Volume 53 - Number 1 - Spring 1987

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

53:10249 Acsadi, George T. F.; Johnson-Acsadi, Gwendolyn. Optimum conditions for childbearing. ISBN 0-86089-078-3. 1986. iii, 106 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]: London, England. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this study was to determine from available materials for developing and developed countries the conditions of childbearing that are most favourable to viability of the offspring as well as to infant, childhood and maternal health and well-being....The focus is upon demographic factors of age at marriage and at first birth (see Chapter II), maternal age, order of birth and family size, and the amount of time that elapses between births. These parameters are examined from the perspective of their effect upon the morbidity and mortality first of offspring (Chapters III and IV) and then of mothers (Chapter V). Socio-economic conditions that affect fetal, infant and child mortality are reviewed in Chapter VI." Implications of the findings and a summary are presented in two final chapters. Official vital statistics and special surveys supply mortality data for developed countries; and information on developing countries is taken from the World Fertility Survey and the World Health Organization.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10250 Ananta, Aris. An economic analysis of fertility determinants in Indonesia. Majalah Demografi Indonesia/Indonesian Journal of Demography, Vol. 13, No. 25, Jun 1986. viii-x, 31-56 pp. Jakarta, Indonesia. In Eng. with sum. in Ind.
The determinants of fertility in Indonesia are explored using a synthesis approach to economic modeling developed by Easterlin and others, which reconciles and uses both the supply and demand factors affecting fertility. The developments suggested include the use of a statistical approach called the Linear Structural Relationships (LISREL), which permits the author to deal with unobservable variables, provides greater specificity for the analysis of natural fertility, and facilitates the development of a sequential interpretation of fertility. The method is applied to data from the 1976 Indonesian World Fertility Survey. The author concludes that the method successfully explains how an increase in contraceptive usage can be consistent with a rise in fertility, particularly if economic development occurs at a rapid pace and creates a climate encouraging people to have more children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10251 Anzo, Shinji. Marriage market and fertility: Japan, 1950 to 1980. 1985. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study focuses on the marriage market and the relative economic positions of members of large and small cohorts as explanations of fertility fluctuations in post-demographic transition countries. "Utilizing Japanese data from 1950 to 1980, the measurements of the marriage squeeze, which represent the marriage market situation, are examined and calculated. There are three types of measures; the sex ratio at marriageable ages, the sex ratio of the unmarried population, and Schoen's S measure....The last half of the study is devoted to multivariate time-series analyses of fertility fluctuations in Japan using the marriage squeeze measures and Easterlin's relative economic status measures."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Southern California.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (46)2.

53:10252 Audinarayana, N. The influence of age at marriage on fertility and family planning behaviour: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 1, Sep 1986. 56-62 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the variations in fertility levels as well as in the adoption of family planning methods due to changes in female age at marriage among three cultural groups of the people belonging to the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh [India]. Data for the present study were collected from 600 eligible couples, who had a minimum of two or more living children." The author finds that in general, an inverse relationship exists between wife's age at marriage and fertility behavior, and a positive relationship exists between wife's age at marriage and family planning behavior. It is noted that the legal minimum age at marriage in India was raised in 1978 but that the law has not been widely enforced.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10253 Bairagi, Radheshyam. A comment on Fred Arnold's "Measuring the effect of sex preference on fertility". Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 137-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a critique of a recent article by Fred Arnold concerning the effect of sex preferences on fertility. The data discussed include World Fertility Survey data for developing countries and 1976 data for Bangladesh. A reply by Arnold (pp. 139-42) is included.
For the study by Arnold, published in 1985, see 51:20225.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10254 Bardet, Jean-Pierre; Dupaquier, Jacques. Contraception: the French were the first, but why? [Contraception: les Francais les premiers, mais pourquoi?] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 3-33 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors focus on the fertility decline in France and seek to explain how and why the transition in France preceded similar developments in other European countries. Attention is given to various contraceptive methods used. The emphasis is on cultural rather than socioeconomic explanations for the fertility decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10255 Becker, Stan; Chowdhury, Alauddin; Leridon, Henri. Seasonal patterns of reproduction in Matlab, Bangladesh. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 457-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In Bangladesh twice as many births occur in December as in July. This paper examines the seasonal patterns of the risks of conception, fetal loss and return of menses post partum in a longitudinal study of 2,300 women in 14 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh. Life tables were estimated for each month of entry event and then 'period' life tables were constructed with the risks for a given calendar month."
The results confirm that the risk of resumption of menses is higher in November and December, regardless of time elapsed since last birth. "Similarly, there are increased conception risks in the period from February to April for all fecundable women. The time of lowest fetal loss and stillbirth risks is in the cool season, though this variation makes only a minor contribution to the overall seasonality of births. The pattern of fecundability estimated from data on coital frequency did not match the pattern estimated from reported conceptions; these discrepancies imply possible seasonal changes in other parameters of fecundability besides intercourse."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10256 Behar, Cem L. The measurement of fertility by the first demographers. [La mesure de la fecondite chez les premiers demographes.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1985. 173-96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The work of earlier demographers concerning the study of fertility is reviewed. The author notes that fertility analysis differed significantly in the eighteenth century from mortality analysis. "The former did not experience the widespread improvement in data quantity and quality the latter did as a result of medical, financial and actuarial investigations. Fertility analysis was often a by-product of, or a step towards, research into the 'real' population problems. This may be because fertility was considered at the time to be a natural process, not to be controlled or differentiated...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10257 Bloom, David E. Fertility timing, labor supply disruptions, and the wage profiles of American women. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-8, Oct 1986. 37, [15] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to present some new empirical evidence relating to several of the hypothesized links between women's fertility behavior and their labor force participation, human capital, and wage profiles. The second section of the paper will attempt to document some of the changes that have occurred in the timing and incidence of women's childbearing. The analysis will focus on the first birth fertility patterns of [U.S.] women born between 1935 and 1960." The data used are from the June 1985 Current Population Survey.
A number of comparisons are made between the baby-boom generation and those born 20 years earlier, in the 1930s. Attention is given to changes in the average age at first birth, changes in the trend toward permanent childlessness, differences between black and white women in delayed childbearing patterns, and the relationships among educational attainment, wage levels, and timing of childbearing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10258 Borgan, Ornulf; Hoem, Jan M. Demographic reproduction rates and the estimation of an expected total count per person in an open population. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 31, ISBN 91-7820-018-0. Dec 1986. 27 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
"Demographers conventionally estimate the mean number of children ever born by a woman who reaches a given age by adding age-specific fertility rates for her cohort up to that age. If the age selected is at the end of the childbearing period, the result is called the cohort's Total Fertility Rate (TFR), and if only female babies are counted, it is called the cohort's Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR). If births were generated by an age-dependent Poisson process, cumulative fertility rates would give appropriate estimates, and so would the Nelson-Aalen estimator based on age-specific counts. Both of them are very natural for that situation, but they turn out to estimate empirical mean numbers of births well even though births are not generated by Poisson processes. This paper uses counting process theory to show why statistics like the TFR and the GRR are good estimates of mean counts, under what conditions they are so, and how the same reasoning generalizes to the estimation of the mean number of any kind of event in any open population." An empirical example using Norwegian data is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10259 Boulier, Bryan L.; Mankiw, N. Gregory. An econometric investigation of Easterlin's "synthesis framework": the Philippines and the United States. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 473-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to describe and estimate a fertility model based upon Easterlin's theoretical framework. It is assumed explicitly that not all couples are able to achieve their desired number of living children because of supply constraints and that, for others, the observed number of living children depends upon child mortality, the level of fertility in the absence of fertility control, and the degree of fertility regulation practised. Following a description of the theoretical model, estimates are presented for samples of women from the Philippines and the United States who have completed childbearing."
The data are from the 1973 Philippine National Demographic Survey and the 1965 U.S. National Fertility Study. The results indicate "that a higher proportion of Filipino women than women in the U.S. were unable to achieve desired fertility because of supply constraints, that levels of fertility control of Filipino women not supply-constrained were lower, and that excess fertility of Filipino women was much higher. Demand-for-children equations based on the constraints model were quite different from those not taking into account the possibility that some women were supply-constrained, or that some women may have had more children than desired."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10260 Bumpass, Larry L.; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Palmore, James A. Determinants of Korean birth intervals: the confrontation of theory and data. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 403-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this analysis, data from the Korean National Fertility Survey of 1974 are used to seek to explain differences in the pace of fertility in terms of differences in contraception, breastfeeding and other intermediate variables. Strong effects are found for these variables, particularly contraception. Nonetheless, virtually none of the effects of the socio-economic variables can be explained in our full model. Overall, our first models, which included only the socio-economic variables, contained 44 significant coefficients. With the introduction of the intermediate variables, only eleven of these coefficients became non-significant (while six others became significant)."
The authors demonstrate that even though they are using excellent data for the Republic of Korea, they cannot reproduce what theory predicts. "The analysis suggests that this is a consequence of both measurement error and omitted intermediate variables, such as coital frequency. There are strong theoretical reasons for attempting to elucidate the mediating role of proximate variables by using individual data. Nonetheless, these findings, together with similar results obtained by others, strongly suggest that this is not likely to be a fruitful line of future endeavour."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10261 Carter, Lawrence R.; Lee, Ronald D. Joint forecasts of U.S. marital fertility, nuptiality, births, and marriages using time series models. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 81, No. 396, Dec 1986. 902-11 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This article presents a new approach to forecasting U.S. marital fertility, nuptiality, births, and marriages. The analysis represents a wedding of demographic and statistical time series in models amenable to Box-Jenkins techniques of model identification, estimation, diagnosis, and forecasting. The models demonstrate the advantages in this approach in forecasting both rates and events as opposed to the common practice of simply forecasting events."
U.S. births and first marriages for 1983-2000 are forecast using models of fertility and nuptiality indexes. "Analyses of these forecasts are made with discussions of their demographic realism in terms of their forecast confidence intervals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10262 Challier, Marie-Christine. From ascetic Malthusianism to the family economy (1680-1914). [Du malthusianisme ascetique a l'economie familiale (1680-1914).] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 71-85 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines developments in fertility in France during the period 1680-1914, focusing primarily on economic explanations for the observed decline in fertility. Hypotheses involving macro- and microeconomic factors are used to explain regional variations in fertility trends and the relatively early date of the French fertility transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10263 Charbit, Yves; Gueye, Lamine; Ndiaye, Salif. Nuptiality and fertility in Senegal. [Nuptialite et fecondite au Senegal.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 112, ISBN 2-7332-0112-3. 1985. 148 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This volume contains summaries of 10 specialized reports commissioned by the government of Senegal in the aftermath of the 1978 Senegalese portion of the World Fertility Survey (WFS). WFS data are used in the analyses, which are by various authors. Topics covered in the reports include overall and marital fertility rates, divorce, polygamy and polygyny, internal migration, proximate determinants of fertility, nuptiality and fertility among rural women, factor analysis and a typology of desired number of children, knowledge and practice of contraception, infant and child mortality, and population projections.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10264 Cho, Lee-Jay; Retherford, Robert D.; Choe, Minja Kim. The own-children method of fertility estimation. An East-West Center Book, ISBN 0-86638-082-5. LC 86-19677. 1986. xvi, 188 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. Distributed by University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
This book synthesizes the work that has been undertaken over the past 20 years to develop and expand the own-children method of fertility estimation. "The purpose of this book is twofold. The first is to provide a concise summary of the own-children methodology and problems of application. The second is to spell out step-by-step procedures for applying the methodology."
Chapters are included on the basic methodology, major methodological extensions, and the evaluation and analysis of errors. "Chapter 5 contains illustrative analyses for the Republic of Korea and Pakistan. Chapter 6 analyzes fertility trends estimated alternatively from birth histories and own-children data. Chapter 7 outlines step-by-step procedures for application, with illustrative examples. The appendices discuss specialized aspects of the method and selected computer programs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10265 Cigno, Alessandro. Fertility and the tax-benefit system: a reconsideration of the theory of family taxation. Economic Journal, Vol. 96, No. 384, Dec 1986. 1,035-51 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author examines "the simultaneous nature of the decision to have children, the decision to spend money on them and the decision to seek employment. It will be argued that the children-income trade-off emphasised by the present paper is more relevant to most family decisions than the income-leisure trade-off on which much of the policy debate has been centred. In order to do that, we shall bring together the recently developed economic theory of the family (or New Home Economics) with the microeconomic branch of the theory of public finance...."
A model of family choice is developed. "The main message of the present paper is that, if, as the evidence suggests, parents have some control over the number of children they put into the world, then the effect of taxes and subsidies on the family's allocation of time and money will be generally weaker and in some respects the opposite of what it would be if the number of children were physiologically constrained or exogenously given. Another is that, if parents derive utility from having children, this has to be taken into account in any welfare calculation. Fertility may thus affect the design of optimal policy in two ways: indirectly, through its effect on market behaviour and, directly, through its effect on welfare."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10266 Cliquet, R. L. The European Population Committee on recent fertility trends, their background, and their consequences in Europe. [De Europese Bevolkingscommissie over de recente vruchtbaarheidstendensen, hun achtergronden en gevolgen in Europa.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Nov 1986. 1-16 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The author reports on studies conducted between 1982 and 1985 by the Council of Europe's European Population Committee concerning the recent fertility decline, its background, and the consequences for member states. The study emphasizes "the observed and expected developments in population structure and size due to the ongoing below-replacement fertility. The present trends will demand an adaptation policy in many fields of societal life and if a return to a replacement level is wished, this will necessitate a thorough, multi-faceted and long-term policy of change, based on a permanent and fundamental scientific follow-up and analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10267 Cremer, H.; Kessler, D.; Pestieau, P. Fertility differentials and the regressive effect of public debt. Economica, Vol. 54, No. 213, Feb 1987. 79-87 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper shows that public debt issue may be regressive given the following three conditions: (1) that the number of children varies among families, (2) that a bequest motive implies operative inter-generational transfers, and (3) that debt finance of government expenditure postpones its actual payment to the next generation. Though perhaps minor, this effect of fertility differentials ought to be considered when assessing the overall distributive incidence of debt finance as compared with tax finance."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10268 de Jong, A. H. Parity progression ratios, 1970-1985. [Pariteitsverhogingsquotienten, 1970-1985.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 11, Nov 1986. 52-61 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"In this article, parity progression ratios are computed for the Netherlands using the so called 'life table model'. The reason for applying a new method is that 'traditional' cross-sectional methods...sometimes produce unrealistic values....With the life table model using age-parity specific fertility...such unrealistic values are made impossible."
It is found that "during the period 1970-1985, the percentage of women without children shows a permanent increase from 10 to 25 percent. Between 1970 and 1975, the share of birth order 3+ drops from 46 to 18%, after which it tends to stabilize."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10269 De Vos, Susan; Clark, Alice W.; Murty, K. Radhakrishna. Family and fertility in context: comments on some Caldwellian themes. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, Spring 1987. 127-36 pp. Calgary, Canada. In Eng.
The authors outline and evaluate some of the themes in the recent work of John C. Caldwell on fertility and family structure. They note that "Caldwell's present theory of fertility decline contributes to our understanding of the fertility transition by being based on observations from the Third World and by focusing on the family context of fertility behavior....However, the ideas are then expanded into a 'grand theory' which attempts to explain the fertility transition everywhere in the world, in the context of large-scale socio-economic changes. In our opinion, this theory becomes inconsistent and overextended because it is not developed to be a general theory of social change."
It is suggested that "there is presently a need to fuse two complementary theoretical developments related to family structure and fertility, one relating to the parent-child relationship, and the other to women's status and fertility." The contributions of Caldwell's work in the areas of participant observation techniques and small-scale surveys are considered, and limitations to his criticisms of recent demographic research are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SSA).

53:10271 Dhindsa, K. S. Determinants of fertility in rural Punjab. Journal of Asian and African Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3-4, Jul-Oct 1986. 217-26 pp. Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The paper analyzes the determinants of fertility in rural Punjab [India]. Some of the variables which theoretically seem to have bearing on fertility are discussed in Section I. On the basis of this discussion, a set of hypotheses is put forward for empirical verification. Chi-square analysis is used to measure the relationship among variables. The results indicate that variables such as males' education, level of income, females' age at marriage and caste are significantly related to the fertility rate of the rural population."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10272 Farhud, D. D.; Kamali, M. S.; Marzban, M. Seasonality of birth and sex ratio in Tehran, Iran. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, Vol. 44, No. 1, Mar 1986. 61-6 pp. Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
"234,218 births (1975-1983) from a hospital in Tehran have been analysed for seasonality of birth and sex ratio. The results show more births in winter and less births in fall. The sex ratio is higher in summer and lower in fall. The occurrence of multibirths shows higher twinning and triplet rates in spring and fall, respectively, whereas lower twinning and triplet rates occur in winter and summer, respectively. It could be demonstrated that geographical factors influence the rates of births and multibirths as well as the sex ratio."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10273 Festy, Patrick. Fertility in Western countries (1870-1970). Population Studies Translation Series, No. 7; ST/ESCAP/279, 1984. iii, 147 pp. U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia [ESCAP], Population Division: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Trends in fertility in Europe, North America, and Australia between 1870 and 1970 are analyzed. The author first discusses the situation around 1870 and then describes the decline in fertility that occurred until about 1935. Next, he outlines the increase in fertility that occurred between 1935 and 1965. This is a translation of Part 1 of the original work.
For the original French work, published in 1979, see 46:3314.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10274 Fuller, Gary A. Demographic transition in Sri Lanka: a spatial perspective. Population Geography, Vol. 6, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1984. 1-11 pp. Chandigarh, India. In Eng.
"The Coale fertility indices are applied [in this paper] to provide a spatial view of fertility in Sri Lanka. Fertility, in turn, is linked to past mortality and to the incidence of malaria. Sri Lanka's Dry Zone exhibits a pattern of linkages among mortality, malaria, and fertility with important implications for demographic transition theory and for public policy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10275 Gajanayake, Indra. Cessation of childbearing in the absence of contraception in Sri Lanka. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 65-71 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In data from the Sri Lanka Fertility Survey, 1975, the cessation of childbearing is examined among women who have never used contraception. They tend to cease childbearing relatively early, and therefore are infertile for longer periods during their marriages. It is probably age of the first child that influences decisions on future fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10276 Garza Chapa, Raul; Riojas Valdes, Victor M.; Jimenez Contreras, Jose A.; Cerda Flores, Ricardo M. Effect of social and biological factors on family size and the secondary sex ratio in two human generations in Monterrey, Nueva Leon. [Efecto de factores sociales y biologicos sobre el tamano de la familia y la proporcion secundaria de sexos, en dos generaciones humanas de Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.] Salud Publica de Mexico, Vol. 28, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 73-82 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of selected social and biological factors on family size and secondary sex ratio in Mexico is examined using data concerning 851 couples and their families of origin. The couples were living in the town of Monterrey and had completed their reproductive histories. Family size declined in one generation from 6.76 to 4.53. No differences in the secondary sex ratio were observed. Factors considered include socioeconomic status, educational status, marriage age of husband and wife, and father's occupation.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10277 Gendell, Murray. Stalls in the fertility decline in Costa Rica, Korea, and Sri Lanka. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 693, ISBN 0-8213-0668-5. LC 85-26287. 1985. vii, 112 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines developing countries that experienced both a rapid fertility decline and a leveling-off of fertility above replacement, and seeks to identify the reasons for such stalls in fertility declines. The study is limited to countries with reliable data. From the countries meeting these criteria, the author selected Costa Rica, the Republic of Korea, and Sri Lanka for study. Different factors of relevance are identified in the three countries, including changes in marriage patterns, the support for and effectiveness of family planning programs, the timing of fertility, and changes in contraceptive attitudes and practice. No clear common thread linking the stalling of the fertility decline among these countries is identified.
Location: World Bank, Joint Bank-Fund Library, Washington, D.C.

53:10278 Gilks, Walter R. The relationship between birth history and current fertility in developing countries. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, Nov 1986. 437-55 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author uses data from nine countries participating in the World Fertility Survey "to find a model of fertility in terms of 'birth-history' factors which is common to a diversity of developing countries....The analysis is essentially a birth-interval life-table analysis with regression where factor effects are allowed to vary smoothly over time since previous birth. Strong evidence for a common model is found, with surprisingly similar patterns in the parameters emerging for each country. The main components of the model may be interpreted in terms of 'tempo' of previous reproduction, age-related infecundity, and birth-order-related fertility control."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10279 Gindoff, Paul R.; Jewelewicz, Raphael. Reproductive potential in the older woman. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 46, No. 6, Dec 1986. 989-1,001 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
A general review of reproduction among older women is presented. Consideration is given to the physiology of the transition to the menopause, the aging of the female reproductive system, factors affecting age at menopause, patterns of fertility in older women, biological and social factors affecting fertility, genetics, obstetric implications, and the treatment of the older infertile woman. The primary focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10280 Golbeck, Amanda L. A multiple decrement fertility table based on parity. Mathematical Biosciences, Vol. 79, No. 1, May 1986. 73-86 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper is a multivariate generalization of the work of Chiang and van den Berg...to model the parity-specific reproductive patterns of female populations using a life table approach. It is also an adaptation of mortality competing risks theory and multiple decrement life tables to the study of parity-specific human fertility. Competing risks in the fertility context are risks of types of reproductive outcome: normal reproductive outcome (type 0); adverse reproductive outcome of type 1; adverse reproductive outcome of type 2; etc. We focus on applicability to studies in demography and reproductive epidemiology involving current populations."
Author's address: Department of Mathematical Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182.
For the article by Chin Long Chiang and Bea J. Van den Berg, published in 1982, see 49:10291.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

53:10281 Guillon, P.; Guillon, D.; Lansac, J.; Soutoul, J. H.; Bertrand, P.; Hornecker, J. P. Births, fertility, rhythms, and the lunar cycle: a statistical study of 5,927,978 births. [Naissances, fertilite, rythmes et cycle lunaire: etude statistique sur 5,927,978 naissances.] Journal de Gynecologie, Obstetrique et Biologie de la Reproduction, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1986. 265-71 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Data concerning 5,927,978 births occurring in France between 1968 and 1974 are analyzed using Fourier's spectral analysis. The results show there are two separate rhythms in birth frequencies: a weekly rhythm characterized by a low number of births on Sundays and a larger number on Tuesdays; and an annual rhythm with a maximum in May and a minimum in September and October. "A statistical analysis of the distribution of births in the lunar month shows that more are born between the last quarter and the new moon, and fewer are born in the first quarter of the moon. The differences between the distribution observed during the lunar month and the theoretical distribution are statistically significant."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10282 Guilmoto, Christophe. Demographic transition in southern India: an exception "of the French kind". [Transition demographique en Inde du Sud: une exception "a la Francaise"] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 51-66 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines the case of the demographic transition in Tamil Nadu, India, with particular attention to ways in which the experiences there differed from standard interpretations of demographic transition theory. Tamil Nadu was characterized by low fertility much earlier than neighboring areas in India and other nearby countries. Religious, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic explanations are offered. The persistence of relatively high mortality in the region is also noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10283 Gustafsson, Siv. Institutional environment and the economics of female labor force participation and fertility: a comparison between Sweden and West Germany. IIM/LMP Discussion Papers, No. 85-9, Sep 1985. 23 pp. Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin, Internationales Institut fur Management und Verwaltung: Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
The author examines institutional factors and policies leading to both a lower female labor force participation rate and a lower birth rate in West Germany than in Sweden. "This paper begins by presenting a standard economic model of the interrelationship between female participation in the labor force and fertility. The model is used as a frame of reference in selecting those institutional arrangements that may be expected to have an impact on the economics of female labor force participation and the costs of children. It is demonstrated in this paper that, unlike Germany, Sweden is pursuing a pronatalist policy, in many respects. The Swedish system of compulsory separate taxation of income is a system that favors the entry of additional wage earners into the labor force, whereas a tax system of split earnings or joint taxation has the opposite effect. The conclusion of the paper is that future econometric comparisons should attempt to include more institutional variables."
Publisher's address: Platz der Luftbrucke 1-3, 1000 Berlin 42, Federal Republic of Germany.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10284 Guttmacher, Alan F.; Kaiser, Irwin H. Pregnancy, birth and family planning. ISBN 0-525-24420-4. LC 86-2032. 1986. xxviii, 596 pp. E. P. Dutton: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is a revised and updated edition of a basic introduction for the lay person of the facts concerning pregnancy, birth, and family planning. The approach is that of modern obstetric practice in the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10285 Happel, Stephen K. United States and Australian fertility: past, present and future. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 3, No. 2, Nov 1986. 89-115 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper compares U.S. and Australian fertility to generate greater interest among Australian economists and other social scientists in childbearing decisions and outcomes. U.S. and Australian fertility series are compared annually from the 1920s [to 1980] and alternative theoretical explanations for the observed patterns are discussed. Next, economic and socio-demographic statistics and empirical tests are presented for both countries, and the likely directions for U.S. and Australian rates over the remainder of the century are debated. Although the likelihood of low fertility rates over the remainder of the century appears quite high in both countries, the possibility of another baby boom cannot be readily dismissed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10286 Hess, Peter N. Public policy and the total fertility rate: cross-sectional evidence from the LDCs. Population Research and Policy Review, Vol. 5, No. 3, 1986. 253-75 pp. Dordrecht, Netherlands. In Eng.
"A framework developed by Easterlin for the analysis of fertility in developing societies is modified and then tested using a sample of 65 less-developed countries. The focus is on assessing the impact of public policy on the national fertility rate. Public policy is reflected in the average levels of education and health in the population and in the condition of the national family planning program. To test for threshold effects with respect to socioeconomic development, the sample is divided on the basis of the infant mortality rate."
It is found that "different factors influence the national fertility rate depending upon the stage of development. For the least-developed nations, the secondary school enrollment rate, an indicator of the extent of economic mobility, and the ratio of school age children to teachers, a proxy for the national commitment to human capital formation, are important. For the more advanced of the LDCs, adult literacy and the infant mortality rate seem to predominate. For all the developing nations, however, the results confirm the importance of strong family plannning programs. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy implications of the research."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10287 Hirosima, Kiyosi. Does rise in age-specific marital fertility rate mean rise in fertility of couples? A mathematical analysis of marital fertility rates. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 179, Jul 1986. 35-48 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines the relationship between changes in the age-specific marital fertility rate and the actual fertility of couples. It is first noted that although the age-specific marital fertility rate in Japan increased between 1975 and 1980, the fertility of individual couples declined over the same period. The relationships among the various fertility rates used by demographers are reviewed and illustrated using official Japanese data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10288 Hoem, Britta. Employment histories and their relationship to continued childbearing among Swedish mothers of two children born between 1936 and 1950. [Sysselsattningshistoriens betydelse for tvabarnsmodrars fortsatta barnafodande bland Svenska kvinnor fodda 1936-50.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 32, ISBN 91-7820-019-9. Jan 1987. 45 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This study is part of a continuing project at the University of Stockholm concerning Swedish fertility trends. The relationship between female employment and fertility is examined here using data on 464 women born between 1936 and 1950 who have had two children. The emphasis is on factors affecting the decision to proceed to having a third child. Factors considered include interval between the births of the first two children, age at first birth, marital status, labor force participation, educational status, and having same father for both children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10289 Hohn, Charlotte. Determinants of reproductive behavior: interim assessment of the reasons for the fertility decline. [Einflussfaktoren des generativen Verhaltens: Zwischenbilanz zu den Grunden des Geburtenruckgangs.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1986. 309-23 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author reviews literature, primarily that published since 1980, concerning the fertility decline in the Federal Republic of Germany. Early German theories of fertility decline and the demographic transition theory are summarized and evaluated. Attention is given to more recent explanations, and the likelihood of a reversal of the decline is assessed. "The more recently developed theory approaches assume a complexity of causes...on the micro-, meso-, and macro-level. Changes in the value of children, family forms, family planning, as well as personality characteristics are part of the determinants on the micro-level. The most important aspects of differential fertility, i.e., level of education, denomination and religiousness, economic activity of women, housing status, financial reasons as well as reference groups are in this instance counted and discussed as determinants on the meso-level....Change in socio-economic structures, increasing urbanization and an anti-children attitude, modernization of values, responsible parenthood and unfulfilled desired number of children, anxiety about the future, and the demographic climate are discussed as macro-level determinants."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10290 Honduras. Direccion General de Estadistica y Censos (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); Honduras. Consejo Superior de Planificacion Economica (Tegucigalpa, Honduras); United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE] (San Jose, Costa Rica); Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA] (Ottawa, Canada). National Demographic Survey of Honduras (EDENH II 1983). Vol. 4. Fertility: geographic and socioeconomic differentials in fertility, 1960-1983. EDENH II and other sources. [Encuesta Demografica Nacional de Honduras (EDENH II 1983). Volumen 4. Fecundidad: diferenciales geograficos y socioeconomicos de la fecundidad, 1960-1983. EDENH II y otras fuentes.] CELADE Serie A, No. 1047/IV; LC/DEM/CR/G.14, Dec 1986. 89 pp. U.N. Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia [CELADE]: San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa.
This report presents results concerning fertility from the second National Demographic Survey of Honduras (EDENH II), which was carried out in 1983. It contains a series of estimations of fertility and fertility differentials by region and socioeconomic group. Fertility differentials are analyzed over the period 1960-1984 for the whole country, regions, and areas of different levels of urbanization. Fertility differentials by socioeconomic and educational status are examined.
For a related publication, also published in 1986, see 52:20789.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10291 Irazi, Caribert. Recent fertility trends in Rwanda: divergence from the transition norm. [Evolution recente de la fecondite au Rwanda: divergence avec le schema de la transition.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 235-42 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in Rwanda are examined, with particular attention to ways in which the experiences there have deviated from the traditional interpretation of the demographic transition. Age-specific fertility rates for 1952, 1970, and 1978 and proportions of the population female for 1970 and 1978 are studied, and an increase in fertility with relatively stable sex ratios over time is noted. The author suggests that a relaxation in taboos concerning postpartum sexual intercourse and a reduction in the duration of breast-feeding may have caused the shortening of birth intervals and thus the increase in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10292 Johnson-Acsadi, Gwendolyn. Fertility and family planning. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 19-20, 1987. 44-62 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper describes how the United Nations has responded to the needs of Governments for data on fertility levels and for analytic studies on the determinants of fertility and family planning behaviour." The author traces the work of the Population Division for the 40 years since its establishment and discusses its studies on the use of inadequate statistics and census data for policy-making. Attention is given to the Division's development of techniques for estimating fertility and evaluating family planning programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10293 Jones, Nicholas B. Bushman birth spacing: a test for optimal interbirth intervals. Ethology and Sociobiology, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1986. 91-105 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Factors affecting length of birth interval among the !Kung of Southern Africa are examined. The data, collected during the 1970s, concern 65 women in Botswana. The results indicate that the four-year intervals observed maximize reproductive success for most women, since more frequent births increase to unmanageable levels the combined weight of baby and load that women in this foraging population must carry.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10294 Kak, Neeraj. Determinants of fertility: a case study of Punjab (India). Pub. Order No. DA8512719. 1984. 216 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The main aim of this research is to explore how various aspects of modernization have affected fertility rate and attitudes towards family size in some sections of the Indian rural society. The data for this research has been collected in the state of Punjab (India) during 1982-83 from the villages belonging to the areas covered by the earlier studies known as the Khanna Study and the Narangwal Population Study." The author examines the reasons underlying the successes and failures of the two earlier studies. Factors influencing decrease in family size, increased acceptance of family planning services, and socioeconomic changes that affect the demographic transition are considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the State University of New York at Stony Brook.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(4).

53:10295 Khan, M. E.; Gupta, R. B. Family size norm and value of children: an appraisal of Indian data. In: Socio-cultural determinants of fertility, edited by the Indian Council of Medical Research. 1985. 155-76 pp. Indian Council of Medical Research: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine motivational factors influencing family size and acceptance of family planning methods in India. Data sources include a 1980 all-India level family planning study of 40,000 couples, a study on the contraceptive behavior of 4,000 male workers, and a study of social change in rural India involving 1,400 individuals. Examining the data by religion, income, occupation, education, and residence, the authors study respondents' reasons for wanting children. Reasons include perceived economic benefits, religious and social influences, support of parents in old age, continuity of family name, and tradition. The authors conclude that in India "the economic value of children still seems to be very high, more so when referred to rural India." They cite earlier studies on factors influencing family size and maintain that the economic costs of children are instrumental in motivating people to use contraceptives. Comparisons with findings of a similar nature from Korea, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and Thailand are also presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10296 Khawaja, Dilshad A. Socioeconomic determinants of fertility in Pakistan. Pub. Order No. DA8508708. 1985. 102 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author analyzes fertility in Pakistan using the theory of household production and data collected in the 1975 Pakistan Fertility Survey. The impact of various socioeconomic factors on fertility is investigated using the ordinary least squares technique. The effects on fertility of family income, parents' education, age and labor force participation of wife, urban or rural location, and knowledge of contraceptives are examined.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the City University of New York.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(4).

53:10297 Knudsen, Lisbeth B. Births and abortions, 1980-1984. [Fodsler og aborter 1980-1984.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 148, No. 15, Apr 7, 1986. 923-4 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
Trends in births and abortions in Denmark from 1980 to 1984 are reviewed. Data are presented on the number of births, spontaneous abortions, and induced abortions in each year; pregnancy by age of woman; and abortion rates by age of woman and year.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10298 Kucher, A. N.; Kurbatova, O. L. Population genetics study of differential fertility in an urban population. [Populyatsionno-geneticheskoe issledovanie differentsial'noi plodovitosti v gorodskom naselenii.] Genetika, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1986. 304-11 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
Pregnancies, births, and abortions in an urban population of the USSR are analyzed. The data concern a cohort of women who had completed their reproductive history. The results show that although the average number of pregnancies per woman was about 4.03, the average number of births was only 1.12. Furthermore, by the end of the reproductive period, 7.4 percent of women had not become pregnant, whereas 19.5 percent had not given birth. "In the population under study two components of selection--selection at the prenatal stages and selection associated with infertility--are shown to be still significant. Such type of selection is exemplified by investigation of couples suffering from repeated spontaneous abortions."
Author's address: N. I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow 117809, USSR.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10299 Lehrer, Evelyn; Nerlove, Marc. Female labor force behavior and fertility in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 12, 1986. 181-204 pp. Palo Alto, California. In Eng.
"This article critically reviews the literature on fertility and female labor force behavior in the United States, with particular emphasis on recent quantitative research by economists, demographers, and sociologists. We first examine the empirical evidence regarding the influence on fertility and female employment of certain key variables: the value of female time, husband's income, and relative economic status. Then the issue of whether there is direct causality between fertility and female labor supply is addressed. We review simultaneous equations models and a new approach to the study of causality. Sequential decision-making models are also discussed."
The factors that can mediate the fertility-labor supply nexus are examined. "These include childcare arrangements, husband's income, wife's education, and the convenience of employment. Differentials in the relationship between fertility and labor supply among racial and religious groups are noted. The article concludes with a discussion of changes over time in the association between fertility and female employment."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10300 Locoh, Therese. The fertility transition and social change in the third world. [Transitions de la fecondite et changements sociaux dans le tiers monde.] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 205-33 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author uses evidence from experiences in African countries to challenge various aspects of the classic demographic transition theory approach to fertility change. Among the areas discussed are the effect of falling mortality on fertility, the notion of passing from natural fertility to controlled fertility, the relationship between economic progress and fertility decline, and family planning programs as determinants of fertility decline. Attention is given to nuptiality, birth spacing, health improvements, and abortion and contraception as mechanisms through which the fertility transition occurred. Finally, the relationship between social change and the fertility transition is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10301 Lutz, Wolfgang. Finnish fertility since 1722: lessons from an extended decline. [1986?]. 132 pp. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis [IIASA]: Laxenburg, Austria. In Eng.
An analysis of fertility trends in Finland since 1722 is presented. The emphasis is on the macro-level, but consideration is also given to the micro-level family reconstruction approach and to the qualitative social historical approach. "Methodologically this analysis goes beyond previous studies in developing a model for reconstructing 18th and 19th century marriage patterns, modifying the index of family limitation in a way to use overall age-specific rates instead of marital ones, applying distributed-lag models to the analysis of the interactions between fertility and child mortality, and using multi-variate techniques to analyze short term and long term determinants of fertility trends."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10302 Ma, Yingtong; Wang, Yanzu; Yang, Shuzhang. Presentation and establishment of a system of total progressive fertility rates and relevant models. China Population Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 3, Jun 1986. 9-12 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
"To take into consideration China's present situation of population control and planned birth practice, a system of total progressive fertility rate (TPFR) different from the parity progression ratio is established and its relevant model presented in order to make indicators used in analysing women's first marriage and fertility level reflect as closely as possible to the actual situation. Here, TFR [total fertility rate] and TPFR, both used in analysing fertility level, are compared so as to show that TPFR is a methodology more appropriate to be used in the analysis of China's fertility." Comparisons are made using data for Beijing for the years 1977-1982 and for the whole country for the years 1963-1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10303 Mahadevan, K.; Reddy, P. J.; Naidu, D. A. Fertility and mortality: theory, methodology and empirical issues. ISBN 0-8039-9497-4. LC 85-22287. 1986. 351 pp. Sage Publications: Beverly Hills, California/New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This book contains 19 papers by various authors, prepared in conjunction with a seminar on Society and Population Dynamics held in Tirupati, India, in January 1984. The focus is on the dynamics of fertility and mortality. Papers are divided into five sections: theories of fertility; culture and fertility; social change and fertility; analytical framework, models, and mortality; and a profile of Dr. C. Chandrasekaran, to whom the volume is dedicated. Among the topics considered are sex roles; theories of fertility decline; fertility regulation; the value and cost of children; socio-cultural determinants of fertility; modernization and demographic change in Kerala, India, and in Indonesia; conceptual models for analyzing mortality; and cultural and nutritional determinants of infant and child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10304 McHenry, John P. A theoretical and empirical critique of the Easterlin-Crimmins synthesis model of fertility--with applications to Colombia, Costa Rica, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the United States. Pub. Order No. DA8614836. 1986. 777 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses World Fertility Survey data from Colombia, Costa Rica, Nepal, and Sri Lanka and National Survey of Family Growth data from the United States to critique the Easterlin-Crimmins synthesis model of fertility and to suggest improvements in model specification and estimation. Selected findings concerning desired family size, knowledge of contraception, and infant and child mortality are discussed.
It is found that "the vast majority of coefficients derived from a synthesis approach are correctly signed, of reasonable magnitudes, and are robust to changes in model specification or estimation. Two problem areas--the estimate of couple-level potential fertility and the estimate of the couple's numbers of births averted by contraceptive use--are found to be interdependent, statistically. Estimation is improved when potential fertility is modeled as a latent variable."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(4).

53:10305 Menard, Scott. Fertility, family planning, and development: indirect influences. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 21, No. 3, Fall 1986. 32-50 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author examines the indirect influences on changing fertility in developing countries and the direct and indirect influences of family planning efforts. The objective is to clarify the relationships among fertility, family planning efforts, and socioeconomic development. Data are from a variety of published sources and concern some 65 developing countries. The results lend additional support to the hypothesis that education may play a more important role in fertility reduction than might originally appear to be the case, particularly when combined with family planning efforts.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10306 Mishra, R. N.; Singh, K. K.; Dwivedi, S. N. A modified probability distribution for first birth interval. Rural Demography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 1984. 61-79 pp. Dacca, Bangladesh. In Eng.
"The aim of the present paper is to develop a truncated continuous probability distribution for the waiting time of first birth...taking into account the fact that the inoperative period immediately after marriage due to adolescent sterility is exponentially distributed and [that] females are exposed to the risk of conception at different points of time since marriage because of temporary separation from their husbands. The estimates of the parameters of the model have been obtained by the method of moments. For illustration, the model has been applied to various sets of observed distributions [for rural Varanasi, India]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10307 Moreno-Navarro, Lorenzo. Fertility change in five Latin American countries: a covariance analysis of birth intervals. Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 23-41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes patterns of childbearing throughout the reproductive career of Latin American women, using a hazards model of birth interval life tables. Data come from five fertility surveys of the World Fertility Survey Programme. The analysis, within each country and across time, assesses how demographic factors of reproduction influence the fertility history of women throughout their reproductive lives." The countries concerned are Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Panama, and Peru.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10308 Murty, Radhakrishna. Conjugal interaction patterns and fertility behaviour: a multivariate study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 33, No. 1, Sep 1986. 38-51 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"The objective of the present paper is to study empirically the nature and extent of conjugal interaction patterns with particular reference to the fertility behaviour of couples in a fishing community of Visakhapatnam [India] using...multivariate regression analysis. The study was conducted in 1975 on a sample of 250 currently married females...." Low frequency of both inter-spousal communication and joint decision making concerning matters of fertility and family size were observed
It is found that a "constellation of factors--socioeconomic, situational, religious and normative, the prevalent community preference for large families and the availability of supportive kin networks--was thus responsible for not only the generally observed high levels of fertility and family size but also for the lack of explicit concern over family size limitation."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10309 Nelson, Merwyn. Level of living and fertility among a rural population of the Philippines. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 20, No. 3, Fall 1985. 31-46 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
"This study examines the issue of whether the relationship of fertility to measures of economic resources is different at lower income levels than at higher levels." The data for the study concern a rural area in the Philippines and were collected in 1978-1979. The measures of economic resources used are income, quality of housing, and provision of schooling for children.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

53:10310 Ogawa, Naohiro; Mason, Andrew. An economic analysis of recent fertility in Japan: an application of the Butz-Ward model. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 9, May 1986. 5-15 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
The authors apply the Butz-Ward version of the new home economics model of fertility to Japan, using annual time-series data for 1963-1984. This model postulates that "both men's and women's current wages operate independently in explaining fertility movements in the United States." Some of the theoretical and technical problems with this model are discussed. The authors then propose five alternative specifications to the Butz-Ward model and test the applicability of each specification to Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10311 Okpala, Amon O. Female labor force participation and fertility in Nigeria: a study of Lagos. Pub. Order No. DA8511761. 1984. 158 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The primary purpose of this dissertation is to examine the relationship that exists between female employment and fertility in Lagos." The examination is based on the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis, "which states that an inverse relationship occurs between women's work and fertility only when the roles of worker and mother conflict." A questionnaire was utilized, covering three female employment categories: women in civil service, self-employed women, and housewives. It is concluded that the regression analysis results support the incompatibility hypothesis.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Louisiana State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(4).

53:10312 Omran, Abdel R.; Salama, Ibrahim A. Macroanalytic study of development and fertility: consideration of transition models. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 259-75 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The relationship between fertility and socioeconomic development is examined using a variety of macro-analytic techniques, including linear and quadratic regression, a minimum-maximum method of plotting the relationship, and a variation of stepwise regression, as well as data for 85 countries obtained from various sources. "The crude birth rate was used as the dependent variable with several demographic, economic, social health, and family planning indicators as independent variables...over the period 1950-75. The results confirm the existence of submodels of countries with varying relationships between fertility and its correlates. The results disallow direct transferability of the experience of one group of countries (such as Europe) to another group belonging to another model (such as the less developed countries). The study also found the strength of the family planning effort to be a significant factor and one to be singled out as a major contributor in the fertility decline between 1965-75 in the developing countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10313 Pantelides, Edith A. Some notes concerning the possible impact of European in-migration on fertility in Argentina. [Notas respecto a la posible influencia de la inmigracion europea sobre la fecundidad de la Argentina.] Estudios Migratorios Latinoamericanos, Vol. 1, No. 3, Aug 1986. 351-5 pp. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
The author examines two factors that may have influenced Argentine fertility: the predominance of young, economically active men among the Europeans immigrating to Argentina and the low fertility norms of the European countries from which the immigrants come. She also touches on the methodological problem of determining whether, in mixed marriages, fertility should be called native or alien. The period covered is 1895 to 1947.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10314 Papayungan, Mikhail M. Income, child mortality, woman's social status, and fertility: a developmental perspective on fertility behavior in Indonesia. Pub. Order No. DA8511013. 1982. 175 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the socioeconomic determinants of fertility change at the microeconomic level in Indonesia. The data concern 16,512 respondents included in a household survey carried out by the Indonesian Bureau of Statistics in 1976. "Couple reproductive behavior was analyzed within Easterlin's model. Three components of the multivariate model are distinguished, namely, natural fertility factors, demand factors and the behavioral factors." Particular attention is given to the impact of income and socioeconomic status.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(3).

53:10315 Pederson, Jon. Plantation women and children: wage labor, adoption, and fertility in the Seychelles. Ethnology, Vol. 26, No. 1, Jan 1987. 51-61 pp. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The relationship between women's employment and fertility in a plantation economy is examined using the example of the Seychelles. The results indicate that, in contrast to other plantation economies, women in the Seychelles are able to combine wage labor with high fertility. This is achieved through household organization involving child help in the house, and a system of adoption and fostering.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10316 Perez Brignoli, H. Marital fertility in San Pedro del Mojon: 1871-1936. [La fecundidad legitima en San Pedro del Mojon: 1871-1936.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 4, No. 3, Nov 1986. 67-97 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
Louis Henry's method of family reconstitution is applied to data from the parish records of San Pedro del Mojon, a small, rural, coffee-raising community in Costa Rica. A total of 10,456 baptisms and 1,608 marriages are studied over the period 1860-1939. Data on marriage age and number of children are analyzed to explore changes in marital fertility over this period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10317 Pool, I.; Sceats, J. E.; Hooper, A.; Huntsman, J.; Plummer, E.; Prior, I. Social change, migration and pregnancy intervals. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 1-15 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Maternity histories from residents of a Pacific Island society, Tokelau, and migrants to New Zealand, are analysed using life table techniques. Inter-cohort differentials in patterns of family formation were found in the total Tokelau-origin population. The process of accelerated timing and spacing of pregnancies was more pronounced among migrants who tended to marry later, be pregnant at marriage, have shorter inter-pregnancy intervals at lower parities and to show evidence of family limitation occurring at higher parities. These results point to the significance of changing patterns of social control on strategies of family building."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10318 Poston, Dudley L.; Szakolczai, Arpad. Patterns of marital childlessness in Hungary, 1930 to 1980. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 71-85 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper analyzes childlessness trends in Hungary between 1930 and 1980. Using census data, it addresses three questions. First, it attempts to show that the general decline in childlessness in Hungary during this period was due to two factors: the decline in involuntary childlessness among older women, and the decline in temporary childlessness among younger women. Second it notes that there was no discernible increase in voluntary childlessness in Hungary, in contrast to the situation in many other developed countries. Third, it claims that this decline in temporary childlessness was largely an unintended effect of population policies aiming to increase fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10319 Prakasam, C. P. Determinants of fertility levels and trends in Sri Lanka. ISBN 8-18-504003-6. LC 86-900849. 1986. xviii, 190 pp. Bookwell Publications: Delhi, India. In Eng.
Determinants of fertility levels and trends in Sri Lanka are analyzed for the period 1971-1975 using a multivariate analysis of areal data. The study includes a historical review of trends in fertility and mortality since 1871. The author uses the residual analysis method to identify the factors that have had the greatest impact on fertility. The results indicate that the two key factors are proportion married in the age group 20 to 24 and females aged 10 to 19 attending school. It is found that acceptance of family planning within the national program has not had a significant effect on fertility.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10320 Raslan, Yousry A. A county-level analysis of American fertility in relation to social change: the case of the north central region in 1980. Pub. Order No. DA8615080. 1986. 173 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author explores the relationship between fertility and socioeconomic development at the county level. Data are from a systematic random sample of 211 counties in the north central region of the United States. It is found that socioeconomic development explains 43 percent of the variation in the fertility of county populations. After controlling for development, the strongest predictors of fertility are farm background, socioeconomic status, percentage of families headed by one spouse, and crude death rate.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Iowa State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(4).

53:10321 Retherford, Robert D.; Mirza, G. Mujtaba; Irfan, Mohammad; Alam, Iqbal. Fertility trends in Pakistan--the decline that wasn't. Asian and Pacific Population Forum, Vol. 1, No. 2, Feb 1987. 1, 3-10 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility trends in Pakistan in the 1960s and 1970s, using data from three national surveys conducted in 1973, 1975, and 1979 and from the 1981 census. "Each of the four demographic surveys examined here indicates a substantial fertility decline during the seven years or so preceding enumeration. However, when the four estimated trends are analyzed together, it becomes clear that the individually estimated declines are spurious, and that in reality fertility did not decline at all during the two decades or so preceding the 1981 Census. On the contrary, the results indicate that the total fertility rate actually increased, from somewhat below seven children per woman to somewhat above seven children per woman."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10322 Richard, J.; Joseph, Abraham. Fertility transition in a rural setting. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 2 [mislabeled 3], Dec 1985. 73-9 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author examines the change from high to low fertility in a rural area of India using data from surveys conducted in three villages in 1965-1966 and in 1980-1981. "Various indices of fertility were calculated to describe the level and pattern of fertility. The component method of analysis was used to break down the difference in the general marital fertility rate between the two surveys into its components." Data are provided in tables concerning age-specific marital fertility rates, distribution of live births by parity, and the contributions of changes in age structure and fertility to changes in the general marital fertility rate. A graph is included comparing the two observed age-specific marital fertility rates with a standard natural fertility schedule of a non-contracepting population.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10323 Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Palmore, James A. Analyzing fertility histories: do restrictions bias results? Demography, Vol. 24, No. 1, Feb 1987. 113-22 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The practice of collecting information on only the last closed and the open birth intervals results in a biased set of intervals. Given this bias, can analysis of these intervals provide unbiased estimates of the effects of socioeconomic and proximate variables on birth interval dynamics? Using an unrestricted data set [from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey], we examine the determinants of birth interval dynamics on both a set of unbiased intervals and a set of intervals that only include last closed and open intervals. The surprising result is that the biased set of intervals gives unbiased results regarding the structure of the effects of socioeconomic and proximate variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10324 Robert-Lamblin, Joelle. Various changes occurring in the fertility of a small population in Greenland (the Ammassalimiut Eskimo of eastern Greenland). [Les differents changements survenus dans la fecondite d'une petite population du Groenland (les Ammassalimiut du Groenland de l'est).] In: Les changements ou les transitions demographiques dans le monde contemporain en developpement. Journees demographiques de l'ORSTOM 1985 Paris--23, 24 et 25 septembre 1985. ISBN 2-7099-0814-X. 1986. 243-57 pp. Institut Francais de Recherche Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author describes the rapid fertility changes that have taken place among the Ammassalimiut of eastern Greenland since 1884. The historical and economic contexts and the available data for this population, which numbered 413 in 1884 and 2,524 in 1983, are discussed. The focus is on the changes in fertility among this small Arctic population, which experienced rising fertility and then a sharp decline brought about by anti-natalist policies developed by the government of Denmark.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10325 Robinson, Warren C. Regional variation in the age-specific natural fertility curve. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 57-64 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the question of whether there are consistent regional variations in the level and shape of the age-specific natural fertility curve using data for 45 less-developed countries drawn from a recent US Census Bureau compilation. In general there do not appear to be such variations. A remarkably consistent age pattern of natural fertility emerges, once the rates have been normalized and an adjustment made for age at first exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The results strongly support Coale's original natural fertility paradigm."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10326 Roll, Jo. Babies and money: birth trends and costs. Family Policy Studies Centre Occasional Paper, No. 4, ISBN 0-907051-35-9. Sep 1986. 60 pp. Family Policy Studies Centre: London, England. In Eng.
The aim of this paper is to detail the costs of having a child in the United Kingdom. The focus is on the costs related to the birth of a baby, but consideration is also given to some of the longer term financial implications. The reverse impact of parents' finances on births is also considered. An introductory chapter explores why information about the costs of a baby might be useful, and a concluding chapter examines policy implications.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10327 Roussel, L. The desire to have children and parenthood: the demographic point of view. [Desir d'enfants et parentalites: le point de vue d'un demographe.] Revue de Pediatrie, Vol. 21, No. 6, Jun-Jul 1985. 261-4 pp. Bougival, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The demographer's interest in examining the desire to have children and parenthood is explained. The author notes that demographers are concerned with interpretable behavior and that one example of this is the deduction that effective modern contraception has lead to the programming of births. The emphasis of the paper is on the analysis of fertility. Consideration is given to the relationship between individual and collective aspects of fertility. The focus is on developed societies.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10328 Saghayroun, Atif A. Women's status and fertility in the Sudan. Ahfad Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1985. 46-52 pp. Omdurman, Sudan. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
This study examines the relationship between women's status and fertility in the Sudan. The history of female education in the country is first summarized. Separate consideration is then given to the evidence concerning the educational status of women and fertility, and female employment and fertility. The results suggest that education has a stronger link with lower fertility than does female employment. The persistence of strong traditional values that tend to promote high fertility is noted.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10329 Singh, Susheela; Owusu, John Y.; Shah, Iqbal H. Demographic patterns in Ghana: evidence from the Ghana Fertility Survey 1979-80. 1985. x, 233 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is a report on a workshop held in London, England, in August 1985, that was concerned with the analysis of data from the Ghana Fertility Survey of 1979-80, part of the World Fertility Survey. It includes substantive chapters on nuptiality patterns; levels, trends, and differentials in fertility; knowledge and use of contraception; fertility preferences and utilization of family planning services; and levels, trends, and determinants of infant and child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10330 Srinivasan, K.; Pathak, K. B.; Pandey, A. On some techniques for estimating parity progression ratios from the survey data with illustrative applications. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 115-43 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors present "a comparative evaluation of five different techniques for estimating parity progression ratios from the data on open birth intervals....The techniques have been briefly described and applied to the data on open birth intervals compiled from the three large-scale sample surveys recently conducted in the States of Bihar and Rajasthan [India] and among the Parsi community of Bombay."
It is found that "the degree of limitation of the family, expressed in terms of parity progression ratios, is quite high among the Parsis compared to the limitation of the family in Bihar and Rajasthan....[However] none of the procedures so far developed seems to be completely free from the biases inherent in the open birth interval data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10331 Srivastava, H. C. Some aspects of family, fertility and family size limitation among Muslims in an urban setting. In: Dynamics of population and family welfare, 1985, edited by K. Srinivasan and S. Mukerji. Dec 1985. 481-97 pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
The author investigates family size, fertility, and birth limitation among "two ethnic sub-groups, namely, Momins and Koknis, among the Muslims residing in Bhiwandi, a place near Bombay in the state of Maharashtra [India]." The data are from a survey of 1,290 Momins and 645 Koknis and a study involving a subsample of 163 Momins and 97 Koknis.
Differences between the subgroups are noted in sex ratio, age distribution, marriage age, marital status distributions, family size, family characteristics, education, occupational diversity, living conditions, fertility, and knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10332 Stoeckel, John; Jain, Anrudh K. Fertility in Asia: assessing the impact of development projects. ISBN 0-312-00078-2. LC 86-17838. 1986. xix, 177 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book is a product of a program initiated by the Population Council in 1978 entitled the Fertility Impacts of Development. The focus of the book is on the quantification of the impact of development on fertility. Five of the studies funded under the program are presented here. "Three of these studies, two in Thailand and one in Sri Lanka, focused upon the fertility effects of interventions to improve economic conditions. These interventions include agricultural irrigation, rural electrification, land settlement, and a guaranteed minimum price scheme. The remaining two projects examine the fertility effects of female employment in industrial and non-industrial settings in the Philippines, and the fertility effects of child labor and schooling in India." The book also includes an introductory overview and a general consideration of the methodological issues involved.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10333 Sufian, Abu J. M. The effects of infant and child mortality on fertility in Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8507547. 1984. 106 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author explores the role of high infant and child mortality in impeding the acceptance of family planning services in Bangladesh. Data from the 1975-1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey are used to investigate fertility subsequent to the death of a child under five years of age as well as ever-use of contraception.
"A logit regression analysis showed that when the birth order of a dying male child was five or less or when he left behind fewer than two brothers, his death was much more likely to be followed by another birth 10-24 months later than the death of a female child. A woman was less likely ever to have used any contraception if she had ever lost a son through death and if the number of her living children was five or fewer. Mothers (irrespective of child loss) having five or fewer surviving children who at the same time had fewer than two surviving sons were much more likely never to have used contraception."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Michigan State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (46)2.

53:10334 Takasaka, Kouichi. Postpartum amenorrhea, waiting time to conception, and prevalence of pregnancy of women in a Sundanese agricultural community. Human Biology, Vol. 58, No. 6, Dec 1986. 933-44 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Currently-married women in a Sundanese agricultural village were measured for the prevalence of pregnancy, the duration of postpartum amenorrhea, and the waiting time to conception." The data concern 361 women in an agricultural village in a mountainous area in West Java Province, Indonesia, and were collected by means of immunologic pregnancy tests in 1983-1984 rather than by interview. The results show high fertility among women aged 15-19 and an increase in the inter-pregnancy interval among older women primarily because of the increase in duration of postpartum amenorrhea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10335 Ulusoy, Mahir. The effect of the sex of living children on fertility. [Sahip olunan cocugun (larin) cinsiyetinin dogurganliga etkisi.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 8, 1986. 37-44 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of sex preferences on fertility in Turkey is examined using data from the 1983 Turkish Fertility Survey concerning women who had experienced at least one live birth. The results suggest that sex preference does not have a significant effect on fertility in urban areas; however, rural families still express a desire to have a living son. An attempt is made to measure changes over time in the impact on fertility of such sex preferences.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10336 United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa [ECA] (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia). The impact of changes in the role of women on fertility. The case of selected countries in West Africa. [Impact de l'evolution du role de la femme sur la fecondite. Cas de quelques pays de l'Afrique de l'Ouest.] No. ECA/TP/POP/86/2.3(a), [1986]. 23 pp. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Fre.
The relationship between the status of women and fertility in selected Western African countries is examined. The data are primarily taken from the World Fertility Survey and concern Benin, the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, and Senegal. The low status of women in the region is noted, as well as the fact that whatever status a woman does have is primarily a function of her reproductive capacity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10337 van de Walle, Etienne. French fertility in the nineteenth century. [La fecondite francaise au XIXe siecle.] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 35-45 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses the demographic transition in France and outlines trends in fertility in the nineteenth century. Two stages of the transition are identified, and the associated factors are discussed. Maps are used to indicate the geographic distribution of marital fertility rates in 1831 and evidence of birth limitation in 1901.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10338 Vemuri, Murali D.; Manohar, D. Childlessness in India. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1986. 163-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"An analysis is presented of the pattern of childlessness among ever-married women in India as shown by the 1981 Census data. After adjusting the figures on the proportion of women who reported zero parity and restricting the analysis to those women exposed to risk of childbearing for a sufficiently long period, we find that there are 5.6% who are childless. Rural and urban percentages of childless women do not differ significantly. Religion has no effect but level of education does."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10339 von Zameck, Walburga. Economic science and population theory. [Okonomische Wissenschaft und Bevolkerungstheorie.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1986. 347-62 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines aspects of the interrelatedness of economic and population theories. The focus is on the application of the concept of opportunity costs to fertility decision-making. "Variations and differentials in fertility are caused by the available resources and relative prices or by the relative production costs of child services....If a household's income is increased with no change in relative prices, the boundary of the budget constraint would move out parallel to itself (income effect) raising the demand for children or the total amount spent on them. If relative prices or production costs and real income are affected together (i.e. a raise in mother's income) the effect on fertility requires separate consideration, because the substitution effect can compensate or overcompensate the income effect."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10340 Warren, Charles W. Fertility determinants in Puerto Rico. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 42-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the proximate determinants of fertility in Puerto Rico using data from a 1982 island-wide study. Contraceptive use was found to be the primary direct determinant of fertility in Puerto Rico, both for the total population and for each level of education studied. Female sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception used in Puerto Rico at each educational level....Late age at first marriage, in addition to high contraceptive use, accounts for the below-replacement fertility of women who have more than a high school education. In contrast, women who have not completed high school tend to marry early and not practice contraception for birth-spacing purposes. This study shows the advantages of analyzing fertility determinants at the population subgroup level (i.e., women of various educational attainment levels)...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10341 Werner, Barry; Chalk, Susan. Projections of first, second, third and later births. Population Trends, No. 46, Winter 1986. 26-34 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This article presents data concerning the mid-1985-based variant fertility assumptions of the extent and ages at which women born in successive years in England and Wales enter motherhood and subsequently go on to have further births. The data are from the General Household Survey. "The projected trends in the size of families, in the timing of family building of different generations of women and in the annual numbers of first, second and later births are discussed and a description is given of the resulting pattern of fertility projected for future years."
For related studies, also published in 1986, see 52:30506 and 52:40330.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10342 Wineberg, Howard. Factors related to the fertility of United States women. Pub. Order No. DA8510449. 1985. 156 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The research objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the completed fertility and the pace of fertility varied among United States women of different age at first birth, age at first marriage, income, education, and timeone [the duration between first marriage and first birth] categories." The data are from the June 1980 Current Population Survey and concern once-married women aged 25-44 who have had at least one child.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Johns Hopkins University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(3).

53:10343 Zuniga, Maria E.; Santos, Carlos; Menkes, Catherine; Hernandez, Daniel. Organization of family labor and fertility in rural Mexico. [Organizacion del trabajo familiar y fecundidad en el Mexico rural.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 2, May-Aug 1986. 205-25, 326 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between the organization of a family's work force and fertility in rural Mexico is assessed. The data are from the 1981 Rural Family Planning Survey, which covered approximately 8,000 households. Four groups are examined separately: farmers, agricultural wage earners, self-employed, and nonagricultural wage earners. Consideration is given both to fertility differentials among these groups and to differences in levels of contraceptive practice.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

53:10344 Blum, Alain. Fertility in the Soviet republics. [La fecondite dans les republiques sovietiques.] Population et Societes, No. 208, Dec 1986. 4 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques {INED}: Paris, France. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in the USSR are reviewed, with particular reference to fertility differentials among the 15 republics. The demographic significance of current differences as well as the general trend toward lower fertility throughout the country are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10345 Crowley, John G. Social and economic determinants of urban fertility differentials in Mexico and Brazil. Pub. Order No. DA8507105. 1984. 386 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author analyzes the magnitude and causes of inter-urban fertility differences using census data for Mexico and Brazil. "It is hypothesized that the higher the level of urban development and modernization among Mexican and Brazilian cities, the lower the corresponding level of urban fertility. It is also hypothesized that the relationship between the size of Mexican and Brazilian cities and their fertility levels is mediated through their levels of development and modernization."
The analysis supports the first hypothesis, while findings concerning the second are mixed.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Rutgers University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences (46)2.

53:10346 Darabi, Katherine F.; Ortiz, Vilma. Childbearing among young Latino women in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 1, Jan 1987. 25-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"We analyzed 1979 and 1982 data from the Youth Cohort of the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) of Labor Market Experience to compare rates of early childbearing among White, Black, Mexican-origin and Puerto Rican women up to age 21....Mexican and Puerto Rican young women have similar proportions of premarital first births, but the marital first birth rate for young Mexicans is twice that of the Puerto Ricans. The bulk of Mexican first births, like births to Whites, occur within marriage, while Puerto Rican first births are similar to those of Blacks, the majority being out-of-wedlock."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10347 Darabi, Katherine F.; Dryfoos, Joy; Schwartz, Dana. Hispanic adolescent fertility. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 2, Jun 1986. 157-71 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
A review of existing knowledge concerning fertility among Hispanic adolescents in the United States is presented. Consideration is also given to sexuality, contraception, pregnancy, and childbearing among male and female Hispanics of various countries of origin. The authors conclude that Hispanic adolescents have fertility rates that fall between those of non-Hispanic whites and blacks and that there are considerable variations in fertility among different Hispanic groups.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10348 Goldscheider, Calvin; Friedlander, Dov. Reproductive norms in Israel. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 87-02, [1987?]. [21] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to identify variation in family size norms among Jewish and Arab subpopulations in Israel and attempt to infer, from cross-sectional data, changes in these norms over time." The authors examine changes in family size in the context of the socioeconomic changes occurring in the various ethnic-religious subpopulations in Israel. Reproductive norms and ideal family size norms for urban Jewish and for Arab women are studied, taking into consideration such factors as ethnic origin, marriage cohort, residence, and education. The paper is based on data from a series of fertility surveys conducted in 1974 and 1975 involving approximately 3,000 urban Jewish and 3,000 rural Arab women
Conclusions concerning variations in ideal and average family size are presented. The author determines that "rural Muslim women continue to consider as ideal a larger family size than do Jewish groups. Unless other socioeconomic and family structural changes occur among the Muslim population, Jewish-Arab fertility differences will remain, even if the means of fertility control are made readily available."
This article is reprinted from "Studies in the Population of Israel in Honor of Roberto Bachi," edited by Usiel O. Schmelz and Gad Nathan, pp. 15-35, Jerusalem, Israel, Magnus Press, 1986 (see Population Index 52:30030).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10349 Gunn, P. A. Birthplace differentials in the age-specific fertility of Australian women. Journal of the Australian Population Association, Vol. 3, No. 1, May 1986. 40-51 pp. North Sydney, Australia. In Eng.
The author examines differentials in age-specific fertility by place of birth among Australian women. The data are from one percent public-use samples of both persons and households files of the 1981 census. "This paper reports estimates of the general fertility rates, completed family sizes and age-specific fertility rates for a selection of birthplace and regional groups." It is determined that, to a large extent, the fertility patterns of the 1970s apply for the 1980s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10350 Hayes, Cheryl D. Risking the future: adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and childbearing. Vol. 1, ISBN 0-309-03698-4. LC 86-31181. 1987. xiv, 337 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This volume is a product of a two-year study undertaken by the Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing, set up by the National Research Council's Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy. The objectives of the panel were "(1) to assemble, integrate, and assess data on trends in teenage sexual and fertility behavior; (2) to review and synthesize research on the antecedents and consequences of early pregnancy and childbearing; and (3) to review alternative preventive and ameliorative policies and programs."
Vol. 1, presented here, gives the panel's findings, conclusions, and recommendations. The emphasis is on the situation in the United States. Chapters are included on trends in adolescent sexuality and fertility, the societal context, determinants of adolescent sexual behavior, consequences of adolescent childbearing, preventive interventions, interventions for pregnant and parenting adolescents, priorities for data collection and research, and priorities for policies and programs. The background studies on which Vol. 1 is based as well as a statistical appendix are available together in Vol. 2 and separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10351 Jones, Elise F.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Goldman, Noreen; Henshaw, Stanley; Lincoln, Richard; Rosoff, Jeannie I.; Westoff, Charles F.; Wulf, Deirdre. Teenage pregnancy in industrialized countries. ISBN 0-300-03705-8. LC 86-9237. 1986. xiv, 310 pp. Yale University Press: New Haven, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The authors present the results of an international comparative study on teenage reproductive behavior, sponsored by the Alan Guttmacher Institute. "This book...compares data on teenage reproductive behavior in the United States and thirty-five other developed countries and then examines in detail five of these countries thought to be reasonably similar culturally to America--Canada, England and Wales, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. The experience of these other countries not only challenges conventional assumptions about the factors that lead to the unusually high rates of abortion and childbearing among American teenagers but also suggests policies that might reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancy in the United States."
The results indicate that "differences in sexual activity do not explain the pregnancy-rate differentials; the birth and abortion rates of white American adolescents are lower than those of American black teenagers but are still much higher than the overall rates in other countries; the availability of welfare and other forms of support for young mothers does not account for the high teenage pregnancy rates in the United States." The primary reason for the differences in pregnancy rates is identified as the greater tendency for teenagers in other countries to use contraceptives, particularly the pill.
The authors conclude that the United States could greatly reduce unintended pregnancy among adolescents by developing programs that make contraceptives available at low cost and by increasing knowledge about sex and contraception through sex education in schools or through the media.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10352 Kahn, Joan R. Immigrant fertility in the United States: 1980. Pub. Order No. DA8512441. 1985. 217 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
In a comparative analysis framework, the author examines the fertility of immigrants to the United States by country of origin. The data are from the Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1980 U.S. census and involve currently married women, aged 30-50, from the 20 largest immigrant groups. An additive analysis of covariance model and a contextual analysis are used to study group differences and the underlying sources of the differentials. The author suggests several hypotheses linking the sending country fertility level to immigrant fertility.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(4).

53:10353 Le Bras, Herve. Coitus interruptus, moral restraint, and preferential inheritance. [Coit interrompu, contrainte morale et heritage preferentiel.] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 47-70 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author examines factors influencing fertility in France during the period 1861-1982. Particular attention is given to regional variations in fertility rates, and explanations concerning religion and inheritance practices are presented. The influences of marriage postponement, contraception, and mortality trends on fertility are explored; the significance of population density, property ownership, and literacy is also assessed. The arguments and findings are explained using maps.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10354 Marcum, John P. Explaining Protestant fertility: belief, commitment, and homogamy. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4, Winter 1986. 547-58 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
"Alternative explanations for higher conservative than liberal fertility among white Protestants in the United States emphasize concurrent compositional differences in either (1) social characteristics or (2) doctrine. Previous tests support the doctrine hypothesis but use denominational proxies for beliefs. Using a personal measure of liberalism-conservatism, I test these hypotheses with data from the 1963 Glock-Stark Northern California Church Member Study. I find little support for either the characteristics or doctrine explanations, even when the analysis is restricted to subsets of couples highly committed to their faith and denominationally homogamous. Further investigation suggests that the regional nature of the Northern California data, and not the measurement of liberalism-conservatism, accounts for the difference in results between this and prior research."
Author's address: Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Center for Population Studies, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10355 Mascie-Taylor, C. G. N. Assortative mating and differential fertility. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1986. 167-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The present study examines the relationship between educational homogamy and fertility in a British national cohort." The data used were collected in 1974 as part of the National Child Development Study, which followed all children born in Britain in one week in March 1958 and their families through the mothers' reproduction spans. Husband's occupation is used as an indicator of social class, and educational heterogamy is measured as the difference between the ages of the husband and wife at the time that they left full-time education. Attention is then given to family size by social class and educational homogamy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10356 Massagli, Michael P. Differential fertility and the process of stratification among white couples in the United States in 1962 and 1973. Pub. Order No. DA8424526. 1984. 439 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research replicates and extends previous analyses of the relationship between differential fertility and intergenerational processes of stratification." The data, which concern white couples in the United States with wives aged 20-59, are from the 1962 and 1973 Occupational Changes in a Generation surveys and the 1973 Current Population Survey. The author examines trends in mean completed fertility, occupational differentials in completed fertility, and the effect of size of family of origin on a couple's fertility. "Log-linear analysis of births by intergenerational occupational and educational mobility shows that change is not due to special mobility effects. The association between fertility and origin and destination is parity-specific....[It is also found that] family size of origin affects fertility directly, and indirectly through effects on early life-cycle attainments."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(1).

53:10357 Matin, Khan A. Residence background and fertility in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Genus, Vol. 42, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1986. 141-51 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The study deals with the factors related to the fertility differences among different classes of populations according to their residence background of an urban area of Bangladesh. From data collected during 1976 related to 510 currently married women living with their husband, an attempt was made to establish the differentials in marital fertility according to residence background of their husband. This was categorized into two groups: non migrant and migrant. The non migrants exhibited higher fertility than the migrants. When age of wife, duration of fertile union, education of wife and socioeconomic status were introduced into migration status-fertility relationship, they failed to alter the original findings. Educational attainment of the wife had a greater impact in neutralizing the migration status differences in fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10358 Nishikawa, Yuiko. Differential factors of fertility in south India. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 9, May 1986. 17-29 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Eng. with sum. in Jpn.
The author uses 1971 census data to analyze fertility differentials among four states of south India with similar cultural backgrounds. First, five factors are extracted by factor analysis to describe the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the region. Next, seven variables are selected to represent these factors in a regression analysis. The variables are child labor, female literacy rate, population per doctor, proportion of never-married women, population density per cultivated land, labor force participation rate in the primary industry, and proportion of urban population. The results of this analysis are expressed in terms of the child-woman ratio. The effect of family planning on fertility is considered separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10359 Poston, Dudley L.; Kramer, Kathryn B. Patterns of childlessness among Catholic and non-Catholic women in the U.S.: a log-linear analysis. Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 56, No. 4, Autumn 1986. 507-22 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"The principal objective of this paper is to conduct a log-linear analysis of patterns of childlessness among Catholic and non-Catholic women in the United States. We address this issue by examining white women between the ages of thirty-five and forty-four, ascertaining whether they are voluntarily, involuntarily, or temporarily childless or childed." The authors develop the hypothesis that Catholic women should be less disposed to voluntary childlessness.
"Our results do not suggest an 'end' to Catholic--non-Catholic differentials in childlessness. Catholic women between the ages of thirty-five and forty-four in 1976 were very far apart from non-Catholic women with respect to the voluntary decision to have no children. And they are also very different from non-Catholic women regarding patterns of involuntary childlessness. These differential patterns of voluntary and involuntary childlessness are discussed and analyzed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10360 Rao, P. S. S.; Muthurathnam, S. Rural-urban differentials in fertility of south Indian women. Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 83, Apr 1986. 401-3 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Differential fertility in the North Arcot district of Tamil Nadu, India, is analyzed. The data, collected during 1970-1973, concern 9,360 rural and 7,960 urban women. Reasons for the higher fertility of rural women at all ages are considered, including social customs and contraceptive knowledge and practice.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10361 Shaikh, Kashem; Aziz, K. M. A.; Chowdhury, A. I. Differentials of fertility between polygynous and monogamous marriages in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 49-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper discusses polygynous marriages in rural Bangladesh, using marital status and birth registration data from the Demographic Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, for the period 1975-79. Of all the marriages recorded during this period about 5% were polygynous....The difference in age at marriage between the polygynous groom and his subsequent wife was 15 years on average. The socioeconomic indicators studied were education, occupation and area of dwelling space. In general, these indicators differentially influence polygynous marriage. The fertility differentials between women in monogamous marriages were significantly higher than between the women in polygynous unions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10362 Shirley, Jo. Regional fertility in Quebec, 1961-1982. [Les fecondites regionales au Quebec, 1961-1982.] Mar 1986. 76 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
Recent fertility trends in the Canadian province of Quebec are analyzed. Trends since 1926 are examined first. The focus is on regional differences in fertility since 1962. The data are from official Canadian and Quebec sources. The author concludes that the decline in fertility to below replacement levels has affected all regions, although regional fertility differentials persist. There are no indications of an increase in fertility in the foreseeable future.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10363 Tan, Mely G.; Soeradji, Budi. Ethnicity and fertility in Indonesia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Research Notes and Discussions Paper, No. 53, ISBN 9971-988-24-0. LC 86-941915. 1986. xiv, 143 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
This study is one of a series of studies examining the relationship between ethnicity and fertility in the countries of Southeastern Asia. The present study, which concerns Indonesia, is based on a survey undertaken in 1982. Following a description of survey methodology, the nature of ethnic differences is reviewed. Ethnic differences are then analyzed in relation to fertility and fertility preferences; family planning; accessibility to family planning services; attitudes toward family planning; natural fertility; values and costs of children; marriage and attitudes toward marriage, divorce, and remarriage; and husband-wife communication. Fertility differentials among ethnic groups are then analyzed.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10364 Thongthai, Varachai. A study of urban-rural fertility differentials in Thailand. Pub. Order No. DA8614880. 1986. 168 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study employs contingency, multivariate, and intermediate variable analysis on data from 20 [Thai] provinces under the Accelerated Family Planning and Health Program. Urban-rural differentials are observed in cumulative fertility but not in current fertility." The relationships between fertility and variables such as education, occupation, family income, contraceptive prevalence, and breast-feeding are examined.
The author concludes that "the small urban-rural fertility differentials are explained by Thai culture, which is receptive to contraceptive use; by the universal education; by widespread access to communication and transportation networks; and by exclusion of the capital/big cities in the analysis."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(4).

53:10365 Vining, Daniel R. Social versus reproductive success: the central theoretical problem of human sociobiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, Mar 1986. 167-216 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The author focuses on the challenge to fundamental tenets of human sociobiology brought by recent patterns of negative differential fertility by social class in developed countries. "The first part of this paper reviews the evidence showing an inverse relationship between reproductive fitness and 'endowment' (i.e. wealth, success, and measured aptitudes) in contemporary, urbanized societies. It is shown that a positive relationship is observed only for those cohorts who bore their children during a unique period of rising fertility, 1935-1960, and that these cohorts are most often cited by sociobiologists as supporting the central postulate of sociobiology. Cohorts preceding and following these show the characteristic inverse relationship between endowment and fertility."
Next, existing models of this relationship are reviewed. "The third section asks whether the goals of sociobiology, given the violation of its fundamental postulate by contemporary human societies, might not be better thought of as applied rather than descriptive...." Extensive comments in response to the article are included (pp. 187-211).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10366 Yusuf, Farhat. Ethnic differences in Australian fertility. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr 1986. 107-16 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Ethnic differences in Australian fertility are analyzed using country of birth as a surrogate variable for ethnicity. Data are from Australian censuses and birth registers and primarily concern 1981. The results show that the fertility of most European immigrants (except the Dutch and Maltese) is converging toward the Australian norm. Non-European immigrants, except recently arrived refugee groups from Asia and the Middle East, have lower fertility.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10367 Zodgekar, Arvind; McClellan, Velma. Fertility of the babyboom generation: the New Zealand experience. New Zealand Population Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, Oct 1986. 205-17 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
The authors contrast the fertility and marital patterns of New Zealand's baby boom generation, defined as those born in the late 1940s and the 1950s, with those of the baby boom parent generation. Attention is given to age at marriage, age at first birth, deferred parenthood, and female labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

53:10368 Borrie, Wilfred D. Fertility, infertility and generation replacement. Clinical Reproduction and Fertility, Vol. 4, No. 1, Feb 1986. 55-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author presents a demographer's interpretation of infertility and its significance as a historical and sociological phenomenon. The author notes that the improvement of life expectancy in the course of the demographic transition to around 75 years has in turn brought about the general acceptance in developed societies of the two-child family. He notes that changes in fecundity were not a significant factor in the demographic transition. However, the two-child family norm implies that for about five-sixths of its fecund married life, a couple is voluntarily infertile. The correction of unwanted infertility is not demographically significant.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10369 Virgili, Antonio. Sterility and infertility in the demographic dynamics of Africa. [Sterilita ed infertilita nelle dinamiche demografiche africane.] Africa, Vol. 41, No. 4, Dec 1986. 612-5 pp. Rome, Italy. In Ita.
The author considers the demographic importance of levels of sterility and infertility in Africa. The differences between infertility and sterility are first established, and their probable impact on the diffusion of family planning practice in Africa is considered, as well as their impact on demographic trends in general.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

53:10370 Amin, Ruhul; Mariam, A. G. Knowledge of family planning methods in Bangladesh, 1969-1979: trends and implications. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 1986. 171-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the extent of knowledge of different methods of birth control in Bangladesh using 1969 National Impact Survey data and 1979 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey data. There were low overall levels of knowledge about different methods of birth control with the exception of the pill. Multiple Classification Analysis showed that the levels of contraceptive knowledge as well as contact and interaction between family planning extension workers and the target populations were lower among the lower socioeconomic strata."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10371 Anandan, V. Family planning at Nagpur--a sample study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 3, Mar 1986. 75-83 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This study attempts to investigate the effect of age, number of children, education and income on motivating couples to undergo the irreversible operation of tubectomy or vasectomy to limit the number of children. The study spans a period of five years from 1979-80 to 1983-84 and covers cases recorded at ten government and private hospitals in Nagpur city [India]." Findings are presented in tabular form concerning the average ages of husband and wife by method of preference, the average number of children per couple, the average number of male and female children per couple, the average number of children by educational status of the parents, and the percentage distribution between methods chosen by age group and educational status.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10372 Bronfman, Mario; Lopez, Elsa; Tuiran, Rodolfo. Contraceptive practice and social class in Mexico: recent experience. [Practica anticonceptiva y clases sociales en Mexico: la experiencia reciente.] Estudios Demograficos y Urbanos, Vol. 1, No. 2, May-Aug 1986. 165-203, 326 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1982 National Demographic Survey are analyzed to study recent changes in contraceptive use and sterilization in Mexico. Variables studied in relation to contraceptive use include method used, place where information was obtained, social class, rural or urban area, age, education, marital status, and place of residence. In relation to sterilization, variables studied include age, social class, institution where sterilization was performed, number of children, and date of birth of last child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10373 Bulajic, Milan; Zivanovic, Zenjko; Krasnjuk, Mihail; Rajkovic, Vladimir; Srbinovic, Pavle. Family planning under present conditions. [Planiranja porodice u sadasnjim uslovima.] Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, Vol. 114, No. 2, Feb 1986. 223-8 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scc. with sum. in Eng.
Suggestions concerning new measures to be implemented in order to improve family planning services in Yugoslavia are proposed. Topics covered include fertility, natural increase, migration, employment, housing, working conditions, and commuting.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10374 Bulut, Aysen; Cilingiroglu, Nesrin; Bertan, Munevver. Is withdrawal a handicap for fertility regulation? Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 8, 1986. 45-55 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Eng. with sum. in Tur.
The results of a survey concerning coitus interruptus in Turkey are presented. The survey concerned approximately 1,000 women aged 15-19 living in four villages and two urban areas in the Etimesgut region, located about 25 kilometers from Ankara. The results indicate a high level of use of coitus interruptus. The authors discuss strategies for emphasizing the contraceptive failure associated with traditional methods in order to convert users to more effective methods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10375 Caldwell, John; Gaminiratne, K. H. W.; Caldwell, Pat; de Silva, Soma; Caldwell, Bruce; Weeraratne, Nanda; Silva, Padmini. The role of traditional fertility regulation in Sri Lanka. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 1-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The research reported here shows that at least half of all fertility control [in Sri Lanka] is still practiced by means other than those offered by the national family planning program. This paper reports on an investigation carried out by the Sri Lankan Department of Census and Statistics, employing a micro-approach to demographic research, on the levels of 'traditional' methods of family planning and attitudes toward the practice of both modern and traditional contraception. It is shown that knowledge of rhythm was diffused throughout society as the cost of raising children increased during a period when other methods of family planning were not easily accessible. These traditional methods were employed efficiently and their high level of continued use arises from strong cultural resistance to the pill and IUD, based upon local interpretations of how these methods function. Thus, any programmatic effort to reduce dependence on traditional family planning might well result in higher fertility levels."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10376 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Knodel, John. Contraceptive practice and fertility in Thailand: results of the Third Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 278-87 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The Third Contraceptive Prevalence Survey in Thailand was conducted in 1984. Results indicate a continuation of the rapid rise in contraceptive use among married couples that has been taking place over the past 15 years. Prevalence levels are approaching those common in economically advanced countries. Sterilization is now the most common method, although a fairly broad range of other methods is also widely used. Only modest levels of unmet need for contraception for either limiting family size or spacing children now exist."
The authors note that "fertility rates have fallen since the previous survey, done three years earlier, but to a lesser extent than would be expected from the increased use of contraceptives. Family size preferences are concentrated at small family sizes. A comparison between the Buddhist majority and Moslem minority, made possible through a special sample design, reveals substantial differences between the two groups. Contraceptive use is lower and fertility levels and preferences are higher among Moslems than among Buddhists."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10377 Cho, Nam-Hoon. Current status and future directions of the population control policy in Korea. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jul 1986. 132-52 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The author describes the development of a national policy to control fertility in the Republic of Korea and documents its achievements. Data are presented concerning contraceptive services provided through government-supported programs and changes over time in contraceptive methods chosen. Some consideration is given to current demographic goals and future policy directions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10378 Corbin, Alain. Nineteenth-century prostitutes and the "great effort for nothingness". [Les prostituees du XIXe siecle et le "vaste effort du neant".] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 259-75 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
Contraceptive practices among French prostitutes in the nineteenth century are described using contemporary medical accounts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10379 Ford, Kathleen; Labbok, Miriam. Contraceptive usage during lactation in the United States: an update. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 1, Jan 1987. 79-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"[U.S.] National Surveys of Family Growth data showed that as of 1982, most lactating women who were sexually active used a contraceptive method; barrier methods were most frequently used. Black women and women of higher parity and lower educational level were more likely to be sexually active and not using a method."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10380 Gilluly, Richard H.; Moore, Sidney H. Radio--spreading the word on family planning. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 32, Sep-Oct 1986. [35] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
This report describes the use of radio around the world to convey information on family planning and related health issues. Consideration is given to ways of improving radio communication and to monitoring and evaluating its effectiveness.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10381 Gold, Rachel B.; Macias, Jennifer. Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1985. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1986. 259-64 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine public funding for contraceptive, sterilization, and abortion services in the United States, with particular attention to fiscal year 1985. Consideration is given to sources of funds, funding data, and funding trends from 1980 to 1985. It is estimated that "the federal and state governments spent $398 million to provide contraceptive services and supplies....$64 million to subsidize sterilizations in FY 1985....[and] $66 million to subsidize 188,000 abortions...." The data are from a survey of state agencies and, according to the authors, should be viewed as approximations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10382 Goldberg, Howard I.; M'Bodji, Fara G.; Friedman, Jay S. Fertility and family planning in one region of Senegal. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 116-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors investigate fertility and family planning in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal using data from the 1982 Sine-Saloum Family Health Survey, which involved 1,894 rural women, and the 1978 Senegal Fertility Survey. The findings indicate that "the total fertility rate of over six births per woman has not declined in recent years, and may even have increased very slightly. Fifty-five percent of the respondents had their first child before the age of 18, and there has been no discernible trend toward later first births."
Contraceptive knowledge and use of modern methods are low in the region. "Only three percent of women reported using any contraceptive method, and half of these were practicing abstinence. Despite high levels of fertility and low levels of contraceptive use, however, birth intervals of less than two years are relatively uncommon because women breastfeed for long periods and experience correspondingly long periods of postpartum amenorrhea (lasting 19 months, on average)." Attitudes toward fertility control and the availability of family planning services are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10383 Gomez de Leon, Jose; Potter, Joseph E. Modeling the inverse association between breastfeeding and contraceptive use. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 87-2, Feb 1987. 45, [19] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"In this article, we hope to shed some light on the association between breastfeeding and contraceptive use analyzing survey data from rural Mexico....Before describing the data and presenting results, we turn to a discussion of the different methods that have been used to establish and model the inverse association between breastfeeding and contraception. Concluding that the usual approach of relying on current status information leaves out much that is of interest, we propose a new way of modeling the joint temporal association of these two behaviors." Data are from the 1981 Mexican Rural Survey of Family Planning and concern 8,050 households and 8,103 women aged 15-49. The study reconfirms "the hypothesis that women think breastfeeding and contraceptive practice are incompatible, or that they consider breastfeeding a way to prevent pregnancy and, thus, substitute one behavior for the other....We believe this overall picture constitutes evidence, firmer than any presented so far, that the timing of the two events in question is not independent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10384 Havranek, F. Population status and fertility control worldwide. [Stav populace a regulace porodnosti ve svete.] Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie, Vol. 51, No. 2, Mar 1986. 116-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
Global fertility trends are reviewed using data available from published sources. The emphasis is on the practice of family planning around the world and the variations in contraceptive methods prevailing in different regions.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10385 Herold, Joan M.; Warren, Charles W.; Smith, Jack C.; Rochat, Roger W.; Martinez, Ruth; Vera, Mildred. Contraceptive use and the need for family planning in Puerto Rico. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 125-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors examine the use of and need for family planning services in Puerto Rico using data for 3,175 women aged 15-49 years interviewed in 1982. Attention is given to contraceptive methods chosen; methods chosen by marital status; and methods used among married women by age group, parity, educational status, employment status, religion, residence, place of birth, migrant status, age at marriage, age at first birth, husband's occupation, and facility delivering contraceptive services
It is found that "69 percent of Puerto Rican women in union were practicing contraception. Forty-five percent relied on contraceptive sterilization (40 percent, female, and five percent, male)....Thus sterilization is the dominant form of fertility regulation in Puerto Rico, and there is relatively little use of reversible methods for childspacing....Reliance on sterilization rather than reversible methods of contraception is strongly influenced by socio-economic variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10386 Horn, Marjorie C.; Mosher, William D. Use of services for family planning and infertility: United States, 1982. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 23: Data from the National Survey of Family Growth, No. 13, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 87-1989. ISBN 0-8406-0350-9. LC 86-600304. Dec 1986. vi, 58 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"Statistics, based on data collected in 1982 [in the National Survey of Family Growth], are presented on the use of services for family planning and infertility by women 15-44 years of age who had ever had sexual intercourse. The percent who used services is shown by race, Hispanic origin, age, and selected socioeconomic characteristics. Users of services are shown by the source of the service and socioeconomic characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10387 Husar, Marta; Petkovic, Spasoje. Regulation of fertility in Belgrade. [Regulisanje fertiliteta u Beogradu.] Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo, Vol. 113, No. 7, Jul 1985. 601-9 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scc. with sum. in Eng.
Problems related to fertility control and reproduction in the Belgrade region of Yugoslavia from 1976 to 1983 are described. It is noted that induced abortion, which occurred twice as frequently as birth, was the main method of fertility control used. Contraception was practiced by about 10 percent of the population only. The negative demographic and health factors associated with frequent abortions are noted.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10388 Kenya. Central Bureau of Statistics (Nairobi, Kenya). Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, 1984: first report. LC 86-160371. Dec 1984. xi, 121, [40] pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
The results of the Kenya Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are presented. The survey, which was undertaken in 1984, covered a national sample of 6,581 women aged 15 to 49. Chapters are included on survey organization and methods, characteristics of the survey sample, nuptiality and fertility, reproductive intentions, family planning knowledge and attitudes, contraceptive usage, availability of contraceptives, and factors other than contraception affecting fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10389 Knodel, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit. The initiation of postpartum contraception in Thailand: results from the 1984 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 86-97, Jul 1986. 48, [3] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The initiation of contraceptive usage in the postpartum period in Thailand is explored, with particular attention to its relationship with postpartum amenorrhea and breast-feeding. Data are from the Third Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, carried out in 1984, and concern some 3,400 women whose most recent birth occurred within the last two to four years. The results suggest that the large majority of Thai women initiate contraception relatively soon after childbirth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10390 Kubba, Ali A.; Guillebaud, John. Contraception. British Medical Journal, Vol. 293, No. 6560, Dec 6, 1986. 1,491-4 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors outline the contraceptive methods currently in use in the United Kingdom. The emphasis is on the merits and drawbacks associated with each method, and the aim is to provide doctors with guidelines for advising patients on choice of method.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

53:10391 Laing, John E. Periodic abstinence in the Philippines: new findings from a national survey. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 32-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents the main survey findings from a nationally representative sample of 607 users of periodic abstinence methods in the Philippines in 1984. The survey was conducted because of the widespread popularity of periodic abstinence in the Philippines and a lack of detailed knowledge about how the method is understood and practiced in the Philippines. Findings are presented on the prevalence of the different types of periodic abstinence methods, the nature of their use, knowledge about the various periodic abstinence methods, instruction received, perceived advantages and disadvantages, the husband's role, and the use-effectiveness of periodic abstinence both with and without backup methods. The implications of these findings for program management and for future research are also discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10392 Lodewijckx, E.; Cliquet, R. L. Contraceptive transition in Flanders. [De anticonceptietransitie in Vlaanderen.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 3, Dec 1984. 283-307 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in contraceptive practice in the Flemish region of Belgium over time are reviewed using data primarily from the NEGO fertility surveys undertaken by the Center for Population and Health Studies (CBGS) in Brussels. The authors note the change from less to more efficient methods that has occurred following the demographic transition. The emphasis is on changes occurring in the period since 1966.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10393 Mauldin, W. Parker; Segal, Sheldon J. Prevalence of contraceptive use in developing countries: a chart book. 1986. 35, [81] pp. Rockefeller Foundation: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chartbook brings together information on the proportion of couples in developing countries 'currently' using contraception by method of contraception used. For comparative purposes, data on prevalence of contraceptive use are also presented for a few developed countries." The sources of data used for each country are described. The data are presented separately for each country in the form of pie charts, including data on method of use and for more than one time period, where available.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10394 Ogedengbe, O. K.; Giwa-Osagie, O. F.; Ola, R.; Fasan, M. O. Contraceptive choice in an urban clinic in Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jan 1987. 89-95 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Contraceptive choice among the first 1,075 acceptors at an urban clinic in Lagos, Nigeria, opened in 1980, is examined. The IUD was the most popular method, followed by the injectable contraceptive and the pill. Reasons for discontinuation of contraception are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10395 Omu, A. E.; Unuigbe, J. A. Acceptance of contraceptive practice by grandmultiparae in Benin City, Nigeria. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 24, No. 2, Apr 1986. 145-50 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Data concerning contraceptive awareness and practice among 560 Nigerian women who had had from 5 to 14 children are analyzed. The data were collected in three hospitals in Benin City in 1980 and 1981. The results indicate high awareness of contraception (65 percent) but low practice (27 percent). The main factors associated with nonuse were husband's opposition, complications from methods previously used, and desire for a large family.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10396 Ozyurda, Ferda. The demographic and fertility characteristics of women using IUDs. [Rahim ici arac kullanan kadinlarin demografik ve dogurganlik ozellikleri.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 8, 1986. 105-15 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The demographic and fertility characteristics of IUD users in Turkey are examined. The data concern 433 individuals, including 174 controls, living in squatter settlements adjoining Ankara, and were collected by means of a retrospective questionnaire. It is found that educational level is the key factor affecting the use of modern contraceptive methods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10397 Pittin, Renee. The control of reproduction: principle and practice in Nigeria. Review of African Political Economy, No. 35, May 1986. 40-53 pp. Sheffield, England. In Eng.
The author examines the law and practice concerning contraception and abortion in Nigeria in the context of the impact of these factors on women's rights and status. She concludes that both the law and current practices are designed to continue the subordination of married women to their husbands.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

53:10398 Rigau Perez, Jose G. Family planning in Puerto Rico: progress toward the national health goals for 1990, Part 5. [Planificacion familiar en Puerto Rico: progreso hacia los objetivos nacionales de salud para 1990 (V).] Boletin: Asociacion Medica de Puerto Rico, Vol. 78, No. 2, Feb 1986. 55-60 pp. San Juan, Puerto Rico. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines progress in achieving the 10 national health goals concerning family planning, set for 1990 in Puerto Rico. He notes that although none have yet been achieved, seven are under study or are being pursued. However, little progress has been made toward reducing second trimester abortions, reducing disparities in unplanned pregnancy among those of different economic levels, and reducing the use of high-estrogen oral contraceptives.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10399 Schutjer, Wayne A.; Stokes, C. Shannon; Poindexter, John R. Why not use contraception? Economics of fertility regulation among rural Egyptian women. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, Fall-Winter 1986. 214-28 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Use of contraception by rural Egyptian women who desire no more children is examined within a modified microeconomic framework. Four sets of factors are hypothesized to influence current use of contraception: (1) costs of contraception, (2) factors influencing the slope of the desired family size function, (3) anticipated costs of child rearing and (4) strength of motivation for fertility regulation. Women's education and two measures of psychic costs were found to be important predictors of contraceptive use. Factors affecting the demand for children and thus indirectly influencing the motivation for fertility regulation were also important. Land ownership, cultivating status of the household, and educational expectations for children were significantly related to current use. Strength of motivation, although significant, was less strongly related to use of contraception. The findings suggest women who want no more children, but who are not practicing contraception, are affected by factors influencing both the costs of contraception and the costs of an unwanted child."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 420).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10400 Simmons, Ruth; Koblinsky, Marjorie A.; Phillips, James F. Client relations in South Asia: programmatic and societal determinants. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 257-68 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Client relations constitute a neglected area of research in family planning. Findings from studies in northern India and Bangladesh reveal considerable variation in both the quantity and quality of contacts in programs that function under roughly comparable socioeconomic conditions. Client relations are determined by a complex set of forces in which both programmatic factors and conditions pertaining to the societal environment play a key role. Worker-client exchanges have a net, incremental effect on contraceptive use."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10401 Srivastav, V. C.; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J. The safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic sterilisation--report of a survey conducted in selected areas of India. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 3, Mar 1986. 18-28 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors report the results of a 1984 survey of 2,659 laparoscopic sterilization acceptors in India. Topics covered include failures, side effects, complaints, changes in menstrual patterns, and demographic characteristics of acceptors
"Two major conclusions emerge from this study, concerning the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic sterilisation in India. First, the results confirm that laparoscopic sterilisation is acknowledged as essentially safe....Its reputation as a safe method motivated a large proportion of respondents to undergo laparoscopic sterilisation. As far as effectiveness is concerned, however, the results of this study indicate considerably higher failure rates than expected from the experience of other studies. The high failure rates may be largely explained by two confounding factors, namely, location of laparoscopic services on the one hand and pregnancy status at laparoscopy on the other."
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10402 Studer, Marlena; Thornton, Arland. Adolescent religiosity and contraceptive usage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 49, No. 1, Feb 1987. 117-28 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Religiosity appears to be an important factor in explaining variations in sexual activity and contraceptive usage among [U.S.] adolescents. While adolescents' religious commitment diminishes their propensity to engage in sexual intercourse, it is associated with less effective contraceptive usage among those who do become sexually active. Results from logistic regression analysis, controlling for frequency of recent sexual activity, parental socioeconomic status, and parental marital stability, determined that never-married, sexually experienced teenage girls regularly attending religious services were less likely to have used an effective, medical method of contraception than those who were rarely attending religious services." The data used are from an intergenerational panel study of mothers and children from the Detroit metropolitan area who were interviewed over an 18-year period
Author's address: Institute for Social Research and Department of Sociology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10403 Tanfer, Koray; Rosenbaum, Emily. Contraceptive perceptions and method choice among young single women in the United States. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 269-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the 1983 National Survey of Unmarried Women are used to analyze the relationship between perceptions of contraceptive methods and their acceptability for use among young, single, U.S. women. Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses are employed. "Methods that were seen as having more highly positive attributes were also seen as more acceptable, and were used by a greater proportion of the women in the sample, even though the overwhelming popularity of the pill overshadowed all other methods. It was concluded that perceptual factors can help predict who will use a particular method and that this can be potentially useful to family planning service providers in influencing method choice."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10404 Tucker, Gisele M. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural Peru. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 308-16 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines Quechua-speaking Indians' choice of contraceptive methods and discusses barriers to the use of modern contraceptives. A study conducted in a Peruvian highland community shows that contraceptive choice is strongly related to a couple's life experiences, their contact with urban centers, their economic status, and their emphasis on cultural values. Among contraceptive users, husbands are concerned with family size and encourage their wives to seek information about the use of modern contraceptives." Differences between the attitudes of spouses concerning contraception are discussed.
The authors note that "the majority of the couples practice natural and traditional family planning methods, which are not reliable. Villagers do not use modern contraceptives as a result of cultural barriers created by family planning services that do not take into account the lifestyle of these people, insufficient knowledge of human physiology, comments from dissatisfied users, and women's reliance on their reproductive role for self-esteem."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10405 Tuladhar, Jayanti M. Effect of family planning availability and accessibility on contraceptive use in Nepal. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1987. 49-53 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the importance of availability and accessibility of family planning services in relation to current contraceptive use in Nepal. The proportion of women who knew of a family planning services outlet in Nepal increased sharply between 1976 and 1981, from 6 percent to 33 percent. The Contraceptive Prevalence Survey data of 1981 indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the prevalence of current contraceptive use and travel time to an outlet. Unfortunately, a majority of current users in Nepal still need more than one hour to reach an outlet. The effects of education and place of residence on contraceptive use become weaker when the analysis is confined to women who have access to an outlet within a half-hour's travel time."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10406 Ward, Martha C. Poor women, powerful men: America's great experiment in family planning. ISBN 0-8133-0366-4. LC 86-5557. 1986. xvii, 189 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the development of a major federally funded family planning project in Louisiana during the 1960s. The author describes the project, which was designed to bring family planning to the low-income population as an integral part of family health care; its rapid growth, particularly through the success of the Family Health Foundation in securing federal funding for the project; and the eventual collapse of the project amidst accusations of fraud and financial mismanagement.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10407 Younis, M. N.; Abou El-Ela, N. M.; Sultan, M.; El-Maaddawi, Y.; El-Masry, G. Socio-medical factors affecting the utilization of different contraceptive methods at Al-Azhar rural family health clinic. Population Sciences, No. 6, 1985. 27-34 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The present study aimed at assessing the patterns of contraceptive use by rural women. 1,781 married, sexually active women, were interviewed....They were served by the Family Health Clinic in Tokh El-Karamos Centre in El-Sharkia Governorate [Egypt]. They were classified according to the type of contraceptive method used. There were statistically significant differences of method users according to the level of education, occupation, history of pregnancy wastage, time lag between last labour and administration, breast feeding, menstrual characters and the type of last method used."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

53:10408 Mishell, Daniel R.; Davajan, Val. Infertility, contraception and reproductive endocrinology. 2nd ed. ISBN 0-87489-352-6. LC 84-27323. 1986. ix, 688 pp. Medical Economics Books: Oradell, New Jersey. In Eng.
This book is a basic introduction to reproductive biology for the physician in training and the clinician in practice. In the current edition, the emphasis is on the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The articles, by different authors, are arranged under the topics of normal endocrinology, abnormal endocrinology, infertility, and contraception. The section on contraception includes articles on contraceptive use and effectiveness, oral steroid contraceptives, long-acting contraceptive steroids and interception, and IUDs.
For the first edition, published in 1979, see 47:2036.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10409 Runnebaum, B.; Rabe, T.; Kiesel, L. Future aspects in contraception: proceedings of an international symposium held in Heidelberg, 5-8 September 1984. ISBN 0-85200-893-7. LC 85-11622. 1985. x, 270; xii, 372 pp. MTP Press: Boston, Massachusetts/Lancaster, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of an international symposium held in Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany, concerning future aspects of contraception. They have been published in two separate volumes. Part 1 is concerned with male contraception, Part 2 with female contraception. The focus in both parts is on research into new methods of contraception.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

53:10410 Bertrand, Jane T.; Mangani, Nlandu; Mansilu, Matondo; McBride, Mark E.; Tharp, Jeffrey L. Strategies for family planning service delivery in Bas Zaire. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 4, Dec 1986. 108-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The authors report on an operations research project conducted in Zaire's region of Bas Zaire to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of two strategies for delivering family planning services. The program, which involves community-based distribution of modern contraceptives, has been operating since 1981 under two strategies: "supplying dispensaries and community distributors with contraceptives and at the same time undertaking an extensive outreach program, and supplying these sources but doing no outreach. Before the project began, only about 4-5 percent of urban women and 2-5 percent of rural women aged 15-44 who were living in union were using modern contraceptive methods. Within two years, this proportion had increased to 10-19 percent in four study areas."
A decline in the use of traditional methods is noted as modern methods are being substituted. "Prevalence in the areas that received outreach was only 2-3 percentage points higher than that in areas that received no outreach. A cost-effectiveness analysis shows that the cost of providing one couple with a month of contraceptive protection was higher in the rural area than in the urban area. In addition, the cost per couple-month of protection was slightly higher when outreach was included."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10411 Hermalin, Albert I. The multilevel approach to family planning program evaluation. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 86-94, Apr 1986. 21 pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The theory and concepts involved in the multilevel approach to the study of fertility and to family planning program evaluation are described. The author considers both the advantages and drawbacks to this approach. An example using Thai data concerning the role of accessibility to family planning services is included. This paper was also included as a chapter in the Addendum to Manual IX: The Methodology of Measuring the Impact of Family Planning Programmes on Fertility, issued by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in 1986.
For the Addendum to Manual IX, published in 1986, see 52:40410.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10412 Mabud, Mohammed A. Women's program impact on village women's contraceptive and reproductive behavior in rural Bangladesh. Rural Demography, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 1984. 21-37 pp. Dacca, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author examines the impact on contraceptive and reproductive behavior of a social program designed to teach trade skills and family planning to women in rural Bangladesh. The focus is on "whether a social program that is designed to use a particular group as catalysts brings about any change in [the] contraceptive and reproductive behaviour of the community that is indirectly exposed to the program." A sample of 625 women indirectly exposed to the program and 312 women from non-program, control villages were interviewed; baseline data are from the 1976 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. It is found that "the indirectly exposed and unexposed women are very similar in their contraceptive and reproductive behaviour. The impact of the directly exposed women (trained women) in family planning was trivial even after three years of program operation. Socio-economic and demographic characteristics of both the groups are also similar....The current use among the indirectly exposed women was only 12% as compared to 10% for the unexposed women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10413 Mason, William M. The multilevel approach: an illustrative example. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 86-94, Apr 1986. 13, [10] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author "illustrates multilevel analysis with fixed and stochastic parameter models. In it, the dependent variable, current use of an efficient method of contraception, is measured dichotomously (using or not using), and logistic response formulations are used to estimate relationships based on actual data." The concepts are illustrated using data from an unspecified Asian country in the early 1970s. This paper was also included as a chapter in the Addendum to Manual IX: The Methodology of Measuring the Impact of Family Planning Programmes on Fertility, issued by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs in 1986.
For the Addendum to Manual IX, published in 1986, see 52:40410.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

53:10414 Bairagi, Radheshyam; Langsten, Ray L. Sex preference for children and its implications for fertility in rural Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1986. 302-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, the level and pattern of sex preference for children and its effects on fertility intention, fertility-regulating behavior, and fertility implications for women are investigated. Data are from a 1976 cross-sectional KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning) survey and a three-year longitudinal study, conducted between December 1976 and 31 December 1979, of vital events for 860 married women of childbearing age from Companiganj, Bangladesh."
The results indicate that "although son preference is very strong in this area, more than 98 percent of women desire at least one daughter. However, women with a higher proportion of sons are less likely to want more children and are more likely to practice contraception and to be sterilized. Although women with a higher proportion of sons have somewhat lower fertility in the prospective follow-up period, the net effect of son preference on fertility is not significant, possibly because of the low level of contraceptive use in the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10415 Centro de Investigaciones Sociologicas [CIS] (Madrid, Spain). Attitudes and opinions of Spaniards concerning fertility. [Actitudes y opiniones de los espanoles ante la natalidad.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 32, Oct-Dec 1985. 269-349 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The results of a 1985 Spanish survey of 2,506 persons concerning attitudes and opinions about fertility are presented. Data are included on actual and desired family size and on contraceptive knowledge and usage.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

53:10416 Cook, Rebecca J.; Maine, Deborah. Spousal veto over family planning services. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 3, Mar 1987. 339-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors comment on the spousal veto of a partner's use of family planning services. "This article discusses the nature and application of spousal veto practices, explains how such requirements can violate certain human rights, and explores possible remedies to this problem, including ministerial, legislative, and judicial initiatives." The information comes from various countries around the world.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10417 Cross Beras, Julio A.; Molina Achecar, Maritza. Leadership, public opinion, and population. [Liderazgo, opinion publica y poblacion.] Aug 1986. vi, 153, [18] pp. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA]: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
This study compares the understanding and reactions of the general public of the Dominican Republic concerning information on population and family planning issues with those of the country's political leaders.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10418 Kellerhals, J. The desire to have children: contemporary sociological features. [Dimensions contemporaines du desir d'enfants: aspects sociologiques.] Revue de Pediatrie, Vol. 21, No. 6, Jun-Jul 1985. 265-72 pp. Bougival, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The consequences of modernization on attitudes toward children, the functions of the child in the family, and the ambiguities inherent in the desire to have children are reviewed. The approach taken is sociological. The development of fertility strategies by individual couples is considered. Factors affecting such a strategy are analyzed, including the concept of the child as both an investment and a consumer item, the need to develop a special relationship, the acceptance of the obligations involved, the desire for social participation, and the cultural influence of society as a whole. The focus is on the situation in developed societies.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10419 Khan, M. E.; Dastidar, S. K. Ghosh; Bairathi, Sashi. Not wanting children yet not practising family planning--a qualitative assessment. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 2 [mislabeled 3], Dec 1985. 3-17 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors investigate the gap between knowledge and practice of family planning using data from an ongoing project of the Operations Research Group in India for three villages and one urban center. "Two different approaches were adopted for the collection of information viz. the anthropological approach wherein extensive case studies and participant observations were made on some selected families, and a large-scale household survey of villages surrounding each of the study sites...." Attention is given to awareness and knowledge of family planning methods, misconceptions about family planning methods, accessibility of contraceptive services, husbands' apathy, illegal abortions, and the changing roles of mothers-in-law in family planning acceptance
It is indicated that a combination of programmatic and attitudinal factors contribute to the discrepancies between desired and realized fertility.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10420 Kreft, G. G.; de Leeuw, J. Emancipation and population problems: a secondary analysis of the CBS survey on different aspects of life, 1974. [Emancipatie en bevolkingsproblematiek: een secundaire analyse op het leefsituatie-onderzoek 1974.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Jul 1985. 7-23 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
"Findings from a sample survey in the city of Leiden and pertaining to the relationship between background variables and attitudes towards population policy, are compared with results from a nationwide survey among the Dutch population in 1974. Multivariate analyses confirm the relationship between indicators of emancipation, population policy variables, and political orientation. People in favour of information regarding population growth, are often in favour of measures promoting birth control and they also advocate the extension of child care facilities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10421 Lebrun, Francois. The place of the child in French society since the sixteenth century. [La place de l'enfant dans la societe francaise depius le XVIe siecle.] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 247-57 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author traces developments in the value placed on children and childhood in French society from the sixteenth century to the present. These developments are seen as factors underlying changes in contraceptive use and reproductive behavior in France.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10422 Marbeau-Cleirens, B. The desire to have children throughout history. [Le desir d'enfants dans la famille a travers l'histoire.] Revue de Pediatrie, Vol. 21, No. 6, Jun-Jul 1985. 251-8 pp. Bougival, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Changing attitudes toward procreation during the course of history are examined. The author notes the low status of children that continued up to the sixteenth century, when interest in children and a growing approval of maternal instincts developed. It is suggested that the development of effective contraception in the last 20 years or so, coupled with the growing acceptance of induced abortion, is linked to an increase in the desire for children and an emphasis on the maternal function. The article also considers the changing role in modern society of the father. The focus is on developed societies.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10423 Matejcek, Zdenek; Dytrych, Zdenek; Schuller, Vratislav. Children born from unwanted pregnancy during early adolescence. [Deti narozene z nechteneho tehotenstvi.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1986. 313-22 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This study examines the experiences of 220 children born in Czechoslovakia between 1961 and 1964. These children were born as a result of unwanted pregnancies to mothers who were refused legal abortions. Following these "unwanted children" through adolescence and into adulthood, the authors find evidence of abnormal psycho-social development relative to a control group.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

53:10424 Bleek, Wolf; Asante-Darko, Nimrod K. Illegal abortion in southern Ghana: methods, motives and consequences. Human Organization, Vol. 45, No. 4, Winter 1986. 333-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper provides information on various aspects of illegally induced abortion among the Akan in southern Ghana. Discussed are the frequency of abortion, the techniques, the social circumstances in which it takes place, its medical, juridical and educational consequences, and value judgements about it. The most important conclusion is that the restrictiveness of the Ghanaian legislation has not been able to prevent or limit the incidence of abortion. Its outlawing has rather led to the use of dubious and highly dangerous means of causing abortion [particularly among younger women]."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10425 Cliquet, R. L.; Thiery, M. Induced abortion: an analysis for the benefit of policy development in Belgium. [Abortus provocatus: een proeve van actualisering ten behoeve van het beleid in Belgie.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 2, Nov 1985. 121-40 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut.
Trends in induced abortion in Belgium during the past 15 years are examined. The authors compare the Belgian experience with developments elsewhere in the world. Specific recommendations are made in light of general experience concerning liberal abortion laws and the professional treatment of abortion cases with the objective of improving the situation in Belgium.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10426 Cornogiu, F.; Revelli, A.; Togliani, A. Is voluntary abortion to be regarded now as a contraceptive? [L'aborto volontario, oggi, e da considerarsi un contraccettivo?] Annali dell'Ospedale Maria Vittoria di Torino, Vol. 27, No. 7-12, Jul-Dec 1984. 260-70 pp. Turin, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine the extent to which induced abortion is used as the primary method to achieve fertility control in Italy. Data concern 200 individuals undergoing induced abortion in Turin. The emphasis is on the level of repeat abortions. The relationship between contraception and induced abortion is considered, and the need to replace the latter with the former is stressed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10427 Djerassi, Carl. Abortion in the United States: politics or policy. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 42, No. 4, Apr 1986. 38-41 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Current pressures to make U.S. laws concerning induced abortion more restrictive are examined. The author reviews the global situation and points out that the largest number of illegal abortions and deaths associated with them occur in those countries with restrictive legislation.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10428 Dupaquier, Jacques. How many abortions in France before 1914? [Combien d'avortements en France avant 1914?] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 87-106 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author uses legal and medical documents to investigate induced abortion in France prior to 1914. Using a mortality rate following abortion (both spontaneous and induced) of 1 in 100 and observing 600 post-abortion deaths annually, the author estimates 60,000 abortions a year took place in France in the nineteenth century. He also points out that the practice of abortion gained ground as the incidence of child abandonment and illegitimate births declined. It is noted that the abortion rate increased more rapidly between 1900 and 1913 and that the practice was more common among urban than among rural populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10429 Fine, Agnes. Knowledge of the body and abortion procedures in the nineteenth century. [Savoirs sur le corps et procedes abortifs au XIXe siecle.] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 107-36 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author focuses on induced abortion in France in the nineteenth century, giving particular attention to the practices then commonly used by women to treat amenorrhea. The emphasis is on the difficulty in ascertaining the number of intentional, and thus at that time criminal, abortions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10430 Francome, Colin. Abortion practice in Britain and the United States. ISBN 0-04-179003-0. LC 86-3632. 1986. xi, 206 pp. Allen and Unwin: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
A comparative analysis of legal induced abortion in the United States and the United Kingdom is presented. The focus is on the demand for abortion and on the reasons why the average rate for terminations in the United States is more than twice as high as that in Britain. The data, collected between 1982 and 1984, are from 1,129 women attending abortion clinics or centers in the United States and 649 attending similar facilities in Britain. The book also includes a review of the development of abortion practice over time in both countries. The author challenges the argument that open discussion of sexuality worsens the problem of unwanted pregnancy. "The evidence suggests that a considerable decrease in the demand for abortion could be effected by such measures as improving sex education, improving birth control services, and making stronger attempts to involve men in contraceptive practices. Indeed, [the author] believes that the halving of the abortion rate in the United States, and its reduction in Britain by one quarter, are realisable targets within five years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10431 Hart, Gavin; Macharper, Tony. Induced abortion trends in South Australia, 1970-84. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 77, No. 2, Feb 1987. 200-2 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Following legislative amendments extending the grounds for abortion in South Australia the abortion rate rose from 6.0/1,000 in 1970, to 9.9/1,000 in 1981, to 13.2/1,000 in 1984. However, rates differ widely by marital status among young women, the age pattern varies markedly for different marital status groups, and trends over time differ for different age/marital status groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10432 Henshaw, Stanley K. Induced abortion: a worldwide perspective. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1986. 250-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author provides an overview of induced abortion worldwide, giving attention to laws and policies, the incidence of induced abortion in various countries and regions, demographic characteristics of abortion seekers, the provision of abortion services, and health issues involved. A table is included that shows the number of abortions, abortion rate, abortion ratio, and total abortion rate for 35 countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10433 Kenyon, Edwin. The dilemma of abortion. ISBN 0-571-13935-3. LC 86-2145. 1986. 283 pp. Faber and Faber: Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
This book is intended as a general introduction to the subject of induced abortion. The author attempts to provide an unbiased review of the relevant moral, religious, legal, medical, psychological, and political issues involved. The primary geographic focus is on the United Kingdom, and the book includes an analysis of the implications of the Warnock Report and the Gillick case. The author also offers his views on the role of abortion in attempts to control population growth around the world.
Location: New York Public Library.

53:10434 Le Mee, Rene. An affair of "angel makers" at the end of the nineteenth century. [Une affaire de "faiseuses d'anges" a la fin du XIXe siecle.] In: Denatalite: l'anteriorite francaise (1800-1914), edited by the Centre d'Etudes Transdisciplinaires, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales. Communications, No. 44, 1986. 137-74 pp. Seuil: Paris, France. In Fre.
The author discusses the case of a group of people providing illegal abortion services in Paris in 1890-1891, their trial, and the coverage of the case in the newspapers of the day.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10435 Lee, Sea Baick; Lee, Im Jun; Yun, Bong Ja. Measuring pregnancy wastage in Korean women. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jul 1986. 24-40 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of pregnancy wastage in the Republic of Korea is presented using data from a nationally representative sample of approximately 5,000 women aged 15 to 49. Pregnancy wastage is defined as the cumulative total of induced and spontaneous abortion as well as stillbirths. The results indicate a level of pregnancy wastage of 1.34 per urban woman and 1.21 per rural woman. Of the 5,748 incidences of pregnancy wastage observed over the period 1956-1985, 80 percent were due to induced abortion. The authors speculate on the use of induced abortion in cases of contraceptive failure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10436 Sceats, Janet. Induced abortion in New Zealand, 1976-1983: a report prepared for the Abortion Supervisory Committee. ISBN 0-477-01290-6. 1985. xxii, 193 pp. V. R. Ward, Government Printer: Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in New Zealand from 1976 to 1983 are analyzed. Data are from official sources and from a survey conducted in 1983. The first part is concerned with the demography of induced abortion, including its incidence and regional variations, social and biomedical characteristics of those undergoing abortion, the relationship between abortion and fertility, abortion and fertility outside of marriage, and teenage abortion and fertility. The second part presents the results of a survey of 1,267 women undergoing abortions in four facilities in 1983 and examines the stages leading up to abortion, the women's decision-making process, and their attitudes and comments concerning available services.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

53:10437 Schrumpf, Ellen. The history of the legalization of abortion. [Abortsakens historie.] ISBN 82-10-02528-7. LC 85-100873. 1984. 75 pp. Tiden Norsk: Oslo, Norway. In Nor.
The history of changes in Norway's abortion law from 1913 to the present is described. Some estimates of both illegal and legal abortions over time are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

53:10438 Skjeldestad, Finn E.; Bakketeig, Leiv S. Induced abortion: trends in the tendency to repeat, Norway, 1972-1981. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, Vol. 14, No. 4, 1986. 205-9 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Eng.
Trends in repeat abortion in Norway between 1972 and 1981 are examined using data from abortion records kept by the Chief Health Officers in six counties. The authors note that the frequency of repeat abortions has doubled, primarily due to an increase in the population at risk. However, the frequency of induced abortion is below what could be expected from contraceptive failure rates, and the authors state that there is no evidence to indicate that liberalization of abortion laws has led to the use of induced abortion as a birth control method.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

53:10439 Trost, Jan E. Abortions in relation to age, coital frequency, and fecundity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 6, Dec 1986. 505-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Abortion rates show variations by age in the United States. This article addresses the question of age variations in abortions. Since the probability of pregnancy is increased in direct proportion to increased coital frequency, age and coitus-specific abortion rates are calculated. Since the probability of pregnancy is related to fecundity, age and fecundity abortion rates are also calculated. When combining coital frequency and fecundity with the age-specific abortion rates, the variation by age disappears for all women except teen-agers." The data are taken from published sources.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

53:10440 Walckiers, D.; Lamotte, J. M.; Mertens, R.; Stroobant, A.; Cornelis, R.; van Casteren, V. The demand for abortion and the morning-after pill with Belgian general practitioners. [Vraag naar zwangerschapsonderbreking en morning after pill bij de belgische huisarts.] Bevolking en Gezin, No. 1, Nov 1986. 79-89 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a survey concerning the demand for abortion and morning-after pills in Belgium are reported. The survey covered 100 general practitioners interviewed during the year from July 1982 to July 1983. It is found that "the annual number of demands for abortion or morning-after pill in the general practices have been estimated for the whole country at 17,960 and 8,810 respectively. 46% of the registered demands came from the age group of 20-29 years. Of all women consulting for abortion or morning-after pill, 67% were currently using a contraceptive method of low efficacy or no contraception at all."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

53:10441 Oni, Gbolahan A. Breastfeeding: its relationship with postpartum amenorrhea and postpartum sexual abstinence in a Nigerian community. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 24, No. 3, 1987. 255-62 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines how breastfeeding is functionally related to postpartum amenorrhea and abstinence in Ilorin, an urban community in Nigeria. Results indicated that the effect of breastfeeding on fertility, through its relationship with postpartum abstinence, might be more important than its effect through lactational amenorrhea in this society. This is more true among women with little or no education than among women with secondary or higher education. The population or family planning implications of these relationships are discussed." Data are from a survey of 913 currently married women aged 15 to 35 carried out in 1983-1984.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

53:10442 Pasternak, Burton; Wang, Ching. Breastfeeding decline in urban China: an exploratory study. Human Ecology, Vol. 13, No. 4, Dec 1985. 433-66 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Retrospective data collected in two urban neighborhoods of Tianjin, People's Republic of China, reveal a decline in the rate and duration of breastfeeding since the mid-1930's....The evidence indicates that breastfeeding declined as women became involved in work outside the home, as they adopted a form of postmarital residence that separated them from other relatives, as income increased, and as their rural origins decreased. No evidence was found to indicate a relationship between breastfeeding and parity or sex preferences." This citation corrects information concerning the author's name as cited in Population Index, 52:30449.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

No citations in this issue.


Copyright © 1987-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.