Volume 53 - Number 2 - Summer 1987

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

53:20120 Alderson, M. The use of area mortality. Population Trends, No. 47, Spring 1987. 24-33 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This article considers the use of analyses of area mortality. It begins with a brief review of the history of such analysis and then turns to a discussion of methods, presentation of results and the uses of geographical studies. A selection of maps [of England and Wales] from the forthcoming 1981 Decennial Supplement on area mortality is included to illustrate the use of mapping techniques."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20121 Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Kuhn, Ludwig; Osterwald, Petra. Birthday and date of death. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jun 1987. 121-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Two hypotheses concerning the relationship between birthday and date of death are examined. "Using a collection of biographies of [2,580] famous people from the whole world and another [2,265] of well-known Swiss citizens we tested hypotheses derived from these assumptions. Neither the 'death-dip' hypothesis nor the 'birthday stress' hypothesis was supported by our results."
Author's address: Psychiatrische und Nervenklinik, Universitatskrankenhauses Hamburg-Eppendorf, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20122 Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki. Factors affecting the longevity of the total Japanese population. Tohuku Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 151, No. 1, Jan 1987. 15-24 pp. Sendai, Japan. In Eng.
Factors affecting the longevity of the population of Japan are analyzed. In particular, the authors examine the relative importance of eight socioeconomic factors on life expectancy by sex at birth and at ages 20, 40, and 65 for the 46 prefectures. The results indicate that urban residence was the major factor affecting life expectancy for both sexes at birth and at ages 20 and 40 for males; proportions of old and young persons in the population were major factors at age 40 for females and at age 65 for both sexes. The importance of employment and high income for longevity are also noted. Comparisons are made with other developed countries.
Author's address: Department of Public Health and Hygiene, Medical College of Oita, Oita 879-56, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20123 Banister, Judith. China: recent trends in health and mortality. CIR Staff Paper, No. 23, Jul 1986. 6, 46, [12] pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report briefly assesses the available information on levels and trends of disease incidence (morbidity) and death (mortality) for the People's Republic of China since the mid-1970's." Attention is given to disease incidence; incomes, diet, and medical care; medical facilities and personnel; problems in provision of medical care; unsafe water supplies; reported mortality; a possible rise in infant mortality; underreporting of adult deaths; and mortality trends, 1973-1975 to 1981. Shortcomings of the rural health system are noted, and future prospects, given the current medical funding crisis, are assessed. Two sets of life tables, computed using data as reported and adjusting for death underreporting, are presented in appendixes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20124 Burns-Cox, C. J. Deaths in Anguilla 1885-1980. West Indian Medical Journal, Vol. 35, No. 4, 1986. 284-7 pp. Kingston, Jamaica. In Eng.
"An analysis has been made of the causes of death and ages at death from the register of deaths on the island of Anguilla from 1885 to 1980. Prior to 1945, infant mortality was about 100 per thousand live births but subsequently started to fall and is now 30. Similarly, deaths under the age of 5 years as a percentage of total deaths was 30% but fell to 10% in 1980. Infections are now very rarely registered as cause of death whereas stroke and cancer have become increasingly frequent."
Author's address: Department of Medicine, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, England.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20125 Chandrasekaran, C. Assessing the effect of mortality change in an age group on the expectation of life at birth. Janasamkhya, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jun 1986. 1-9 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This article compares four procedures in assessing the effect of the change in mortality conditions in an age group between two periods on the expectation of life at birth. The differences and similarities are pointed out. The outcome of applying the different approaches on the difference in the expectation of life at birth of the life tables of Sweden for the periods 1901-10 and 1936-40 is also discussed."
Author's address: Sri Kripa, 79/3, Benson Cross Road, Bangalore-46, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20126 Charlton, John R. H.; Bauer, Richard; Thakhore, Anita; Silver, Ruth; Aristidou, Maria. Unemployment and mortality: a small area analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jun 1987. 107-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relation between mortality and the unemployment experiences of small areas [in England and Wales] which vary in the extent to which their unemployment levels have changed in recent years." Quarterly data concerning the unemployed for 1977-1981 are aggregated to correspond to Family Practitioner Committee (FPC) areas for which population and mortality data are available. "When the mortality trends of FPCs with different unemployment experiences were compared, no statistically significant differences in trends were found, although areas with greater increases in unemployment appeared to have slightly worse mortality trends for suicide, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and total mortality for men in the younger age groups."
Author's address: Department of Health and Social Security, Hanibal House, Elephant and Castle, London SE1, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20127 El-Jack, Omer M. A. Trends, levels and differentials of mortality in northern Sudan, 1973-1979. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 283-313 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author uses indirect techniques to estimate trends in both infant and child mortality and adult mortality, including rural-urban differentials, in northern Sudan. Data are from the 1973 census and the 1978-1979 Sudan Fertility Survey. Male and female life tables for 1973 and 1979 are derived by linking the estimates of child mortality and adult mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20128 Fett, Michael J.; Adena, Michael A.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.; Dunn, Margaret. Mortality among Australian conscripts of the Vietnam conflict era. I. Death from all causes. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 5, May 1987. 869-77 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"A retrospective cohort study of mortality was conducted to assess whether Army service of young Australian men in the Vietnam conflict influenced the subsequent risk of premature death....Of these veterans [studied], 19,205 served in Vietnam, while 25,677 served only in Australia. All men were traced from the end of their national service engagement (between 1966 and 1973) until January 1, 1982. For both groups, death rates were statistically significantly lower than expected for Australian males of the same age. Overall mortality of Vietnam veterans was 1.3 times that of non-Vietnam veterans...."
Author's address: Australian Veterans Health Studies, Commonwealth Institute of Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ). Source: For a related study, also published by Fett et al. in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.

53:20129 Golini, A.; Capocaccia, R.; Lori, A.; Verdecchia, A. Mortality in the regions of Italy over the past 30 years. Summary tables of mortality by cause (Italy: 1971-1979; regions: 1977-1979). [La mortalita delle regioni italiane negli ultimi trenta anni. Tavole ridotte di mortalita per causa (Italia: dal 1971 al 1979; regioni: 1977-79).] Rapporto sulla Situazione Demografica in Italia, No. 2, Oct 1985. 195 pp. Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerche sulla Popolazione: Rome, Italy. In Ita.
This report is in two parts. The first part contains an analysis of mortality trends in Italy between 1950 and 1979 by region, age, and cause. The second part contains summary life tables by cause and region.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France.

53:20130 Hayase, Yasuko. Changes in mortality and in its cause structure among developing countries. IDE Statistical Data Series, No. 48, Mar 1986. 284 pp. Institute of Developing Economies: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng; Jpn.
Data are presented on changes in sex-, age-, and cause-specific mortality, together with relevant social and economic indicators for the countries of the world. The emphasis is on developing countries for the period 1950-1980. Data are from a variety of sources, including the United Nations and World Health Organization, official national sources, and the Institute for Developing Economies' own Data Base for Economic Cooperation. It is noted that death rates have declined significantly in many of the countries considered since the end of World War II. The crude death rate for developing countries as a whole declined from 24.4 per 1,000 in 1950-1955 to 11.1 in 1980-1985
Publisher's address: 42 Ichigaya-Hommura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20131 Imhof, Arthur E. What has the longevity in Europe and Japan to teach India? Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 1-25 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author traces the increase in life expectancy in Europe during the course of the last three centuries as well as the rapid rise in life expectancy in Japan since World War II and considers the possibility of similar developments in India. Attention is given to future age distributions in India given improved survival curves and to associated policy concerns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20132 Khalifa, M. A. Mortality in North Sudan. Egyptian Population and Family Planning Review, Vol. 17, No. 2, Jun 1983. 44-61 pp. Giza, Egypt. In Eng.
Mortality in the Sudan is analyzed using data primarily taken from the 1973 census and the Sudan Fertility Survey of 1979. The results indicate that mortality is similar to standard patterns developed by Brass, although infant and child mortality seems to be higher than that implied by adult mortality. No significant improvements in mortality are noted between 1973 and 1979.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20133 Landers, J. Mortality and metropolis: the case of London, 1675-1825. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 59-76 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In the present paper it is argued that the inclusion of spatial structure and migration in accounts of historical demographic regimes can restore long-term variations in mortality to an 'endogenous' position. Within such a model a central role is played by large metropolitan populations, which act as endemic reservoirs of infection, with high but relatively stable levels of mortality. Data from the annual London Bills of Mortality allow empirical testing for the period 1675-1825, with results which generally conform to theoretical expectations, although a substantial reduction in mortality occurs during the latter part of the period."
Author's address: Department of Anthropology, University College, London, England.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20134 Manson, JoAnn E.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Hennekens, Charles H.; Willett, Walter C. Body weight and longevity: a reassessment. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 257, No. 3, Jan 16, 1987. 353-8 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
A review of 25 prospective studies on the relationship between body weight and longevity is presented. "Each study had at least one of three major biases: (1) failure to control for cigarette smoking, (2) inappropriate control of biologic effects of obesity, such as hypertension and hyperglycemia, and (3) failure to control for weight loss due to subclinical disease. The presence of these biases leads to a systematic underestimate of the impact of obesity on premature mortality. Although these biases preclude a valid assessment of optimal weight from existing data, available evidence suggests that minimum mortality occurs at relative weights at least 10% below the U.S. average."
Author's address: 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20135 Masaki, Motofumi; Koizumi, Akira. Increase in life expectancy at birth in Japan: some implications for variable patterns of decrease in mortality. Health Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1, Feb 1987. 41-8 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The characteristics of the increase in life expectancy at birth...in Japan were analyzed using the life tables of developed countries in which the values of [life expectancy at birth] were almost the same. When the decrease in age-specific probability of dying...and its contribution to total gain in [life expectancy at birth] in Japan were compared to those of other developed countries, the decline in [age-specific probability of dying] in prime, middle and old age groups accounts for much of the change; the decrease in this variable for males aged 50 years and over accounted for 35% of the recent increase in [life expectancy at birth]. Well-organized medical care and public services are discussed in relation to this unique and unusually rapid increase in [life expectancy at birth] for the Japanese population."
Author's address: Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20136 Mitra, S. About the effect of changes in age-specific mortality on life expectancy. Population Studies, Vol. 41, No. 1, Mar 1987. 161-3 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author comments on a recent article by J. W. Vaupel concerning the use of mathematical formulas to describe the relationship between change in age-specific mortality rates and change in life expectancy. A rejoinder by Vaupel (p. 163) is included
Author's address: Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322.
For the article by Vaupel, published in 1986, see 52:20166.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20137 Omondi-Odhiambo. Mortality by age, sex and causes of death in a rural area of Machakos district, Kenya in 1975-1978. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 87-41, [1987]. 25 pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines mortality by age, sex and causes of death in a rural area of Machakos district in Kenya. The data are derived from what is commonly known as the Machakos Project conducted between 1975 and 1978....Essentially, the age pattern of mortality in the project area is U-shaped and fits the Coale-Demeny family of model life tables 'North' level 19 perfectly well up to age 44....Infectious and parasitic diseases were found to be the leading causes of death followed by diseases of respiratory system and congenital anomalies and certain conditions originating in the prenatal period....Sex differences in mortality were noted among causes of death associated with congenital anomalies and prenatal problems, external causes of injury and poisoning, neoplasms, diseases of digestive system and nutritional and metabolic diseases. The diseases of circulatory system, though prevalent, did not show any sex differences."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20138 Pollard, J. H. Mortality and expectation of life. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 315, ISBN 0-85837-596-6. Apr 1987. 22 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
"The projection of mortality rates requires inter alia close examination of the mortality experience of a population over a long period of time and will usually involve also the analysis of mortality trends by cause of death....The connection between expectation of life and the mortality rate at a particular age...is not a particularly simple one." The author focuses on two recent studies, one by Eduardo E. Arriaga and the other by J. H. Pollard, in which "techniques have been devised for explaining change in life expectancy in terms of mortality changes in particular age groups and by different causes of death. The approaches adopted by the two authors differ, and the purpose of the present paper is to reconcile these differing approaches and tie the results in with others obtained by some earlier writers. A new method for explaining the change in a life expectancy differential in terms of the observed changes in the mortality differentials and the observed change in overall mortality level is also described."
For the article by Arriaga, published in 1984, see 50:10156. For the article by Pollard, published in 1982, see 49:10159.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20139 Pollard, J. H. Mortality changes and their economic consequences, with particular reference to cause of death. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 316, ISBN 0-85837-597-4. Apr 1987. 35 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper, techniques previously developed for analysing the effects of mortality change on expectation of life are extended to allow the analysis of changes in certain key demographic and economic indicators. The methods allow concise and ready interpretations of the factors leading to the observed changes. Changes in the net reproduction rate of a population, hospital insurance and pensions are given as examples." A variable annuity formula is developed and applied. The majority of the data are for Australia, with some data for Kuwait and Hungary used as well.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20140 Tan, Poo Chang; Kwok, Kwan Kit; Tan, Boon Ann; Nagaraj, Shyamala; Tey, Nai Peng; Zulkifli, Siti N. Socio-economic development and mortality patterns and trends in Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, Mar 1987. 3-20 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The purpose of this article is to systematically document changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and to relate these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Much of the discussion necessarily focuses on Peninsular Malaysia in view of the lower reliability and availability of data for Sabah and Sarawak." Death rates for Malays, Chinese, and Indians are compared. Changes coinciding with historic events in Malaysia, sex factors, socioeconomic variables, and the expectation of life at birth are considered. Special attention is given to neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates. The authors also discuss the importance of birth weight data in the study of infant mortality and offer policy recommendations. In conclusion, it is stated that "Malaysia has a fairly low mortality level. However, in terms of social indicators, such as the provision of medical personnel and amenities including potable water supply and sanitation, it lags behind some other countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20141 Vilgocka, Magda. Differences in life expectancy between men and women. [K rozdilum ve stredni delce zivota mezi muzi a zenami ve vybranych zemich.] Demografie, Vol. 29, No. 1, 1987. 46-54 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Trends in sex differentials in life expectancy since the 1950s in 23 developed countries are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to factors affecting mortality before and after age 65. The author notes that the differences in mortality by sex under age 65 are diminishing. It is concluded that social rather than biological factors are the main causes of such mortality differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

No citations in this issue.

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

53:20142 Adioetomo, Sri Moertiningsih; Dasvarma, Gour L. Levels and trends of child mortality in Indonesia by province (based on the 1971 and 1980 population censuses). [1986]. 51 pp. Universitas Indonesia, Fakultas Ekonomi, Lembaga Demografi: Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is "to estimate the levels and differentials in child mortality by all provinces [of Indonesia] and place of residence (urban-rural) based on the 1980 Population Census. Trends in child mortality are also investigated using data from the 1971 Population Census, 1976 SUPAS II [part of the Intercensal Population Survey] (only for the provinces in Java), and the 1980 Population Census." The paper is primarily descriptive, although suggestions are made concerning the causes of the differentials observed
Publisher's address: Salemba Raya 4, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.
Location: East-West Population Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii; Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20143 Ali, M. Korban. Covariates of infant mortality for first births in Bangladesh: a hazards model analysis. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 587-610 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"In this study an attempt is made to investigate the covariates of mortality of first births in the infantile ages [in Bangladesh]....The specific objectives of the study are: to identify the covariates in order of importance in influencing the mortality of the first births in the infantile age in Bangladesh; to study the relative impact of mother's and father's education on the mortality of the first births in [the] infantile age in Bangladesh; and to study the changes in the impacts of parents' education when other covariates are controlled." Data are from the 1975-1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20144 Allen, David M.; Buehler, James W.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Smith, Jack C. Regional differences in birth weight-specific infant mortality, United States, 1980. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 138-45 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper describes [U.S.] regional differences in total and birth weight-specific infant mortality risks by race, in the racial and birth weight distribution of births, and in the causes of infant deaths. In addition, we explore possible reasons for significant differences in race-specific mortality risks in three regions compared with the remainder of the nation." Data from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project are for 1980. Findings include that the infant mortality rate for blacks in all regions is about twice that for whites and that the rate for whites in the South is significantly higher than elsewhere in the nation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20145 Amin, Ruhul; Mariam, A. G.; Faruquee, Rashid. Infant and child mortality in Bangladesh, 1959-1976. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 34-45 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to explore the trends and differentials in infant and child mortality in a society where no major improvement in [meeting] the basic needs of human survival has been observed. Specifically, we shall examine socioeconomic differences in infant and child mortality using data from three sample surveys from Bangladesh: the National Impact Survey of 1968, the World Fertility (WF) Survey of 1975, and the Fertility and Poverty Survey of 1977....All single live births to married couples interviewed in these three surveys are classified according to birth outcome as well as the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of mother, infant, and child. Using live single births recorded in the pregnancy histories of the mothers as the units of analysis, this study seeks to conduct a multivariate analysis of child mortality in Bangladesh."
It is found that "the levels of infant and child mortality continued to be high in Bangladesh by a developing country standard....Infants whose fathers belong to higher socioeconomic strata, whose families live in urban areas, and whose parents have better resources were more likely to have lower child mortality. The magnitude of the difference in infant and child mortality by these variables had become more pronounced over the years...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20146 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Infant mortality in the Soviet Union: regional differences and measurement issues. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 705-38, 821-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"From 1950 through 1971, the reported infant mortality rate in the Soviet Union declined; between 1971 and 1975, it increased. Even by 1985, the reported rate exceeded that published for the late 1960s. It is argued here that the evidence for a real increase in infant mortality in the Soviet Union since 1971 is weak. The Soviet Union's definitions of live birth and infant death make reported Soviet infant mortality rates highly variable when minor improvements in registration procedures are made. Efforts to increase the completeness of registration could have induced higher reported infant mortality rates beginning around 1970. The official Soviet definition of infant mortality differs from World Health Organization recommendations. Because of this difference, even if registration of infant deaths were complete, the reported Soviet infant mortality rates should be adjusted upward by some 22-25 percent to make them consistent with the WHO definition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20147 Behm Rosas, Hugo; Granados Bloise, Damaris; Robles Soto, Arodys; Hernandez Rojas, Harry. Costa Rica: social groups at risk with regard to infant survival, 1960-1984. [Costa Rica: los grupos sociales de riesgo para la sobrevida infantil, 1960-1984.] CELADE Serie A, No. 1049; LC/DEM/CR/G.15, Mar 1987. 86 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica; Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA]: Ottawa, Canada. In Spa.
The authors analyze the decline in infant mortality that occurred in Costa Rica between 1961 and 1981, with a focus on the socioeconomic and geographic variables that identify groups with a distinct risk of death at early ages. Differences in infant mortality rates are studied according to socio-occupational group of household head, maternal education, and living conditions; the impact of rural as opposed to urban residence is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20148 Buehler, James W.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Smith, Jack C. Birth weight-specific causes of infant mortality, United States, 1980. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 162-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To describe underlying causes of infant death by birth weight, we used [U.S.] data from the 1980 National Infant Mortality Surveillance project and aggregated International Classification of Diseases codes into seven categories: perinatal conditions, infections, congenital anomalies, injuries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), other known causes, and nonspecific or unknown causes." Differences in causes of death between white and black infants are reported. The information for the 1980 cohort is compared to national birth weight-specific mortality statistics for 1960.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20149 Buehler, James W.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Smith, Jack C. Birth weight-specific infant mortality, United States, 1960 and 1980. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 151-61 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In this paper, we compare infant mortality for the 1960 and 1980 U.S. birth cohorts....The purpose is to describe the contribution of changes in birth weight distribution and birth weight-specific mortality to declines in both neonatal and postneonatal mortality. This comparison was done for infants in different race groups and in different regions of the country." Data for individual states for the 1980 cohort are from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project; data for the 1960 cohort are from a study by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). It is found that the risk of infant death dropped by more than half during this period largely because of lower mortality risks within birth weight categories. Trends for whites and blacks are analyzed separately. The effects on this study of problems concerning birth and death registration are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20150 Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Suarez Rosas, Luis; Portuondo Dustet, Numidia; Lugo Martinez, Maria de las N.; Lima Perez, Maria T.; Victorero de la Fe, Victor. Control of the nutritional status of women in their fertile years as a factor influencing the decline in infant mortality. Province of Havana, 1979-1983. [Control del estado nutricional de las mujeres en edad fertil como factor influyente en la disminucion de la mortalidad infantil. Provincia La Habana, 1979-1983.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 351-6 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The impact of the nutritional status of reproductive-age women on infant mortality in Cuba is analyzed for the period 1979-1983. The risk of having low-birth-weight babies is measured using nutritional indexes based on women's height, weight, and age group. Data are from a survey of 69,655 women aged 15-49 in the province of Havana.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20151 Chowdhury, A. I.; Phillips, James F.; Shaikh, A. K. The trends in neonatal, infant and child mortality in Matlab project period. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 26-33 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The impact of maternal-child health and family planning services on infant and child mortality in Matlab, India, is assessed using the case of a project begun in 1977. "The present paper represents an initial analysis of trends in infant and child mortality in Matlab with the aim of clarifying past trends and future research implications. We begin by briefly describing the service interventions in Matlab and the existing research on the impact of those services. Next we discuss trends in neonatal, infant, and child mortality rates over the project period." The data are for 4,256 neonatal and 3,185 infant deaths among 62,211 live births registered in Matlab between 1974 and 1982. According to the author, evidence is found of the positive impact on mortality of the family planning and health programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20152 Crognier, E. Child mortality and society in Morocco. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr 1987. 127-37 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Multivariate (correspondence) analysis is employed to identify socioeconomic factors affecting fertility and infant mortality in Marrakesh (Morocco), using [1982] questionnaire data from some 3,000 women attending 20 dispensaries in different parts of the city. Factors of the material environment (availability of water and electricity in the residence), size of household and number of wage earners in it are pervasive and suggest a polarity between archaic elements in the society (low material comfort, polygyny, absence of contraception) and the more forward looking (monogamy, tertiary occupations). Fertility and child mortality variations reflect this polarity. The differences that occur among the 20 dispensaries direct attention to the neighbourhoods where public health measures may be expected to be most effective and rewarding."
Author's address: Equipe de Recherche 221, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-en-Provence, France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20153 Dasvarma, G. L. Infant mortality in Indonesia: a review of recent evidence. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 61-75 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author reviews recent estimates of infant mortality in Indonesia. Estimates based on data collected in the 1960s and 1970s are first discussed. Attention is then given to estimates using data from the 1980 census and from four large demographic surveys. A table presents information on 23 estimates concerning the data base and method of estimation, time of reference, estimated infant mortality rate for the region and for urban and rural sections, and source. According to the author, "available recent evidence has shown that infant mortality in Indonesia has declined and is currently below 100 per 1,000 live births. Regional differentials exist with almost the same magnitude as they did ten years ago. However, the speed of decline in the infant mortality rate has been reduced...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20154 Friede, Andrew; Baldwin, Wendy; Rhodes, Philip H.; Buehler, James W.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Smith, Jack C.; Hogue, Carol J. R. Young maternal age and infant mortality: the role of low birth weight. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 192-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine the effects of young maternal age and low birth weight on neonatal and infant mortality among 2,527,813 black and white infants born in 1980. Figures are for women aged 10-29 residing in the United States. This study confirms previously observed relationships, namely, strong associations between young maternal age and high infant mortality and between young maternal age and prevalence of low birth weight. Causes of infant death, socioeconomic factors, and the effects on mortality risk of health care for teenage mothers and their infants are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20155 Galway, Katrina; Wolff, Brent; Sturgis, Richard. Child survival: risks and the road to health. LC 86-34280. Mar 1987. 101 pp. Westinghouse Institute for Resource Development, Demographic Data for Development: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report examines trends in infant and child mortality around the world using data from a variety of sources. A review of world patterns and rates of child survival is first presented, with extensive use of graphics. The major impediments to child survival and the strategies for their removal are then discussed. Among the causes of death considered are diarrheal disease, vaccine-preventable diseases, acute respiratory infection, malaria, malnutrition, and high-risk fertility behavior. The next section considers socioeconomic factors associated with child survival, including education and literacy, the availability of modern health services, income per capita and government expenditures, food supply, and water supply and sanitation facilities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20156 Gandotra, M. M.; Das, Narayan. Changes in infant mortality and its causes over a decade. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 76-85 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine several aspects of infant mortality for the period 1965-1975 in the Baroda district of Gujarat, India. Direct and indirect estimation methods are used to estimate the level of infant mortality during the period in both rural and urban areas of the district. The extent of change in infant mortality in both populations and urban-rural differentials are assessed, and causes of death are identified. The data used are from a baseline fertility survey conducted in the Baroda district in 1965 and from the 1975 repeat survey. Comparisons are made among the infant mortality rates estimated using the direct, Brass, Sullivan, and Trussell methods. The distribution of infant deaths by age and sex is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20157 Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo; Herrera Leon, Lorenzo; Artiles Miret, Lizette. Excess male mortality during the first year of life in Cuba. [La sobremortalidad masculina en el primer ano de vida en Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 4, Pub. Order No. 327-37. Oct-Dec 1986. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in infant mortality in Cuba between 1960 and 1982 are analyzed, with a focus on reasons for excess male mortality during the first year of life. Infant mortality rates for Cuba are compared with those for selected other countries. The impact of changes in Cuba's socioeconomic structure on the incidence of various causes of death is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20158 Gubhaju, Bhakta B. Level and trends of infant and child mortality in Nepal. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 46-60 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines previous estimates of infant and child mortality in Nepal and then produces estimates using 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey data and both direct and indirect methods. "The direct method was found to be extremely rewarding as with this technique it has been possible to study the time trend in infant and child mortality. Indirect methods also provided fairly consistent estimates of infant and child mortality from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey data. It was encouraging to note that the estimates based on indirect methods were in close agreement with those obtained from the direct method. Finally, it is obvious from various estimation techniques that infant and child mortality has been steadily declining in Nepal."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20159 Hill, Allan G.; Kaufmann, Georgia L. A review of materials and methods for the study of infant and child mortality in Africa. CPS Research Paper, No. 87-1, ISBN 0-902657-18-6. Apr 1987. 39 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
A review of the available materials and methods for the study of infant and child mortality in Africa is presented. The emphasis is on published materials available in London libraries. "This review aims to demonstrate some of the limitations of existing approaches and at the same time, the value of introducing a number of modest but important improvements." A major theme stressed by the authors is that a reevaluation of the role of the civil registration system is a necessary component in improving health services in Africa.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20160 Hogue, Carol J. R.; Buehler, James W.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Smith, Jack C. Overview of the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) Project--design, methods, results. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 126-38 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This article is an overview of the design, methods, and results of the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project, a nationwide project to provide data on neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality risks for blacks, whites, and all races in 12 categories of birth weights for the 1980 U.S. birth cohort. A history of the development of the project and the national data base is followed by information on birth weight distribution, birth weight-specific infant mortality, birth weight distribution of deaths, and risk factors for infant mortality. Factors associated with risk of infant death include birth weight, race, gender, gestational age, birth order, maternal age, maternal education, and quality of prenatal care.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20161 Lutz, Wolfgang. Child mortality in Nepal: an analysis of its socioeconomic determinants and a comparison with other developing countries. [Kindersterblichkeit in Nepal: Analyse sozio-okonomischer Determinanten und Vergleich zu anderen Entwicklungslandern.] Demographische Informationen, 1986. 62-70, 145 pp. Vienna, Austria. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The author studies child mortality in Nepal in this section of a large comparative project involving 15 developing countries. "Employing a method suggested by Trussell and Preston (1982) a child mortality index is computed for every woman by relating actual number of child deaths to the expected number of child deaths implied by marital duration, fertility, and the national mortality level. Based on the Nepal Fertility Survey of 1976 bi-, tri-, and multivariate analysis showed significant child mortality differentials according to mothers' and fathers' education, religion, and ecological region. The population of Nepal is still extremely homogeneous in that 96% of all ever-married women aged 15-49 can neither read or write, 95% live in rural areas, and 90% are Hindus. For women deviating from this pattern child mortality is in most cases substantially lower."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20162 Mahadevan, K.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Reddy, P. R.; Reddy, P. J.; Gowri, V.; Sivaraju, S. Infant and childhood mortality in India (bio-social determinants). LC 85-905202. 1985. xiv, 120 pp. Mittal Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
An analysis of differentials in infant and early childhood mortality in India is presented. The data concern a sample of 3,000 households in the Chittoor District of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. "The determinants considered were: cultural and socio-economic conditions, socialization, demography, community health and nutrition. The study was carried out across the three major cultural groups, viz., the Muslims, the Harijans and the Caste Hindus, belonging to the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh."
Publisher's address: B-2/19-B Lawrence Road, Delhi 110 035, India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20163 Makinson, Carolyn. Sex differentials in infant and child mortality in Egypt. Pub. Order No. DA8629436. 1986. 318 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author investigates factors contributing to excess female infant and child mortality in Egypt. A multivariate analysis of 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey data, the Mosley-Chen child survival framework, and data from the 1978 Egyptian National Nutrition Survey are used. "It was concluded that parental son preference, and excess female child mortality, were not due to parental calculations of the economic or old-age security value of children. Evidence was found that Egyptian women are socialized into the belief that social status and marital security depend on the birth and survival of male children and that males should be given preferential treatment."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(9).

53:20164 Mandjale, Akoto E. Infant and child mortality in Africa: levels and characteristics, causes and determinants. [Mortalite infantile et juvenile en Afrique: niveaux et caracteristiques, causes et determinants.] ISBN 2-87085-058-1. 1985. 273 pp. CIACO Editeur: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre.
The author examines infant and child mortality in Africa, drawing on numerous published works. The book is divided into two parts: the first is concerned with measuring mortality in Africa, and the second deals with causes. Attention is given to data sources and methods of adjustment and to trends in national mortality levels between 1960 and 1975. Determinants of infant and child mortality in 11 African countries are discussed, and the roles of low birth weight and malnutrition are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20165 Marks, James S.; Buehler, James W.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Smith, Jack C. Variation in state-specific infant mortality risks. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 146-51 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Data from the [U.S.] National Infant Mortality Surveillance project were used to examine the State-specific variations in infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality and to examine some of the factors affecting the risks of death." Data are for the 1980 birth cohort. Mortality risk ratios of two or greater are found when comparing high and low states concerning various aspects of mortality at early ages. Comparison to similar figures for other developed countries, Sweden in particular, indicates that differences among U.S. states are greater than differences found between the United States and Scandinavian countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20166 Monteiro, Mario F. G. The estimation of socioeconomic differences in infant mortality using the case control method. [Estimativas de diferenciais socio-economicos de mortalidade infantil utilizando a tecnica de estudo de caso-controle.] Revista Brasileira de Estatistica, Vol. 45, No. 177-178, Jan-Jun 1984. 75-88 pp. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In Por.
The socioeconomic factors affecting infant mortality in Porto Alegre, Brazil, are analyzed using the case control method and data for 672 infant deaths and 755 controls taken from a 1982 housing survey and the 1980 census. The results indicate that the risks of an infant death are three times greater in the lowest income level than in the highest income level.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:20167 Okolski, Marek. Promotive and impeding factors in the decline in infant mortality. [Czynniki sprzyjajace spadkowi umieralnosci niemowlat i hamujace go.] Studia Demograficzne, Vol. 2, No. 4/86, 1986. 3-22 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Although infant mortality has declined in Poland since World War II, the author notes that the rate of decline has decreased over time and that the situation in Poland has worsened relative to trends in Western European countries. Revised data, involving changes in the definition of a live birth, are analyzed to identify the factors associated with the deterioration of the situation in Poland. The failure to improve neonatal mortality is considered a major problem.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20168 Pickering, H.; Hayes, R. J.; Ng'andu, N.; Smith, P. G. Social and environmental factors associated with the risk of child mortality in a peri-urban community in the Gambia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 80, No. 2, 1986. 311-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
These are the results of a study on infant and child mortality in Bakau, the Gambia. The study, carried out in 1982, concerned 479 children, 17 of whom died. Factors associated with mortality include self-employment of mother, presence of animals in the compound where the child lived, maternal education, and health knowledge.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20169 Rodriguez Soto, Agustin; Avalos Triana, Octavio. Infant mortality in the province of Granma, 1977-1984. [La mortalidad infantil en la provincia Granma. Anos 1977-1984.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 221-8 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Trends in infant mortality in the Cuban province of Granma between 1977 and 1984 are analyzed. Consideration is given to causes of death, geographic factors, and timing of occurrence of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20170 Sandhya, S. Socio-cultural and economic correlates of infant mortality: a case study of Andhra Pradesh. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 86-102 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines the influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors on infant mortality in Andhra Pradesh, India. The data are from fieldwork conducted in 1981 in which a sample of households having experienced at least one infant death in the preceding three years was interviewed. Attention is given to the effects on infant mortality of caste, family characteristics, parents' education and occupation, socioeconomic status, prenatal and delivery care, infant feeding practices, and preference for sons in medical care.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20171 Sappenfield, William M.; Buehler, James W.; Binkin, Nancy J.; Hogue, Carol J. R.; Strauss, Lilo T.; Smith, Jack C. Differences in neonatal and postneonatal mortality by race, birth weight, and gestational age. Public Health Reports, Vol. 102, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 182-92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"With the use of data from 45 of the 53 vital statistics reporting areas that participated in the 1980 [U.S.] National Infant Mortality Surveillance project, we extended previous State analyses to describe differences, nationally, in neonatal and postneonatal mortality risks for black and white infants according to gestational age and birth weight." It is found that neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates have declined overall in the United States. Mortality rates for black infants, however, continue to be about twice those for white infants due to greater frequency of lower birth weights and earlier gestational age births, as well as a higher mortality risk for higher birth weight, term, black newborns.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20172 Sayed, Hussein A. A.; Ishak, Magued G. Some demographic implications of a general model to study infant mortality. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1986. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 16, 1987. 105-25 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The authors present a model to fit the patterns of infant mortality in both developed and developing countries, as well as a procedure to estimate the model's parameters. A demographic analysis of the model is performed to determine rural-urban and governorate differentials in Egypt for the years 1977, 1978, and 1979.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20173 Udjo, E. O. Levels and trends in infant and child mortality among some Kanuri of north-east Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 33, No. 1, Feb 1987. 43-7 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Information on infant and child mortality levels in Nigeria is poor and fragmentary due to the absence of reliable sources of demographic data at the national level. This study is an attempt to provide some information on the subject relating to some Kanuri of north-east Nigeria using data obtained from a single round retrospective survey. Direct and indirect methods of analysis of the Kanuri data point to modest infant and child mortality levels by African standard with little improvement over the years."
Author's address: Department of Sociology, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20174 Vuorinen, Heikki S. Core-periphery differences in infant mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 8, 1987. 659-67 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The study aims to describe the development of core-periphery differences in infant mortality trends in Finland from 1950 to 1984." The results indicate that, at the national level, differences between the core and the periphery disappear by the mid-1960s. "At present there is scarcely any core-periphery variation in the trends of different components of infant mortality....Several possible methodological, socio-economic, demographic and health care factors that may explain the differences in infant mortality trends between core and periphery at different levels of spatial hierarchy are discussed."
Author's address: Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290 Helsinki 29, Finland.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20175 Yadav, H. Infant mortality in rural Malaysia: an analysis and their causes (1970-1984). Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 32, No. 5, Oct 1986. 244-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
An analysis of infant mortality in rural Malaysia is presented using data for the district of Krian concerning all registered infant deaths occurring between 1976 and 1984. The results show that the infant mortality rate declined 58.2 percent over this period, toddler mortality declined 40.3 percent, and maternal mortality fell 43.3 percent. Consideration is given to differences in mortality by ethnic group and time of death and to differences in causes of death.
Author's address: Public Health Institute, Jalan Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

53:20176 Garson, Lea K. The centenarian question: old-age mortality in the Soviet Union, 1897 to 1970. Pub. Order No. DA8621706. 1986. 147 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the available Russian and Soviet census and mortality data from 1897 to 1970 in order to assess Soviet claims of extraordinary numbers of centenarians. A detailed analysis of age overstatement in the census data and death registration statistics shows that the long history of longevity claims goes hand in hand with a long history of age overstatement. The extraordinary longevity observed in the Soviet Union is in all likelihood the result of that age overstatement."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(6).

53:20177 Gutierrez, Hector. The mortality of Latin American bishops in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. [La mortalite des eveques latino-americains aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1986. 29-39 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"The mortality of almost all the bishops of Latin America in the 17th and 18th centuries has been studied from a religious source. Their mortality was much higher than that of French bishops (life expectation at 40 years of age; 20.3 years for the Latin Americans and 29.0 for the French bishops in the 18th century). No important differences in the life expectation at 40 years and at the age of nomination are to be found. The regions where mortality was highest were the tropical zones at sea level. In the temperate regions, farther from the Equator or located in the Andean valleys, living conditions were better for the bishop's health. The mortality of this special group may have been different from that of the whole population, but it provides a reference point for the study of the mortality of adults in the past for Latin America."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20178 Jimenez Paneque, Rosa. Adult mortality between ages 15 and 49 in Cuba. Levels and trends, 1960-1982. [La mortalidad del adulto de 15 a 49 anos en Cuba. Niveles y evolucion, 1960-1982.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 339-49 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Mortality levels and trends for the population of Cuba aged 15-49 are analyzed. Differences according to age, sex, and cause of death are described. "Results show a trend to decreased mortality in most of the causes, particularly marked for infectious diseases and maternal deaths; accidents and other unnatural causes are [the] first cause of death in the younger groups; cardiovascular diseases and neoplasias increased their relative importance, even more in those older than 30 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20179 Malaker, C. R. Estimation of adult mortality in India: 1971-81. Demography India, Vol. 15, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1986. 126-36 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author estimates adult mortality for India using preliminary 1981 census results and two indirect estimation techniques, one using information on widowhood and the other using census age distributions. The life table functions under both models are also presented. It is found that "the results are highly plausible and consistent particularly with the census based method. The widowhood method also gives reasonable estimates of male adult mortality. The female adult mortality as obtained by this technique is severely underestimated....The method is susceptible to the incidence of remarriage....The second contributory factor is the higher mortality risks for the widowed relative to the currently married."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20180 Nanjo, Zenji; Kobayashi, Kazumasa. Method of computing the expectation of life at old age on the basis of the principle of agreement with data. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 36, Mar 1987. vi, 10 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"This paper presents a method of calculating values of life expectancy at ages 80 or more, on the basis of the principle of agreement with the data." Life table values are calculated using three types of data for Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

53:20181 Armstrong, Robert J.; Curtin, Lester R. U.S. decennial life tables for 1979-81. Volume I, Number 3: methodology of the national and state life tables. Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1150-3. LC 85-600190. May 1987. iii, 16 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report describes the methodology employed in the preparation of the 1979-81 decennial life tables for the United States, the 50 individual States, and the District of Columbia. These tables are based on the 1980 U.S. census populations and the deaths of 1979-81."
For two related publications presenting the referenced life tables, both published in 1985, see 52:10215 and 52:10216.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20182 de Bowman, Nivia; de Cantillo, Yadira A. Republic of Panama. Abbreviated life tables for the republic, rural and urban areas and provinces, according to sex: 1980-2000. [Republica de Panama. Tablas abreviadas de vida de la republica, areas urbana-rural y provincias, segun sexo: periodo 1980-2000.] Estadistica Panamena, Boletin, No. 5, Apr 6, 1987. 57 pp. Direccion de Estadistica y Censo: Panama City, Panama. In Spa.
Abbreviated life tables are presented by sex for Panama, its urban and rural areas, and provinces. The tables are derived from projections of the national population and cover the period 1980-2000.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20183 Ortega, Antonio. Life tables. [Tablas de mortalidad.] CELADE Serie E, No. 1004; LC/DEM/CR/G.16, Apr 1987. xiii, 295 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This textbook is intended to provide an introduction to the study of life table methodology. Chapters contain information on introductory concepts, the different functions of the life table, probabilities of life and death, the survivorship relations necessary to make population projections, model life tables, the various methods that can be used in Latin American countries to construct abbreviated and complete life tables, and some applications of the life table in population studies. There are examples and exercises that incorporate the concepts illustrated in each particular chapter.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20184 Perez Brignoli, Hector. Costa Rica (1866-1973): model life tables. [Costa Rica (1866-1973): tablas modelo de mortalidad.] Avances de Investigacion, No. 26, 1987. 37 pp. Universidad de Costa Rica, Centro de Investigaciones Historicas: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This publication contains five life tables by sex for Costa Rica covering the period 1866-1973. The tables for 1950, 1963, and 1973 are official; those for 1866 and 1927 were calculated as part of the present study. Methods of life table construction are described, and the applicability of various model life tables to the demographic situation in Latin America is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

53:20185 Barker, D. J. P.; Osmond, C. Inequalities in health in Britain: specific explanations in three Lancashire towns. British Medical Journal, Vol. 294, No. 6574, Mar 21, 1987. 749-52 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Reasons for differences in mortality among three neighboring towns in northern England are considered. Data are from official sources, including the 1911 and 1971 censuses, published reports, and death certificates for the period 1968-1978. It is noted that the rates of death from all causes differ greatly among the towns although socioeconomic conditions are similar. "The pattern of disease specific rates was analysed and related to past differences in infant mortality. It is suggested that past differences in maternal health and physique and in the postnatal environment, particularly infant feeding, housing, and overcrowding, may be determinants of current differences in adult mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:20186 Carr-Hill, Roy A.; Hardman, Geoffrey F.; Russell, Ian T. Variations in avoidable mortality and variations in health care resources. Lancet, No. 8536, Apr 4, 1987. 789-92 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The authors question the concept proposed by John R. H. Charlton and others of measuring the effectiveness of medical treatment in England and Wales by calculating mortality from specified diseases for which death is apparently avoidable given appropriate medical intervention. They point out that the proposal "was not supported by direct analysis of the relation between health care resources and avoidable mortality--an analysis which is essential for establishing the validity of avoidable mortality as an indicator of the outcome of health care. Thus the proposal does not yet have any basis, theoretical or practical. A more realistic but still oversimple model is now proposed. With presently available data, however, the validity of avoidable mortality is unlikely to be established, even by this model."
Author's address: Centre for Health Economics and Institute for Research in the Social Sciences, University of York, York Y01 5DD, England.
For the original study by Charlton et al., published in 1983, see 49:20208.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:20187 Clark, Alice W. Social demography of excess female mortality in India: new directions. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 17, Apr 25, 1987. WS12-21 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Sex differentials in mortality in South Asia are examined. In particular, the author examines the extent to which excess female mortality may be socially rather than biologically derived. The problems related to the use of models based on Western data are noted. The author advances two hypotheses: "(1) that excess female mortality, in its socially conditioned aspect, forms a part of an overall reproductive strategy, which in most cases reflects strategic calculations of social units considerably larger than the household; (2) that class and gender relations may have primacy over many other independent variables as determinants of demographic rates. In other words, variables which operate at a more proximate level may be decisively influenced by changes in class and gender relations, and in their interrelations."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:20188 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Mortality differentials by causes of death and areas (standardized mortality ratios) 1970-1974, XI. 1987. 385 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications resulting from a project concerning the analysis of recent mortality trends in Hungary, including the reasons for mortality differentials. The focus of the present report, which is one of three, is on differences in causes of death by area for the period 1970-1974. Consideration is also given to differences in mortality between rural and urban areas.
For reports for the periods 1975-1979 and 1980-1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20189 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Mortality differentials by causes of death and areas (standardized mortality ratios) 1975-1979, XII. 1987. 385 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications resulting from a project concerning the analysis of recent mortality trends in Hungary, including the reasons for mortality differentials. The focus of the present report, which is one of three, is on differences in causes of death by area for the period 1975-1979. Consideration is also given to differences in mortality between rural and urban areas.
For reports for the periods 1970-1974 and 1980-1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20190 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Mortality differentials by causes of death and areas (standardized mortality ratios) 1980-1984, XIII. 1987. 385 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
This is one in a series of publications resulting from a project concerning the analysis of recent mortality trends in Hungary, including the reasons for mortality differentials. The focus of the present report, which is one of three, is on differences in causes of death by area for the period 1980-1984. Consideration is also given to differences in mortality between rural and urban areas.
For reports for the periods 1970-1974 and 1975-1979, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20191 Mazur, Alicja. An attempt to estimate the mean life expectancy by city size in Poland. [Proba estymacji trwania zycia wedlug wielkosci miast w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, Vol. 2, No. 4/86, 1986. 49-69 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An attempt is made to analyze differentials in life expectancy by city size in Poland using official data for 1982-1984. Six city sizes are identified and analyzed separately using abridged life tables constructed according to the method developed by Chiang. The results suggest that life expectancy is better in smaller localities, but that factors other than city size are of relevance. Consideration is also given to excess male mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20192 Oya-Sawyer, Diana; Fernandez-Castilla, Rogelio; Monte-Mor, Roberto L. de M. The impact of urbanization and industrialization on mortality in Brazil. [L'impact de l'urbanisation et de l'industrialisation sur la mortalite au Bresil.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 40, No. 1, 1987. 84-95 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
The authors examine mortality differentials in Brazil, focusing on the processes of urbanization and industrialization in Sao Paulo State and the Northeast Region. Official data are used in the analysis. Attention is given to infant mortality rates for the years 1956-1983 and to infant mortality rates by mother's level of education, 1954-1978; these periods constitute a time of rapid economic growth for Brazil. Mortality at other ages and causes of death during the post-economic-boom era since 1975 are then considered. In concluding, the authors note that "the experience of Brazil suggests that urbanization and industrialization cause environmental changes (communications, transportation and sanitation infrastructure) that favour a decline in the mortality rates. However, this is not a straightforward process....Urbanization and industrialization have had a different impact on the various segments of the population, giving rise to differences according to urban/rural areas and social strata."
Author's address: Regional Development and Planning (CEDEPLAR), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20193 Pagtolun-an, Imelda G. A methodology for segregating rural and urban mortality. Pub. Order No. DA8620651. 1986. 244 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study involved the design and testing of the Rural Urban Mortality Measurement (RUMM) technique. The technique generates independent estimates of rural and urban mortality for all age-groups by segregating death registration data into areas of similar characteristics to urban and rural areas....In order to assess the reliability and validity of the RUMM technique, it was applied to the Philippine death registration data of 1975 and 1980, and to the 1980 death registration data for Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia." The analysis indicates "the robustness of the RUMM technique as well as its non-dependence on any specific index of urbanization and on any technique of assessing completeness of death registration."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(6).

53:20194 Passannante, Marian R. C.; Nathanson, Constance A. Women in the labor force: are sex mortality differentials changing? Journal of Occupational Medicine, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan 1987. 21-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relationship between the increasing participation of [U.S.] women in the labor force, female mortality, and the male-female mortality differential is examined....The mortality experience of women and men 16 to 64 years of age in the Wisconsin civilian labor force is examined for the period 1974 to 1978 through comparisons of central death rates and sex mortality ratios. In general, this study suggests that, at this time, female mortality is not negatively affected by female labor force participation. Furthermore, there is little evidence to suggest that the entrance of women into the labor force will narrow the sex mortality differential in the general population. However, among certain occupation groups, males and females of similar marital status experience mortality rates that are quite similar. Possible interpretations of these unusual findings are presented."
Author's address: Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, 185 South Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103-2757.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20195 Rosenwaike, Ira. Mortality differentials among persons born in Cuba, Mexico, and Puerto Rico residing in the United States, 1979-81. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 5, May 1987. 603-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the mortality experience in 1979-81 of three first generation Hispanic subpopulations in the United States, as defined by area of birth (Cuba, Mexico, Puerto Rico)....Generally, mortality is relatively high among Cuban-born, Mexican-born and Puerto Rican-born adolescents and young adults, particularly males, largely due to violent deaths. Aged migrants, despite their disadvantaged socioeconomic status, exhibit relatively low death rates from heart disease and cancer." The data are from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) mortality tapes and the 1980 U.S. census
Author's address: School of Social Work, University of Pennsylvania, 3701 Locust Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20196 Valkonen, Tapani. Social inequality in the face of death. In: European Population Conference 1987. Plenaries/Congres Europeen de Demographie 1987. Seances plenieres, edited by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population and the European Association for Population Studies. 1987. 201-61 pp. Central Statistical Office: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"In this paper I review and discuss recent studies on socio-economic mortality differentials in Europe. The paper is divided into six sections. Section II deals with differences in adult mortality between different social classes, section III with differences by level of education, section IV with differences in infant mortality, and section V is a summary of the descriptive results. The last section contains a discussion of problems met in an attempt to explain the findings." A number of studies pertaining to various European countries and concerned mainly with the 1970s and 1980s are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

53:20197 Boerma, Ties. The magnitude of the maternal mortality problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 6, 1987. 551-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author reviews existing data from several sources used to estimate national levels of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. "The attempt has been made to assess the level of maternal mortality by studying the relative importance of maternal death, health services coverage data, perinatal mortality, causes of maternal death and traditional birth practices. It is concluded that national levels of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa most likely vary from 250 to 700 per 100,000 live births, in proportion to the variation in overall levels of mortality in the countries." The author points out the need for data from peripheral hospitals and from community surveys to improve coverage of deliveries and maternal deaths, causes of maternal deaths, socioeconomic differentials, perinatal mortality, and abortion-related mortality
Author's address: Primary Health Care, UNICEF, P.O. Box 44145, Nairobi, Kenya.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20198 Carstensen, John M.; Pershagen, Goran; Eklund, Gunnar. Mortality in relation to cigarette and pipe smoking: 16 years' observation of 25,000 Swedish men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jun 1987. 166-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In a random sample of 25,129 Swedish men who responded to a questionnaire on smoking habits in 1963 the cause specific mortality was followed through 1979. In the cohort, 32% smoked cigarettes, 27% a pipe, and 5% cigars. There were clear covariations...between the amount of tobacco smoked and the risk of death due to cancer of the oral cavity and larynx, oesophagus, liver, pancreas, lung, and bladder as well as due to bronchitis and emphysema, ischaemic heart disease, aortic aneurysm, and peptic ulcer. Pipe smokers showed similar risk levels to cigarette smokers."
Author's address: Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Box 60500, S-104 01, Stockholm, Sweden.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20199 Cisneros Linares, Aida D.; de los Angeles, Maria; Mejuto, Vasquez. Trends in mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Cuba. [Tendencia de la mortalidad por enfermedad cerebrovascular en Cuba.] Archivos de Neurobiologia, Vol. 49, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1986. 336-42 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality trends from cerebrovascular diseases in Cuba from 1968 to 1981 are analyzed. The results indicate that mortality from these causes declined at approximately the same rate for both men and women.

53:20200 Dayal, H.; Goldberg-Alberts, R.; Kinman, J.; Ramos, J.; Sharrar, R.; Shapiro, S. Patterns of mortality from selected causes in an urban population. Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 39, No. 11, 1986. 877-88 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Mortality data for selected non-cancer causes for the period 1974-1980 were analyzed for the City of Philadelphia to examine spatial patterns. Four categories of conditions--ischemic heart disease (including acute myocardial infarction), chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, cerebrovascular disease, and external causes--demonstrated significant variation in death rates. Moreover, neighborhoods with high levels of mortality for these conditions appeared in significant clusters. With the exception of ischemic heart disease, neighborhoods with high levels of mortality were characterized by below average levels of [socioeconomic status]. A group of predominantly black neighborhoods in the central part of the city had extremely high rates for five or more of the nine causes investigated in this paper." The results along with results of previous studies concerned with cancer mortality, "support the hypothesis that there are social and behavioral factors that are associated with a wide range of disease conditions, and many of these factors are associated with socioeconomic status."
Author's address: Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA 19111.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20201 Devesa, Susan S. Cancer mortality, incidence, and patient survival among American women. Women and Health, Vol. 11, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 7-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Descriptive patterns of cancer among American women are presented utilizing national mortality statistics and data from several National Cancer Institute incidence surveys, the Connecticut Tumor Registry, the End Results Group Program, and the current Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. From 1950 to 1980, deaths from cancer among women have become more numerous, but the overall age-adjusted mortality rates have not increased." Consideration is given to changes in mortality by site of cancer among U.S. women over time and to mortality differentials by ethnic group and sex.
Author's address: Biostatistics Branch, Epidemiology and Biostatistics Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20202 Ferreira, Carlos E. de C.; Ceneviva, Paulo. Maternal deaths. [Mortes maternas.] Revista da Fundacao SEADE, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1986. 17-24 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por.
The authors first discuss the difficulties involved in obtaining accurate data on the causes of maternal deaths in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Next, they examine changes in maternal mortality between 1940 and 1983 due to specific causes (abortion, ectopic pregnancy, eclampsia, puerperal infection, and hemorrhaging) and contributory causes such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. Data are also provided on maternal mortality rates, maternal mortality by age, and mortality in connection with cesarean section. Finally, they offer suggestions for improving the information on maternal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20203 Fett, Michael J.; Nairn, Jean R.; Cobbin, Deirdre M.; Adena, Michael A. Mortality among Australian conscripts of the Vietnam conflict era. II. Causes of death. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 5, May 1987. 878-84 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In a cohort of Australian national service conscripts, death rates from International Classification of Diseases, Eighth Revision (ICD-8) cause of death classes for 19,205 veterans of the Vietnam conflict were compared with those of 25,677 veterans who served only in Australia." The results do not indicate that service in Vietnam has significantly increased subsequent mortality, but do show some evidence of an increased level of stress-related disorders among those who served in Vietnam
Author's address: Australian Veterans Health Studies, Commonwealth Institute of Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ). Source: For a related study, also published by Fett et al. in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.

53:20204 Fortney, Judith A. The importance of family planning in reducing maternal mortality. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1987. 109-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines why recent studies vary significantly in their estimation of the impact of family planning in reducing maternal mortality in developing countries. The main reasons for these discrepancies are sought in differences in the choice of measure of maternal mortality, combined with a confusion in terminology
Author's address: Reproductive Epidemiology Division, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20205 Gori, Gio B.; Lynch, Cornelius J. Decline of U.S. cancer mortality rates: expert estimates of past underreporting. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 6, No. 3, Sep 1986. 261-73 pp. Duluth, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Regulatory and public health policies in the United States are predicated on the uncritical acceptance of an alleged explosion in cancer mortality rates. In reality, several studies offer evidence that cancer mortality went underreported as one goes back in time, due to progressive deficiencies in diagnostic and registration practices. Because the absence of historical records precludes a comprehensive direct verification, a group of experts were polled to estimate the impact of this bias on U.S. cancer mortality statistics. The nature of this exercise speaks against a numerical interpretation of the results; however, their broad analogic meaning suggests that age-adjusted mortality and probably the incidence of leading cancers have significantly declined for decades, with the major exception of respiratory tract cancers."
Author's address: Franklin Institute, Policy Analysis Center, 4701 Willard Avenue, Suite 310, Chevy Chase, MD 20815.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20206 Hogberg, U.; Wall, S.; Brostrom, G. The impact of early medical technology on maternal mortality in late 19th century Sweden. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 24, No. 4, Aug 1986. 251-61 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The decline in maternal mortality that occurred in Sweden between 1751 and 1900 is analyzed. During this period, maternal mortality was reduced by 76 percent, in contrast to overall female mortality, which declined 33 percent. The focus is on the period 1861 to 1900, when maternal mortality declined from 567 to 227 per 100,000 live births. The authors attribute this decline primarily to the introduction of antiseptic techniques during delivery and the attendance of trained midwives at home deliveries.
Author's address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Umea University Hospital, S-901 85 Umea, Sweden.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20207 Hughes, Kenneth. Trends in mortality from hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases in Singapore, 1959 to 1983. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 16, No. 1, Mar 1987. 18-24 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Secular trends in mortality from hypertensive and cerebrovascular diseases have been studied in Singapore from vital statistics for the years from 1959 to 1983. Males were found to have higher mortality than females from hypertensive disease (by about 25%) and cerebrovascular disease (by about 20%). After an initial slight rise mortality from hypertensive disease fell markedly from the mid-1960s (slightly more in males than females) but the rate of decline has levelled off in the last few years. A more modest decline in cerebrovascular disease mortality started in the early 1970s in males and the mid-1970s in females, with the decline to date being slightly more in males."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20208 Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Horibe, Hiroshi; Aoki, Nobuo. Projection of death rates from ischemic heart disease in Japan, 1985-2000. Japanese Heart Journal, Vol. 27, No. 5, Sep 1986. 671-7 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"Death rates from all forms of ischemic heart disease and acute myocardial infarction were projected between 1985 and 2000 A.D., based on vital statistics from 1973 to 1982 and the estimated population by sex and age groups in Japan." The projections indicate a moderate increase in mortality from these causes.
Author's address: Department of Epidemiology, National Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita 565, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20209 La Vecchia, C.; Bollini, P.; Imazio, C.; Decarli, A. Age, period of death and birth cohort effects on suicide mortality in Italy, 1955-1979. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Vol. 74, No. 2, Aug 1986. 137-43 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Eng.
"Trends in death rates from all suicides and specific methods of suicide in Italy over the period 1955-79 were analysed on the basis of age-specific and age-standardised rates, and through a log-linear Poisson model to isolate the effects of age, birth cohort and calendar period. In both sexes, a large decrease in mortality from suicide was evident in the late 1950's and early 1960's. Thereafter, death certification rates showed fluctuating trends up to the mid 1970's, when steady increases became evident for both sexes." The impact of economic conditions on suicide mortality is noted.
Author's address: Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", Universita di Milano, Milan, Italy.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20210 Lavoie, Michael R.; Dever, G. E. Alan. Reproductive mortality in Georgia: a lifestyle and environmental analysis. Social Indicators Research, Vol. 19, No. 2, May 1987. 191-204 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
Some problems concerning the measurement of trends in maternal mortality in the United States are considered. The authors note that "in Georgia, an analysis of death certificates of females ages 10 to 49 indicates that deaths due to pregnancy related conditions are not being discovered by traditional underlying cause-of-death maternal mortality classification. Frequencies and rates were calculated showing the difference between the traditional International Classification of Disease codes for maternal deaths (ICD 630-676) and the reproductive mortality definition used in this paper (which emphasizes the Health Field Concept classification of Lifestyle, Environment, Biology and Health Care Delivery System)....The analysis suggests that a revised definition of maternal mortality be employed to take into consideration all risk factors related to reproductive mortality."
Author's address: School of Medicine, Mercer University, 1550 College Street, Macon, GA 31207.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:20211 Lindsay, Joan P.; Howe, Geoffrey R. A system for monitoring cancer mortality. [Systeme de surveillance de la mortalite causee par le cancer.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 15, No. 1, Apr 1986. 111-22 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper reports the establishment of a system for monitoring cancer mortality of individuals forming approximately a 10 percent sample of the Canadian labour force. Computerized record linkage was used in conjunction with the Canadian mortality data base maintained by Statistics Canada to determine the mortality experience of the cohort between 1965 and 1979. Selected results are presented, some of which appear to indicate associations between the occupation and cause of death, and others of which seem likely to indicate the influence of lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet. Cancer mortality is also presented by social class."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20212 Lui, Kung-Jong; Kendal, Alan P. Impact of influenza epidemics on mortality in the United States from October 1972 to May 1985. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 6, Jun 1987. 712-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Baseline levels of mortality in the United States in the absence of influenza epidemics were estimated using cyclical regression models applied to national vital statistics from October 1972 to May 1985. Models were developed by age and by region. Results from 1983 to 1985 are preliminary. More mortality than predicted by the theoretical baseline occurred during nine influenza seasons. Epidemics with high morbidity in children and young adults occurred in 1976/77 and 1978/79. Regional differences in the impact of influenza occurred occasionally. Total influenza-associated excess mortality in six epidemics from the winters of 1972/73 to 1980/81 was about 200,000. About 80-90 per cent of excess mortality occurred in persons over 64 years old."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20213 Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Duyne, Willem M. J.; Kelson, Marcia C. Certification and coding of two underlying causes of death in the Netherlands and other countries of the European Community. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 41, No. 2, Jun 1987. 156-60 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Differences in certification and coding of causes of death between countries of the European Community were studied by sending sets of case histories to samples of certifying physicians. Completed certificates were coded by national coding offices and by a WHO reference centre." The results of an analysis of the findings for the Netherlands reveal a substantial frequency of errors in certification, as opposed to errors in diagnosis. "It is concluded that certification and coding practices should be studied together and that further international standardisation of coding practices will not necessarily improve the validity of national cause of death statistics."
Author's address: Department of Public Health and Social Medicine, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20214 Mariotti, S.; Capocaccia, R.; Farchi, G.; Menotti, A.; Verdecchia, A.; Keys, A. Age, period, cohort and geographical area effects on the relationship between risk factors and coronary heart disease mortality. 15-year follow-up of the European cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. Journal of Chronic Diseases, Vol. 39, No. 3, 1986. 229-42 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The effects of three major risk factors (i.e. serum cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and smoking habits) on prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in relation to three nuisance variables--i.e. geographical location, age of subject at examination and period of examination--are analyzed using [European] data from three different 5-year apart examinations of the Seven Countries Study and observations on CHD mortality in the corresponding 15-year follow-up period." The geographic focus is on Europe. The results indicate a marked decrease in the association between cholesterol level and CHD mortality with increasing age of the subject.
Author's address: Laboratory of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20215 Martin, Jeanne; Suarez, Lucina. Cancer mortality among Mexican Americans and other whites in Texas, 1969-80. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 7, Jul 1987. 851-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Cancer mortality in Texas 1969-80 was 25 per cent lower among Mexican American males compared to other Whites; among females, rates were only 4 per cent lower. Reduced mortality was primarily a result of lower rates for cancers of the most common sites: lung, colon, breast and prostate. However, for cancers of the stomach, liver, and gallbladder, Mexican Americans had higher rates than other Whites. Female Mexican Americans were also at a higher mortality risk for cervical cancer. Implications are discussed."
Author's address: Bureau of Epidemiology, Texas Department of Health, 1100 W. 49th Street, Austin, TX 78756.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20216 Mattson, Margaret E.; Pollack, Earl S.; Cullen, Joseph W. What are the odds that smoking will kill you? American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 4, Apr 1987. 425-31 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We calculated the long-term risks of death from smoking for individuals of various ages and smoking status in terms of the excess mortality contributed by smoking, over and above the baseline mortality from the same diseases caused by factors other than smoking using standard life table procedures." Data are from unpublished official U.S. sources. The results indicate that "as many as one-third of heavy smokers age 35 will die before age 85 of diseases caused by their smoking." The implications for public education concerning the risks of smoking are considered
Author's address: Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Institute, Building 31, Room 4A46, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20217 Namboodiri, K. K. Cancer mortality rates and trends for whites and non-whites in Ohio: 1956-1983. Ohio State Medical Journal, Vol. 82, No. 11, Nov 1986. 748-57 pp. Columbus, Ohio. In Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality in Ohio for the period 1956-1983 are analyzed using data from official sources, including death certificates. Consideration is given to mortality differentials by race, sex, cancer site, and geographic subunit. The results indicate that the overall cancer rate in Ohio is higher than the national average.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20218 Noguchi, Kunikazu; Shimizu, Masami; Anzai, Ikuro. Correlation between natural radiation exposure and cancer mortality in Japan (I). Journal of Radiation Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, Jun 1986. 191-212 pp. Chiba, Japan. In Eng.
"Correlation between natural background radiation exposure rates and cancer mortality rates in 46 Japanese prefectures was statistically studied over the period of 1950-1978."
Author's address: Radioisotope Research Laboratory, School of Dentistry, Nihon University, 1-8-13, Surugadai, Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101, Japan.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20219 Omura, Toshitaka; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Minowa, Masumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi; Shigematsu, Itsuzo. Geographical distribution of cerebrovascular disease mortality and food intakes in Japan. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 5, 1987. 401-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between cerebrovascular disease mortality and food intake in Japan is analyzed. "For this purpose, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) from cerebrovascular disease were calculated for 3,341 basic administrative units (wards, cities, towns and villages) between 1969 and 1978 in Japan. The major nutrient intakes and 30 selected food items were obtained from the 1974-1976 Ministry of Health and Welfare, National Nutrition Surveys in 1,040 randomly sampled census tracts in 600 areas (18% of the nation)." The results indicate that mortality is lower in western Japan and in more urbanized areas. It is also shown that although the change from the traditional Japanese diet to a Western-type diet has reduced cerebrovascular mortality, it has led to an increase in heart disease mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20220 Polyakov, I. V.; Petrova, N. G. Cancer mortality among the population of a large city. [O smertnosti ot zlokachestvennykh novoobrazovanii naseleniya krupnogo goroda.] Voprosy Onkologii, Vol. 32, No. 8, 1986. 24-30 pp. Leningrad, USSR. In Rus.
Cancer mortality is analyzed by age and sex for the population of a large city in the USSR for the period 1979-1982. Consideration is given to the organization and quality of the health care available.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20221 Rezvani, A.; Doyon, F.; Flamant, R. Atlas of cancer mortality in France (1971-1978). [Atlas de la mortalite par cancer en France (1971-1978).] Collection Statistiques de Sante, ISBN 2-85598-288-X. [1986]. 117 pp. Editions INSERM: Paris, France. In Fre.
Official statistical data on cancer mortality for France for the period 1971-1978 are presented in the form of 32 maps in color. Data are included on the number of deaths and death rates from cancer by department and sex. Information is also provided on cancer mortality by age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20222 Rosenberg, Michael J.; Rosenthal, Steven M. Reproductive mortality in the United States: recent trends and methodologic considerations. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 7, Jul 1987. 833-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Between 1975 and 1982, the annual number of deaths attributable to pregnancy and childbirth, induced abortion, and contraception in the United States declined from 1,083 to 751. The mortality rates for each of these components decreased by 35, 89, and 35 per cent, respectively, and the overall reproductive mortality rate dropped by 35 per cent. The death rate due to pregnancy and childbirth is 25 times greater than that due to induced abortion and eight times more than that to contraceptive-associated mortality....The decrease in contraceptive-associated mortality between 1975 and 1982 probably reflects a combination of safer contraceptives, fewer women using contraceptive methods that may not be safest for them, and an increasing number of sterilizations, which remove women from the group at highest risk of contraceptive-related mortality. Maternal mortality appears to be slowing its rate of decline, while induced abortion mortality has been very low since the legalization of abortion."
Author's address: American Social Health Association, P.O. Box 13827, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:20223 Sharpe, Norman; Vedin, Anders; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Wilhelmsson, Claes. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality in New Zealand and Sweden. Why the difference? New Zealand Medical Journal, Vol. 98, No. 791, Nov 27, 1985. 1,002-5 pp. Dunedin, New Zealand. In Eng.
This is a comparative study of coronary heart disease mortality in New Zealand and Sweden. The authors note that despite similar health systems and medical and surgical disease management, mortality from this cause declined in New Zealand during the 1970s and increased in Sweden. They conclude that differences in diet and dietary change are the main causes of this mortality differential.
Author's address: Department of Medicine, University of Auckland School of Medicine, Auckland, New Zealand.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20224 Stehbens, W. E. An appraisal of the epidemic rise of coronary heart disease and its decline. Lancet, No. 8533, Mar 14, 1987. 606-11 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The authenticity of the concept of an epidemic rise in coronary heart disease since the beginning of the twentieth century and a subsequent decline since the late 1960s is questioned. The data concern a range of developed countries, with emphasis on the United Kingdom and the United States. The author suggests that increased longevity, changes in coding and diagnostic practices, and familiarity with the clinical and pathological features of the disease make this increase largely spurious. "Diagnostic errors in certified causes of death in general, and coronary heart disease in particular, indicate that vital statistics are too unreliable for determining whether there has been an increase and a subsequent decline in the incidence of coronary heart disease."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:20225 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: reclassification according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Part 1. Correspondence between the seventh and eighth revisions. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: reclassement selon la 8e revision de la Classification internationale. 1. Correspondance entre les 7e et 8e revisions.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe IV, 1987. 404 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the fourth in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In Annexes IV and V, the authors compare the seventh and eighth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases and present a reclassification of deaths for the period 1925-1978 according to the detailed classification specified in the eighth revision, which was adopted in 1965. The focus in this report is on the comparison between the seventh and eighth revisions.
For Annexe V, also published by the same authors in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20226 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: reclassification according to the eighth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. Part 2. Results of the reclassification. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: reclassement selon la 8e revision de la Classification internationale. 2. Resultats du reclassement.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe V, 1987. 607 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the fifth in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In Annexes IV and V, the authors compare the seventh and eighth revisions of the International Classification of Diseases and present a reclassification of deaths for the period 1925-1978 according to the detailed classification specified in the eighth revision, which was adopted in 1965. The focus in this report is on the presentation of the results of the comparison.
For Annexe IV, also published by the same authors in 1987, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:20227 Verduzco Solis, Crispina; Lopez Cervantes, Malaquias; Vandale Toney, Susan. Main epidemiologic features of cancer mortality in Mexico. [Principales caracteristicas epidemiologicas de la mortalidad por cancer en Mexico.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 28, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 543-50 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico over the period 1950-1980 are analyzed. Consideration is given to mortality differentials by age, sex, and region.
Author's address: Departamento de Epidemiologia, Escuela de Salud Publica, Mexico City SSA, Mexico.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20228 Wigle, Donald T.; Mao, Yang; Semenciw, Robert; Morrison, Howard I. Cancer patterns in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal/Journal de l'Association Medicale Canadienne, Vol. 134, No. 3, 1986. 231-5 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
An analysis of recent cancer patterns in Canada is presented. The authors note that cancer is diagnosed in about 70,000 Canadians each year and is the leading cause of the loss of potential years of life before age 75 among women. Consideration is given to comparisons in cancer mortality among provinces and between Canada and other countries. Changes in type of cancer mortality over time are also noted, and the need to reduce tobacco consumption is stressed.
Author's address: Non-communicable Disease Division, Bureau of Epidemiology, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:20229 Wrigley, John M. A multiple-cause-of-death approach to cancer mortality differentials at the older ages. Pub. Order No. DA8616914. 1986. 111 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This project proposes to develop a multiple-cause-of-death model of cancer mortality differentials at the older ages (45 and over), and to test its efficacy in comparison with the traditional model. The primary goal is to show that a multiple-cause-of-death model reveals different results of mortality differential by age, race, and sex than those observed under a single underlying-cause-of-death model." It is found that "a multiple-cause-of-death approach to cancer mortality differentials at the older ages is an alternative to the underlying-cause-of-death approach."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(5).


Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.