure the value of outreach, a prospective study using an experimental comparison group design was implemented in a rural region of Tunisia, where an outreach program had been implemented in 1981 to increase contraceptive prevalence. The main components of the program included the improvement and expansion of rural health care services through mobile clinics, and the implementation of an information, education, and communication (IEC) outreach program. While the program tended to focus on the implementation of the mobile clinics, service statistics suggested that the IEC outreach component in fact accounted for much of the success of the program. The study shows that the addition of outreach to existing services more than doubles the number of new family planning acceptors, and that outreach has a more positive impact on service output than does the creation of new services."
Author's address: Population Council, 1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30370 Indonesia. National Family Planning Coordinating Board (Jakarta, Indonesia). Evaluation system of the National Population and Family Planning Program. Technical Report Series Monograph, No. 40, Apr 1984. 25 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
The system developed for evaluating the Indonesian national population and family planning program is described in this report. Consideration is also given to a subsystem for evaluating operational activities and a subsystem for evaluating the impact of the program.
Location: U.N. ESCAP Regional Population Information Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

53:30371 Iyengar, Sudarshan; Bhargava, Ashok. Primary health care and family welfare programme in rural Gujarat. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 27, Jul 4, 1987. 1,087-92 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The family planning programme in India has expanded tremendously since 1961 with a steep rise in proportional allocations in both central and state budgets. This has led to an expansion of infrastructure as well as staff in many states, with a number of categories of non-health staff being drawn into the programme to help fulfill targets. This paper presents a brief review of the health and family welfare programme in Gujarat and points out that the programme is not only expensive but also generally ineffective. Moreover the single-minded approach to family planning has meant a neglect of primary health care with programmes such as those combating malaria and tuberculosis, crucial to achieving improvements in health status, [being] grossly neglected."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:30372 Jolly, K. G. Family planning in India, 1969-1984: a district level study. LC 86-901506. 1986. xvi, 287 pp. Hindustan Publishing Corporation: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines social, economic, and program factors contributing to geographic differentials in the performance of India's family planning program. "The first three chapters deal with the background of the family planning programme and the broad time profile of how the programme has progressed in the country. The next three chapters deal with the measurement of performance at state and district level. This is followed by the financial outlays of the family planning programme for an idea of the cost-effectiveness. Finally, the findings and conclusions of the study have been brought together in the last chapter....What emerges as important from our study is the positive association of the programme performance with several crucial elements of social development. The programme has performed badly in almost all the districts where social progress has been lagging behind economic progress....Simultaneously, it must be said that when we control for economic and social variables the performance of the programme tends to vary positively with the variables reflecting managerial efficiency of the implementing agencies. Where the infrastructures have been good, where logistics of implementation have been efficient and where commitment of the workers in the field of health and family welfare has been of high order, programme performance has been comparatively much better." Appendix tables include data on rates of family planning acceptance and couples protected by method and state for the years 1969-1984, and percent of currently married couples accepting family planning by method and state, 1969-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30373 Koenig, Michael A.; Phillips, James F.; Simmons, Ruth S.; Khan, Mehrab A. Trends in family size preferences and contraceptive use in Matlab, Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 117-27 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors focus on demographic trends in Matlab, Bangladesh, since the establishment in 1977 of the Matlab Family Planning and Health Services Project. "This study examines available evidence on trends in family size preferences in the Matlab area from 1977 to 1984 and their relationship to contraceptive use. Within the Matlab treatment area, the most significant factor behind the increase in contraceptive use has been a sharp rise in the practice of contraception for spacing births. There also appears to have been a more modest increase in the proportion of women wanting no additional children. Family size preferences in the treatment and comparison areas were roughly comparable, suggesting--to the extent that such preferences have changed over time--change may have occurred throughout the Matlab study area. The findings are evaluated in terms of their implications for the current debate on the contribution of family planning programs to fertility decline in developing countries."
Author's address: International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, G.P.O. Box 128, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30374 Lewis, Maureen A. Cost recovery in family planning. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 36, No. 1, Oct 1987. 161-82 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The author investigates the cost recovery in publicly sponsored family planning programs in developing countries using "a simple demand-and-supply framework....The [first] section sets out the conceptual framework. Following this, the prices consumers face, the affordability of those prices for the average consumer, and consumer willingness to pay for family-planning services are discussed. Subsequent sections summarize available evidence on sources of contraceptive supply-and-cost recovery in fee-for-service programs. The last two sections discuss the costs of cost recovery--dwelling particularly on the benefit incidence of fee programs and the future prospects for cost recovery."
Author's address: Urban Institute, 2100 M Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20037.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

53:30375 McBride, Mark E.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Santiso, Roberto; Fernandez, Victor H. Cost effectiveness of the APROFAM program for voluntary surgical contraception in Guatemala. Evaluation Review, Vol. 11, No. 3, Jun 1987. 300-26 pp. Newbury Park, California/London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the relative cost effectiveness of five alternative service delivery methods for providing voluntary surgical contraception (VSC) in Guatemala. The study focuses primarily on the relative effectiveness of providing VSC in the country's interior using fixed facilities with local doctors or mobile teams. A retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis finds that the mobile teams are relatively more expensive than using local doctors. The result was tempered by an analysis of the monthly cost and service statistics using statistical cost techniques. The alternative approach explicitly recognizes the dynamic nature of a family planning organization by relating the variations in monthly program costs to the monthly variations in service levels. The alternative analysis revealed that, at the margin, with the given stock of capital the mobile teams are relatively cheaper to use, and that the fixed facilities need high demand levels (which are unlikely to occur in the interior) to achieve low costs at the margin. The alternative analysis led to the funding agency retaining the mobile team model."
Author's address: Department of Economics, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

53:30376 Sayed, Hussein A.-A.; Osman, Mohamed O. A. The demographic impacts of the population and development program: theoretical and methodological considerations. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 12, No. 73, Apr-Jun 1985. 3-26, 25-8 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Methodological and theoretical aspects of measuring the demographic impact of the Egyptian Population and Development Programme are examined. The authors first consider the impact of the program on contraceptive prevalence and conclude that it has had reasonable success in this area. They then expand the analysis, introducing a variety of socioeconomic factors in order to determine their impact. The need to develop more refined measures to evaluate program impact at the community level is emphasized.
Author's address: Department of Statistics, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Cairo University, Orman, Giza, Cairo, Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30377 Serrano Zavala, Antonio; Perez-Gonzales, Marta; Miller, Peter; Welsh, Michael; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Potts, Malcolm. Reproductive risks in a community-based distribution program of oral contraceptives, Matamoros, Mexico. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1987. 284-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A Reproductive Risk Factors Survey was carried out in 1982 in conjunction with a community-based distribution (CBD) program in Matamoros, Mexico, to determine whether the distribution of oral contraceptives to women through CBD programs exposes any demonstrable group of users to more health risks than if the program had not been put in place. The methodology involved interviews by nurses of program pill users and non-program pill users. Health indicators related to cardiovascular accidents were the main focus of comparison between the groups. The data indicate that respondents were well informed about their own health status, and, in terms of the conditions studied, program users were found to be similar in health status to non-program pill users whether or not they were ever examined for contraindications to pill use. The study indicates that this CBD program has not increased the risk associated with pill use for its clients and has, in fact, given protection from pregnancy to women who may otherwise not have had access to oral contraceptives."
Author's address: Centro de Orientacion Familiar, Calle Sexta entre Rayon y Victoria, No. 99, Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30378 Tan, Boon Ann. Multivariate areal analysis of the impact and efficiency of the family planning programme in Peninsular Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, Jun 1987. 45-66 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This article examines the impact of the family planning programme of Malaysia on fertility reduction, net of the contribution of socio-economic change. Because of the increasing size of the Government's expenditures on family planning, it also examines the efficiency of the programmes using areal analysis, which covers distinctive and meaningful geographical areas where data on socio-economic development indicators are available. The article shows that the findings of multivariate areal analysis can help to assess the impact of family planning programmes and increase the understanding of the dynamics of programme management, thus guiding programme managers in the allocation of financial and human resources."
Author's address: National Population and Family Development Board, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

53:30379 Adamchak, Donald J.; Adebayo, Akinwumi. Male fertility attitudes: a neglected dimension in Nigerian fertility research. Social Biology, Vol. 34, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1987. 57-67 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This paper examines the fertility attitudes of a sample of 202 male Nigerian students studying in the United States. Specifically, three dimensions were investigated: (1) perceptions of population problems in Nigeria; (2) attitudes toward family planning, divorce, and male children; and (3) attitudes toward family size. Findings indicate that: (1) In general, this sample does not believe there is a population problem in Nigeria, and rapid population growth is not a cause of poverty, poor health or unemployment; (2) the majority of respondents agree that a government population policy should be adopted, but does not agree with government interference in the number of children a couple desires; (3) family planning information and services should be made available to men, but women should not practice family planning without the consent of their husbands; (4) duration of stay in the United States is inversely correlated with the number of children considered too many; and (5) the number of male children is an extremely important variable in regard to additional children desired."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30380 Bhatia, Jagdish C. Sex preference of children in rural Ghana (West Africa). Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, Vol. 7, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1984. 32-47 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng. with sum. in Hin.
The author examines sex preference among rural, married couples in Ghana using data collected in 1972 in connection with a rural health and family planning project. Multivariate analysis is used to examine correlates of intensity of sex preference. Evidence is found of a definite son preference among husbands.
Author's address: Centre for Population and Health Management, Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore 560076, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30381 Choudhury, A. Y.; Choudhuri, S. R.; Huq, M. N.; Khan, A. R. The way ahead for family planning in Bangladesh. World Health Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1987. 373-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The objective of the study was to identify the psychosocial factors responsible for non-acceptance of contraception [in Bangladesh] so that a programme of communication could be developed in this field. The focus group discussion technique was used to gather the primary data" from groups of rural residents, categorized by poor or middle-class status and sex, and from village leaders. Among the topics included are views on population growth, marriage age, preferred family size, family planning, sources of family planning information, religion and attitude toward contraception, and psychological factors pertaining to choice of contraceptive method. It is found that "a relatively favourable atmosphere now seems to exist in the countryside of Bangladesh for a quicker adoption of birth control measures."
Author's address: Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology (PIACT), 1/7 Block A, Lalmatia Housing Estate, Dhaka-7, Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30382 Frank, Odile. The demand for fertility control in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1987. 181-201 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Recent fertility surveys in Africa reveal that a striking majority of women want more children, even among those who practice modern contraception, and that modern contraceptive prevalence is still low for women most motivated to avert pregnancy. This analysis suggests that whereas there is, as yet, little indication of change in conditions anticipated to shift the underlying demand for children, uncertainties attached to successful childraising due to risks of infertility, failure to thrive, disability, and divorce strongly favor traditional forms of fertility regulation. The two major means of fertility regulation in Africa--avoidance of next pregnancy in reference to the last born child's survival and rearrangement of the timing and tempo of childrearing through fostering--are not equivalent to modern contraception in purpose or practice. Against these general observations, particular demand for fertility control is identified for groups of women who demonstrate interest in nontraditional forms of fertility regulation at specific life-cycle points. A range of focused family planning activities is proposed to address this demand."
Author's address: Population Council, 1 Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30383 Hammer, Jeffrey S. Children and savings in less developed countries. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 23, No. 1, Sep 1986. 107-18 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A commonly cited motive for childbearing in LDCs is the support in old age provided by one's children. Alternative means of retirement support become available as a country develops. This paper presents a simple two period model in which financial institutions are allowed to substitute for children in the provision of this service. The 'quality' of financial institutions is given an operational definition and the hypotheses of the model are tested on a cross-section sample of countries."
Author's address: World Bank, Washington, D.C. 20433.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:30384 Korea Institute for Population and Health (Seoul, Korea, Republic of). Unmarried female worker's sexual and contraceptive knowledge and attitude: a research report to World Health Organization. 1987. 89 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
Contraceptive knowledge and practice among unmarried female factory workers in the Republic of Korea are studied using results from a sample survey of 918 women aged 15-26 in three industrial complexes. Attention is given to socio-psychological and demographic characteristics of the respondents, sources of information on family planning and contraceptives, and knowledge and attitudes toward contraceptive use. The emphasis is on the need to improve sex and family planning education at the job sites.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30385 Krishnan, Vijaya. Preferences for sex of children: a multivariate analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 367-76 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper, based on 1973-74 Growth of Alberta Family Study data, examines the sex preference for children among women in Edmonton [Canada]. Discriminant functions are used to examine whether the two groups of women--those who prefer to have sons and those who prefer to have daughters--differ in selected characteristics such as age, birth place, residence in youth, education, religion, number and sex of siblings, traditional female roles, and attitude towards sex predetermination. The results show some preference for sons, although generally women prefer to have children of both sexes. The variables birth place, number of female siblings of wife, and education of husband are found to discriminate best among the two groups. In general, the results suggest that sex preference among women is more heavily determined by their country of birth and number of male and female siblings. There is some evidence to suggest that preference for sex of children varies between adolescents and older women. The findings suggest that women generally do not favour the idea of sex predetermination."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30386 Lodewijckx, E.; Deven, F. Oral and intrauterine contraception: assignment of characteristics and perceptions among present users, ex-users, and nonusers in Flanders. [De hormonale- en de intra-uteriene anticonceptie. Eigenschapstoekenning en beeldvorming bij huidige-, ex- en nooit-gebruiksters in Vlaanderen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1986. 1-24 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The authors aim to document the assignment of properties to hormonal and intrauterine contraception by comparing women who presently use, formerly used or never used these methods. Some data on the perception of surgical contraception are also presented. The data stem from the 4th National Survey on Family Development (NEGO IV, 1982-83) in Flanders (Belgium). This analysis limits itself to [2,492] 20- to 44-year old women, living together with their partner...at the time of the interview. Only a few method-characteristics seem to be relevant (e.g., reliability, side-effects, 'naturalness')." Significant relationships are found between individual's experiences with contraceptive methods and their attribution of method characteristics. The significance of these findings for those providing information on contraceptive methods is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30387 Raza, Muhammad H. Desire for additional children and sex preference among rural Pakistani couples: an analysis of PFS/WFS data, 1975. IIPS Newsletter, Vol. 27-28, No. 4-1, Oct-Jan 1986-1987. 9-21 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The major aim of this paper, which is based on the data collected in 1975 through [the] Pakistan Fertility Survey (PFS) carried out under the auspices of [the] World Fertility Survey (WFS) Programme, is to study the incidence of desire for additional children and accompanying sex-preference among the currently married, non-pregnant and fecund women residing in rural areas with respect to various demographic and socio-economic variables." Attention is also given to contraceptive use among those desiring additional children. It is found that, in general, four children represent both ideal and completed family sizes. Among those stating a sex preference, 94 percent preferred sons. Demand for daughters was greatest among those with two or more sons and among those with no daughters.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30388 Silverman, Jane; Torres, Aida; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Barriers to contraceptive services. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 3, May-Jun 1987. 94-7, 101-2 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors report on a research project in which they examined factors related to the nonuse of contraception in the United States. Attention is given to the contraceptive needs and preferences of low-income women and to limitations on women's ability to obtain family planning services. The information analyzed was gathered in a telephone survey of 760 women aged 18-35 and from a mail survey of 102 clinics and 353 physicians in the same areas in which the interviewed women resided. It is found that "negative attitudes toward contraceptives, not negative attitudes toward medical family planning providers, are important determinants both of contraceptive nonuse and of reliance on nonprescription methods."
Author's address: Alan Guttmacher Institute, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30389 Thornton, Arland; Camburn, Donald. The influence of the family on premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 323-40 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the influence of the family on sexual attitudes and behavior among adolescents. Using data from a study of mothers and their children, this research documents the influence of parental attitudes on behavior of children. The study also shows that the premarital sexual attitudes and behavior of children are influenced by childbearing and marital experiences of their parents and by the religious affiliation and attendance of their mothers. Educational attainments of mothers are also related to the attitudes and behavior of children, but there is no discernible effect of the mother's employment." Data are from a probability sample of children selected from the birth records of Detroit, Michigan, for July 1961.
Author's address: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30390 Zucker-Rouvillois, Elisabeth. Natality and family models in Council of Europe countries and in France. [Natalite et modeles familiaux dans les pays du Conseil de l'Europe et en France.] Revue Francaise des Affaires Sociales, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1987. 113-30 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author compares public opinion on fertility and family issues in selected European countries using responses to a 1986 opinion survey conducted for the Council of Europe. Consideration is given to attitudes concerning fertility levels and family size, fertility decline, family policies, employed women and family life, family formation, marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. Discrepancies between attitudes and observed behavior are noted; similarities in opinion among the countries are described in terms of family and fertility norms. In addition to the tables of comparative data, several tables contain data for France alone.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

53:30391 Ellerbrock, Tedd V.; Atrash, Hani K.; Rhodenhiser, Elaine P.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Smith, Jack C. Abortion surveillance, 1982-1983. CDC Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 36, No. 1SS, Feb 1987. 11-42 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This report presents data on induced abortion in the United States as reported to the Centers for Disease Control for 1982 and 1983. "In 1982, a total of 1,303,980 legal abortions were reported; in 1983, a total of 1,268,987 were reported. This is the first time since 1969 that the number has decreased from the previous year. The national abortion rate decreased from 24 abortions/1,000 women ages 15 to 44 in 1982 to 23/1,000 in 1983. The abortion ratio also decreased--from 354 abortions/1,000 live births in 1982 to 349/1,000 in 1983...." Data are included on differences in abortion rates by state and age of occurrence, abortions obtained by teenagers, length of gestation, type of procedure, and abortion-related mortality.
Author's address: Center for Health Promotion and Education, Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30392 Park, Yeon-Woo. The effect of induced abortion on subsequent contraceptive practices. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1986. 24-37 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of induced abortion on subsequent contraceptive use is studied using data for 2,160 abortion seekers aged 15-49 in the Republic of Korea. The transitional probability of contraceptive use before and after abortion is analyzed. The impact on subsequent contraceptive practice of educational level, number of children and contraceptive status prior to abortion is assessed.
Author's address: Korea Institute for Population and Health, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30393 Plutzer, Eric; Ryan, Barbara. Notifying husbands about an abortion: an empirical look at constitutional and policy dilemmas. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 3, Apr 1987. 183-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the judicial history and constitutional issues of spousal notification statutes" concerning abortion in the United States. Data from a 1984 survey of 2,337 women seeking abortions at a clinic in Illinois are used to examine the likely impact of such legislation. Attention is given to the ideological motivations related to spousal notification laws.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30394 Powell-Griner, Eve. Induced terminations of pregnancy: reporting states, 1984. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 36, No. 5, Suppl. 2, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1120. Sep 8, 1987. 36 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
The situation concerning induced abortion in the United States in 1984 is described. Data are from 13 states reporting such data. The total number of abortions reported was 306,792, an increase of about one percent over the previous year. Consideration is given to age and race, marital status, educational status, pregnancy history, period of gestation, type of procedure, and residence characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30395 Spinelli, A.; Grandolfo, M. E.; De Blasio, R.; Pediconi, M.; Savelli, L.; Timperi, F.; Lauria, L.; Vollono, C.; Figa-Talamanca, I. The voluntary interruption of pregnancy in Italy in 1984 and the first half of 1985. [L'interruzione volontaria di gravidanza in Italia 1984 e 1 semestre 1985.] Rapporti ISTISAN, No. 87/2, Jan 1987. vi, 151 pp. Istituto Superiore di Sanita: Rome, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in legal abortion in Italy in 1984 and the beginning of 1985 are analyzed. The authors note that since 1983 the incidence of legal abortions in Italy has started to decline. There were 227,446 legal abortions in 1984, a rate of 380.6 per 1,000 live births. Consideration is given to differences in abortion rates by region, age of woman, marital status, educational status, gestational age at abortion, place of abortion, methods of abortion, and repeat abortions.
Publisher's address: Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161, Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30396 Tsoi, W. F.; Tay, G. E.; Ratnam, S. S. Psychosocial characteristics of repeat aborters in Singapore. Biology and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2, Jun 1987. 78-84 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The psychosocial characteristics of 200 repeat aborters and 200 first time aborters [among] Singapore Chinese were compared with 200 antenatal patients. The repeat aborters started their sexual activities at an earlier age. They were married for a longer period, had more past pregnencies and more children, but their marital adjustments were slightly less satisfactory. There were no differences in education, housing, and religious practices among the three groups. The aborters knew more methods of contraceptive practices, but they tended to use unreliable methods. Their main reasons for seeking abortion were that their families were complete or that they wished to space births."
Author's address: Department of Psychological Medicine, National University Hospital, 5 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 0511.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30397 Wang, Janet F. Induced abortion: reported and observed practice in Taiwan. Health Care for Women International, Vol. 6, No. 5-6, 1985. 383-404 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study reports the result of a 1980 survey obtained from a nonrandom sample of 500 Chinese women in Taiwan. A total of 46.6% (223) of the respondents admitted that they had obtained at least one induced abortion for birth control purposes in their lifetime. The following questions are explored and discussed in relation to the women's abortion experiences: prior contraceptive use, repeated abortion, decision to seek abortion, attitudes toward sexual activity and marriage, gestational age at termination of pregnancy, fear of complication, guilt after abortion, and comparison of abortion and pregnancy experiences."
Author's address: West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.
Location: University of Pennsylvania, Medical Library, Philadelphia, PA.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

53:30398 Asociacion Guatemalteca de Educacion Sexual [AGES] (Guatemala City, Guatemala); United States. Centers for Disease Control [CDC]. Division of Reproductive Health (Atlanta, Georgia). Survey on sexual and reproductive information among youths. The department of Guatemala--urban areas: preliminary report, summary of results. [Encuesta sobre informacion sexual y reproductiva de jovenes. Departamento de Guatemala--areas urbanas: reporte preliminar, resumen de resultados.] Pub. Order No. 0037A. Mar 1987. 15, [16] pp. Guatemala City, Guatemala. In Spa.
This is a preliminary report on the results of a survey of sexual and reproductive patterns among youths in Guatemala. The survey was conducted in 1986 in urban areas of the department of Guatemala and uses information from interviews with 573 males and 700 females aged 15-24. The aim of the survey was to gather data concerning sources of knowledge on sexuality, the proportion of young people having sexual relations, the frequency of sexual relations, use of contraception, premarital pregnancy, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on sexual behavior. Some results of the Guatemalan survey are briefly compared with a similar survey conducted in Mexico City, Mexico.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30399 Bachrach, Christine A.; Horn, Marjorie C. Married and unmarried couples, United States, 1982. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, No. 15, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1991. ISBN 0-8406-0372-X. LC 87-600097. Jul 1987. vi, 52 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
This report on married and unmarried couples presents final data from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth, conducted in 1982 with a national sample of 7,969 U.S. women aged 15-44 years. The survey solicited information on "topics related to exposure to sexual intercourse both within and outside of marriage. These include the timing of first date, first sexual intercourse, and first marriage; the proportions of women who have ever had sexual intercourse and the frequency of intercourse in a recent period; current marital status and number of marriages; unmarried cohabitation; and marital dissolution and remarriage." It is found that "86 percent of women 15-44 years of age and almost all women aged 25 years or older had ever had sexual intercourse." Most statistics are broken down by age, race, and Hispanic origin. Other factors include level of education, family background, religious affiliation, region of residence, and family income.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30400 Bhatia, Jagdish C. Intermediate variables and fertility: a case study of Ghana (West Africa). Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1986. 164-78 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Selected intermediate variables affecting fertility among rural women in Ghana are examined using stepwise multiple regression analysis and data from a baseline household survey conducted in conjunction with the establishment in 1970 of a rural health and family planning project. The author's intention is to assess the relative impact on fertility of the variables. "The results of the analysis show that there is a negative relationship between female age at marriage and fertility. They also reveal that marital instability depresses the level of fertility. It is shown that the higher the number of previous marriages of the wife, the lower the fertility....The relationship between contraceptive practice and fertility has however been found to be positive....Of all the intermediate variables included in this analysis, the inverse relationship between age at marriage and fertility has been most pronounced and consistent."
Author's address: Centre for Population and Health Management, Indian Institute of Management, Bannerghatta Road, Bangalore 560 076, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30401 Bongaarts, John. The proximate determinants of exceptionally high fertility. Population and Development Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 133-9, 190, 192-3 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper examines the reproductive patterns of a number of populations in which fertility is far in excess of the level expected from the contraceptive prevalence rate. This exceptionally high fertility is shown to be largely attributable to the lower than expected fertility-inhibiting effects of other proximate determinants, especially breastfeeding and the marriage pattern. An examination of fertility trends during the onset of the fertility transition demonstrates that it is quite possible for fertility to remain constant or even rise temporarily as contraceptive use increases, because other proximate determinants can exert offsetting upward pressure on fertility."
Author's address: Center for Policy Studies, Population Council, One Dag Hammarskjold Plaza, New York, NY 10017.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30402 Ferguson, Alan G. Some aspects of birth seasonality in Kenya. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 7, 1987. 793-801 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In Kenya, a tropical country with a variety of ecological conditions, data on registered births gathered at district level for a period of 42 months [from 1979 to 1982] suggest that, for the country as a whole, month to month variations in the numbers of births display a measure of seasonal regularity with a major peak in September and a subsidiary one in April-May. The pattern is repeated in several districts and the evidence points to the influence of holiday months, harvest times and, particularly at the coast, climatic variables, as underlying the observed patterns. Autoregressive modelling confirms the regularity of seasonal patterns in many districts and a closer study of the interaction of conceptions and climatic variables suggests the possibility of a positive association between conception rates and food availability. Some implications of regular seasonality in births on health policy are discussed."
Author's address: Ministry of Health/Division of Family Health, GTZ Support, P.O. Box 43319, Nairobi, Kenya.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:30403 Ford, Kathleen; Kim, Young. Distributions of postpartum amenorrhea: some new evidence. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 3, Aug 1987. 413-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study examines empirical distributions of postpartum amenorrhea from three longitudinal studies of breastfeeding women conducted in Bangladesh, India, and Guatemala, both to provide information on the distribution of postpartum amenorrhea and to evaluate statistical models of postpartum amenorrhea. Observation of the empirical schedules indicates that the most common shape for a distribution of postpartum amenorrhea is bimodal. Amenorrhea is best represented by a curve that consists of two hills. Both an analytic model consisting of a mixed distribution and a logit model with a revised standard are suggested for use with data on postpartum amenorrhea."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, p. 463).
Author's address: Department of Population Planning and International Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30404 Kabir, M.; Uddin, M. Mosleh. Effect of nuptiality, contraception and breast-feeding on fertility in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jul 1987. 345-50 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The effects of marriage, contraception and post-partum lactational infecundability on fertility in Bangladesh are assessed by applying Bongaarts' formula to survey data for the period 1975-85. Marriage is universal and age at marriage is low. Breast-feeding is prolonged and has a pronounced effect on fertility. The fertility-reducing effect of contraception increased over the period through increased use of modern methods. The TFR [total fertility rate] declined by 24% from 1975 to 1985."
Author's address: Department of Statistics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:30405 McNally, Ellen; Hendricks, Suzanne; Horowitz, Isadore. A look at breast-feeding trends in Canada (1963-1982). Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 76, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1985. 101-7 pp. Ottowa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This report summarizes the results of nine cross-sectional studies on breast-feeding trends in Canada, conducted over a twenty year period (1963-1982)....The results show an impressive increase in the national breast-feeding rates from 38% in 1963 to 75% in 1982 and in the duration of breast-feeding." Consideration is given to geographic differences and to changes in the rate of increase over time.
Second author's address: Ross Laboratories, A Division of Abbott Laboratories Limited, 5400 Cote de Liesse, Montreal H4P 1A5, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

53:30406 Cope, Lisa G. The premarital fertility behavior of black and white women in the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8702711. 1986. 275 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines differences in the premarital fertility behavior of black and white [U.S.] women aged 15-24, using as its main source of data the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth....A Bongaarts-type aggregate model of premarital fertility is developed, to assess the relative importance of four proximate determinants in inhibiting the premarital fertility of black and white women." Reasons underlying the existence of racial differentials in the proximate determinants of premarital fertility are considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(10).


Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.