Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

53:20230 Abdalla, Ahmed A. M. Women's employment and recent fertility in Egypt and Ghana. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 207-24 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author outlines "the overall levels, patterns and structure of women's employment in Egypt and Ghana...[and examines] the relationship between women's participation in the labour force and recent fertility in both countries." Data are from the Egyptian Fertility Survey of 1980 and the Ghana Fertility Survey of 1979-1980. Tabular data are included on labor force participation by age, marital status, educational level, husband's occupation, and husband's education; occupational structure by rural or urban residence; fertility by educational level, work experience, and rural or urban residence; and contraceptive use by work experience and rural or urban residence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20231 Agrawal, Pratibha; Srivastava, O. P. An age and parity dependent model for birth intervals of non-contraceptive population. Statistica, Vol. 46, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 513-20 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper [an] age dependent model [for estimating birth intervals] is constructed which assumes that the women have already crossed the age of maximum fertility at the time of observation. The parameters of the model are assumed to depend upon the parity." This model is based on an earlier age-dependent model by the same authors and was designed to account for late marriage and high parity. The model was applied to information on 203 married, non-contracepting women from a village in Haryana, India, collected in May and June of 1978.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20232 Agyei, William K. A. Estimates of fertility and infant and child mortality for Lae urban area of Papua New Guinea: a comparative analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 139-48 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data collected on fertility, mortality and family planning in two surveys in Papua New Guinea are presented. The first survey was conducted in rural and urban areas between November 1979 and March 1980 in eight provinces of Papua New Guinea, and the second between late June and early July 1981 in the Lae urban area. The unadjusted total fertility rates suggest that fertility is lower in the Lae urban area than in the rural and provincial urban areas. However, the adjusted rates indicate that fertility is higher in the provincial urban areas than in the rural and Lae urban areas. The results also confirm a trend towards lower infant and child mortality over the past 15 years, as well as the existence of moderate differentials between rural, provincial urban and the Lae urban areas."
Author's address: Institute of Statistics and Applied Economics, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20233 Ahmad, Sultan. Differentials in intermediate fertility variables in four Muslim populations. Asian Profile, Vol. 14, No. 3, Jun 1986. 249-65 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
An analysis of the intermediate variables affecting fertility among four Muslim populations is presented. The data are from the World Fertility Survey and concern Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, and Pakistan. The emphasis is on the differences in intermediate variables among the populations considered and their relationship to the fertility differentials observed. Factors considered include marriage, age at marriage, dissolution of marriage, remarriage, contraceptive use, and fetal death.
Author's address: Department of Statistics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (Gest).

53:20234 Al Fayez, Abdelkarim M. Determinants and differentials of fertility in Jordan. Pub. Order No. DA8628613. 1986. 220 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The impact of selected predictors on completed fertility and desired family size differentials among ever-married Jordanian women is examined within a multidisciplinary framework. Methodologically, this study employed Multiple Classification Analysis and Analysis of Variance techniques to examine fertility differentials, and stepwise multiple regression analysis with dummy variables to study fertility determinants." Data from the 1976 Jordan Fertility Survey are analyzed. Relationships among desired and completed family size and the following factors are assessed: educational status, employment status, occupational status, residence type, religion, maternal age, age at first marriage, sterility, contraceptive use, breast-feeding, and induced abortion
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Mississippi State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(8).

53:20235 Albuquerque, Fernando R. P. de C.; Oliveira, Juarez de C.; Pereira, Nilza de O. M. Estimates of fertility for Brazil based on techniques developed by Brass and Arriaga. [Estimativas de fecundidade para o Brasil com base nas tecnicas de Brass e de Arriaga.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 46, No. 181-182, Jan-Jun 1985. 123-35 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Data from the 1970 and 1980 Brazilian censuses are analyzed by the methods of Brass and Arriaga to obtain information on Brazilian fertility by age group. The two techniques are compared, and the results obtained are discussed in relation to observed trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20236 Arshat, A. Hamid; Takeshita, Yuzuru J.; Tan, Boon Ann; Tey, Nai Peng. Fertility trends in Peninsular Malaysia: 1957-70 and 1970-80. Application of a decomposition technique. Population Research Series, No. 1, [1986?]. 31 pp. National Population and Family Development Board: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
The decline in fertility in Peninsular Malaysia between 1957 and 1980 is analyzed. The authors note that following a period of rapid decline between 1957 and 1970, the rate of decline since 1970 has been much slower. Using a decomposition technique, they analyze changes in the crude birth rate separately by ethnic group. The results show that the slowdown in the rate of fertility decline is primarily due to an increase in the proportion of women in the childbearing ages. They also indicate that while Chinese and Indian fertility has continued to fall, Malay fertility has increased slightly since 1970
Publisher's address: P.O. Box 10416, Jalan Ipoh, 50712 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20237 Ballmer-Cao, Thanh-Huyen; Hopflinger, Francois. Social processes of emancipation and fertility trends. A theoretical essay. [Gesellschaftliche Emanzipationsprozesse und Geburtenentwicklung. Ein theoretischer Essay.] Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Soziologie/Revue Suisse de Sociologie, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jul 1986. 103-34 pp. Montreux, Switzerland. In Fre; Ger.
This article, the first half of which is in German and the second half in French, presents a theoretical analysis of the relationship between long-term trends in fertility and the social process of emancipation. The authors argue that such social change affects fertility and that recent demographic trends in developed countries reflect a change from the bourgeois to the postbourgeois nuclear family.
Author's address: Soziologisches Institut, Universitat Zurich, Zeltweg 63, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20238 Bantje, Han. Seasonality of births and birthweights in Tanzania. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 9, 1987. 733-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Seasonal patterns of birthrates and birthweights [in Tanzania] have been compiled from the delivery records of 11 rural hospitals and compared with each other and with the local rainfall pattern by means of lagged regression analysis....Seasonal variations in birthrate were found to occur independently from those of birthweight. Birth seasonality was found to be prominent only in areas with holoendemic malaria and is attributed to a seasonal depression of fecundity mainly due to malaria infection."
Author's address: Institute of Resource Assessment, University of Dar-es-Salaam, P.O. Box 35097, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20239 Barata, Oscar S. Fertility and social policy in Portugal. [Natalidade e politica social em Portugal.] 1985. 250 pp. Instituto Superior de Ciencial Sociais e Politicas: Lisbon, Portugal. In Por.
This study is concerned with fertility in Europe in general, with particular reference to Portugal and to the social policies that affect fertility. Consideration is given to the laws governing the employment of women and children, those concerned with maternal and child welfare, family allowances, the protection of the family, and family planning.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20240 Becker, Gary S.; Barro, Robert J. Altruism and the economic theory of fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 69-86 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article develops the implications of altruism toward children, where utility of parents depends on their own consumption, their fertility, and the utility of each of their children. Altruism toward children implies that the welfare of all generations of a family is linked through a dynastic utility function that depends on the consumption, fertility, and number of descendants in all generations....Even a highly simplified model of altruism toward children and the behavior of dynastic families appears to us to capture important aspects of the dynamic behavior of fertility and consumption." A comment by Paul A. David (pp. 77-85) is also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20241 Bernstam, Mikhail S. Competitive human markets, interfamily transfers, and below-replacement fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 111-36 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates low fertility both in high-income countries of North America and Western Europe and in selected Socialist countries. He "seeks possible common causes of low fertility in the area of interfamily transfers. Involuntary transfers of incomes and future opportunities of children occur between families and over age groups through the mechanisms of social security for the elderly, public education, and seniority of earnings and promotions on the labor market. It is argued here that such transfers in highly competitive modern societies may cause additional fertility reduction on the margin sufficient to reduce fertility below replacement. The first section presents a microeconomic approach to fertility....The second section presents cross-sectional and time series evidence from the United States and the Soviet Union of the age-specific fertility effects of various interfamily transfers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20242 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K. A probability model for interior birth interval and its applications. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1986. 167-80 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"A model has been proposed to describe the data on birth intervals that lie entirely within a segment of marriage duration or between two survey dates. Such intervals are termed as interior birth intervals, and these models are different to those of the usual closed intervals. A procedure to find out maximum likelihood estimates is outlined and the proposed model has been applied to three sets of data [from India]."
Author's address: Centre of Population Studies, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20243 Blayo, Chantal. Fertility in Europe since 1960: convergence or divergence? [La fecondite en Europe depuis 1960: convergence ou divergence?] In: European Population Conference 1987. Plenaries/Congres Europeen de Demographie 1987. Seances plenieres, edited by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the European Association for Population Studies. 1987. 47-111 pp. Central Statistical Office: Helsinki, Finland. In Fre.
The author surveys fertility trends in Europe since 1960, relying on a variety of official and published sources for selected countries. Trends in cumulative fertility from the 1930s to the 1950s are first discussed. Attention is then given to the decline in fertility in selected European countries during the period 1960-1984. Change over time in fertility outside of marriage in some countries is interpreted as a compensating factor reducing the effect of declining marriage rates on total fertility. Trends in the distribution of families by size, premarital conception, and shifts in contraceptive methods chosen are also discussed. Among the factors outlined in the closing section as contributing to the observed fertility decline are structural variations in the population, progress in contraceptive effectiveness, individual psychological and economic factors, and social factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20244 Blum, Alain. The demographic transition in the eastern republics of the USSR. [La transition demographique dans les republiques orientales d'URSS.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 337-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
An analysis of recent fertility trends in the USSR is presented using data from a variety of Soviet and other sources. "Although fertility in different regions of the Soviet Union has always differed considerably, it seems suddenly to have become more homogeneous. In fact, the fertility in the Eastern Republics of the USSR is falling sharply. A reconstitution of total fertility rates since the beginning of the 1950's indicates a common pattern for all the Republics. After a period of real growth, even though some of it could be attributed to an improvement in registration, there followed a period of decline which reflected a general change in behaviour, since various surveys indicate that all Soviet nationalities were affected in both rural and urban areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20245 Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean. The unprecedented shortage of births in Europe. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 3-25 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author studies the fertility decline in Europe over the past 20 years. The purpose is to provide and evaluate the data, primarily from government and international agency sources, underlying explanations of below-replacement fertility. Selected European countries are studied comparatively, with attention to trends in total fertility rates; completed cohort fertility; the baby bust, including figures for the United States; legitimate and illegitimate births, marriage, and nuptiality; and recent increases in fertility in Eastern Europe. It is argued that to the extent that marriages are contracted due to premarital pregnancy, the decline of nuptiality in Europe may result from fertility decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20246 Brunborg, Helge; Kravdal, Oystein. Fertility by birth order in Norway: a register-based analysis. [Barnetall blant Norske kvinner: en paritetsanalyse pa grunnlag av registerdata.] Rapporter fra Statistisk Sentralbyra, No. 86/27, ISBN 82-537-2405-5. 1986. 120 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility in Norway is analyzed using data from the File of Mothers, a machine-readable data file created in 1985 from the Central Population Register, which contains data on all Norwegian women born after 1920 and nearly all births between 1953 and 1984. The file is first described, and the quality of the data it contains is assessed. The methods of analysis, which include hazard models, are then introduced, and the results are presented. Topics covered include fertility trends since the middle of the nineteenth century, large families, childlessness, the transition from first to second child, who has a third child, mothers of four children, and the importance of age at first birth for subsequent fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20247 Carneiro, Jose P. Q. Concerning the Brass P/F ratio methods for the estimation of fertility. [Sobre o metodo da razao P/F de Brass para estimativa da fecundidade.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 44, No. 173-174, Jan-Jun 1983. 159-79 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Methods for the indirect estimation of fertility developed by William Brass are described and applied to official Brazilian data for l970. Consideration is also given to alternative methods for estimating fertility. The author concludes that the Brass P/F Ratio Method still has a useful role to play.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20248 Chanaka, Teshome T. The impact of survival status of penultimate child on the last closed pregnancy interval: the case of Lesotho. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 417-38 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to quantify and illustrate the biological and/or behavioural effect of infant death on pregnancy interval based on the experience of women aged 15-49 covered by the [1977 World Fertility Survey] of Lesotho....[The author analyzes] the length of last closed pregnancy interval (LCPI) by survival status of the penultimate live birth" and discusses the effect of age of women, status and duration of breast-feeding, age at death of penultimate child, and pregnancy order of penultimate live birth on the LCPI. Differentials among socioeconomic groups are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20249 Cleland, John; Wilson, Christopher. Demand theories of the fertility transition: an iconoclastic view. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 5-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper challenges the widely held and influential view that the fertility transition is largely the consequence of changing parental demand for children brought about by changes in the economic costs and benefits entailed in childbearing. Using evidence from both historical and contemporary populations we argue that demand theories do not offer a plausible explanation of the fertility transition. Instead, we propose that ideational, rather than structural, economic change lies at the heart of the transition. In particular, we suggest that attitudes to birth control, broadly defined, play a crucial role."
Author's address: International Statistical Research Centre, The Hague, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20250 Coale, Ansley J.; Chen, Sheng Li. Basic data on fertility in the provinces of China, 1940-82. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 104, ISBN 0-86638-088-4. LC 86-32765. Jan 1987. xvii, 366 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This paper presents age-specific and marriage duration-specific fertility rates for Mainland China and each of twenty-eight provinces, and within each province for total urban, and rural populations, during the period 1940-82. The rates were tabulated from data obtained by China's One per Thousand Sample Fertility Survey, conducted by the State Family Planning Commission in 1982. The basic tables supplement the history of fertility change in China as a whole already revealed in the report of the survey published by the Chinese government in 1983. The additional information on marital fertility illustrates the substantial effect of changes in nuptiality on the course of total fertility in China. The provincial data show the geographical diversity of fertility from the earliest years to 1982."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20251 Darabi, Katherine F. Childbearing among Hispanics in the United States: an annotated bibliography. Bibliographies and Indexes in Women's Studies, No. 4, ISBN 0-313-25617-9. LC 86-33716. 1987. xii, 167 pp. Greenwood Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This bibliography "contains abstracts of 364 articles concerning the fertility-related attitudes and behavior of Hispanics in the United States....The bibliography surveys articles written during the past fifteen years on the subject of Hispanics in the continental United States, and their attitudes or behavior concerning marital status, sexual activity, pregnancy, abortion, childbearing, and contraceptive use." Articles containing data on adolescents and teenage pregnancy are indicated with an asterisk. The bibliography is organized by subject. Author and subject indexes are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20252 Davis, Kingsley; Bernstam, Mikhail S.; Ricardo-Campbell, Rita. Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., LC 87-2458. 1987. x, 360 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
This collection of 18 papers and 11 commentaries, by noted economists, demographers, and sociologists, combines systematic discussions of the demographic effects of below-replacement fertility with efforts to explain its social origins, to determine the likely societal consequences, and to assess potential policy responses. The articles, which are based on papers presented at a 1985 seminar held at Stanford University, are presented under the headings trends, models, interpretation, consequences, and policies.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20253 Davis, Kingsley. Low fertility in evolutionary perspective. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 48-65 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines the current below-replacement fertility in developed countries from a historical perspective. He reviews trends in fertility in early hunting and gathering societies, the struggle against mortality, the effects of agricultural development on the balance of births and deaths, and the industrial revolution. He then examines fertility determinants and the consequences of below-replacement fertility in modern industrial societies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20254 de Beer, J. Births and cohort size: an empirical test of the Easterlin hypothesis. [Geboorten en cohortomvang: een empirische toetsing van de Easterlinhypothese.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 35, No. 4, Apr 1987. 14-9 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author develops an alternative to the Ahlburg specification of the Easterlin hypothesis concerning the relationship between cohort size and fertility. "In combination with a declining trend in average family size (represented by a linear spline function), the Easterlin effect is found to affect the movement of births in the Netherlands during the period 1950-1985. It should be noted, however, that the trend explains by far the larger fraction of variance of births. The model projects a rise of births until 2000 followed by a decline."
For the articles by Dennis A. Ahlburg, published in 1983 and 1986, see 49:40200 and 52:40241.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20255 Demeny, Paul. Demographic transformation in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy: early fertility decline and the theory of the "demographic transition". [Demographischer Wandel in der osterreich-ungarischen Monarchie: fruher Fruchtbarkeitsruckgang und die Theorie des "Demographische Ubergangs"] Demographische Informationen, 1986. 37-44, 145 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The author attempts to expose and explain important elements of the demographic transition in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in the last third of the nineteenth century. This is done on the basis of regional differences and time differences of the Coale-Indices (Index of marital fertility, Index of proportion married and Index of overall fertility)." The author considers the differences between marital fertility in rural Hungary and in industrial Austria at the beginning of the demographic transition.
For an earlier version of this paper, published in English in 1972, see 39:2055.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20256 Etzler, Cecilia. Education, cohabitation and the first child: some empirical findings from Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 34, ISBN 91-7820-021-0. Mar 1987. ii, 30 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"The impact on the transition into motherhood of the educational level of women and the kind of conjugal union she lived in (marriage or cohabitation) is studied for Swedish women born 1936-60 by hazard regression." Data are from the 1981 Swedish Fertility Survey. "The propensity to have a first child within the first conjugal union has decreased over birth cohorts for women who start their union before the age of 23. This result is retained when we control for changes in educational level, social background and type of activity (employment/studies). For women who start their unions before the age of 23, a middle or higher educational level reduces first birth fertility. For unions started after age 25, this impact is reversed. Cohabiting women have lower rates of first birth than married women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20257 Feeney, Griffith; Yu, Jingyuan. Period parity progression measures of fertility in China. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 77-102 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Parity progression measures are uniquely suited to the study of fertility in China, because Chinese policies and programmes focus so closely on parity and birth order. In this paper we present period parity progression ratios for China and its urban and rural areas for the years 1955-81, using the birth history data from the one-per-thousand fertility survey of 1982. Our period parity progression ratios differ from those introduced by Henry in that they provide an overall level of fertility which may be compared with measures based on age-specific birth rates. We compare the two measures empirically for China, finding both similarities and divergences, and then analyse the relation between them. It is suggested that, where fertility is low and fluctuating, as in China, the parity-progression-based measures provide a substantially truer picture of fertility levels and trends than do age-based measures."
Author's address: East-West Population Institute, East-West Center, Honolulu, HI 96848.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20258 Feeney, Griffith. Period parity progression measures of fertility in Japan. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 35, Dec 1986. viii, 52 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"A series of period parity progression measures for Japan for the years 1950-1982 is estimated and used to analyze recent fertility trends. It is concluded that the decline in Japanese fertility during 1973-1976 was largely due to changes in marital fertility, with less than 20 percent of the decline accounted for by changing marriage patterns. Annual series of period parity progression ratios are calculated retrospectively from surveys taken in 1974, 1981 and 1984....It is concluded that the survey data substantially overstate the level of progression to next birth. A technique for estimating period parity progression ratios indirectly from annual births classified by birth order is presented and a series of robustness tests made. It is concluded that the indirect estimation provides better estimates than direct calculation from the survey data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20259 Fricke, Thomas E. Fertility and its proximate determinants in a Tamang village of North Central Nepal. Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug 1985. 25-49 pp. Kathmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
Fertility and its determinants in a small village population in Nepal are analyzed. The data are from marriage and fertility histories of 150 Tamang women in the village of Timling. The author concludes that methodologies designed to analyze fertility using large data sets can also be used for community-level analysis. The importance of fertility differentials among communities is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20260 Gadalla, Saad; McCarthy, James; Kak, Neeraj. The determinants of fertility in rural Egypt: a study of Menoufia and Beni-Suef governorates. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 195-207 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper reports on the determinants of fertility in two rural areas in Egypt: Menoufia and Beni-Suef governorates." The data are from two sample surveys conducted in the areas in 1983. "There are important differences in fertility between the two areas; the total fertility rate is 7.88 in Beni-Suef and 6.03 in Menoufia. These aggregate differences are the result of even larger differences between the two areas in the proximate determinants of fertility, particularly age at marriage, breast-feeding and contraceptive use. Much of the difference in breast-feeding behaviour can be explained by differences in the educational composition of the two populations; the level of female education in Menoufia is considerably higher than in Beni-Suef. However, differences in contraceptive use cannot be explained by differences in the socioeconomic composition of the two populations. The differences may be the result of greater institutional support for contraceptive use and lower fertility in Menoufia, where intensive family planning and maternal health programmes have been in operation for several years."
Author's address: Social Research Center, American University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20261 Garnot, Benoit. Fertility among the working class of Chartres in the eighteenth century. [La fecondite des classes populaires a Chartres au XVIIIe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 195-214 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"An exceptionally high geographical and occupational stability among the working-class households in eighteenth-century Chartres [France] has enabled us to undertake a population study through family reconstitution limited to 3 out of the 11 parishes. A decrease in the mean number of children is observed for the 630 closed families. This is due to a higher age at marriage for women and an early last conception, two factors which are not fully offset by a higher fertility during the first years of marriage. The urban working classes (textile craftsmen) are the pioneers of this movement, followed later by the suburban wine growers. The movement appears later and is less regular than in Rouen."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20262 Goldman, Noreen; Westoff, Charles F.; Paul, Lois E. Variations in natural fertility: the effect of lactation and other determinants. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 127-46 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The analysis focuses on average waiting times to a fertile conception, as derived from non-contraceptive exposure in second and higher-order birth intervals. Life-table estimates are derived from exposure in the two-year periods preceding the survey, for 20 surveys in Africa, Asia and Latin America undertaken as part of the WFS programme. Differences in the waiting time to conception are examined as a function of the duration of lactation and post partum abstinence. In addition, the extent to which variations in waiting times are produced by country and regional effects, and effects due to age, duration of marriage and parity are examined. The analysis points out the dangers of deriving estimates of natural fertility from the sub-group of women who never breastfed."
Author's address: Office of Population Research, Princeton University, 21 Prospect Avenue, Princeton, NJ 08544.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20263 Goldman, Paula K. Normative structure of fertility behavior. CDE Working Paper, No. 86-21, 1986. 49 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The author uses normative consensus models developed by Peter Rossi and Richard Berk to investigate fertility norms. The data used are from the 1972-1973 Wisconsin Social Role Study of 2,868 individuals. The author concludes that "the Rossi and Berk models showed us that fertility norms existed in Wisconsin in 1973. We found that the norms were the same in direction, if not degree, for respondents with different religions, educations, and ages. We also found that the degree to which respondents subscribed to the norm varied significantly with age and education, while the extent to which respondents agreed or disagreed with items varied significantly with age, education, and religion."
This work was prepared as a master's thesis at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20264 Goldscheider, Calvin. American Jewish fertility: trends and differentials in the Providence metropolitan area. Brown Studies on Jews and their Societies, No. 1, ISBN 0-89130-919-5. LC 85-18446. 1986. xvii, 140 pp. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
This is a doctoral dissertation originally written in 1964 on U.S. Jewish fertility. "Jewish fertility patterns are analyzed here in three major contexts: (1) changes in the level of fertility over time; (2) the relationship between socioeconomic status and fertility; and (3) the importance of Judaism and Jewishness in determining the size of Jewish families. The detailed evidence examined in this monograph documents the shift toward small family size and the post-war 'baby boom' among American Jews. The introduction of cohort fertility analysis and examination of linkages to generational change are critical in the systematic investigation of fertility among Jews." The data concern a random sample of 1,603 Jewish families in the Providence, Rhode Island, metropolitan area drawn from the files of the General Jewish Committee. The author notes that the experience of the past 20 years has confirmed the dissertation's hypothesis that Jewish and Protestant fertility levels would show an increasing level of convergence over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20265 Guhl, Nora L. The economic determinants of fertility in metropolitan Egypt: the role of child labor. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author researches the question, "Do parents who anticipate greater economic contributions from their children have more offspring than other families? [She uses] three types of data to address this issue: (1) aggregate 1960 and 1976 Egyptian census data, (2) family time allocation data, and (3) employment and family background data from interviews of twenty working youth in Cairo. An economic model of fertility guides the empirical analysis."
The author finds that "the implications of the model, as well as several of the mechanisms underlying the model are supported within the context of family decision-making in metropolitan Egypt....These data suggest that the behavior of Egyptian families is responsive to changes in price and in income."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Chicago.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(5).

53:20266 Hacettepe University. Institute of Population Studies (Ankara, Turkey). 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey. 1987. xiii, 117 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng.
The results of the 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey are presented. This survey, the fourth in a series carried out at five-year intervals since 1968, concerns a nationally representative sample of 5,398 women under 50 years of age. Among the primary topics covered are nuptiality, fertility, infant mortality, knowledge and use of contraception, and abortion. Also included, for the first time in this series, is information on the health status of families, maternal and child care, availability and accessibility to family planning services, and delivery services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20267 Heekerens, Hans-Peter. Reproductive behavior of remarried persons. [Generatives Verhalten Wiederverheirateter.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1986. 503-17 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author considers the reproductive behavior of remarried people in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States during the past four decades. Literature on the subject is first surveyed. The author then analyzes data on completed family size and offers two hypotheses. "The first hypothesis is that the variable 'marital status of the husband' (first-married/remarried) has an important bearing on the final number of children. [In] marriages [of] remarried men, the number of children is, on the average, lower. According to the second hypothesis, the lower fertility of remarried women (by comparison with first-married women) is at least partially due to the fact that a higher percentage of these (remarried) women is married to remarried men."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20268 Heer, David M. Immigration as a counter to below-replacement fertility in the United States. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 262-270 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author anticipates the circumstances under which immigration would keep the U.S. population from declining, given continued below-replacement fertility. "After outlining current U.S. policy with respect to fertility and immigration, I shall discuss options for a more pronatalist fertility policy and a less restrictive immigration policy. I then conclude by evaluating the consequences of such policy alternatives according to five criteria that I consider the most important bases for evaluating such alternatives." The criteria include income, income distribution, the "quality" of the population's gene pool, interethnic relations, and the role of the United States in international affairs. A comment by Barry R. Chiswick (pp. 269-70) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20269 Henripin, Jacques. Government and fertility. [Pouvoirs publics et natalite.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 224, [1986?]. [6] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author surveys the content of recent government documents and pronouncements concerning fertility trends in Quebec. The need for a pro-natalist policy response is suggested.
This article is reprinted from Analyste, No. 16, Dec. 1986, pp. 23-8.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20270 Hodge, Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro. On the homogenization of fertility experiences. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 38, Mar 1987. vi, 41 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper examines, by drawing upon data collected in the 1963, 1971, and 1981-1984 rounds of the Mainichi Family Planning Survey, intertemporal differences in fertility size goals and family size outcomes among currently married Japanese women. One of the primary conclusions derived from [series of correlation analysis and] log linear analysis is that the increasing socioeconomic heterogeneity of the Japanese population has been associated with mounting homogeneity in family size goals and outcomes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20271 Itoh, Tatsuya; Bando, Reiko. Fertility change in the year of "Hinoe-uma" Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 181, Jan 1987. 31-43 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Low fertility among Japanese women born in 1966 is examined in view of a superstition in Japan that a woman born in that year is destined to kill her husband. Age-specific birth rates, total fertility rates by region and socioeconomic status, marriage-duration-specific birth rates, and total marital fertility rates are reported. Trends are noted, and the likely influence of the superstition and of other variables are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20272 Jones, Ellen; Grupp, Fred W. Modernization, value change and fertility in the Soviet Union. Soviet and East European Studies, ISBN 0-521-32034-8. LC 86-17633. 1987. xiv, 420 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the complex linkages among modernization, value change, demographic change, and public policy in the USSR. "It has two objectives. First, it explores the relationship between value change and fertility. Second, it examines the impact of public policies, both intended and unintended, on family values and fertility trends." The first part of the book examines the impact of modernization and value change on fertility. In Chapter 1, a theoretical framework for analysis of the Soviet fertility transition is presented, the hypotheses to be tested are described, previous work is reviewed, and the data sources are discussed. The relevant data are analyzed in the next two chapters. "Chapter 2 explores patterns of social and demographic modernization since the turn of the century. Hypotheses involving linkages between modernization, the erosion of traditional family values, and natality are tested for the European areas of the USSR. In Chapter 3, the focus is on explaining current fertility differentials between nationality groups and regions." The second part considers how public policy has affected family values and fertility. The main focus of Chapter 4 is on the effects of socioeconomic development on traditional family values in the south of the USSR. Chapter 5 surveys the consequences of Soviet demographic policy, and Chapter 6 presents a predictive model of Soviet fertility trends. Particular attention is paid to differences among the various peoples and regions constituting the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20273 Kamaras, Ferenc; Meszaros, Arpad. Summary of the 1986 fertility surveys. 1987. 21 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal: Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Some results of two surveys undertaken in Hungary in 1986 concerning fertility and family planning are presented. One survey pertained to 3,800 married women; the other survey concerned 4,000 couples married in 1983, who were interviewed before marriage and then three years after marriage. The surveys attempted to ascertain the relative contribution of changes in age structure and in desired fertility to the continued decline in fertility and sought to assess the significance of changes in the timing of childbearing and the impact of recent population policy measures. The results indicate that the spread of modern contraception is beginning to help bring down high rates of induced abortion. The survey of young married couples indicates both the possibilities and limitations of pro-natalist measures.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20274 Kasarda, John D.; Billy, John O. G.; West, Kirsten. Status enhancement and fertility: reproductive responses to social mobility and educational opportunity. Studies in Population, ISBN 0-12-400310-9. LC 86-3428. 1986. xii, 266 pp. Academic Press: Orlando, Florida/London, England. In Eng.
This book is concerned with the determinants of fertility in developing and developed countries and begins with the working assumption that the status of women is a critical factor in shaping reproductive behavior. Using World Fertility Survey and other data sources, the authors demonstrate the relationships among women's education, enlightment, social options, and knowledge of contraception. Literature on social mobility and fertility is reviewed in chapters 2 through 4. The following chapters examine the relevant statistical methodologies, education and reproductive behavior, female labor force participation, the value of children, infant and child mortality, age at marriage and first birth, and family planning knowledge and practice. The work concludes with a consideration of policy issues deriving from the authors' models and assessments.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20275 Keyfitz, Nathan. The family that does not reproduce itself. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 139-54 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines factors contributing to low fertility in developed countries, with a particular focus on the interplay of causes. Consideration is given to the level of enjoyment and opportunity costs of child rearing, the types of work available to women, the child as a commodity, extra-familial forces and the qualities of the child, decision making within the family, and the spread of the high-fertility, male-dominant society. Policy recommendations are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20276 Kim, Doo-Sub. Socioeconomic status, inequality and fertility. 1987. xx, 251 pp. Seoul National University, Population and Development Studies Center: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"The objective of this monograph is to examine the theoretical and empirical basis of the relationship between fertility and indicators of socioeconomic status such as income, education and occupation. The influence of socioeconomic inequality on fertility at the individual level is also explored....The hypothesized relationship between socioeconomic status and fertility is tested for [the Republic of] Korea and the United States, which are in different stages of economic development and demographic transition....The research is based on the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey and the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle 1. Data from the 1975 Korean Census and the 1970 U.S. Census are also used."
Publisher's address: Seoul 151, Republic of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20277 Knodel, John. Starting, stopping, and spacing during the early stages of fertility transition: the experience of German village populations in the 18th and 19th centuries. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 1987. 143-62 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Examination of the reproductive histories of a sample of German married couples during the 18th and 19th centuries provides insights into behavioral changes involved in the shift from natural fertility to deliberate marital fertility control. A simple accounting scheme is used to assess the relative contributions of starting, spacing, and stopping to changes in family size during the initial phases of the fertility transition. The results suggest that in rural Germany, attempts to terminate childbearing prior to the end of the reproductive span were far more important in initiating the onset of fertility transition than efforts to deliberately prolong intervals between births or changes in the timing of the start of childbearing."
Author's address: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48104.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20278 Koo, Helen P.; Suchindran, C. M.; Griffith, Janet D. The completion of childbearing: change and variation in timing. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 281-93 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Using data on fertility histories from the 1980 Current Population Survey, this study investigates the timing of the completion of childbearing (as measured by the age of the mother at her final birth) of successive 20th-century cohorts of American women. By examining the entire distributions of age at final birth as well as summary measures, we found substantial cohort change in the timing of the last birth among both whites and blacks that was not evident from the summary measures of central tendency and dispersion. Among whites....women who experienced marital disruption and remarriage by age 45 took longer to finish their reproduction, and more educated women took less time. Such effects were not statistically significant for blacks. For younger cohorts with incomplete reproduction, the likely age at final birth was projected."
Author's address: Research Triangle Institute, Center for Population and Policy Studies, P.O. Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20279 Kubat, Daniel. The role of the demographic component in Canada's immigration planning. [Le role de l'element demographique dans la planification de l'immigration au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 15, No. 2, Oct 1986. 253-65 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The hypothesis is developed that Canada's current immigration policy, which encourages the immigration of independent skilled and educated immigrants, has a negative impact on fertility. Two reasons for this are identified: firstly, the policy will reduce the motivation to have children among those in the cohorts being supplemented by immigration, and secondly, those with potentially high fertility will not qualify to immigrate to Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20280 Kytir, Josef. "Delayed" modernization: spatial aspects of marital fertility decline in the federal provinces of Tyrol and Vorarlberg in the 1960s and 1970s. [Die "verzogerte" Modernisierung: raumliche Aspekte des ehelichen Fruchtbarkeitsruckganges in den Bundeslandern Tirol und Vorarlberg in den sechziger und siebziger Jahren.] Demographische Informationen, 1986. 45-61, 145 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"This study treats the decline of marital fertility in all of the 374 municipalities ('Gemeinden') of the Alpine area of western Austria (the Federal Provinces of the Tyrol and Vorarlberg). For each municipality Coale's Index of marital fertility (I(g)) is calculated for the years 1961-1971-1981. Particular attention is drawn to the geographical variation of the I(g)-values. A five-stage model is used to describe time-lag effects in the spatial fertility decline."
It is found that "although there was a significant overall reduction in marital fertility of about 50%, most regional differences observed in 1961 can also be found in 1981." Economic, social, and religious factors related to these fertility trends are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20281 Lee, Bun Song; McElwain, Adrienne M. An empirical investigation of female labor-force participation, fertility, age at marriage, and wages in Korea. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 19, No. 4, Jul 1985. 483-500 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper presents a simultaneous equation model of fertility, age at marriage, extent of labor-force participation during marriage, quality of children, and wages." The model is estimated using individual household data for the Republic of Korea from the 1974 Korean contribution to the World Fertility Survey
Author's address: Department of Economics, University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20282 Li, Jing-Guo. Some aspects of reproductive behaviour changes in China, 1950-79. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 473-94 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1982 National One-per-Thousand Population Fertility Sampling Survey "to examine the changes in the starting and ending ages of childbearing of Chinese women during the period 1950-79." The mean age at first birth (MAFB), mean age at last birth, and mean reproductive span are estimated. The estimates are used to analyze time trends and rural-urban differentials, and a comparison is made between MAFB and mean age at first marriage to check the validity of the indirect estimates. Changes in reproductive speed over the three decades are also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20283 Macura, Milos; Rasevic, Miroslav. Demographic implications of alternative fertility patterns in Serbia. [Demografske implikacije razlicitih modela radanja u Srbiji.] Ekonomska Misao, Vol. 16, No. 1, 1983. 7-29 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The population dynamics of the Serbian Republic of Yugoslavia are analyzed for the period 1950-1980. The analysis is presented separately for Serbia proper and the autonomous regions of Kosovo and Voivodina. The authors note that although fertility has been below replacement level in Serbia proper and Voivodina for over 25 years, it remains above the level of replacement in Kosovo. The implications of current fertility trends for future population perspectives are reviewed, and projections are made up to the year 2010. Alternative policies designed to affect those trends are examined.
Location: State University of New York at Stony Brook, N.Y.

53:20284 Mathur, R. N. Population--analysis and studies. ISBN 81-85076-08-1. 1986. 247 pp. Chugh Publications: Allahabad, India. In Eng.
The relationship between income and fertility in India is examined. The data are from a survey of 1,220 men in the city of Allahabad undertaken in 1976. The results concern family size; age at marriage; rural and urban background; birth spacing; educational status; occupations; knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning; knowledge of family planning services; attitudes toward government services and sterilization; ideal family size; attitude toward sex education; and attitude toward timing of first birth.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20285 Matthiessen, Poul C. Changing fertility and family formation in Denmark. [Tendances de la fecondite et de la constitution de la famille au Danemark.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1987. 63-73 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
The author analyzes recent trends in fertility and in family formation and dissolution in Denmark using official data. Evidence is presented of a fertility decline arising from both delayed childbearing and a reduction in completed family size. It is also shown that "although there has been a strong decline in marriage rates and a substantial increase in divorce rates, the proportion of unions has apparently remained constant or has even increased slightly." Some health implications of demographic aging are discussed. The need to consider the increasing incidence of consensual unions when interpreting certain health statistics is also noted.
Author's address: Statistical Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20286 McHenry, John P. A critique of the Easterlin approach to micro-level fertility analysis. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 17, 1985. 80-93 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author presents a theoretical and empirical critique of the Easterlin model of the fertility transition. Separate attention is given to precursors of the synthesis model, the synthesis model, the Easterlin-Crimmins World Fertility Survey model, and future applications of the model. The limitations of the model and suggestions for possible solutions are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20287 Mendes, Marcia M. S.; Pereira, Nilza de O. M.; Dias, Vera R. de S. Estimation of fertility levels and trends using some indirect estimation methods. [Avaliacao dos niveis e tendencias da fecundidade atraves de alguns modelos de mensuracao indireta.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 46, No. 183-184, Jul-Dec 1985. 159-75 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
Methods for the indirect estimation of fertility developed by Brass and Arriaga are described and applied to data from the Brazilian censuses from 1940 to 1980. The applicability of Arriaga's method for use with survey data is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20288 Mexico. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion [CONAPO] (Mexico City, Mexico). National Conference on Fertility and the Family. [Reunion Nacional sobre Fecundidad y Familia.] 1984. 228 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in Oaxaca de Juarez, Mexico, on April 13, 1984, concerning fertility and the family. It was one in a series of conferences held in preparation for the International Conference on Population held in Mexico City in August, 1984. Topics covered include fertility, the family, family planning, contraception, and population policy.
Location: U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia, Santiago, Chile.

53:20289 Mishra, R. N.; Singh, K. K.; Dwivedi, S. N. On a probability distribution to study the open birth interval and its application. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 29-40 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"A probability distribution for describing the variation in the length of open birth interval regardless of parity has been derived assuming that fecundability varies from female to female and the births are of two types, one which results [in] infant death and the other [which does] not. To get the estimates of the parameters, expressions for the first two moments have been derived. The model has been applied to the data taken from the survey 'Rural Development and Population Growth--A Sample Survey 1978,' conducted under the auspices of the Demographic Research Centre, Banaras Hindu University [India]."
Author's address: Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20290 Molyneaux, John W. Determinants of fertility in frontier Brazil: measures of the values of children. Pub. Order No. DA8618377. 1986. 164 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the value of children on the fertility of settlers in frontier Brazil." The author uses economic and fertility data collected from 800 farming households in two Brazilian settlement projects to study the demand for children. "Three sources of exogenous variation in the demand for children provide an opportunity to test each of the hypothesized relationships between fertility and the value of children."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(5).

53:20291 Mosher, William D.; Pratt, William F. Fecundity, infertility, and reproductive health in the United States, 1982. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, No. 14, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1990. ISBN 0-8406-0363-0. LC 86-33145. May 1987. iv, 51 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Statistics, based on [official U.S.] data collected in 1982, are presented on fecundity status and infertility status, and related factors including spontaneous pregnancy loss, treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease, cesarean section, and smoking and drinking during pregnancy. The statistics are shown for women 15-44 years of age, according to race, age, marital status, and selected socioeconomic characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20292 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Period parity progression ratios and birth intervals in England and Wales, 1941-1971: a synthetic life table analysis. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 103-25 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A method is presented for analysing maternity history data to provide period estimates of parity progression ratios, birth intervals and related indices. This is applied to a sample of the marriage and maternity histories from the Census of England and Wales of 1971 and shows: (a) a general increase through the 1950s and into the 1960s in period estimates of marriage and parity progression ratios, especially in the progression from first to second birth; (b) a general acceleration of fertility with, again, the second birth interval becoming particularly short and compact; and (c) very steep declines in third and fourth birth progression ratios from the mid-1960s. Birth interval distributions altered during the period examined. Decomposition of a progression-based total fertility index shows change in the ratios for lower birth orders to have dominated the fertility upswing and declines in ratios for higher birth orders to have initiated the subsequent decline."
Author's address: Centre for Population Studies, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 31 Bedford Square, London WC1B 3EL, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20293 Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi. Cultural notions of fertility in South Asia and their impact on Sri Lankan family planning practices. Human Organization, Vol. 46, No. 1, Spring 1987. 18-28 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"Cultural perceptions of fertility are examined in regions of South India and southwestern Sri Lanka. The notion that a woman is most fertile directly after menses is discussed in the two ethnographic contexts and documented in other geographic areas. In the Sri Lankan context, attention is paid to how health ideology affects family planning behavior. The importance of culturally appropriate family planning education in Sri Lanka is stressed in light of recent data demonstrating the underutilization of modern family planning methods."
Author's address: Department of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20294 Nouwt, P. Fertility of birth cohorts based on observations over the period 1950-1983. [Vruchtbaarheid van geboortegeneraties gebaseerd op waarnemingen over de periode 1950-1983.] Statistische Onderzoekingen, No. M 25, ISBN 90-357-0197-6. 1985. 95 pp. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, Hoofdafdeling Bevolkingsstatistieken: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data are presented for the Netherlands on live-born children by year of birth and age of mother for the period 1950-1983. The primary objective of presenting such cohort data on births is to provide the information necessary for formulating hypotheses concerning future fertility trends. Consideration is given to methodological issues concerning data collection.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20295 Otani, Kenji. Proportional hazards model analysis of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 181, Jan 1987. 14-30 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Proportional hazards model analysis of the first and second birth interval and univariate life table analysis are used to study the relationship between attitude change and the timing of first and second births among Japanese marriage cohorts since the 1960s. Differences among the cohorts are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20296 Pejaranonda, Chintana; Mithranon, Preeya. 1980 population and housing census. Subject report No. 7. Female employment and fertility. Pub. Order No. N-Rep-No. 1-86. [1986]. [v], 35, 82 pp. National Statistical Office: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is the seventh in a series of reports presenting analyses of sample data from the 1980 census of Thailand. The focus of this report is on the relationship between female employment and fertility. Two aspects of female employment are considered, labor force status and occupation. "Comparison of differentials in fertility for currently married women are analyzed, by working status, occupation, various demographic, social and economic characteristics of women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20297 Piasecki, Edmund. Demographic aspects of multiple births in Poland. [Porody mnogie w Polsce, w aspekcie demograficznym.] Materialy i Prace Antropologiczne, No. 106, 1985. 105-47 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in multiple births in Poland are analyzed. The focus is on the period since World War II, although some data for earlier periods are also included in the analysis. Consideration is given to the factors allegedly affecting twinning rates such as maternal age, rural or urban residence, educational status, and female sexual excitability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20298 Preston, Samuel H. Changing values and falling birth rates. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 176-200 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends since World War II in fertility, marriage, divorce, family size orientation, and contraception in five major non-European industrialized countries: Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States. Focusing on the decline in fertility, he notes the significance of economic factors and contraceptive technology and emphasizes the role of changing social values. References are made to studies, surveys, and literature on related subjects. Trends in English-speaking countries, in Catholic communities within these countries, and in Japan are discussed separately. A comment by Harriet B. Presser (pp. 196-200) is included.
For a related article by Preston, published in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20299 Preston, Samuel H. The decline of fertility in non-European industrialized countries. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 26-47 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article presents a quantitative description of change in fertility and the proximate determinants thereof, derived from primary and secondary sources, for non-European industrialized countries since World War II." Comparisons are made on the basis of total fertility rates, average family size among older women, proportion of women never married, divorce rates, births out of wedlock, family size attitudes, and types of contraception used. It is found that the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand have similar time trends in the rise and fall of fertility and that these coincide with trends in first marriage and divorce. The differences between these figures and similar figures for Japan are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20300 Ransom, Roger L.; Sutch, Richard. Did rising out-migration cause fertility to decline in antebellum New England? A life-cycle perspective on old-age security motives, child default, and farm-family fertility. Social Science Working Paper, No. 610, Apr 1986. 92 pp. California Institute of Technology, Division of Humanities and Social Sciences: Pasadena, California. In Eng.
"A model of fertility based on the life-cycle model of intertemporal optimization is presented in which fertility, children's schooling, saving, and bequest planning are simultaneously determined. The paper hypothesizes that sometime shortly after the beginning of the nineteenth century, Americans began to adopt this life-cycle strategy and abandon the older, traditional family-based system of providing for old age. As a consequence the overall fertility rate began to fall. The change in attitudes was, it is argued, triggered by the high incidence of 'child default' as young adults left the seaboard states for land in the west. The change to life-cycle strategies was gradual and proceeded at different rates in different parts of the country. This differential timing of the 'life-cycle transition' allows empirical tests to be based on cross-sections of state data drawn from the 1840 U.S. Census. The model is shown to predict well. An alternative hypothesis, Richard Easterlin's 'target-bequest model' is rejected by these tests."
Publisher's address: Pasadena, CA 91125.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20301 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Schultz, T. Paul. Fertility and investments in human capital: estimates of the consequences of imperfect fertility control in Malaysia. Economic Development Center Bulletin, No. 87-1, Feb 1987. 28 pp. University of Minnesota, Department of Economics, Economic Development Center: Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this paper, we describe and utilize methods to estimate the consequences for children's schooling and birthweight of the exogenous variability in the supply of births in one low income country, Malaysia. The method utilizes information on contraceptive techniques employed by couples to estimate directly the technology of reproduction and provides a means of disentangling the biological and demand factors that contribute to the variation in fertility across couples under a regime of imperfect fertility control. Our results suggest that imperfect fertility control significantly influences both the average schooling attainment and birthweight of children in Malaysia, with couples having above-average propensities to conceive reporting higher levels of actual fertility, significantly lower expectations of and actual schooling attainment for their children, and lower birthweight children, on average, due to smaller intervals between births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20302 Ryder, Norman B. Observations on the history of cohort fertility in the United States. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 617-43, 820-1, 823 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The total fertility rate in the United States declined from 4.0 for women born in the late 1860s to 1.9 for those born in the early 1950s; the decline seems for now to have ceased. Decomposition of the time series into parity progression ratios shows that the 'baby boom' was predominantly a result of increase in progression from parities one and two. The progression ratios for parities three, four, five, and six show declines that are not only virtually monotonic, but also virtually identical. Such similarity would suggest that there is no process of selection with advancing parity. A model is developed to demonstrate that there is selectivity with respect to intended fertility, counterbalanced in the overt series by the tendency for exposure to risk to decline but success in terminating fertility to rise with advancing parity. A further inference from the model is that the intrinsic rate of natural increase over the entire period would, if unintended births were excluded, have averaged zero."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20303 Salinas-Mesa, Rene. Fertility in South America. The case of Chile in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. [Sur la fecondite en Amerique du Sud. Le cas du Chili aux XVIIIe et XIXe siecles.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 103-12 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study, based on family reconstitution in two central Chile parishes between 1700 and 1850, focuses on fertility measurement. Birth under-registration has been assessed and corrected. The fertility rates thus computed are very high, but decrease significantly for women aged over 30: in the 35-39 years age group, the proportion of fertile couples barely exceeds 50%. Early marriages and prenuptial conceptions are numerous."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20304 Schultz, T. Paul. The value and allocation of time in high-income countries: implications for fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 87-110 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines an economic theory that "links the decline in fertility to the increase in real wages and to the increase in wages of women relative to those of men." After a restatement of the theory, the author "reviews some evidence bearing on its predictions, and considers the conditions that would, according to the theory, help forecast future levels of fertility in high-income countries such as the United States." The household demand model is developed "to define more precisely how the opportunity cost of time of men and women may affect fertility. U.S. data are then used to estimate the relationship between fertility in the cross-section and the wage opportunities of husband and wife. A subsequent section reviews recent trends in education, wages, and labor force participation of men and women in several high-income countries. Finally, a framework is proposed to account for the changing relative educational attainment of women and men." A comment by Ronald D. Lee (pp. 108-10) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20305 Sivamurthy, M. Principal components representation of ASFR: models for fertility estimation and projection. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 655-93 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author applies principal components analysis to the 1960, 1970, and 1980 sets of age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) from United Nations publications. The resulting principal components model is fitted to observed ASFR schedules for India and China and is used as the basis for constructing a set of model ASFR. The usefulness of these model rates in fertility estimation, with the examples of India and Bangladesh, and in fertility projection is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20306 Skretowicz, Biruta. The course of the reproductive process in real cohorts. [Proces rozrodczosci w kohortach rzeczywistych.] Studia Demograficzne, Vol. 2, No. 4/86, 1986. 91-105 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Reproductive patterns in rural Poland are analyzed using data from a 1978 survey. The emphasis is on differences among cohorts, with the cohorts identified by age at time of survey, age at marriage, and year of marriage. Consideration is given to the impact on fertility of educational status. Comparisons are made with results from the Family Survey of 1977.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20307 Sogner, Solvi; Randsborg, Hege B.; Fure, Eli; Walloe, Lars. Fertility decline in Norway (1890-1930). [Le declin de la fecondite en Norvege (1890-1930).] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 361-75 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors examine the decline of fertility in Norway between 1890 and 1930 using a multiple regression analysis involving 549 communities. The influences of three types of variables--socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic--are analyzed, and regional differences are identified. The analysis indicates the primary importance of economic factors in contributing to the fertility decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20308 Speigner, Wulfram. Child and society: a sociological study of birth trends in the German Democratic Republic. [Kind und Gesellschaft: eine soziologische Studie uber die Geburtenentwicklung in der DDR.] Beitrage zur Demographie, No. 10, ISBN 3-05-000233-6. 1987. 186 pp. Akademie-Verlag: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
In this book, sociologists and demographers offer theoretical explanations for reproductive behavior in the German Democratic Republic, taking into consideration individual goals, parents' motives, and the desire to have children. The role played by the GDR's pro-natalist policy in individuals' decision making is discussed. Chapters are devoted to studying childhood and the family through history; birth experiences in the population and results of socioeconomic conditions; the influence of value orientation on the formation and realization of the desire to have children; subjective factors in the reproductive relationship; socioeconomic status of women and their families; pro-natalist population policy and the effects of social and population policy measures; and methods and methodology used in analyzing birth and fertility trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20309 Srivastava, J. N.; Saksena, D. N.; Verma, S. K. Fertility and family planning among white collar workers. Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report, No. 26, Dec 1985. ii, 141 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
Fertility, family size preference, family planning acceptance, and the factors determining them among white-collar workers in Uttar Pradesh, India, are examined. This group's incidence of child mortality, health care practices, and attitudes toward government-sponsored family planning methods are considered. The data are from interviews of a sample of 1,210 workers, conducted from June to November 1982. Fertility is found to be higher than expected; low female marriage age, low age at first birth, short birth intervals, and certain attitudes about ideal family size are associated with high fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20310 Srivastava, J. N. Fertility pattern in Lucknow City and impact of child mortality on fertility. Population Research Centre Series B: Survey Report, No. 24, Aug 1985. i, 178 pp. Lucknow University, Department of Economics, Population Research Centre: Lucknow, India. In Eng.
The author studies fertility patterns and differentials in Lucknow City, India, in an effort to determine the key demographic and socioeconomic determinants of fertility. Particular attention is given to the hypothesis that child mortality has a positive impact on fertility and family size. The study is based on a household sample survey of 916 mothers interviewed in 1976-1977. Patterns of marriage age, age at first pregnancy, birth interval, childbearing, and familly size are considered. Policy implications are noted, and recommendations concerning socioeconomic development are offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20311 Sugito. The relationship between income and fertility. [Pemerataan pendapatan dan fertilitas.] Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 13, No. 26, Dec 1986. vi, 87-98 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Ind. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between income and fertility in Indonesia is explored using official data for 1980. The author finds no support for the Repetto hypothesis that income will influence fertility directly and that more equal income distribution will lower fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20312 Swanson, David A. Age at first birth and the length of the second birth interval: is a positive relationship universal in modern populations? Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 57-64 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Age at first birth has been found to be positively associated with the length of the second birth interval in several studies. One researcher has hypothesized that such a relationship would be found in any population in which contraception is widespread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. However, in this study a positive relationship is not found for caucasian women in Hawaii, a population in which contraception is wide-spread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. The findings suggest a revision of the hypothesis to accommodate more complex relationships."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20313 Tribalat, Michele. Trends in birth rates and fertility among foreign women in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Evolution de la natalite et de la fecondite des femmes etrangeres en RFA.] Population, Vol. 42, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 370-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent trends in the fertility of the foreign population of the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed. Consideration is given to fertility differentials by nationality. The results suggest that, with the exception of the Turkish population, the fertility of foreign women is only slightly higher than that of German women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20314 United Kingdom. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS] (London, England). Birth statistics: historical series of statistics from registrations of births in England and Wales, 1837-1983. Series FM1, No. 13, ISBN 0-11-691187-5. [1987]. x, 206 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This volume of statistics has been compiled from registrations of births during the period from 1837, when a national system of vital registration was first introduced in England and Wales, up to 1983." An outline of the legislation affecting the statistics available from birth registration is included. Data are presented on seasonality of births, age of parents, birth order, duration of marriage, multiple births, residence, birthplace of parents, cohort analysis, social class, and conceptions. Data are also provided on illegitimacy and induced abortion. This is one of a series of collections of historical data planned for the 150th anniversary of the start of vital registration in England and Wales.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20315 Westoff, Charles F. Perspective on nuptiality and fertility. In: Below-replacement fertility in industrial societies: causes, consequences, policies, edited by Kingsley Davis, Mikhail S. Bernstam, and Rita Ricardo-Campbell. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, Suppl., 1987. 155-75 pp. Population Council: New York, New York. In Eng.
Marriage, fertility, interpretations of the recent trends involving marriage postponement, and implications for the future of marriage and fertility in developed countries are examined. The author describes currently held and differing views on the subject of marriage and the factors that affect it. Trends in total fertility rates for industrialized countries since 1971 are compared. The author concludes that "enough radical changes have occurred in recent decades--including changes in women's status, cohabitation, high marital dissolution rates, developments in contraceptive technology, and legal abortion--which, when combined with historical forces that have been driving birth rates down for a century or more, strongly suggest a future of low rates of reproduction in the Western world." A comment by Shigemi Kono (pp. 171-5) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20316 Wijewickrema, S.; Willems, P. Childlessness in Belgium and Flanders. [Kinderloosheid in Belgie en Vlaanderen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1986. 1-34 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut.
The authors analyze trends in childlessness in Belgium, particularly in the Dutch-speaking part of the country. Data are primarily from the NEGO IV survey carried out in 1982-1983. Consideration is given to changes in age-specific fertility since 1960, and trends in childlessness are reviewed for cohorts since 1940. Factors considered include marriage duration, age, educational status, professional status of husband, and religion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20317 Zuniga, Elena; Hernandez, Daniel; Menkes, Catherine; Santos, Carlos; Martinez Manautou, Jorge. Family labor, reproductive behavior, and social stratification: a study in the rural areas of Mexico. [Trabajo familiar, conducta reproductiva y estratificacion social: un estudio en las areas rurales de Mexico.] ISBN 968-824-106-7. 1986. 226 pp. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This is a study of the effects of the Mexican rural social structure on fertility. Chapter 1 covers the historical background. Chapter 2 is concerned with methodological aspects. Chapter 3 describes the rural work force and its social groups (property owners, farm workers, nonagricultural workers, and the self-employed). Chapter 4 deals with the reproductive behavior of these groups. Chapter 5 analyzes fertility differentials among agricultural workers in different conditions of production. Finally, the relationship between fertility and the employment of the whole family in the labor force is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

53:20318 Aborampah, Osei-Mensah. Plural marriage and fertility differentials: a study of the Yoruba of Western Nigeria. Human Organization, Vol. 46, No. 1, Spring 1987. 29-38 pp. Wakefield, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This study employs multiple classification and regression techniques to show how matrimonial, socio-demographic variables and duration of post-partum sexual abstinence influence fertility. A distinction is made between type of marriage and the position a woman occupies in a hierarchically-ordered polygynous union in explaining fertility among a sample of 300 Yoruba women of Western Nigeria. Among all the variables considered, age, place of residence, and age at first marriage appeared to be significantly related to individual fertility. No significant variation in the post-partum variables and fertility between monogamous and polygynous women emerged, neither was domestic hierarchy found to play any major role in childbearing and abstinence practices of our sample of Yoruba women. The effect of contraception on the post-partum variables appeared to be a function of socioeconomic status. The findings imply that: 1) social change may have altered the older connection between polygyny, abstinence and fertility, and 2) reductions in the duration of the post-partum variables, due to relative affluence, can result in significant increases in individual fertility unless effective substitutes are available and used."
Author's address: Department of Afro-American Studies, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53201.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20319 Chinguwo, Rodwell P. M. Component variations in rural-urban fertility in Malawi. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 361-85 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"This paper investigates the existence of differences in levels as well as structure and components of fertility between rural and urban women in Malawi." The author uses data from the 1977 census and the Malawi Population Change Survey of 1970-1972 to establish how the length of reproductive life and the pace of reproduction vary between rural and urban areas. Inter-survey hypothetical cohort fertility analyses, supported by analysis of parity progression ratios, indicate "a tendency towards an increase in rural fertility and a decline in urban fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20320 Fu, Haishan. Some differences in fertility related attitudes and behaviour by ethnicity in Peninsular Malaysia. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 523-53 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author attempts "to identify fertility patterns among the three ethnic groups [Malay, Chinese, and Indian] in Peninsular Malaysia; to explore differences in fertility desires and fertility regulation behaviour by ethnicity; [and] to estimate the fertility inhibiting effects of the intermediate variables, especially contraception, on the current fertility level of each ethnic group." Aspects considered include the level and pace of fertility and the impact of nuptiality; attitudes and behavior regarding desired family size, desire for more children, and family planning; contraceptive knowledge; and the relationship between desire for more children and contraceptive use. Data are from the 1974-1975 First Country Report of the Malaysian Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20321 Gastardo-Conaco, Cecilia; Ramos-Jimenez, Pilar; Barniego, Ruth N. Ethnicity and fertility in the Philippines. Research Notes and Discussions Paper, No. 54, ISBN 9971-988-07-0. 1986. xviii, 150 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
"The main objective of this project is to investigate through a field survey, the nature and causes of fertility differentials among five ethnic groups in the Philippines. This study is part of a cross-national research on ethnic differentials in fertility involving the five member countries of ASEAN....The ethnic groups covered in this survey are the Bicolanos, Ilocanos, Tagalogs, Maranaos and Chinese. There were 2,301 respondents from both the urban and rural areas, distributed as follows: 494 Bicolanos, 500 Ilocanos, 499 Tagalogs, 499 Maranaos, and 309 Chinese." The authors use multiple classification analysis to examine the factors affecting three variables: children ever born, recent fertility, and effective contraceptive usage. Ethnicity is shown to be a significant and consistently important predictor of fertility differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20322 Hoem, Britta; Hoem, Jan M. The impact of female employment on second and third births in modern Sweden. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 36, ISBN 91-7820-023-7. Apr 1987. 43 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"This paper demonstrates some striking and sometimes initially surprising differentials and developments in Swedish fertility patterns in the 1960s and 1970s....We question the assumption that Swedish women with a better education or otherwise with a firm position in the labor force necessarily have a higher opportunity cost connected with a second or third birth than others." The authors conclude that "a woman's personal values and life course strategy (whether deliberately chosen or pressed upon her by accident and circumstance) appear as the strongest determinants of her childbearing behavior, while income effects and opportunity cost differentials are valuable concepts providing an understanding of more marginal changes and marginal differences." Data are from an official 1981 Swedish fertility survey covering 4,223 women born in five-year cohorts between 1936 and 1960.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20323 Ogunwole, Stella U. Differential fertility in Southern Nigeria: a test of the social characteristics and ethnic effect hypotheses. Pub. Order No. DA8627914. 1986. 183 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study evaluated the relative importance of two theoretical approaches (social characteristics and ethnic effect hypotheses) in explaining majority-minority ethnic fertility differentials using selected demographic/socioeconomic and cultural variables. Data were obtained from a survey sample of approximately 4,645 women representing 2 majority and 7 minority ethnic groups predominately domiciled in the southern part of Nigeria....Although the findings indicated that specific combinations of significant variables are relevant to each ethnic group, overall the fertility levels among 8 ethnic groups were primarily attributable to the effects of demographic/socioeconomic factors and secondly to cultural factors."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Howard University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(8).

53:20324 Senay, Eddle. Fertility performance and work experience: evidence from the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 439-69 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses data from the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey to examine the relationship between fertility and women's labor force participation. The differential impacts of working only before and only after marriage are investigated, and data on contraceptive use and breast-feeding practices in relation to work experience are presented. It is found that in general, women who have no past employment experience have somewhat higher fertility than women with labor force experience.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20325 Skinner, Carolynne. Elusive Mr. Right: the social and personal context of a young woman's use of contraception. ISBN 0-948782-00-5. LC 86-131722. 1986. xiv, 210 pp. Carolina Publications: London, England. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice and pregnancy history among 550 adolescent girls in South London, England, are analyzed. Consideration is given to differences among whites, U.K.-born blacks, and Jamaica-born blacks. The emphasis of the study is on why young women continue to become pregnant when effective contraception is relatively available. The author concludes that the solution to high rates of teenage pregnancy lies as much in teaching young people about relationships as in providing them with family planning services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

53:20326 Johnson, Gina; Roberts, Delyth; Brown, Richard; Cox, Elizabeth; Evershed, Zyg; Goutam, Pravin; Hassan, Paul; Robinson, Ruth; Sahdev, Ashok; Swan, Kathy; Sykes, Cathy. Infertile or childless by choice? A multipractice survey of women aged 35 and 50. British Medical Journal, Vol. 294, No. 6575, Mar 28, 1987. 804-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Eleven general practitioners [in three English towns] examined the medical records of all women on their lists born in 1950 (617 patients) and 1935 (533 patients) to determine the prevalence of childlessness and specialist consultations about infertility. Eighty eight (14.3%) of the women born in 1950 and 41 (7.7%) of those born in 1935 were childless. Sixty eight women born in 1950 (11.0%) and 17 born in 1935 (3.2%) were considered childless by choice. Involuntary childlessness was found in 20 (3.3%) of the women born in 1950 and 24 (4.5%) born in 1935....This study found a significant increase in voluntary childlessness among the younger women; there was no evidence of a change in the prevalence of involuntary childlessness despite the increasing demand for specialist referral, which appeared to be made by women who were parous or destined to become so."
Author's address: 26 Ashcroft Road, Luton LU2 9AU, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:20327 Rochon, Madeleine. Sterility and infertility: two concepts. [Sterilite et infertilite: deux concepts.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Apr 1986. 27-56 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The importance of distinguishing between sterility and infertility is examined. Topics covered include difficulties in conceiving, pregnancy intervals, the effect of medical interventions on infertility, the use of demographic models of fecundability, the effect of woman's age at first birth, and the impact of sexually transmitted diseases on sterility and infertility. The concepts are illustrated using data from developed countries, with emphasis on Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20328 Turay, Mohamed D. Prevalence and correlates of reproductive impairments in the U.S. Pub. Order No. DA8627916. 1986. 186 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research examines the segment of the United States female population with reproductive impairments in 1973, 1976 and 1982. Based on their reproductive potential, respondents were classified into three groups as follows: sterile, subfecund and fecund. Using chi-square analysis, the relationships between fecundity status and selected demographic and socio-economic variables were examined. The results suggest that although the proportion of U.S. females affected by reproductive impairments has not increased during the last decade, the problem is more severe among certain segments of the population....Generally, age, parity and contraceptive status were found to be the most important predictors of fecundity status."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Howard University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(8).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

53:20329 Alarcon Navarro, Francisco; Martinez Manautou, Jorge. Administrative innovations in the family planning program: a case study. [Innovaciones administrativas del programa de planificacion familiar: estudio de caso.] ISBN 968-824-200-4. 1986. 151 pp. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This study is concerned with recent innovations in Mexico's National Family Planning Program. The demographic situation is first briefly described, and the organizational development of the national program is outlined. Recent administrative reforms are then noted, and their impact on the family planning program is considered. The advantages and limitations of these changes are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20330 Amin, Ruhul; Choudhuri, Shafiqur R.; Mariam, Alemayehu G.; McCarthy, James. Family planning in Bangladesh, 1969-1983. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 16-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practice in Bangladesh are examined. The authors' stated purpose is to determine whether contraceptive use and the desire for large families have remained unchanged in the face of worsening socioeconomic conditions. The study "is based on data from two Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys (carried out in 1979 and 1983) and from the National Impact Survey of Family Planning, [and] examines trends in contraceptive use in Bangladesh between 1969 and 1983. The analysis shows that there was a steady increase in the use of contraceptive methods, and that this increase occurred among women of all subgroups. In the earlier years, urban women, women with more education and women of high parity were those most likely to be using a contraceptive method. However, in more recent years, education and parity have been less strongly associated with the adoption of a method of fertility regulation. This finding suggests that even in the absence of any significant decline in the desire to stop childbearing, Bangladesh will see a moderate acceleration in the pace of contraceptive adoption among women with small families and those with little education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20331 Attia, Shadia S. Differentials in current contraceptive use at the regional level, Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 69-92 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses the Hermalin model to study regional differentials in current contraceptive use in Egypt. Differentials in the two major intermediate variables, motivation to control fertility and cost of fertility regulation, are examined in terms of demographic and socioeconomic factors. Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20332 Basker, Eileen. The "natural" control of fertility. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 8, No. 1, Mar 1986. 3-25 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An analysis of the reproductive behavior of Israeli women is presented using data collected in 1976 on 102 women seeking abortion. The focus is on attitudes toward contraception. It is noted that contraceptive methods available are divided by these women and their husbands into natural and artificial methods, with preference expressed for natural methods. The role of the medical profession in providing or obstructing access to a preferred method is considered. The result of failure to procure such methods is often unwanted pregnancy and the demand for abortion.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20333 Bean, Frank D.; Williams, Dorie G.; Opitz, Wolfgang; Burr, Jeffrey A.; Trent, Katherine. Sociodemographic and marital heterogamy influences on the decision for voluntary sterilization. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 465-76 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This research examines relationships between religious and age heterogamy on the one hand and the choice of voluntary contraceptive sterilization and the decision for a male or a female procedure on the other. Two hypotheses are set forth that provide bases for expecting heterogamy effects. One is a 'selectivity' hypothesis, which predicts that heterogamous couples would be more likely than others to obtain a sterilization procedure and to choose a male procedure. The other is a 'strain' hypothesis, which under certain conditions predicts that heterogamous couples would be less likely than homogamous couples to elect sterilization and to elect male sterilization. In the case of choosing sterilization over other contraceptive methods, the results support the former hypothesis, with couples of disparate ages and mixed-faith marriages exhibiting a greater tendency to elect sterilization than other couples. No relationship emerges, however, between the measures of heterogamy and the tendency to choose male over female sterilization. The results also reveal regional differences in sterilization patterns." The data used are for the United States.
Author's address: Department of Sociology and Population Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712.
This study was previously cited in working paper form in 1986; see 52:30352.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20334 Birdsall, Nancy; Chester, Lauren A. Contraception and the status of women: what is the link? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 14-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this article, we explore the notion that easy access to near-perfect contraception--that is, contraception that allows virtually complete control over the occurrence and timing of childbearing--is an important factor contributing to improvements in the status of women, in and of itself, whether or not it lowers fertility. We measure women's status in terms of education and wage rates relative to those of men, although these two variables are by no means the only definition of the status of women." The geographic focus is on the United States, with some data from other countries included
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 406).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20335 Boohene, Esther; Dow, Thomas E. Contraceptive prevalence and family planning program effort in Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 1-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine fertility levels, contraceptive prevalence, and family planning efforts in Zimbabwe, concentrating on improvements in the family planning program since 1982. A discussion of ways to estimate contraceptive prevalence is followed by a description of government-sponsored family planning activities. Results of the 1982 and 1984 program evaluations, which were part of a worldwide study of family planning programs, are reported. It is found that although use of contraceptive methods is increasing, fertility remains high. The authors conclude from recent surveys that Zimbabweans use contraception more for achieving preferred birth intervals than for ending childbearing. "The paradox implied by the relatively high levels of contraceptive prevalence and fertility may arise not from the measures of prevalence, fertility or program effort, but rather from the slow rate of social change in Zimbabwe. Pronatalist attitudes remain strong, and many women appear to believe that the ideal birth interval is less than 24 months."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20336 Brown, Judith E.; Coeytaux, Francine M.; Chipoma, Raymond B. C.; Manda, Veronica K.; Muntemba, Dorothy C. Characteristics of contraceptive acceptors in Lusaka, Zambia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 96-102 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper reports on a study conducted in Lusaka, Zambia in which 2,912 client records were examined in 22 randomly selected clinics throughout Lusaka Province. The purpose of the study was to assist the government and the local family planning association in targeting future efforts to extend services to underserved populations. Among newly enrolled acceptors in 1984, the study revealed a surprisingly low median age of 24 and a median parity of 3. The majority were married, had some secondary education, were unemployed housewives, and were breastfeeding at the time of the first visit. Nearly half had used contraceptives before. Over three-fourths of the clients received contraceptive pills when they enrolled. They returned to the clinic an average of 2.4 times during the first year, but only 24 percent were still active after 12 months. The availability of recently released census data allowed a comparison of contraceptive acceptors with women in the general Lusaka population. Data from urban clinics and smaller clinics in rural parts of the province revealed few significant rural-urban differences. Finally, the study examined trends in age, parity, and education of contraceptive users over a ten-year period."
Author's address: B.P. 4750, Kinshasa II, Zaire.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20337 China (Taiwan). Taiwan Provincial Institute of Family Planning (Taichung, Taiwan). Annual report, July 1985-June 1986. Feb 1987. 78 pp. Taichung, Taiwan. In Eng.
This report gives data on the Taiwan National Family Planning Program for the year 1985-1986. Information is provided on information and education activities, training programs, fieldwork, and research as well as on program statistics concerning family planning acceptors and users.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20338 Diczfalusy, Egon. Has family planning a future? Contraception, Vol. 35, No. 1, Jan 1987. 1-17 pp. Los Altos, California. In Eng.
The author surveys worldwide prospects for the practice of family planning using U.N. and World Bank sources for selected developed and developing countries. Attention is given to population growth and its implications, the role of family planning in the health status of populations, immediate needs in terms of fertility regulation, the role of contraceptive research, and obstacles confronting research. Reasons for nonuse of family planning methods are considered, and the need for expanded and intensified research is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20339 Farley, T. M. M. Life-table methods for contraceptive research. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 475-89 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Life-table methods used for the analysis and interpretation of contraceptive follow-up studies differ from those used in other areas of medical research. The historical development of these methods in the contraceptive literature is outlined and the two main methods are discussed, compared and shown to differ mainly in their nomenclature; their results are very similar in practice. The daily life-table method is simpler to apply and interpret, and facilitates analysis using the logrank statistic as well as powerful regression modelling techniques for survival data."
Author's address: Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20340 Fijalkowski, Wlodzimierz. The ecology of procreation. [Ekologia prokreacji.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/85, 1986. 3-29 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author describes and contrasts two categories of birth control, which he terms ecological and anti-ecological. The first includes natural family planning methods and the second covers all others. The author suggests that only ecological methods foster positive parental attitudes. Results of 1972 and 1983 surveys conducted in Poland are used to support this claim. Increased abortion rates and decreasing family size in Poland are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20341 Fortney, Judith A. Contraception for American women 40 and over. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 32-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This research note reviews the available data on contraceptive practice among American women 40 and over, and briefly summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of contraception. The data come from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the 1982 Market Survey, which was a nationally representative survey carried out by a large pharmaceutical company." The author notes that there has been only limited research on the use of contraception by older women and their reasons for choosing a particular method. It is concluded that this area deserves more study, particularly as the baby boom cohort ages.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20342 Freedman, Ronald. The contribution of social science research to population policy and family planning program effectiveness. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 57-82 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Social science research has made important contributions to population policy and to the effectiveness of family planning programs. Social science concepts, theories, and methods potentially are relevant to all aspects of reproductive behavior, including actual fertility, proximate variables, and desired family size. Social science research also contributes to the understanding of the social, economic, and political institutions that potentially affect, either directly or indirectly, the whole biosocial reproductive system and family planning programs. At least as important as its specific theories and findings is the role of social science in testing how to adapt such knowledge to distinctive national and local cultural circumstances of family planning programs. A central point is that carefully monitored pilot projects are desirable before launching full-scale national programs, as well as being continuing resources for program development. The research on early programs in Asia has been important, because those programs encountered and overcame some of the presumed obstacles to new programs."
Author's address: Population Studies Center, University of Michigan, 1225 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20343 Guerra, Federico; Warren, Charles W.; Oberle, Mark W.; Morris, Leo. Maternal-Child Health/Family Planning Survey Panama 1984: final English language report. Aug 1986. 46, [92] pp. Ministry of Health: Panama City, Panama; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Center for Health Promotion and Education, Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Results from the 1984 Panama Maternal-Child/Family Planning Survey are presented. This survey included a nationally representative probability sample of 8,240 women aged 15-49. "This report focuses on the fertility, contraceptive use and maternal-child health (MCH) services used by these women. In addition, data from the 1976 World Fertility Survey (WFS) in Panama and the 1979 Panama Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (CPS) are used to identify changes that have occurred relative to these topics in Panama during the past decade." The results indicate that although the total fertility rate declined from 4.6 to 3.9 between 1976 and 1979, it has subsequently declined only slightly, to 3.7 in 1984. Contraceptive usage has also stabilized at around 63 percent, although the methods used have changed, with a switch from oral contraception to female sterilization. According to the survey, 13 percent of all women, or approximately 61,000 women in all, were in need of family planning services, and the estimate of those in need did not change between 1979 and 1984. "In general, the survey data suggest the family planning program in Panama should continue to be oriented toward young (less than age 30), married, non-working women who live in rural areas and have less than secondary education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20344 Hadiya, Kamel H. M. The role of availability and accessibility in family planning adoption: Egypt 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 43-67 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author studies the determinants of availability and accessibility of family planning services and the impact of these factors on contraceptive use in Egypt. Cross-tabulation analysis and multiple classification analysis are applied to data from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. "The results support [the] hypothesis that greater availability [leads] to greater accessibility and both are positively related with contraceptive use."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20345 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Contraceptive prevalence in Grenada. ISBN 0-916683-18-4. 1987. x, 169 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the results of a contraceptive prevalence survey undertaken in Grenada in 1985. "Using a random sample of all women aged 15-44, the survey interviewed 884 women on a variety of matters having to do with contraceptive attitudes, knowledge and behaviours. Among the topics discussed were the fertility preferences and performance of Grenadian women, the need for family planning among women desirous of spacing their children or limiting their family sizes, levels of contraceptive awareness, rates of contraceptive use and user satisfaction with family planning personnel, products and points of delivery." Consideration was also given to male involvement and nonusers. The results indicate "deep-seated contradictions between general fertility preferences and contraceptive behaviour in this island. While contraceptive awareness is widespread and the average number of children desired is three, only 37 per cent of in-union women were using a method at the time of the survey....User rates were very low among women who had had more children than they wanted and among those who had as many as they wanted. In fact, neither child limitation nor child spacing considerations are powerful determinants of contraceptive use in Grenada." The main reason for nonuse of contraception is fear of side effects.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20346 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Contraceptive prevalence in Montserrat. ISBN 0-916683-12-5. 1985. iv, 128, 24 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York. In Eng.
The results of a contraceptive prevalence survey undertaken on the Caribbean island of Montserrat in 1984 are presented. The survey involved a random probability sample of 389 women aged 15-44. "Among the topics discussed were the fertility preferences and performance of women, estimates of the need for family planning, levels of contraceptive knowledge, user rates and user satisfaction with their family planning experience. We also pursued matters related to male involvement in family planning as well as sources of resistance to use in the island." The results show that fertility declined for all ages between 1955 and 1980 except for teenagers, whose fertility rose significantly between 1955 and 1970 and then declined. They also indicate that a substantial number of births were unwanted: some 34 percent of births occurring since 1977 were to women who had wanted to end childbearing. The emergence of a small family norm is also observed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20347 Johns Hopkins University. Population Information Program [PIP] (Baltimore, Maryland). Men--new focus for family planning programs. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 33, Nov-Dec 1986. [31] pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This article reports on new strategies among family planning programs throughout the world that target men and encourage their active participation in family planning. Findings from various recent surveys are used to assess men's involvement in family planning and the use of male contraceptive methods. Studies in several African countries give evidence that a substantial majority of men approve of family planning. It is also found that "worldwide, at least one-third of all couples who practice family planning use a method that requires male participation or cooperation...." Attention is given to male contraceptive technology, family planning programs for men, the distribution of condoms, and the provision of vasectomy services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20348 Ladjali, Malika. Birth spacing in a third world country: the Algerian experience. [L'espacement des naissances dans un pays du tiers-monde: l'experience algerienne.] Pub. Order No. 1403. [1985]. 172 pp. Office des Publications Universitaires: Algiers, Algeria. In Fre.
The development of the national program for birth spacing in Algeria is described by the person responsible for the development of the program since its inception in 1973. Chapters are included on the training programs for health personnel in birth spacing, evaluations of quantitative and qualitative achievements in the period 1975-1979, the limits of a policy of birth spacing, and lessons for future policy with particular regard to the status of women.
Publisher's address: 1, Place Centrale de Ben Aknoun, Algiers, Algeria.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:20349 Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne; Balakrishnan, T. R.; Krotki, Karol J. Recent contraceptive behavior of young Quebecois women. [Comportement recent des jeunes quebecoises en matieres de contraception.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 218, [1986?]. [16] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The authors examine changes in sex behavior and contraceptive practice among adolescents and adult women aged 20-29 in Quebec, Canada, using data from the 1984 Canada Fertility Survey. Knowledge and use of various contraceptive methods are assessed. Attention is given to age at first use of contraception, age at first union, age at first pregnancy, and the relationships among these factors.
This article is reprinted from "Jeunesse et Sexualite", pp. 463-78, Longueuil, France, Editions IRIS, 1986.
Author's address: Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20350 Martinez Manautou, Jorge. Family planning, population, and health in rural Mexico. [Planificacion familiar, poblacion y salud en el Mexico rural.] ISBN 968-824-272-1. 1986. 477 pp. Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
This report is concerned with the demographic aspects of rural health in Mexico and their relationship to family planning. The situation in rural Mexico and the health and family planning services available are first described. Estimates of fertility and infant mortality are then presented, and the factors affecting fertility are considered. Next, consideration is given to fertility differentials by social class. The availability of contraceptive methods and of maternal and child health services is assessed. An analysis of the effect of biological factors and the social structure on infant mortality is also included, with consideration given to such factors as maternal age, birth order, and parity. A final chapter examines information and communication in family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20351 McMurray, Christine; Lucas, David. Fertility and family planning in Papua New Guinea: a comment. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 245-7 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The authors comment on differing estimates of contraceptive use in Papua New Guinea, focusing in particular on a study by William K. A. Agyei. A reply by Agyei (pp. 246-7) is included.
Author's address: National Centre for Development Studies and Demography Department, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
For the article by Agyei, published in 1984, see 50:30256.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20352 Miller, Warren B.; Shain, Rochelle N.; Pasta, David J. A model of the determinants in married women of sterilization method choice. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1985-1986. 223-39 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A model for predicting sterilization method selection [in the United States] is constructed on the basis of hypotheses about 1. the relationship between the fertility termination, sterilization, and method selection decisions and 2. the influence of substantive, processual, and contextual factors in those decisions. The model is found to have an acceptably good fit to data from almost five hundred women in married couples selecting either tubal ligation or vasectomy. A number of interesting dynamic pathways leading to method selection are observed. Some weaknesses in the model are discussed."
Author's address: 669 Georgia Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94306.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20353 Morris, Leo; Bailey, Patricia; Nunez, Leopoldo; Monroy de Velasco, Anameli; Whatley, Anne; Cardenas, Carmen. Young adult reproductive health survey in two delegations of Mexico City: English language report. Mar 1987. 44, [79] pp. Centro de Orientacion para Adultos Jovenes [CORA]: Mexico City, Mexico; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
Results from the Mexico City Household Survey of Young Adult Reproductive Health are presented. The 1985 survey was carried out in Venustiano Carranza and Iztapalapa, two areas of Mexico City that are predominantly inhabited by those of lower socioeconomic status, and involved 1,402 males and 1,581 females. Topics covered include sexual experience and use of contraception, fertility, sex education and use of youth centers, knowledge of reproductive health, and attitudes toward contraception and sexuality. The results indicate a relatively low rate of sexual activity among young people, which, coupled with the sporadic nature of such sexual activity, may explain the low continuation rate of contraception found in programs aimed at the adolescent population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20354 Mosher, William D.; Bachrach, Christine A. First premarital contraceptive use: United States, 1960-82. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 83-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study shows the first national estimates of trends and differentials in first contraceptive use for a national sample of all [U.S.] women. Only 47 percent of women aged 15-44 in 1982 (or their partners) used a method at first premarital intercourse. The leading method at first intercourse was the condom, followed by the pill and withdrawal. The percentage using a method increased from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, because of increases in use of the pill and withdrawal. However, in the early 1980s, use at first intercourse increased sharply because of an increase in use of the condom. The proportion who used a method at first intercourse varied from 22 percent among Hispanic women to 74 percent among Jewish women; it was higher among white than black women, and higher in higher socioeconomic categories. After first intercourse, contraceptive use did not vary significantly by socioeconomic characteristics. While the condom was the leading method at first intercourse, women who practiced contraception for the first time after first intercourse typically used the pill."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 52, No. 3, Fall 1986, p. 440)
Author's address: Family Growth Survey Branch, National Center for Health Statistics, Room 1-44, 3700 East-West Highway, Hyattsville, MD 20782.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20355 Nag, Moni. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 17, 1985. 17-38 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context and then indicates the need for further studies. Fertility surveys in recent years have demonstrated that in many developing countries a considerable proportion of couples, in which wives are exposed to pregnancy, do not use any fertility regulation method, even though they express their desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth....The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into four categories: physical/health, psychic, social opinion, and economic. Recent survey findings indicate that side effects (for example, disruption in menstrual cycle) and potential health hazards constitute a major reason for non-use or discontinuance of modern contraceptive methods."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20356 Oni, G. A. Contraceptive use and breastfeeding: their inverse relationship and policy concern. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 63, No. 8, Aug 1986. 522-30 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The relationship between contraceptive use and breast-feeding in developing countries is explored using data from Ilorin, an urban community in Nigeria. The results show that there is a negative correlation between these two variables. Some policy issues arising from this finding are discussed.
Author's address: Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20357 Rodman, Hyman; Trost, Jan. The adolescent dilemma: international perspectives on the family planning rights of minors. Praeger Special Studies, ISBN 0-275-92080-1. LC 86-608. 1986. x, 260 pp. Praeger: New York, New York/London,England. In Eng.
This book contains 14 papers by various authors on the family planning rights of minors. The countries covered are Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and the United States. Each chapter examines the rights of minors to birth control and abortion services in the country concerned. Information is also provided, where relevant, on sex education, sex behavior, and the nature and extent of contraceptive practices. A general introductory paper to the topic and a summary are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20358 Sayed, Hussein A. A.; El-Zaini, Laila. Unmet need for contraception in rural Egypt. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 93-104 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors assess various measures of the extent of unmet need for contraception in rural Egypt using data from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. The different estimates of unmet need for Egypt are compared with results for selected other developing countries. Criteria for the definition of unmet need include desire for children, exposure to risk of pregnancy, and current use of contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20359 Sayed, Hussein A.-A. Community and family planning: a statistical analysis of Egyptian data. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jun 1984. 1-32 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to present the PDP [Population and Development Project] program, the overall model to examine the interrelationships between individual, community and program variables [in Egypt] and finally to discuss the impact of the project." The results indicate the positive impact of the PDP program, particularly on contraceptive knowledge and attitude, as well as the positive impact of development on lowering fertility
Author's address: Department of Applied Statistics, Faculty of Economics and Political Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20360 Soemantri, S.; Soemartono; Prayitno, Ayik. Changes in health and family planning practice and demographic trends, Mojokerto, East Java, 1974-1978. Population Studies Center Working Paper Series, No. 28, May 1986. xv, 45 pp. Gadjah Mada University, Population Studies Center: Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
Health practices and contraceptive use in Modjokerto, East Java, Indonesia, are examined using results of surveys conducted in 1975 and 1978. Baseline information was collected in a 1975 survey, while the 1978 study involved an evaluation of services provided by the Integrated MCH-Family Planning Development Program. Between 1,100 and 1,200 women aged 15-49 were interviewed in each survey. Findings are reported concerning health practices related to childbirth and to illness, contraceptive practices, and fertility and mortality patterns. Noting changes in health practices and the use of contraceptives, the authors draw attention to the increased use of health personnel, for both maternal care and care during illness; the increase in the number of contraceptive users as well as the tendency to use more effective methods; and the decrease in child mortality and the apparent decrease in fertility levels.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20361 Torres, Aida; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Family planning clinic services in U.S. counties, 1983. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 54-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Family planning clinics and their geographic availability to low-income women in the United States are examined. Data are from the 1983 Alan Guttmacher Institute study involving 2,462 agencies operating out of 5,106 clinics. "This article uses data from that study to examine the availability of and the need for organized family planning services at the county level." It is found that "more sites may be needed, particularly in counties without clinics, to effectively serve low-income women at risk of unintended pregnancy. However, since the majority of unserved women live in counties where at least one clinic exists, coverage might be improved through increased accessibility and outreach."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20362 Townsend, John W.; Diaz de May, Esthela; Sepulveda, Yolanda; Santos de Garza, Yolanda; Rosenhouse, Sandra. Sex education and family planning services for young adults: alternative urban strategies in Mexico. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 103-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In Mexico, youth face difficulties in obtaining reliable information on sex education and family planning through existing community programs. Two alternative strategies to provide these services are being tested in poor urban areas of Monterrey. In one experimental area, Integrated Youth Centers were established, which provide sex education and family planning services as well as counseling, academic tutoring, and recreational activities. In another area, trained young adults and community counselors work through informal networks to provide sex education and family planning information. Both utilization and the cost of these services are examined in the context of plans for expanding coverage in Mexico-U.S. border areas."
Author's address: Population Council, Alejandro Dumas No. 50, Apartado Postal 105-152, Mexico, DF 11560, Mexico.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20363 Warren, Charles W.; Monteith, Richard S.; Johnson, J. Timothy; Santiso, Roberto; Guerra, Federico; Oberle, Mark W. Use of maternal-child health services and contraception in Guatemala and Panama. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 229-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper presents data from two recent maternal-child health (MCH) and family planning surveys in Guatemala and Panama [conducted in 1983 and 1984, respectively] and examines the extent to which the use of contraception is influenced by the use of MCH services as compared with the influence of an increase in parity. The findings suggest that utilization of MCH services and parity independently are associated with a woman's decision to use contraception. The study also found two groups that appear to be particularly in need of both MCH and family planning services: high parity women and Indians. In both Guatemala and Panama, improved health care services for these two groups should be a priority."
Author's address: Division of Reproductive Health, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20364 Way, Ann A.; Cross, Anne R.; Kumar, Sushil. Family Planning in Botswana, Kenya and Zimbabwe. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1987. 7-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Family planning, contraceptive practice, and their effects on fertility are studied comparatively for Botswana, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. Information from the contraceptive prevalence surveys conducted in 1984 indicates that "contraceptive practice in Botswana is about evenly divided between women who want to space childbearing and women who want to limit their family size. A larger proportion of women in Kenya are using contraceptives to limit family size than are using them to space their children, while the opposite is true in Zimbabwe." The authors note that in all three countries there are pockets of relatively high contraceptive prevalence. They suggest this as one of several indicators that reproductive attitudes are changing in sub-Saharan Africa.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20365 Whitley, Bernard E.; Schofield, Janet W. A meta-analysis of research on adolescent contraceptive use. Population and Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1985-1986. 173-203 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors analyze the results of 134 studies concerning adolescent contraceptive use in relation to two explanatory models, the career model and the decision model. The geographical focus is on the United States. The authors attempt "to review briefly the models of adolescent contraceptive use, to review the research related to those models (using meta-analysis where appropriate), to point out some of the methodological issues, and to suggest some directions for future research." The results indicate that there is some support for both models. "The major variables found to affect young women's contraceptive use were partner influence to use contraception, acceptance of one's sexuality, future orientation, positive attitudes toward contraception, an exclusive sexual relationship, and frequency of intercourse. The major variables affecting young men's contraceptive use were partner influence, frequency of intercourse, and positive attitudes toward contraception...."
Author's address: Department of Psychological Science, Ball State University, Muncie, IN 47306.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20366 Wong, Reginald; Rajcoomar, Vakil; Friedman, Jay S.; Goldberg, Howard I. Mauritius Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1985: final report. Feb 1987. 64, [67] pp. Ministry of Health, Family Planning/Maternal-Child Health Division, Evaluation Unit: Port Louis, Mauritius. In Eng.
The results of the 1985 Mauritius Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are presented. The survey, which involved 3,280 randomly selected women on the island of Mauritius and 386 women on Rodriguez island, was designed to measure the range of family planning program use and unmet needs and to estimate users of contraception in both public and private sectors as well as independent users of natural family planning methods. Topics covered include fertility, breast-feeding, planning status of most recent pregnancy and current pregnancy intentions, knowledge and use of contraception, source of contraception, nonusers, contraceptive continuation and use-effectiveness, unmet needs for services, contraceptive sterilization, natural family planning, knowledge of Family Planning Association activities, service statistics versus survey results, and place of last delivery.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20367 Wong, Reginald; Rajcoomar, Vakil; Friedman, Jay S.; Goldberg, Howard I. Mauritius Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1985: final report. Feb 1987. 64, [66] pp. Ministry of Health, Family Planning/Maternal-Child Health Division, Evaluation Unit: Port Louis, Mauritius; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Center for Health Promotion and Education, Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The results of a contraceptive prevalence survey carried out in 1985 in Mauritius are presented. The survey involved a two-stage cluster design and was self-weighting within the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, and included 3,280 ever-married women aged 15 to 49 in Mauritius and 386 women in Rodrigues. Separate consideration is given to fertility, breast-feeding, the planning status of most recent pregnancy and current pregnancy intention, knowledge and use of contraception, source of contraception, nonusers, contraceptive continuation and use-effectiveness, women in need of family planning services, sterilization, natural family planning, knowledge of Mauritius Family Planning Association activities, service statistics versus survey results, and place of last delivery. A series of recommendations is included that focuses on the need to promote more effective methods among those using withdrawal, the need to develop programs for young adults, and the need to develop a policy on sterilization. Greater use of Depo-Provera and vasectomy and the training of paramedics in IUD insertion are also recommended.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

53:20368 Borell, Merriley. Biologists and the promotion of birth control research, 1918-1938. Journal of the History of Biology, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1987. 51-87 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with how biologists got involved in birth control research in the 1920s, in particular with the individuals who brought this about. "It first focuses on the recruitment of scientists to the cause of birth control advocacy and then examines how laboratory research in chemical contraception was initiated, delineated, and funded. It specifically examines the attitudes and strategies developed in the United States and Great Britain...."
Author's address: Department of Community Health, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSS).

53:20369 Kirkham, Colleen; Reid, Robert L. Relative risks of oral contraceptive usage. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 47, No. 4, Apr 1987. 557-8 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
The authors compile a table to show the relative mortality risks of oral contraceptive use and of participation in various sporting activities. Official U.S. and Canadian data are used to calculate mortality rates for both smoking and nonsmoking pill users aged 15-24, 25-34, and 35-44, and for selected accidents and sporting activities. The statistics indicate the striking increase in mortality among pill users over the age of 34 who smoke.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20370 Taylor, Patrick J.; Brooks, Jonathan H. Sterilization: the woman who changes her mind. International Journal of Fertility, Vol. 32, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 103-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"It is the purpose of this article to review those studies which have attempted to identify women who, while requesting sterilization, are most likely to experience regret and ultimately request reversal; to comment on Siegler's theoretical model in the context of observed data in 378 women who consulted the authors, and to suggest how this information may be of relevance to the practising clinician who is counselling women considering permanent sterilization." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

53:20371 McBride, Mark E.; Bertrand, Jane T. Summary of the Working Meeting on Methodological Issues in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis for Family Planning Programs. May 1986. v, 25, [8] pp. Tulane University: New Orleans, Louisiana. In Eng.
This is a report from a working meeting on methodological issues in the cost-effectiveness analysis of family planning programs held at Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, December 2-4, 1986. Topics covered include the allocation of costs, pricing inputs, measuring output, and the logistics of data collection. Consideration is also given to the specific problems posed by special types of family planning programs, such as community-based distribution, social marketing, and natural family planning programs. Alternative approaches to cost-effectiveness analysis are also reviewed. The geographic focus is on developing countries.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, M.

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

53:20372 Amin, Ruhul; Mariam, A. G. Son preference in Bangladesh: an emerging barrier to fertility regulation. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 221-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study investigates the effect of son preference on contraceptive use and desire for additional children using national level survey data from Bangladesh for the years 1969 and 1979. Son preference had a negative effect on contraceptive use and a positive effect on the desire for additional children regardless of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. This adverse effect of son preference on fertility regulation seemed to have persisted over the years. Relevant socioeconomic conditions in Bangladesh are described."
Author's address: Institute for Urban Research, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20373 Bautista, Marie L. F. Status enhancement during pregnancy and its influence on fertility behavior. Pub. Order No. DA8620586. 1986. 236 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A survey of 967 married women from Misamis Oriental, Philippines was conducted to examine pregnancy as a reproductive experience that may either be status-enhancing or status-degrading. In the study, pregnancy status was defined as a social position located within a set of relationships....Findings from multivariate analyses indicated that four variables were significantly related to pregnancy status. These were: (1) number of live births; (2) modern role orientation; (3) woman's educational attainment; and (4) age....Findings from Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) analyses revealed that while number of live births was the most important indicator of unwanted births, pregnancy status also contributed to unwanted births as a direct and mediating factor. It is suggested that a woman's perception of pregnancy as status-enhancing or degrading be considered as a supplementary factor in explaining fertility behavior."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(6).

53:20374 Boiko, V. V. Fertility: sociopsychological aspects. [Rozhdaemost': sotsial'no-psikhologicheskie aspekty.] 1985. 237 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the sociopsychological aspects of fertility, with particular reference to the situation of declining fertility prevalent in countries such as the USSR. The approach is based on the hierarchical structure of an individual's disposition, which was developed by the Soviet psychologist Yadov. The author examines the need for children on the different levels of the dispositional structure of personality and identifies which of these levels is responsible for fertility regulation and to what extent. Empirical data from surveys undertaken in the USSR between 1974 and 1982 are used. The author examines such questions as how factors such as socioeconomic development, professional activities, family life, and traditions affect the need for children; how reproductive attitudes change when these factors change in importance; how reproductive behavior affects a person's self-awareness and position in life; and how traditions and social norms influence individual reproductive decisions.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20375 Forrest, Jacqueline D. Unintended pregnancy among American women. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 76-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author "presents new estimates of the proportion of American women of reproductive age who experience unintended pregnancies, unintended births and abortions. The data are based on tabulations from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and The Alan Guttmacher Institute's 1981-1982 national survey of abortion providers." Data on abortion rates and estimates of unintended pregnancy are broken down by age group. The author notes that if abortion rates continue at the current level, "nearly half of U.S. women can be expected to undergo an abortion at least once during their lives."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20376 Pratt, Cornelius. Communicating population issues in sub-Saharan Africa: a development policy for Nigeria. Gazette, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1986. 169-89 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author proposes a strategy for the development of a communication policy that would slow population growth, with particular reference to the situation in Nigeria and other African countries. The focus is on the involvement of individuals at the local level in discussion groups to create the atmosphere for developing small family norms.
Author's address: Department of Communication Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20377 Tulloch, Andrew L. Family planning attitudes and action. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, Jun 1986. 153-6 pp. Boroko, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"Two small surveys of contraceptive usage in an urban area of Papua New Guinea showed a low contraceptive usage of around 13%. This was considered to be due to lack of awareness of the need for family planning and lack of information about family planning methods. A community-based distribution scheme for contraceptives was discussed as a means of improving contraceptive usage."
Author's address: 37 Pinecone Street, Sunnybank, Queensland 4109, Australia.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20378 Warren, Charles; Morris, Leo; Hiyari, Fahad. Jordan Husbands' Fertility Survey, 1985: report of principal findings. Mar 1987. ii, 45, [64] pp. Department of Statistics: Amman, Jordan; U.S. Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Center for Health Promotion and Education, Division of Reproductive Health: Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The results of a fertility survey carried out in Jordan in 1985 are reported. The survey involved interviews with 2,626 husbands of women who were currently married when interviewed in the 1983 Jordan Fertility and Family Health Survey. The emphasis is on the attitudes and behavior of husbands toward family planning and fertility-related issues such as birth spacing and breast feeding. The results indicate that over half of the husbands interviewed stated that family size decisions were "up to God", and fertility practice reflected this attitude: for example, over 30 percent of wives who stated they wanted no more children in the 1983 survey had had another child by 1985. The level of contraceptive use reported by husbands (27 percent) was the same as that reported by wives in 1983. Differences by urban and rural residence and by educational level are noted. It is found that there is a major need for contraceptive services but that attitudes toward contraceptive use will have to change if that gap is to be bridged.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

53:20379 Atrash, Hani K.; MacKay, H. Trent; Binkin, Nancy J.; Hogue, Carol J. R. Legal abortion mortality in the United States: 1972 to 1982. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 156, No. 3, Mar 1987. 605-12 pp. St. Louis, Missouri. In Eng.
The authors survey abortion-related deaths in the United States over an 11-year period. "Between 1972 and 1982, 186 women died as a result of legal abortion in the United States. The overall death rate resulting from legal abortion dropped nearly fivefold, from 4.1 per 100,000 abortions in 1972 to 0.8 in 1982. Women who were older, black, of high parity, and had abortions at a later gestational age were at increased risk of death throughout the 11 years of surveillance....Our findings suggest that there has been a marked decrease in septic legal abortion deaths, but potentially preventable deaths from general anesthesia and hemorrhage remain an important concern."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20380 Binkin, Nancy J. Trends in induced legal abortion morbidity and mortality. Clinics in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Vol. 13, No. 1, Mar 1986. 83-93 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in morbidity and mortality associated with legal induced abortion in the United States are examined using offical data. The author notes that induced abortion is one of the most common and safest surgical procedures performed, with a mortality rate of 1 per 200,000 women undergoing abortion. "The mortality from induced legal abortion in the USA has declined eightfold between 1972 and 1981. The decline in abortion mortality is due to a number of factors, including improvements in the safety of the procedure itself, changes in the characteristics of women undergoing abortion that favour decreased mortality, and improved recognition and management of complications."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20381 Bobrowsky, Rena P. Incidence of repeat abortion, second trimester abortion, contraceptive use, and illness within a teenage population. 1986. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This investigation is a multifaceted study of teenage abortion from every viewpoint. A sample of 404 women were followed through medical records over a five-year time span. These women had experienced an abortion operation at a leading hospital in Los Angeles [California]." Characteristics that distinguish repeat from first-time abortion seekers, determined from chi-square frequency distribution computer analysis, are discussed. They include marital status, age factors, duration of pregnancy, contraceptive use and failure, socioeconomic status, and health
Copies of this dissertation are available exclusively from the Micrographics Department, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0182.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(9).

53:20382 Figa-Talamanca, Irene; Sinnathuray, T. A.; Yusof, Khairuddin; Chee, Kin-Fong; Palan, V. T.; Adeeb, Nafisah; Nylander, Percy; Onifade, Ayodele; Akin, Ayse; Bertan, Munevver; Gaslonde, Santiago; Edstrom, Karin; Ayeni, Olusola; Belsey, Mark A. Illegal abortion: an attempt to assess its cost to the health services and its incidence in the community. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 16, No. 3, 1986. 375-89 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"This article describes a study designed to test a method for assessing the cost to the health services of illegally induced abortion and the feasibility of estimating the incidence of induced abortion by a field interviewing approach. The participating centers included three hospitals in Ankara, Turkey; three hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria; one hospital in Caracas and one in Valencia, Venezuela; and two hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia." Selected results concerning the costs of illegal and spontaneous abortion are presented. The collection of information on abortion by interview six months after the abortion indicates a substantial amount of underreporting.
Author's address: Task Force on the Sequelae of Abortion, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20383 Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Henshaw, Stanley K. The harassment of U.S. abortion providers. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 9-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors study harassment of U.S. abortion providers and antiabortion activity at abortion sites in 1985. Factors considered include type and frequency of harassment, type of facility, geographic location of facility, and service problems experienced by the abortion provider due to harassment. It is found that "antiabortion harassment in the United States is widespread and frequent, takes many forms and increased in intensity between 1984 and 1985." It is also found that antiabortion activity results in higher insurance, security, and legal costs for providers and that harassment is most common at those facilities whose primary function is to provide abortion services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20384 Henshaw, Stanley K.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Van Vort, Jennifer. Abortion services in the United States, 1984 and 1985. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 63-70 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Abortion services in the United States are examined for the years 1984 and 1985, with attention given to types of centers, access to them, and characteristics of abortion seekers. Data are from the ninth national survey of abortion providers, conducted by the Alan Guttmacher Institute in 1986. Information is provided on total number of abortions, number of second trimester abortions, limits due to gestational age, and antiabortion activities. The section on geographic availability gives numbers and rates by state in which the procedure took place and by woman's state of residence. Fees, subsidies, and changes in patterns of abortion services are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20385 Henshaw, Stanley K. Characteristics of U.S. women having abortions, 1982-1983. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 5-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines selected characteristics of women who had abortions in 1982 and 1983 and makes comparisons with previous years. Factors studied include age, race, marital status, parity, number of previous abortions, weeks since last menstrual period, and abortion method. Noting little change in abortion patterns in the United States in recent years, the author concludes that "the majority of abortion patients continue to be young (under age 25), unmarried and white. The highest abortion rates are still found among women aged 18-19 and 20-24, among unmarried women and among nonwhite women; these are the groups that are most in need of programs for the prevention of unplanned pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20386 Joyce, Theodore. The impact of induced abortion on black and white birth outcomes in the United States. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 2, May 1987. 229-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the impact of induced abortion on birth outcomes by treating abortion as an endogenous input into the production of infant health. To gauge the direct and indirect effects of abortion, three measures of infant health are considered simultaneously: the neonatal mortality rate, the percentage of low-weight births, and the percentage of preterm births. All three are race specific and all pertain to large counties in the United States in 1977. The results suggest that by preventing unwanted births, abortion enhances the survivability of newborns of a given birth weight and improves the distribution of births among high-risk groups."
Author's address: National Bureau of Economic Research, 269 Mercer Street, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10003.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20387 Lodewijckx, E.; Cliquet, R. L. An updated profile of Belgian women experiencing an abortion in the Netherlands. [Een geactualiseerd profiel van de belgische vrouw die abortushulpverlening heeft verkregen in Nederland.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Dec 1986. 63-84 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"The profile of the Belgian woman having had an abortion in the Netherlands is updated and compared with national and international data. In 1983, 5,537 women were given aid in Dutch abortion centres. Most of these women are Flemish, which is probably largely due to the different abortion facilities in the major two language communities. Young, unmarried women and divorcees/widows are represented more numerously in the abortion population than can be expected by sheer chance. Nevertheless, married women with one to two children form the largest group." Consideration is also given to contraceptive use among those seeking abortions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20388 Nebreda Moreno, Mercedes; Avalos Triana, Octavio. Abortion as a cause of maternal mortality in three selected provinces, 1979-1982. [El aborto como causa de mortalidad materna en 3 provincias seleccionadas. Anos 1979-1982.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 213-9 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Abortion-related mortality in Cuba between 1979 and 1982 is examined. The data are from official sources and surveys on maternal mortality carried out in Havana, Holguin, and Cienfuegos provinces. Induced abortion is identified as the major cause of maternal mortality among those aged 20-34. Furthermore, mortality from this cause increased in relation to the number of abortions performed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20389 Ryan, Michael. Illegal abortions and the Soviet health service. British Medical Journal, Vol. 294, No. 6569, Feb 14, 1987. 425-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The current situation concerning induced abortion in the USSR is reviewed using data from a variety of sources. Consideration is given to both legal and illegal abortion, and the role of the Soviet health service is considered. The author concludes that there may be twice as many legal abortions as live births, although this is a decline in the abortion rate since the 1960s, and that considerable geographic differences may exist.
Author's address: Centre of Russian and East European Studies, University College of Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20390 Tietze, Christopher; Henshaw, Stanley K. Induced abortion: a world review, 1986. 6th ed. ISBN 0-939253-05-4. LC 86-71671. 1986. viii, 143 pp. Alan Guttmacher Institute: New York, New York. In Eng.
This report is the sixth edition of a series of publications, previously published by the Population Council, which present data on induced abortion from around the world. The data concern all those countries known to release statistics on legal abortion and are for the most recently available year--generally 1983, but occasionally 1984 or 1985, together with time-trend data extending back, in some cases, to the 1950s. Sections are included on definitions, data sources, and statistical methods; abortion laws and policies; incidence of abortion; demographic and social characteristics of those having abortions; period of gestation; abortion procedures; sterilization; complications and sequelae; mortality; abortion and contraception; repeat abortions; abortion service delivery; and effects of abortion policy.
For the fifth edition, published in 1983, see 49:20421.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20391 United States. New York. Department of Health (Albany, New York). Induced abortions recorded in New York State, 1984: with five year summary, 1980-1984. [1984?]. 83 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
This report describes selected characteristics of the induced abortions occurring in New York State in 1984, together with a summary of the data from 1980 to 1984. The data are presented separately for New York City and for the rest of the state. Factors considered include place of occurrence, place of residence, ratios and rates, age, race, marital status, education, number of living children, and previous induced abortions
Publisher's address: Corning Tower, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12237.
For a previous report for 1983, see 52:30440.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20392 Vekemans, M.; Verhaegen, B. A survey on the frequency of induced abortions in Belgium in 1985. [Enquete sur le nombre d'interruptions volontaires de grossesse pratiquees en Belgique en 1985.] Revue Medicale de Bruxelles, Vol. 8, No. 1, Jan 1987. 21-5 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate the extent of induced abortion in Belgium in 1985 using data from hospitals, out-patient clinics, and private practitioners. The authors first note that abortion, though illegal, is almost exclusively practiced under good medical conditions. They conclude that some 16,000 abortions were performed during the year, yielding an abortion rate of about 13 to 14 per 100 live births. These estimates are comparable to rates in neighboring countries such as France, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.
Author's address: Centre de Conseils Conjugaux, Hopital Saint-Pierre, Universite Libre de Bruxelles et Free Clinic, ASBL Brussels, Belgium.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

53:20393 Adewuyi, Alfred A. Breast feeding, birth interval and polygyny in Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1987. 573-80 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between polygyny and birth intervals in Nigeria using World Fertility Survey data for 1981-1982. Attention is given to the role of taboos concerning postpartum sexual abstinence, the competition among co-wives to produce offspring, and economic considerations concerning the costs of child rearing. The evidence indicates a positive association between polygyny on one hand and longer duration of breast-feeding and longer birth intervals on the other. The analysis suggests, however, that "the tendency for women in polygynous households to adhere more strictly to rules and taboos relating to postpartum abstinence could be associated to the changing roles of women as they affect their responsibility with respect to the maintenance and training of their children rather than to the institution of polygyny per se."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20394 Biswas, Suddhendu; Sehgal, Vijay K.; Shrestha, Ganga. On the estimation of the biological parameters of the human reproductive process from the data of the time of live births. Sankhya: Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B, Vol. 48, Pt. 1, Apr 1986. 68-77 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
The authors construct a probability model that uses data on live births to estimate the biological parameters of the human reproductive process. Parameters considered include postpartum amenorrhea, abortion, and fetal death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20395 Dettwyler, Katherine A. Breastfeeding and weaning in Mali: cultural context and hard data. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1987. 633-44 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Patterns of infant feeding and weaning in Mali are examined using data collected in 1982-1983 from a sample of 136 infants. The need to take into account the cultural context is stressed in the analysis. The universality of breast-feeding is noted, with weaning taking place on average at 20.8 months.
Author's address: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Southern Mississippi, Southern Station Box 5074, Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5074.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20396 du Toit, Brian M. Menarche and sexuality among a sample of black South African schoolgirls. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1987. 561-71 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author studies menarche and sex behavior among 166 female students aged 10-20 in Pretoria, South Africa, using data from interviews conducted in April 1985. "Information dealing with physical maturation, sexual knowledge, and sexual activity is included, documenting a relatively uninformed population sample which is becoming increasingly more sexually active. Four studies of the same nature, between 1943 and 1969, are used here to derive a comparative picture on age at menarche and aspects of maturation. The next part of the paper deals with South Africa's Family Planning Programme and the knowledge and attitudes of this sample of Black schoolgirls is analyzed against the work done in that program. This includes general knowledge about pregnancy and attitudes regarding birth control methods. The final section of this paper deals with the attitudes of these female students as regards sexuality and the woman's control over her own sexuality both outside and inside a marriage relationship."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20397 Fildes, Valerie A. Breasts, bottles and babies: a history of infant feeding. ISBN 0-85224-462-2. 1986. xxviii, 462 pp. Edinburgh University Press: Edinburgh, Scotland. In Eng.
The author examines the history of infant feeding practices, focusing in particular on the British Isles between 1500 and 1800. The first part of the book serves as an introduction, reviewing source materials from antiquity to the Renaissance. The main body of the book relies on medical and professional opinions written during the years 1500-1800 as well as the opinions and practices of people living during the time as recorded in personal writing and literature of the period; pictorial evidence and data on feeding vessels are also utilized. Consideration is given in separate sections to maternal breast-feeding, wet nursing, mixed or supplementary feeding, artificial feeding, and weaning practices. Changes in practices and medical opinions during the centuries studied are noted, and comparisons are made with practices in selected other European countries, Colonial America, and present-day developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20398 Hofferth, Sandra L.; Kahn, Joan R.; Baldwin, Wendy. Premarital sexual activity among U.S. teenage women over the past three decades. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 19, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 46-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors consider premarital sexual activity among U.S. teenage women, with particular attention to the changes in sexual behavior that occurred in the 1970s. Data from the 1971, 1976, and 1979 National Surveys of Young Women (NSYW) and the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) provide race- and age-specific estimates of U.S. metropolitan teenage women who had ever had premarital intercourse. The authors attempt "to assess the validity of the trends...by using a single survey to generate cross-sectional estimates for earlier years and, thereby, estimates of national trends over the same period; to increase the length of the trend series; and to examine the trends by individual year of age....The estimates span the experience of birth cohorts that reached adolescence in the 1950s and that of cohorts now in their teenage years. We also examine changes in the likelihood of teenagers' becoming sexually active at different ages, net of the effects of background factors." It is found that "there was indeed a sexual revolution in the late 1960s and in the 1970s, as levels of sexual experience increased among both black and white teenage women....Older teenagers were at the forefront of that increase...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20399 Holland, Bart. The validity of retrospective breast-feeding-duration data: an illustrative analysis of data quality in the Malaysian Family Life Survey. Human Biology, Vol. 59, No. 3, Jun 1987. 477-87 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"This paper presents an illustrative analysis of the quality of breast-feeding data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey [MFLS], using logit model schedules....To verify the MFLS retrospective breast-feeding reports, the observed median duration and variability were calculated for ethnic group/cohort subsets, and expected duration distribution curves were generated from the model using these observed parameter values. The expected curve generated from the model fit the observed curve of breast-feeding discontinuation extremely closely. Thus it is unlikely that any significant distortion of the pattern of discontinuation of breast-feeding occurred in data collection. Extensions of this method of data quality checking to other duration distributions are suggested." The importance of the quality of data for examining the effects of breast-feeding patterns on infant mortality is stressed.
Author's address: Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103-2757.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20400 Huffman, Sandra L.; Chowdhury, Alauddin; Allen, Hubert; Nahar, Luftun. Suckling patterns and post-partum amenorrhoea in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 171-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The association between breast-feeding patterns and resumption of menses post-partum was examined in a longitudinal study initiated in March 1976 in Bangladesh. Information on suckling patterns and menstrual status was collected on 148 breast-feeding women who were still amenorrhoeic at 17-25 months post-partum at the beginning of the study. Suckling was measured during an [8-hour] period once a month for up to 19 months of follow-up....The fact that regression analyses did not show a correlation between suckling patterns and return of menses post-partum may be related to the large individual variations in suckling patterns and in the duration of amenorrhoea in this population, and the need to study suckling patterns for longer than [8 hours] per day."
Author's address: School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20401 Khan, Zubeda. Breast-feeding in Pakistan. Studies in Population, Labour Force and Migration: Project Report, No. 10, Feb 1985. [iv], 25, ii, [38] pp. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics [PIDE]: Islamabad, Pakistan. In Eng.
The author attempts to estimate the prevalence and patterns of breast-feeding in Pakistan and to assess differentials in mean duration of breast-feeding by selected background and demographic factors. "The data used in this analysis [are] mainly drawn from the Population, Labour Force and Migration (PLM) survey, carried out on a random sample basis for the entire country in 1979 and 1980." The data were collected in interviews with 9,732 ever-married women aged 10-49. Data for all births occurring in the four years prior to the survey are selected, and a method developed by Mosley for estimating length of lactation is used. It is found that maternal age, parity, place of residence, and women's education have a direct effect on duration of breast-feeding, while place of work and husband's occupation have no significant effect. Differentials in length of breast-feeding by woman's occupation are also noted. Some comparisons are made between the findings of the PLM study and the 1979 Pakistan Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20402 Lesthaeghe, R. The breast-feeding hypothesis and regional differences in marital fertility and infant mortality in the Low Countries during the 19th century. Comments on a debate. IPD Working Paper, No. 1987-3, 1987. 22 pp. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Interuniversity Programme in Demography: Brussels, Belgium. In Eng.
"The issue addressed in this article is whether regional differences in the duration of breast-feeding can simultaneously account for regional differences in marital fertility and infant mortality levels in the Low Countries around the middle of the previous century." The author comments on a current debate among a number of Dutch authors on this topic. He concludes that "on the whole, breast-feeding probably provides the main causal variable affecting marital fertility levels in the Low Countries prior to the onset of the demographic transition (i.e. before 1870)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20403 Mooka, Maitlhoko G. K. Breastfeeding and fertility in Botswana. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 387-416 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author examines "the relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum amenorrhea and birth intervals to discover their effect on fertility [in Botswana]" and estimates the contribution of postpartum abstinence, proportion married, contraceptive use, and spousal separation to fertility reduction. Data are from the 1984 Botswana Family Health Survey of 3,064 women aged 15-49. In an application of the Bongaarts model, estimates of the indexes of the proximate determinants of fertility and estimates of fertility rates for Botswana are compared with those for Egypt, northern Sudan, and the Hutterites.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20404 Pineda, Maria A.; Araya, Jose D.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Suazo, Margarita; Rosero Bixby, Luis; Cuervo, Lilia I.; Espino, Eucaris E.; Infante, Claudia; Roche Grijalva, Alfredo; Luna Liriano, Ramon. Frequency of coitus and calculation of the number of months of couple protection in eight Latin American countries. [Frecuencia del coito y calculo del numero de meses de proteccion por pareja en ocho paises latinoamericanos.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 102, No. 4, Apr 1987. 359-70 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
"Calculating the average duration of the protection afforded by different family planning methods requires the use of reliable estimates of the frequency of coitus in the subject population. In the past, such information was unavailable in Mexico, Central America, Panama, and the Caribbean. The authors of this study together conducted surveys of women patients of private family planning clinics to determine the frequency of coitus and associated factors." Data are for 4,332 non-sterile women attending family planning clinics in Mexico and selected Central American and Caribbean countries. "These data yielded a mean of 7.8 sexual acts a month. It was found that this frequency declined among interviewees over 35 years of age and when their partners were over 45. Women living permanently with one companion (regardless of the legal status of the union) had coitus more frequently. No relationship was found between frequency of coitus and educational level or the contraceptive method employed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20405 Santow, Gigi. Reassessing the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 147-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Much of the recent demographic interest in the proximate determinants of fertility focuses on the link between breastfeeding and post partum amenorrhoea. Most analyses are based on a causal model, which may be assumed implicitly, and in which the duration of amenorrhoea is determined by the duration of breastfeeding. In the present paper objections to this approach are raised, because an extremely important cause of weaning is a new pregnancy, and hence the direction of causation may be from amenorrhoea to breastfeeding. Analyses performed on prospective Javanese [Indonesia] data illustrate how the breastfeeding/amenorrhoea relation can be complicated both by this mechanism, and by factors related to the composition of the population and to sexual abstinence. As the Javanese experience is not unique there are wider implications for demographic research on the spacing of births."
Author's address: Department of Demography, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, P.O. Box 4, Canberra, A.C.T. 2601, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20406 Sogner, Solvi. Breast-feeding and sexual abstinence in the Middle Ages. [Allaitement au sein et abstinence sexuelle au Moyen Age.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 353-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses various laws concerning breast-feeding and sexual abstinence in medieval Europe.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20407 Zacharias, Sergio; Aguilera, Eneida; Assenzo, J. Robert; Zanartu, Juan. Return of fertilty in lactating and non-lactating women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 163-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The return of fertility post-partum and the incidence of pregnancy were studied [in Chile between 1970 and 1979] in 74 mothers who chose not to breast-feed and who wanted another pregnancy promptly (Group I) and 143 mothers who practised exclusive lactation and decided not to use contraceptives (Group II). Women who breast-fed had much lower pregnancy rates than those who did not. During the first 6 months of the study, there were 53 (72%) pregnancies among the Group I women and no pregnancies among Group II mothers."
Author's address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jose Joaquin Aguirre University Hospital, University of Chile Medical School, Santiago, Chile.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20408 Zaguloul, Afaf R. Determinants of breastfeeding and its impact on fertility in Egypt, 1984. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 9-41 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The aim of the present study [is] to examine the prevalence, levels, patterns and determinants of breastfeeding in Egypt as a whole as well as in rural and urban areas separately." The fertility-inhibiting effect of breast-feeding is estimated by using the Bongaarts model to examine the impact of four proximate variables--proportion married, contraception, induced abortion, and postpartum infecundability--on fertility. Data are from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

53:20409 Hanson, Sandra L.; Myers, David E.; Ginsburg, Alan L. The role of responsibility and knowledge in reducing teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 241-56 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Data from approximately 10,000 never-married [U.S.] females in the sophomore cohort of the nationally representative High School and Beyond Survey are used to examine the impact of two factors--knowledge and attitudes--on teenage out-of-wedlock childbearing. Results show that knowledge, as measured by sex education courses and self-reported birth control knowledge, has no effect on the chances that a black or white female will experience an out-of-wedlock birth as a teenager. However, when adolescents and their parents hold values that stress responsibility, the adolescents' chances of experiencing an out-of-wedlock childbirth are significantly reduced."
Author's address: Center for the Study of Youth Development, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20410 Kytir, Josef; Munz, Rainer. Illegitimacy in Austria. [Illegitimitat in Osterreich.] Demographische Informationen, 1986. 7-21, 144 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The authors study illegitimacy, its historical roots, and variations in the frequency of illegitimate births in three regions of Austria. They discuss historical centers of illegitimate births, social traditions, benefits available to unwed mothers, and differences in regional attitudes toward illegitimacy. Changes in marriage patterns and illegitimacy by administrative district are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20411 Leneman, Leah; Mitchison, Rosalind. Scottish illegitimacy ratios in the early modern period. Economic History Review, Vol. 40, No. 1, Feb 1987. 41-63 pp. Kendal, England. In Eng.
"This is a regional and quantitative study of illegitimacy in Scotland 1660-1780 based on Kirk Session registers, a more comprehensive and reliable source than Parish Registers. The illegitimacy ratio for Scotland as a whole did not have the upward trend after 1750 which has been found for England, except in two regions, the south-west and Ayrshire. Since these areas were not economically advanced or conspicuous for domestic industry, the Scottish evidence does not reveal rising illegitimacy as associated with pre-industrial economic growth."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20412 Ventura, Stephanie J. Trends in marital status of mothers at conception and birth of first child: United States, 1964-66, 1972, and 1980. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 36, No. 2, Suppl., Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1120. May 29, 1987. 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study is to describe trends in marital status for first-time [U.S.] mothers. An important aspect of the study is analyzing data relating to the likelihood that a woman whose first child was conceived outside marriage would marry before the birth of the child. The data for this study are derived from the 1964-66, 1972, and 1980 National Natality Surveys, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics." Consideration is given to differences by ethnic group, age of mother, and educational status of mother.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20413 Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise. Drug use and other determinants of premarital pregnancy and its outcome: a dynamic analysis of competing life events. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 2, May 1987. 257-70 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"A two-step process was tested to identify the determinants of (a) the occurrence and (b) the outcomes of a premarital pregnancy, whether abortion or premarital or postmarital birth. Risk factors were modeled through event history and logistic regression analysis. Generally, the same covariates predict the occurrence of a premarital pregnancy and its outcome. Such variables as cohabitation, being black, having had poor grades and high peer activity in high school, use of illicit drugs other than marijuana, and having dropped out of high school are associated with a two- to threefold increase in the risk of a premarital pregnancy. Premarital births are overrepresented among blacks, as are abortions among users of illicit drugs other than marijuana. The risk factors identify groups of adolescents for whom the timing and sequencing of family roles is especially disrupted." The data used are for 706 adolescents in New York State originally surveyed in 1971-1972 and followed up in 1980-1981.
Author's address: Department of Sociology, Haines Hall, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90024.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.