Volume 52 - Number 4 - Winter 1986

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

52:40141 Armenian, Haroutune K.; Saadeh, Fadia M.; Armenian, Sona L. Widowhood and mortality in an Armenian church parish in Lebanon. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 1, Jan 1987. 127-32 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
Data on 1,529 married couples recorded in the parish records of an Armenian Apostolic Orthodox church in Lebanon during the period 1949-1980 are used to examine the relationship between widowhood and mortality. Follow-up information on 90 percent of these couples attained from a variety of sources identified 152 widowers and 623 widows. "Three analytic procedures were used to compare the mortality of widowed to married subjects: person-years, matched-pair, and life table analyses."
The results show an increased risk of mortality for the widowed in comparison with those still married, although the increased risk was not statistically significant. "Most important was the result that among widowers as opposed to widows the higher risk of mortality acted at approximately ages 66-75 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40142 Butt, Mohammad A. Trends and differentials in mortality in Pakistan. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 15, 1986. 683-709 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study...is to provide some estimates of mortality for Pakistan based on data from 1976-79 Population Growth Surveys. The objectives of the study may be specified as follows: (i) to estimate adult mortality from the reported number of deaths and population by age and sex, (ii) to estimate infant/childhood mortality consistent with the fertility rates and enumerated population, (iii) to construct life tables for Pakistan for the period 1976-79, and (iv) to study the mortality trends and differentials in Pakistan." Age, sex, rural-urban, and marital status differentials are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40143 Duleep, Harriet O. Incorporating longitudinal aspects into mortality research using Social Security administrative record data. Journal of Economic and Social Measurement, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul 1986. 121-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper describes the resources available in the [U.S.] Social Security administrative record system that can be utilized for the study of health and mortality determination. Studies that have used the administrative record data for mortality research are discussed." Particular attention is given to the Continuous Work History Sample and its usefulness for mortality research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40144 Fei, Shihong. Infant mortality and life expectancy. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jan 1986. [2] pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author presents a formula to be used in analyzing the extent to which life expectancy increases as infant mortality declines.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 1, 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40145 Frenkel, Eli; Aronson, Stanley M. Family income and mortality rates: an analysis of the National Mortality Survey. Rhode Island Medical Journal, Vol. 69, No. 4, Apr 1986. 165-70 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"The National Mortality Survey of 17,014 deaths in the United States for 1966-1968 was studied to determine the existence and character of relationships between family income and mortality rates. Selected causes of death were assigned to three major diagnostic categories: infectious diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases; and certain neoplastic diseases. In general, the disease-specific mortality rates were inversely proportional to the stated family income." These effects were most evident in the youngest age groups.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:40146 Gogulapati, R.; De Ravin, J. W.; Trickett, P. J. Projections of Australian mortality rates, 1981-2020. Australian Bureau of Statistics Occasional Paper, No. 1983/2, Feb 1984. iii, 96 pp. Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this research report is to examine Australian mortality trends and to estimate possible future age and sex specific mortality rates." Historical trends in Australian mortality are first discussed, and comparisons of mortality rates by cause of death among selected countries are made. Three alternative projections of mortality rates to the year 2020 are presented, and the probable rates of future mortality are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40147 Howe, G. Melvyn. Does it matter where I live? Institute of British Geographers: Transactions, Vol. 11, No. 4, 1986. 387-414 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The traditional view of the overall health field is criticized and a new perspective embracing the environment, life style, human biology and health care is presented. Spatial variations and distributional patterns in the UK of premature death from coronary artery disease in males and females, lung-bronchus cancer in males, cancer of the female breast, and 'All Causes' for both sexes are described and analysed at national, regional, district and intra-urban scale. High risk and low risk areas/communities for premature death from selected diseases are listed as indicators of local health status."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40148 Imhof, Arthur E. Individualism and life expectancy in Japan. Japan's interest in us. [Individualismus und Lebenserwartung in Japan. Japans Interesse an uns.] Leviathan, Vol. 14, No. 3, 1986. 361-91 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This paper focuses on the rapid increase in life expectancy in modern Japan and the lessons that the Japanese may be able to learn from the historical European experience with this phenomenon. Data for Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany are compared, and the author develops the theory that increased life expectancy leads to a rise in individualism. The implications for Japan, such as an increase in the number of one-person households, are explained.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40149 India. Office of the Registrar General (New Delhi, India). Expectation of life at birth, for India and major states, 1976-80. Sample Registration Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 1, Jun 1985. 18-21 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng; Hin.
Data are presented on life expectancy by sex for India and its constituent states for 1976-1980 using data from the Sample Registration System. "There is a wide variation among states in the expectation of life at birth. Uttar Pradesh has the lowest and Kerala has the highest expectation of life at birth. Within a state, the expectation of life at birth is higher for urban areas than for rural areas. Also the male expectation of life at birth is generally higher than female expectation in rural areas. However, the pattern is reversed in urban areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40150 Kedelski, Mieczyslaw. Differences in life expectancy of the population of the five largest cities in Poland, 1951-1983. [Zroznicowanie potencjalu zyciowego ludnosci w pieciu najwiekszych miastach Polski w latach 1951-1983.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 1/83, 1986. 53-77 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Differences in life expectancy among the five largest cities in Poland are analyzed for the period 1950-1983. A decline in life expectancy among older men is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40151 Keig, Gael. An atlas of mortality for South Australia, 1969-1978. Division of Water and Land Resources Technical Paper, No. 46, ISBN 0-643-03996-1. 1985. 104 pp. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
"This atlas presents maps and commentaries on mortality patterns in South Australia over two consecutive five-year periods (1969-73 and 1974-78), for Local Government Areas of the Adelaide Statistical Division and for extra-metropolitan South Australia. Spatial and temporal variations in cause-specific mortality are examined for males and females separately, together with trends in age-specific mortality rates and relevant population characteristics."
Mortality maps are provided for causes of death including "ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, malignant neoplasms of lung, of breast and of colon and rectum, pneumonia, motor vehicle accidents and suicide. Infant mortality from all causes of death is also examined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40152 Kohli, K. L.; Al-Omaim, Musa'ad H. Mortality levels, trends and differentials in Kuwait, 1957-1983. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 28, Jun 1986. 91-123 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to discuss briefly the trends in the level of infant and general mortality and the differentials by age, sex and nationality [for Kuwait for the years 1957-1983]. It also examines socio-economic differentials in mortality. The leading causes of death are briefly highlighted as a mixture of diseases associated with developing countries and diseases associated with developed countries."
The authors find that "the factors associated with the decline in mortality have been linked with socio-economic development (as for instance, that reflected in the standard of living, nutrition, education and income) and with the expansion of health care and medical facilities."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40153 Landers, John. Mortality, weather and prices in London 1675-1825: a study of short-term fluctuations. Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 12, No. 4, Oct 1986. 347-64 pp. New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes the relationships among mortality, weather, and prices in eighteenth-century London, England, using data from the London Bills of Mortality for the years 1675-1825. Annual averages of recorded burials and baptisms for each decade are presented. Short-run movements in burial totals and their associations with short-run fluctuations in temperature, rainfall, and price trends are analyzed. Attention is also given to correlations between the price and meteorological series and selected causes of death. Limitations of the short-run method used are considered. The significance of spatial structure and migration in examining historical aspects of population dynamics in preindustrial urban areas is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40154 Madans, Jennifer H.; Cox, Christine S.; Kleinman, Joel C.; Makuc, Diane; Feldman, Jacob J.; Finucane, Fanchon F.; Barbano, Helen E.; Cornoni-Huntley, Joan. 10 years after NHANES I: mortality experience at initial followup, 1982-84. Public Health Reports, Vol. 101, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 474-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This article compares the mortality experience of the cohort included in the follow-up survey, which was conducted 10 years after the first U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I), with survival probabilities and cause-of-death distributions derived from official vital statistics data. The results indicate that the data from both sources are similar and that the data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) are valuable for assessing the effects of socio-demographic, health, and nutritional factors on future mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40155 Manton, Kenneth G.; Stallard, Eric; Vaupel, James W. Alternative models for the heterogeneity of mortality risks among the aged. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 81, No. 395, Sep 1986. 635-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors examine how sensitive the estimates of heterogeneity in the mortality risks in a population are to the choices of two types of function, "one describing the age-specific rate of increase of mortality risks for individuals and the other describing the distribution of mortality risks across individuals."
U.S. data from published Medicare mortality rates for the period 1968-1978 are used to analyze total mortality among the aged. "In addition, national vital statistics data for the period 1950-1977 were used to analyze adult lung cancer mortality. For these data, the estimates of structural parameters were less sensitive to reasonable choices of the heterogeneity distribution (gamma vs. inverse Gaussian) than to reasonable choices of the hazard rate function (Gompertz vs. Weibull)."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:40156 McCarthy, Peter; Reid, Norma. Mortality in Northern Ireland 1979-1983. Public Health, Vol. 100, No. 5, Sep 1986. 286-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Using data routinely published by the Registrar General in Northern Ireland, standardised mortality ratios were calculated for each of twenty-six local government districts across a range of causes of mortality." Consideration is given to mortality differences between rural and urban areas and to the effects of social disadvantage, diet, and smoking.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40157 McDowall, Michael. The mortality of agricultural workers: using the thirteenth decennial occupational mortality study. Population Trends, No. 45, Autumn 1986. 14-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of the mortality of agricultural workers in the United Kingdom is presented. Data are from the Registrar General's latest report on occupational mortality and concern the years 1979-1980 and 1982-1983. "This article outlines the coverage and scope of the study and then illustrates some of its possible uses by considering the mortality of agricultural workers using this data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40158 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Longevity gains by state. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1986. 12-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Differences in longevity by U.S. state, region, and sex for the period 1979-1981 are examined using data from official sources. Factors affecting these differences, including racial composition, life-styles, heredity, living standards, health services, and climate are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40159 Nagnur, Dhruva. Rectangularization of the survival curve and entropy: the Canadian experience, 1921-1981. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1986. 83-102 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Official Canadian data for the period 1921-1981 are used to illustrate the rectangularization of the survival curve with the attendant increase in life expectancy and old age survival. "The values of Entropy (H) as well as the projection of total life expectancies at two different age-points give the same 'average maximum life expectancy' for men and women. An effort to parameterize H with a second degree polynominal in the reciprocal of the expectation of life at successive ages is attempted. The function gives a good fit. The implication of the rectangularization with respect to specific health care areas is briefly examined."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40160 Olshansky, S. Jay; Ault, A. Brian. The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: the age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 64, No. 3, 1986. 355-91 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Gains in longevity in the United States since the midnineteenth century occurred as a result of an epidemiologic transition: deaths from infectious diseases were replaced by deaths from degenerative diseases. Recent trends in cause-specific mortality suggest a distinct new stage, one of postponement of degenerative diseases. Projections based on these data must be applied cautiously; their implication for health and social policies are likely to be profound."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40161 Olshansky, Stuart J. A social epidemiological model for projecting prospective mortality change. 1984. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author presents a "method of projecting mortality based upon a social epidemiological model designed to simultaneously delay the age progression of mortality curves for major degenerative diseases. Using 1978 mortality and population counts of the resident population of the United States, [he] projected overall and cause-specific mortality to the year 2020. Life tables and population projections based upon these projected mortality rates were also generated."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Chicago.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(8).

52:40162 Radivojevic, Biljana. Recent mortality trends in Yugoslavia. [Skorasnje promene u smrtnosti stanovnistva Jugoslavije.] Stanovnistvo, Vol. 20-21, No. 1-4, Jan-Dec 1982-1983. 12-28 pp. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
The author discusses general mortality rates and mortality by age, sex, and cause in Yugoslavia and its regions. Also considered are infant mortality and average life expectancy. A long-term decline in mortality since the 1950s is explained primarily by socioeconomic development, including improvement in medical care.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40163 Ruzicka, Lado T.; Kane, Penelope S. Mortality and development in the ESCAP region: a review. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1986. 13-38 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to assess the extent to which social and economic changes have contributed to the mortality decline of the last 30 years in selected countries of the Asia-Pacific region. It provides various methods for evaluating the association between health and mortality and social and economic conditions, yet it argues that it is difficult or impossible to measure statistically the effect of certain interventions because they are interrelated in their impact on mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40164 Sawyer, Diana O. Considerations concerning the study of mortality in Latin America, especially infant mortality. [Consideracoes sobre o estudo de mortalidade na America Latina especialmente da mortalidade infantil.] Working Paper/Documento de Trabajo, No. 18, [1985?]. 24 pp. Population Council, Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office: Mexico City, Mexico. In Por.
The author first reviews direct and indirect methods for measuring mortality. Next, she considers mortality trends, differentials, and determinants in Latin America. Finally, she presents her proposals for future research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

52:40165 Harter, Lucy; Starzyk, Patricia; Frost, Floyd. A comparative study of hospital fetal death records and Washington State fetal death certificates. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 11, Nov 1986. 1,333-4 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Hospital fetal death records were compared with Washington State fetal death certificates to ascertain the completeness of reporting. Washington State law requires reporting of all fetal deaths of 20 or more weeks gestation. For 16 hospitals reporting 603 fetal deaths, an additional 49 fetal deaths were identified in the mother's charts. The study documents underreporting, especially in the gestational ages closest to the 20-week age limitation where 71 per cent of the 48 unreported cases were 20 to 27 weeks gestation."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40166 Machin, D.; Murrells, T. J.; Catford, J. C.; Smith, T. M. F. The use of logit models to investigate social and biological factors in infant mortality. III. Neonatal mortality. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 139-53 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Infant mortality data for England and Wales, cross-classified by mother's age, parity and social class have been published on two occasions, the first giving the relevant data for 1949/50, the second for 1975, some 25 years later. Published analyses of these separate data sets have been based on graphical and tabular analysis. This paper describes the application of logit models using the methodology presented by Murrells et al. to investigate neonatal deaths."
For a related study by Machin et al., also published in 1986, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40167 Poston, Dudley L.; Rogers, Richard G. Toward a reformulation of the neonatal mortality rate. Social Biology, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985. 1-12 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"The use of neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates as proxies for endogenous and exogenous mortality rates is common in demographic and epidemiological research. The results reported in this paper suggest that such a practice is not entirely valid and that, perhaps, a reformulation of the operational definition of the neonatal mortality rate is in order. The study shows that day-specific endogenous mortality rates predominate during the first eighteen days of life and that curves representing the patterning of day-specific endogenous and exogenous mortality rates converge at about the 18th day and not at about the 28th day."
The authors also argue "against the use of the postneonatal mortality rate, as currently defined, as a proxy for exogenous mortality. Of all classifiable infant deaths occurring between the 19th and the 365th day, less than half (44.5 per cent) are due to exogenous causes. The matched birth and death data from New Mexico used for this study are shown to correspond rather closely in neonatal and infant mortality rates to data from Georgia and New York City, indicating that to a large extent the results of this study may be generalized to other states."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, pp. 416-7).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

52:40168 Armenian, Haroutune K.; Zurayk, Huda C.; Kazandjian, Vahe A. The epidemiology of infant deaths in the Armenian parish records of Lebanon. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1986. 373-8 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Data from parish records of 13 Armenian Apostolic churches in Lebanon are used to analyze trends in infant mortality since 1863. The results show a substantial decline in infant mortality over the past 60 years. "The most important recorded causes of death included diarrhoea and pneumonia. A study of clustering of deaths by time and place revealed a major epidemic of measles with high fatality in 1926. This epidemic had been previously unrecorded. The present study demonstrates the use of non-traditional data sources to assess long-term secular trends of mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40169 Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Portuondo Dustet, Numidia; Suarez Rosas, Luis; Ovies Garcia, Ada; Alvarez Fernandez, Roberto; Lima Perez, Maria T. Factors that influence infant mortality. Havana Province. 1983. [Factores que influyen en la mortalidad infantil. Provincia La Habana. Ano 1983.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 15-9 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
An analysis of infant mortality in the province of Havana, Cuba, is presented. The data, which concern the 133 infant deaths that occurred in 1983, were collected using questionnaires completed by physicians responsible for local health areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40170 Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Portuondo Dustet, Numidia; Alvarez Fernandez, Roberto; Lima Perez, Maria T.; Suarez Rosas, Luis. The importance of controlling women of fertile age in the lowering of infant mortality in Havana province, 1979-1983. [Importancia del control de mujeres en edad fertil en la disminucion de la mortalidad infantil en Provincia La Habana, anos 1979-1983.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1985. 382-7 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The importance of providing contraceptive services for women aged 15-49 in the province of Havana, Cuba, is noted. The role of these services in reducing infant mortality in the province since 1959 is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40171 Chanaka, Teshome T. Differential child mortality by some socio-demographic characteristics of mother in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 15, 1986. 471-98 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
"The purpose of this report is to estimate infant and child mortality and focus on highlighting some differentials in the city of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania...." Drawing primarily on data from a 1978 demographic migration survey, the author assesses the impact of mother's education, urban or rural origin, economic activity, occupation, age at first marriage, number of co-wives, and number of times married.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40172 Chowdhury, A. K. M. Alauddin. Infant mortality in relation to internal migration in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 1986. 449-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
The relationship between internal migration and infant mortality in rural Bangladesh is analyzed using data from a study of the determinants of natural fertility conducted in Matlab thana between 1975 and 1978. The results indicate that neonatal mortality is much higher among families with migrant fathers, particularly when associated with low female education and maternal malnutrition. The role of psychological stress, caused by husband's absence, on levels of neonatal mortality is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40173 El-Jack, Omer M. A. Infant mortality in the Sudan: levels and differentials. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 15, 1986. 413-34 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This paper estimates infant mortality levels in Sudan and examines differentials by sex, education of mother, rural-urban residence, and region. Indirect estimation is based on data from the 1978-1979 Sudan Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40174 Fischmann, Airton; Guimaraes, Jose J. de L. Infant mortality risk in shantytown and non-shantytown residents in the city of Porto-Alegre, Rio-Grande-Do-Sul State, Brazil, 1980. [Risco de morrer no primeiro ano de vida entre favelados e nao favelados no municipio de Porto Alegre, RS (Brasil), em 1980.] Revista de Saude Publica, Vol. 20, No. 3, Jun 1986. 219-26 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
A comparison of infant mortality risks between shantytown and other districts of the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil, is made. Estimates of the increased risk of those infants living in shantytowns dying by the five major causes of death are presented.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40175 Gonzalez, Guillermo; Herrera, Lorenzo. Estimation of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba. [Estimacion de la mortalidad y en edades tempranas en las provincias orientales de Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 12, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 20-30 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
An estimate of infant and child mortality in the eastern provinces of Cuba is presented using the Brass method as adapted by Trussell. "Estimations by urban and rural zones are also performed within the provinces studied, and results are compared with those possible to obtain by continuous statistics. Results obtained show that in the eastern [part] of the country Holguin and Guantanamo are the provinces with highest infantile mortality rates, and the lowest rates correspond to Granma, followed by Santiago de Cuba."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40176 Gubhaju, Bhakta B. Demographic and social correlates of infant and child mortality in Nepal. Pub. Order No. DA8426599. 1984. 274 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study examines predictors of infant and child mortality in Nepal, including age and education of mother, geographic area, length of preceding birth interval, and survival of the previous birth. Data are primarily from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Australian National University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(9).

52:40177 Gubhaju, Bhakta B. Effect of birth spacing on infant and child mortality in rural Nepal. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 1986. 435-47 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This examination of the effect of birth spacing on infant and child mortality in rural Nepal is based on data from the Nepal Fertility Survey 1976....The study confirms that the higher risk of infant death to first-born children is mainly due to the higher proportions of younger women having first births, rather than due to their being first order births per se. The effect of maternal age on infant and child mortality is largely associated with birth interval. Previous birth interval, therefore, stands out as the most important factor affecting infant mortality; the next most important factor is the survival of the preceding child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40178 Kannisto, Vaino. Mortality: geographic differentials in infant mortality in Finland in 1871-1983. Tutkimuksia/Undersokningar/Studies, No. 126, ISBN 951-46-9581-X. 1986. 82 pp. Tilastokeskus: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Trends in infant mortality in Finland from 1871 to 1983 are reviewed using data from official sources, including parish registers. The focus is on changes in geographic differences in infant mortality over time. The study shows a general weakening over time of geographic differentials, primarily due to the reduced variations in socioeconomic conditions in the population. The importance of effective maternal and child health services for lowering infant mortality is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40179 Levin, Jeffrey S.; Markides, Kyriakos S. Socioeconomic status and infant mortality among Hispanics in a southwestern city. Social Biology, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985. 61-4 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"From data on census tract groupings from Corpus Christi, Texas, for 1979-83, this study shows that, unlike the inverse infant-mortality--socioeconomic-status association observed for Anglos, no such association exists for the Spanish surname population. This finding is discussed in terms of recent research suggesting that the Spanish surname population of the Southwest has lower infant death rates than expected from its generally lower socioeconomic status."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40180 Luo, Maochu. An indirect method of infant mortality estimation in China. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Apr 1986. 39-45 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author compares estimates of infant mortality in China for the period from the 1950s to the 1980s using several indirect estimation methods. Consideration is given to methods developed by Brass, Coale and Trussell, Feeney, and Bannister.
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40181 Machin, D.; Murrells, T. J.; Catford, J. C.; Smith, T. M. F. The use of logit models to investigate social and biological factors in infant mortality. IV: post-neonatal mortality. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 155-69 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Infant mortality data for England and Wales, cross-classified by mother's age, parity and social class have been published on two occasions, the first giving the relevant data for 1949/50, the second for 1975, some 25 years later. Published analyses of these separate data sets have been based on graphical and tabular analysis. This paper describes the application of logit models using the methodology presented by Murrells et al. to investigate post-neonatal deaths."
For a related study by Machin et al., also published in 1986, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40182 Miah, Muhammad M. R. The interrelationships between infant/child mortality and marital fertility in Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8610578. 1985. 187 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation examines the interrelationship between infant/child mortality and fertility among married women in Bangladesh. The data for the study were obtained from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey, 1975-76....This study utilizes the two-stage least squares (2SLS) technique to test a reciprocal model of infant/child mortality and fertility. Additionally, the study applies multiple regression analyses and tests for interaction in examining the determinants of infant/child mortality and of fertility in separate models." The relative importance of age, religion, residence, education, wife's work in the traditional or modern sector, and family planning practice is analyzed at three parity levels.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(3).

52:40183 Montgomery, Mark R.; Richards, Toni; Braun, Henry I. Child health, breast-feeding, and survival in Malaysia: a random-effects logit approach. JASA: Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 81, No. 394, Jun 1986. 297-309 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study examines the possibility that estimation of the effect of breast-feeding on infant survival is affected by selection bias, in that children who are healthier at birth may be more likely to be breast-fed. Data are from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey. "Ordinary logit models for breast-feeding and survival are estimated, and the results suggest that selection is indeed present. For example, children of higher birth weight appear to be more likely to be breast-fed and likely to survive. In addition, weight at birth and the duration of breast-feeding appear to be linked."
Using birth weight as an indicator for the child's health, the authors conclude that "the direct influence of breast-feeding on survival remains of overwhelming importance even after corrections for selection bias are made."
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

52:40184 Muganzi, Zibeon S. The effect of individual and contextual factors on infant mortality in Kenya. Pub. Order No. DA8428705. 1984. 172 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"In this study an attempt is made to examine the effects of various factors on infant mortality in Kenya. These factors are grouped into two general categories--those associated with the individual woman/child and those associated with the social and environmental setting within which they live. The first set of variables is identified as 'individual variables' and includes variables such as age of woman, education, sex of child, etc. The second set of variables constitute the 'contextual variables' and includes variables such as availability of health facilities, water supply, sanitation and prevalence of malaria." The ordinary least squares and logistic regression models are used to investigate the combined effect of these factors on infant mortality.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(9).

52:40185 Nur, Osman el-H. M. Infant and child mortality and its effect on reproductive behaviour in the northern provinces of Sudan. PSC Research Report, Mar 1983. 68 pp. University of Gezira, Faculty of Economics and Rural Development, Population Studies Centre: Wad Medani, Sudan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with levels, trends, and differentials in infant and child mortality in the northern part of Sudan, with particular reference to the impact of infant mortality on fertility. Data are from the 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey. The results show no significant recent decline in infant or child mortality but substantial differentials in such mortality among regions. The demographic and socioeconomic factors affecting infant and child mortality are analyzed. Finally, policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40186 Palloni, Alberto. A "mortality-pattern-independent" method to estimate completeness of death registration in infancy and early childhood. [Une methode "independante du modele de mortalite" pour estimer l'exhaustivite de l'enregistrement des deces infanto-juveniles.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1986. 803-19 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
A method of estimating the probabilities of dying between birthdays for those between 0 and 4 years of age is presented. "The procedure is robust to the choice of pattern of mortality and only requires i) knowledge of the cumulated probabilities of dying before ages 2, 3 and 5 (which are conventionally estimated through Brass's types of techniques), and ii) information on the number of births and deaths within the age group 0-4 for a period of time not longer than five years before the reference period for which estimates are sought (both births and deaths are assumed to be uncorrected for completeness of registration)."
The method is applied to data for El Salvador and Costa Rica.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40187 Pampel, Fred C.; Pillai, Vijayan K. Patterns and determinants of infant mortality in developed nations, 1950-1975. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 4, Nov 1986. 525-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The United States' rank on infant mortality falls well below what its level of national income would predict. This suggests that standard economic development and demographic explanations of infant mortality may not apply to developed nations. Using data for 18 industrial countries, we test the validity of standard explanations (national product, urbanization, fertility decline, female education, medical care) and alternative explanations (income inequality, population heterogeneity, welfare and medical expenditures, problems of the modern health care system)."
The results "show strong support for standard explanations and show that the United States' position is associated with high teenage fertility, unemployment, ethnic diversity, and few hospital beds."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40188 Pebley, Anne R.; Millman, Sara. Birthspacing and child survival. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1986. 71-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article describes the results of recent studies that have examined the extent of, and possible reasons for, the association between birthspacing and child survival." Following a discussion of methodological problems, the authors review the results of a 1985 study by Hobcraft et al. using World Fertility Survey (WFS) data from 39 developing countries and a 1986 study by Palloni and Millman using WFS data from 12 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Tabular data are included on relative mortality risk in the neonatal, postneonatal, toddler, and childhood periods by number of births in the preceding and subsequent two years and by length of previous and subsequent birth interval with and without control for breast-feeding.
A clear association is found between short birth intervals and high infant and child mortality, but there is insufficient evidence on causes other than breast-feeding. The authors discuss the problems involved in comparing the effect on child mortality of public health interventions with the effect of changes in birth spacing, using data from studies in Guatemala and Malaysia.
For the article by J. N. Hobcraft et al., published in 1985, see 52:10197. For the article by Alberto Palloni and Sara Millman, published in 1986, see 52:30206.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40189 Powell, Eve E. The relationship of social-demographic factors, birth weight, and infant mortality among Spanish surname, Anglo and nonwhite populations in Texas. Pub. Order No. DA8609411. 1985. 326 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The role of prenatal care, mother's marital status, parental ocupation, parity/loss, maternal age and race/ethnicity as determinants of two outcomes of pregnancy is examined. A basic model is developed which outlines a theory of the influence of these factors upon birth weight, and upon risk of infant death. Using linked birth-infant death record data for the 1980 Texas singleton live birth cohort, estimates of effects of the social-demographic factors upon birth weight and risk of infant death are made for nonwhites, Anglos, and Spanish surname populations....Differentials between race/ethnic groups are discussed."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(2).

52:40190 Rao, Shobha; Desai, Anjali P. Differences in infant mortality and their implications for policy. Janasamkhya, Vol. 3, No. 1-2, Jun-Dec 1985. 73-9 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This note tries to identify a few social and environmental factors that explain variation in infant mortality among some of the developing and developed countries of the world. Using the data of the Population Reference Bureau's World's Children Wall Chart, the authors have shown that access to drinking water supply is important as a single factor in reducing infant mortality. But adult female literacy and percentage of the labour force engaged in agriculture are more important. Female literacy has turned out to be the most crucial factor irrespective of the development status of the countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40191 Rogers, Richard G. Evaluating infant mortality: component trends, measures, and standards. Pub. Order No. DA8609421. 1985. 247 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This research assesses the accuracy of endogenous and exogenous infant mortality proxies. These proxies include the neonatal, postneonatal, 0-3 day, 0-18 day, and 4-364 day mortality rates....The data include a matched set of New Mexico infant death and birth records, records for the United States, and records for other countries. The methods include exploratory techniques, descriptive statistics, and log-linear analysis. The findings suggest that the two most widely used proxies of endogenous and exogenous mortality, namely, neonatal and postneonatal mortality, are not accurate proxies and show discrepant results from their referents."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(2).

52:40192 Roy, S. Guha. Estimating child mortality and modelling its age pattern for India. DRU Publication, No. 80, Dec 1985. 20 pp. Indian Statistical Institute, Demographic Research Unit: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Estimates of infant and child mortality in India are presented using methods developed by Brass as modified by Sullivan and Trussell. "The mortality patterns as represented by West and South families of Coale and Demeny model life tables are found applicable to India and used for deriving these estimates. The age pattern of childhood mortality is suitably modelled by Weibull function defining the probability of surviving from birth to a specified age and involving two parameters of level and shape."
The child mortality estimates derived by these two methods yield consistent results that appear more reliable than those obtained by the Census Actuary. "The results of fitting the Weibull model to the official life table indicate that infant mortality was under-estimated, and the mortality level at age 1 suffered from spurious shifts of deaths to this age from the neighbouring ages. The model estimate of mortality trend over childhood age range shows rapid though not improbable decline."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40193 Semenciw, R. M.; Morrison, H. I.; Lindsay, J.; Silins, J.; Sherman, G. J.; Mao, Y.; Wigle, D. T. Risk factors for postneonatal mortality: results from a record linkage study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1986. 369-72 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A population-based computer record linkage of infant births and deaths was conducted for 1978 and 1979 covering Canadian provinces. Birthweight was inversely related to risk of postneonatal death for all causes examined, including accidental deaths. Length of gestation was inversely associated with risk, but the strength of the relationship was much weaker than that noted for birthweight. A logistic regression model was used to assess the effects of variables, as reported on birth certificates, on postneonatal mortality. Maternal age less than 25 years, unmarried marital status and one or more previous births were all statistically significantly related to increased risk."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40194 Srb, V. Infant mortality throughout the world and its prognosis to the year 2025. [Kojenecka umrtnost ve svete a jeji prognoza do roku 2025.] Ceskoslovenska Pediatrie, Vol. 41, No. 5, May 1986. 286-9 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
A review of infant mortality trends in Europe from 1950 to 1985 is presented using data from published U.N. sources and with emphasis on trends in Eastern Europe and Czechoslovakia. Consideration is also given to future trends up to 2025, and the differences between the U.N. and Czechoslovak projections are compared.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40195 Stockwell, Edward G.; Wicks, Jerry W. Patterns and variations in the relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic status. Social Biology, Vol. 31, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1984. 28-39 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"This study utilizes an ecological approach based on census tracts of residence to examine the relationship between infant mortality and socioeconomic status in metropolitan Ohio at two points in time (1959-61 and 1969-71). The data presented clearly indicate that the infant mortality rate continues to exhibit a pronounced inverse association with a wide variety of socioeconomic variables."
The major conclusion "is that in spite of such things as continued advances in medicine and public health, the expansion of a variety of social programs during the 1960's, and the recent resumption of a downward trend in the overall infant mortality rate, there has been little if any progress in achieving more equitable life chances for the economically deprived segments of our population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40196 Sunderland, R.; Gardner, A.; Gordon, R. R. Why did postperinatal mortality rates fall in the 1970s? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1986. 228-31 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Reasons for the decline in the post-perinatal mortality rates that has occurred in England and Wales since 1947 are examined. The authors note that there have been two phases in the decline and that the reasons for the arrest of the decline in the 1960s are probably biological factors manifesting as a generation effect. "This is due partly to continuing changes in the structure of the child population, itself a consequence of social and biological changes among the parent generation when they were children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40197 Tey, Nai Peng; Tan, Boon Ann; Arshat, Hamid. Multivariate areal analyses of neo-natal mortality in Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Reproductive Health, Vol. 3, No. 1, Jun 1985. 46-58 pp. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"During the two and a half decades between 1957 and 1982, neonatal mortality rate in Peninsular Malaysia had declined by almost 60% from 29.6 to 12.1 per thousand births, with a gain in the momentum during the most recent period. Nevertheless the probability of surviving the first month of life remains much higher in districts where socio-economic, health and environmental conditions are more favourable. Areal regression analyses indicate that mortality is influenced by a host of factors which are mutually reinforcing. High fertility, however, has the strongest independent effect on the spatial differentials in neonatal mortality rate."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40198 Watterson, Patricia A. Role of the environment in the decline of infant mortality: an analysis of the 1911 census of England and Wales. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 1986. 457-70 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study tests the proposition that the contribution of environmental factors to the reduction of infant mortality [in England and Wales] early in the twentieth century was greater than that made by the alleviation of poverty. The estimates were obtained from retrospective reports of women enumerated at the 1911 Census, and covered the period from approximately 1895 to 1910."
The results suggest that urban development, treated here as an indicator of environmental improvement, was more important than the alleviation of poverty as an explanation of declining infant mortality between 1895 and 1910. However, its effects were enhanced by the absence of poverty.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40199 Zhai, Zhenwu. Infant mortality and average life expectancy. Population Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, Apr 1986. 46-8 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The author focuses on the relationship between the estimation of infant mortality and the estimation of life expectancy, with particular attention to the case of China. It is noted that "incorrect estimation of mortality rate in the starting age group of the life table will lead to an incorrectness of measurements in the whole life table resulting in a higher estimation of the life expectancy....The author suggests a simple method by using a formula to figure out the extent of impact of infant mortality on the average life expectancy."
The author finds that the underestimation of infant mortality has little impact on estimates of life expectancy. It is concluded that "it is improper to have doubts about the average life expectancy of China's population only because of the estimation error in China's infant mortality."
This is a translation of the Chinese article in Renkou Yanjiu (Beijing, China), No. 4, 1985.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

52:40200 Ali, M. Korban. Estimation of adult mortality from census or survey data on marital status. In: Studies in African and Asian demography: CDC annual seminar, 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 15, 1986. 37-60 pp. Cairo Demographic Centre: Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
This paper investigates the use of census and survey data on marital status, with an adjustment for widow remarriage, in the estimation of adult mortality. Data for Bangladesh from the 1974 census and the Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality are used. The author applies the findings to data from the 1981 censuses of Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40201 Bideau, Alain. Orphans and adult mortality. The example of France between 1740 and 1829. [Los huerfanos y la mortalidad adulta. El ejemplo de Francia de 1740 a 1829.] Notas de Poblacion, Vol. 14, No. 41, Aug 1986. 113-33 pp. San Jose, Costa Rica. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The relationship between adult mortality and the proportion of orphans in France in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is analyzed. Data are from a research project developed at the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED] and concern data for some 400 communes, together with life tables developed for the periods 1740-1749 and 1820-1829.
"This paper is divided in two chapters. The first chapter examines the different proportions of orphans, observed in the above mentioned periods. The second one confronts these proportions with comparable values derived from mortality tables." Consideration is given to the relationship between parents' death and timing of marriage of their children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40202 Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; Kaminski, Monique; Blondel, Beatrice. Causes of death among adolescents and young adults in the countries of the European Community and trends, 1960-1980. [Causes de mortalite parmi les adolescents et jeunes adultes dans les pays de la Communaute Europeenne et evolution de 1960 a 1980.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 2, Oct 1986. 185-99 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Recent trends in mortality among adolescents and young adults in 10 countries belonging to the European Community are described. Data are from official sources for the countries concerned. "Causes of death for age groups 10-14, 15-19 and 20-24 are analyzed by sex for the Community as a whole and for each country separately. Trends over the period 1960-1980 are also analyzed. The marked increase in mortality rates between ages 10 and 20 is explained by the growing importance of traffic accidents. In some countries, however, traffic mortality has declined. Suicide levels though have increased everywhere."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40203 Grigsby, Jill S. Special occasions, stress, and mortality: do people tend to die during their birth month? Social Biology, Vol. 32, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1985. 102-14 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Data from the 1966-68 U.S. National Mortality Survey show more deaths during the birth month than in any other month for persons aged 35-84 at death. This effect is even greater for cardiovascular disease victims and shown to be statistically significant according to a log linear model. Another statistically significant effect is the interaction between marital status and month of death. The nonmarried group has a larger month effect than does the married group."
The results suggest "an explanation of the birthday as a stressful event, which is demonstrated by an interaction between the month of death and whether or not the death was cardiovascular related. The status of being married however, seems to protect an individual from the birthday's negative effect. The variables of sex and living arrangements, according to the log linear model, do not have statistically significant interaction effects with month of death."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40204 Kannisto, Vaino. Focus on adult mortality. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 5-13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author proposes a composite indicator of adult mortality that could be used to complement a life table function. The need for an adequate adult mortality indicator, separate from those used for childhood and general mortality, is reviewed, and possible approaches to the selection of an upper age limit of life are discussed. "The paper presents the proposed adult mortality indicator for 63 countries and compares them with life expectancy at birth. The loss of life-years by cause of death is illustrated by an example [using data for Finnish men and women in 1979]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40205 Manton, Kenneth G. Past and future life expectancy increases at later ages: their implications for the linkage of chronic morbidity, disability, and mortality. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 41, No. 5, Sep 1986. 672-81 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Recently life expectancy increases have been noted at advanced ages in the United States. This means a more rapid growth of the elderly U.S. population in general, and of the 'oldest-old' population in particular. Thus it is of considerable social and health policy interest to forecast (a) the direction and magnitude of future changes in life expectancy at later ages and (b) the changes in the prevalence of health and disability at later ages consequent to the increases in life expectancy. In the analysis, several prior efforts to predict life expectancy changes using standard demographic techniques are reviewed and reasons for the limitations of such efforts suggested."
The "results show that mortality changes at advanced ages have very different relations to risk factors than at earlier ages. The analysis also shows that linking morbidity, disability, and mortality in a complete projection of population health changes will require the extension of standard demographic methodologies to utilize information from multiple data sources."
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

52:40206 Dissanayake, D. M. S. S. L.; de Silva, W. I.; Gajanayake, Indra. Abridged life tables for districts: Sri Lanka, 1970-1972. Demographic Training and Research Unit Working Paper, No. 3, Dec 1985. 59 pp. University of Colombo, Demographic Training and Research Unit: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
Abridged life tables are presented for the districts of Sri Lanka for the period 1970-1972 using official data. Tables are presented separately for males and females.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40207 Myers, Robert J.; Bayo, Francisco R. United States life tables for 1979-81. Society of Actuaries Transactions, Vol. 37, 1985. 303-50 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper presents age-specific mortality rates and expectations of life for the official decennial United States Life Tables for 1979-81. Analysis of these data shows trends and relationships by age, sex, and color. As in the past, mortality rates for males were higher than for females at all ages, especially at the young-adult ages. Mortality rates for other-than-white individuals were significantly higher than for white persons at all ages except the very highest ages, with the differential being the largest in the 30s and 40s."
The authors also examine U.S. mortality trends since the first official decennial life tables were prepared in the early 1900s. Comparisons are made with the situation in selected industrialized countries around the world.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40208 Nagnur, Dhruva. Longevity and historical life tables, 1921-1981 (abridged): Canada and the provinces. [Longevite et tables de mortalite chronologiques (abregees) 1921-1981: Canada et provinces.] Pub. Order No. 89-506. ISBN 0-660-52882-7. Jul 1986. 215 pp. Minister of Supply and Services: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
Long-term changes in longevity in Canada are examined using data on mortality from the vital statistics register. "The report presents abridged life tables for Canada and provinces for every quinquennial period from 1921 to 1981. Also included in the report are summary tables and charts highlighting the trends and differentials in life expectancy and other life table parameters."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40209 Osman, Magued I.; McClish, Donna K. Survival analysis for heterogeneous populations. In: American Statistical Association, 1985 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1985]. 235-40 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors discuss the question of heterogeneity in life table populations and consider some problems in the survival analysis of heterogeneous populations. They then review the use of stratification, a mixture model, a proportional hazards model, and a frailty model in accounting for heterogeneity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40210 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Age structure of mortality in developing countries: a data base for cross-sectional and time series research. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/66, 1986. vi, 267 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This publication presents a data base of national life tables from developing countries for use in international cross-section and time series research activities in which mortality is a variable of consideration." The data base, already used within the Population Division of the United Nations, is now available to outside researchers. The sources of data are first described. The life tables are then presented by country. Finally, details of the machine-readable data base are provided.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

52:40211 Alachkar, Ahmad; Serow, William J. The socioeconomic determinants of mortality: an international comparison. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. 87-36, [1986?]. 18, [14] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
"This paper examines the relationship between measures of mortality and life expectancy, on the one hand, and measures of socioeconomic development, on the other, for some 125 nations. The analysis is on two levels: first, a cross-sectional examination of these relationships for current levels of mortality and development; second, an analysis of changes in mortality and development over the past twenty years."
With respect to mortality, the authors find the critical relationships to be those "with variables measuring the share of the population enrolled in school and the level of fertility. Increases in the former reduce mortality at all ages and increase the expectation of life; reductions in the latter are especially important in terms of explaining reductions in infant mortality. Variables which measure the level of income and the structure of the economy have little or no direct effect on either the level or trends in mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40212 Bassett, Mary T.; Krieger, Nancy. Social class and black-white differences in breast cancer survival. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 12, Dec 1986. 1,400-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"In the United States, Blacks have poorer survival rates than Whites for breast cancer. The root of this difference--social or genetic--is unclear. Utilizing the Western Washington Cancer Surveillance System and 1980 Census block group data, we examined social class and race as predictors of breast cancer survival in 1,506 women during their first 11 years following diagnosis (251 Blacks, 1,255 Whites)."
For both races, the authors find that "poorer social class was a powerful determinant of shortened survival. These results indicate that the observed breast cancer survival differences between Black and White women...in the US today is substantially due to the poorer social class standing of Blacks."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40213 Bauer, Richard L.; Charlton, John R. H. Area variation in mortality from diseases amenable to medical intervention: the contribution of differences in morbidity. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1986. 408-12 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with variations in mortality from diseases amenable to medical intervention in England and Wales. The focus is on the extent to which these variations can be used to evaluate the quality of medical care provided by the National Health Service. The data concern 98 Area Health Authorities and are for the period 1974-1978. The results suggest that differences in morbidity and socioeconomic factors are not the only determinants of mortality and that variations in the quality of health care may also be relevant factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40214 Borgan, Jens-Kristian; Kristofersen, Lars B. Mortality by occupation and socioeconomic group, 1970-1980. [Dodelighet i yrker og sosiookonomiske grupper, 1970-1980.] Statistiske Analyser, No. 56, ISBN 82-537-2339-3. 1986. 217 pp. Statistisk Sentralbyra: Oslo-Kongsvinger, Norway. In Nor. with sum. in Eng.
This report concerns a follow-up study on the relationship between occupation and mortality in Norway during the period 1970-1980. Data on causes of death were first linked to persons in the 1970 census by the individual person number. An analysis of the mortality of the population 15 years and over is then presented separately for each sex, occupation, and socioeconomic group.
For a related study by Kristofersen, see 46:2209.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40215 Goldstein, Alice. Patterns of mortality and causes of death among Rhode Island Jews, 1979-1981. Social Biology, Vol. 33, No. 1-2, Spring-Summer 1986. 87-101 pp. Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Using information provided by institutions handling Jewish deaths, this study identified 735 deaths among Jewish residents of Rhode Island during 1979-81. Official death records then provided data on the characteristics of the deceased and on cause of death, allowing comparisons of Jewish/non-Jewish patterns of mortality and cause of death, as well as analysis of differentials among the Jewish decedents, taking account of birthplace and occupation. The findings indicate that relatively fewer Jewish males die at ages below 65, and more at ages 85 and over than is true of total white males."
It is also found that "Jewish females exhibit an age-at-death pattern more similar to that of all white women. These sex differences characterize cause of death as well....Differentials in age of death between Jewish native-born and foreign-born are largely a function of their differential age composition, and socioeconomic status showed no clear relation to age at death or cause of death."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40216 Imhof, Arthur E. Premature death in Australia and New Zealand--no mystery, but food for thought. [Der vorzeitige Tod in Australien und Neuseeland--kein Mysterium, sondern ein Anlass zum Nachdenken.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1986. 53-97 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author examines mortality patterns among the aborigines in Australia and the Maoris in New Zealand. Life expectancies of these populations are compared with those of the total populations of the two countries; differentials, particularly for those aged 35-44, are noted. The author contends that "the premature death is not due to the classical Third World causes. The categories infective and parasitic diseases, ailments of the digestive system or symptoms and ill-defined conditions are of only minor importance. So it is not the traditional, but rather the modern health risks that take an excessive toll of lives: cancerous diseases, conditions of the heart and of the circulatory system...."
Differences in health care and labor force participation are investigated as potential factors in the observed mortality patterns. Aspects of the maximization of life span and the life-styles of the aborigines are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40217 Keys, Ancel; Menotti, Alessandro; Karvonen, Martti J.; Aravanis, Christ; Blackburn, Henry; Buzina, Ratko; Djordjevic, B. S.; Dontas, A. S.; Fidanza, Flaminio. The diet and 15-year death rate in the Seven Countries Study. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 124, No. 6, Dec 1986. 903-15 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"In 15 cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, comprising 11,579 men aged 40-59 years and 'healthy' at entry, 2,288 died in 15 years. Death rates differed among cohorts. Differences in mean age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking habits 'explained' 46% of variance in death rate from all causes, 80% from coronary heart disease, 35% from cancer, and 45% from stroke....Death rates were related positively to average percentage of dietary energy from saturated fatty acids, negatively to dietary energy percentage from monounsaturated fatty acids, and were unrelated to dietary energy percentage from polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and alcohol."
Inclusion of the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fatty acids "with age, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and smoking habits as independent variables accounted for 85% of variance in rates of deaths from all causes, 96% coronary heart disease, 55% cancer, and 66% stroke....All-cause and coronary heart disease death rates were low in cohorts with olive oil as the main fat. Causal relationships are not claimed but consideration of characteristics of populations as well as of individuals within populations is urged in evaluating risks." The study covered subpopulations in the United States, Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Japan.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40218 Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lonnqvist, Jouko; Sarna, Seppo. Social factors and the gender difference in mortality. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1986. 605-9 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"The effect of social factors on the male/female difference in mortality in Finland was studied by comparing age- adjusted mortality of males and females by social class and marital status. 44,548 death certificates (years 1969-1971) and 1970 census data for 25-64 year olds were analysed. The gender difference was 2.8-fold: 5.3-fold for violent causes and 2.3-fold for natural causes. The greatest gender difference from violent causes was found in accidental poisonings (18.7-fold) and drownings (12.8-fold), and from natural causes in mental disorders (mainly alcoholism; 5.7-fold) and in ischemic heart disease (4.5-fold)."
The authors also found that "the gender difference was most prominent in unskilled workers, divorced and widowed and less prominent in married and upper professionals. The great variation of gender difference of mortality by social class and marital status seems to indicate that mortality difference between males and females is associated to external factors rather than biological differences between men and women. This conclusion is also supported by the progressive increase of gender difference of mortality from 1.4 to 2.8 during the last 80 years in working-aged Finns."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:40219 McAvoy, Brian R. Death after bereavement. British Medical Journal, Vol. 293, No. 6551, Oct 4, 1986. 835-6 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author summarizes the findings of recent research concerning excess mortality and causes of death among widows and widowers in the United Kingdom.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40220 Mosk, Carl; Johansson, S. Ryan. Income and mortality: evidence from modern Japan. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 3, Sep 1986. 415-40, 611, 613 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article develops a theoretical framework to explore changes over time in the relationship between income per capita and regional mortality levels. Based initially on observations about Western European experience, the theory posits that prior to economic development, and for some time during its early stages, the typical relationship between death rates and income is positive--the result of the deleterious effects of living at high population densities. As people learned to modify and control their environments through various public health measures, the beneficial effects of income on mortality emerged."
This theory is tested using data for Japan. "In the structural shifts of relations between mortality and income, Japan's experience is typical. What remains remarkable is that the Japanese were able to achieve relatively high overall levels of life expectancy very early in the process of economic development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40221 Robbins, Cynthia A. Psychosocial sources of the sex difference in mortality. Pub. Order No. DA8422319. 1984. 226 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Psychosocial sources of the sex difference in mortality are examined for 2,754 [U.S.] men and women aged 35-69 in the Tecumseh Community Health Study who were interviewed and medically examined between 1967-1969 and followed up for mortality as of 1979. During the follow-up period, significantly more of the men (12.9%) than women (6.1%) died."
Controlling for initial health status, the author examines the impact on mortality of three psychosocial risk factors: "(1) social integration and satisfaction with social relationships, (2) employment and work stress, and (3) health habits....A logistic decomposition of the sex difference in mortality indicates a portion of the difference is accounted for by greater male vulnerability to social isolation, to unhealthy habits, and to unemployment and/or lack of job responsibility."
This work was presented as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Michigan.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 45(7).

52:40222 Smith, P. G.; Douglas, A. J. Mortality of workers at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels. British Medical Journal, Vol. 293, No. 6551, Oct 4, 1986. 845-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The mortality of all 14,327 people who were known to have been employed at the Sellafield plant of British Nuclear Fuels at any time between the opening of the site in 1947 and 31 December 1975 was studied up to the end of 1983. The vital state of 96% of the workers was traced satisfactorily and 2,277 were found to have died, 572 (25%) from cancer. On average the workers suffered a mortality from all causes that was 2% less than that of the general population of England and Wales....Their mortality from cancers of all kinds was 5% less than that of England and Wales...."
Comparisons of the mortality of workers who had experienced different levels of radiation exposure are outlined. Variations in the findings according to years of exposure are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40223 Turpeinen, Oiva. Mortality in Finland 1808-1809, 1917-1918 and 1939-1945. Yearbook of Population Research in Finland, Vol. 24, 1986. 96-109 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
The author examines the excess mortality of three periods of war in Finland: 1808-1809, 1917-1918, and 1939-1945. Archival material from the Central Statistical Office is used for the first period, and published statistical sources are used for the other two periods. The author first examines the number of births and deaths by month for each period. Next, male mortality for each period and male mortality by age group in 1808, 1918, and 1940 are calculated, and causes of death are reviewed. Finally, the relationship of these three periods to phases of demographic development is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

52:40224 Araki, S.; Aono, H.; Murata, K.; Shikata, I.; Mitsukuni, Y. Seasonal variation in suicide rates by cause and sex. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 1986. 471-8 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Seasonal variations in cause- and age-specific suicide rates in males and females were analysed in Osaka, Japan, for the years 1974-83, using profile analysis." The data concern 5,547 persons living in Osaka who died from suicide during this period and whose deaths were recorded at the Osaka Prefectural Office of Medical Inspection. Significant differences in methods of suicide by season and sex are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40225 Benjamin, Bernard. Smoking and mortality--a postscript. Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Vol. 113, Pt. 1, No. 453, Jun 1986. 167-72 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author updates an earlier paper in which he summarized research concerning the relationship between smoking and selected causes of death. Data on smoking levels and mean death rates from ischemic heart disease at ages 45-49 and 50-54 and from cancer of the lung, trachea, and bronchus at ages 60-64 and 65-69 are presented separately for males and females for selected countries for the years 1955-1980. Variations in trends in smoking and mortality among the different countries are noted. Attention is given to factors that may operate independently from or in conjunction with cigarette smoking in affecting mortality from ischemic heart disease.
For the earlier paper by Benjamin, published in 1982, see 48:40235.
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

52:40226 Breault, K. D. Suicide in America: a test of Durkheim's theory of religious and family integration, 1933-1980. American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 92, No. 3, Nov 1986. 628-56 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
Theories concerning the relationships between suicide and religious and family integration are tested using U.S. data for the period 1933-1980. Controls are introduced for population change, income, urbanization, unemployment, and female labor force participation. It is found that "at two levels of analysis (county and state) church membership and divorce are among the strongest determinants of suicide rates in a set of variables that included economic and social change indicators." Marked differentials in suicide rates among Catholics and non-Catholics are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:40227 Conti, E. M. S.; Sierra, R.; Manzaroli, D.; Odoardi, F.; Micheloni, F.; Crespi, M. Cancer mortality in the Republic of San Marino. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 3, Sep 1986. 420-3 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"In this study the mortality trends [for San Marino] based on crude rates are reported for all neoplasms and for selected sites in the years 1908 to 1980, showing increased rates for all neoplasms and the highest rate for stomach cancer. Age-adjusted death rates were calculated for all neoplasms and for selected sites, by sex, in the years 1966 to 1980. Stomach cancer was the commonest cause of cancer death in San Marino and its age-adjusted death rate was the highest in the world. A sharp increase was also observed for respiratory tract and colorectal cancers in recent years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40228 Hogberg, Ulf. Maternal deaths in Sweden, 1971-1980. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1986. 161-7 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
"The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the causes of maternal deaths [in Sweden] during the years 1971-80, and to discuss the various contributing factors and their avoidability." The results show that "amniotic fluid embolism, pulmonary embolism and hemorrhage were the main causes of death within 24 hours after delivery, while pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and sepsis were predominant during the rest of the puerperium. Age and parity are highly important risk factors."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40229 La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano; Mezzanotte, Guerrino; Cislaghi, Cesare. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 40, No. 3, Sep 1986. 257-61 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled." The results show significant increases in mortality from alcohol-related cancer sites in both males and females. "These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40230 Martin, Michael J.; Browner, Warren S.; Hulley, Stephen B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Wentworth, Deborah. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and mortality: implications from a cohort of 361,662 men. Lancet, No. 8513, Oct 25, 1986. 933-9 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
"The risks associated with various levels of serum cholesterol were determined by analysis of 6-year mortality in 361,662 [U.S.] men aged 35-57. Above the 20th percentile for serum cholesterol...coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality increased progressively; the relative risk was large (3.8) in the men with cholesterol levels above the 85th percentile....When men below the 20th cholesterol percentile were used as the baseline risk group, half of all CHD deaths were associated with raised serum cholesterol concentrations; half of these excess deaths were in men with cholesterol levels above the 85th percentile."
It is also found that "for both CHD and total mortality, serum cholesterol was similar to diastolic blood pressure in the shape of the risk curve and in the size of the high-risk group. This new evidence supports the policy of a moderate fat intake for the general population and intensive treatment for those at high risk. There is a striking analogy between serum cholesterol and blood pressure in the epidemiological basis for identifying a large segment of the population (10-15%) for intensive treatment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40231 Mezzanotte, Guerrino; Cislaghi, Cesare; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Cancer mortality in broad Italian geographical areas, 1975-1977. Tumori, Vol. 72, No. 2, Apr 30, 1986. 145-52 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
Differences in cancer mortality by sex and major region of Italy are analyzed for the period 1975-1977 using data from death certificates. Distinct differences in mortality from tobacco-related causes by region are noted. Variations in cancer mortality from other causes tended to level off in recent years.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:40232 Mhango, Chisale; Rochat, Roger; Arkutu, Andrew. Reproductive mortality in Lusaka, Zambia, 1982-1983. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1986. 243-51 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study, age- and parity-specific birth data were used to estimate maternal mortality rates for 1982-83 at University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Overall, 60 maternal deaths occurred during pregnancy or within 42 days after pregnancy termination, and four pregnancy-related deaths occurred more than 42 days after pregnancy termination." Consideration is given to causes of death.
The results indicate that "women aged 35 years and older or who had had four previous pregnancies had a higher risk of dying than other women, especially by hemorrhage. The chief risk factors included not using an effective method of contraception, using an unsafe means to terminate unintended pregnancies, lack of prenatal care, refusing a blood transfusion (for religious reasons), and inadequately treating hypertensive disease of pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40233 Rochat, R. W.; Bhiwandiwala, P. P.; Feldblum, P. J.; Peterson, H. B. Mortality associated with sterilization: preliminary results of an international collaborative observational study. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 24, 1986. 275-84 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
The authors examine mortality attributable to female sterilization using data collected by Family Health International for 28 countries. "Of 41,834 sterilizations, 23 resulted in deaths temporally associated with the procedure used. The adjusted attributable case-fatality rates were 13.4 per 100,000 for interval procedures, 53.3 per 100,000 for postabortion procedures, and 43.4 per 100,000 sterilizations after vaginal delivery. Multiple factors contributed to the deaths, including pre-existing health problems, infection and anesthesia."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40234 Ruth, Denise. Australian death risk tables: tables of probability of death in the next ten years from major causes. Rev. ed. ISBN 0-9593652-0-6. Sep 1984. 55 pp. La Trobe University Health Service: Bundoora, Australia. In Eng.
This report presents death risk tables for Australia listing "the 15 most common causes of death for males and females for 5 year age groups. The tables give the probability of death in the next 10 years from each cause." A table of probability of death in the next 10 years by age and sex is also included. A mortality list links the cause of death codes used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics with the WHO classification of diseases.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40235 Sierra, Rafaela; Barrantes, Ramiro. Cancer. Mortality and incidence in Costa Rica. [Cancer. Mortalidad e incidencia en Costa Rica.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 101, No. 2, Aug 1986. 124-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Por.
"A study was made of the mortality (1973-1982) and incidence (1979-1983) of cancer in Costa Rica using the data of the National Tumor Register and the General Statistics and Census Administration. The results revealed a cancer mortality trend similar to that of industrialized countries, although with lower rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40236 Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Geboers, Jef; Salonen, Jukka T.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Puska, Pekka. Decline in cardiovascular mortality in North Karelia and other parts of Finland. British Medical Journal, Vol. 293, No. 6554, Oct 25, 1986. 1,068-71 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular stroke, and all cardiovascular diseases were analysed for the province of North Karelia and for the rest of Finland. Linear trends in mortality were computed for the population aged 35 to 64 for the period from 1969 to 1982, and changes in mortality between the three year means of 1969-71 and 1980-2 were calculated." The focus is on the impact of the community-based preventive program that has been operating in North Karelia since 1972.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40237 Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Tatara, Kozo; Asakura, Shintaro. Declining mortality from ischemic heart disease and changes in coronary risk factors in Japan, 1956-1980. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 125, No. 1, Jan 1987. 62-72 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
An analysis of the factors contributing to the decline in mortality from ischemic heart disease that occurred in Japan from 1956 to 1980 is presented. Data are from official vital statistics and national surveys on health topics. "The age-adjusted (30-69 years) mortality from ischemic heart disease declined by 24% and 37% for men and women, respectively, between 1968 and 1978."
The results indicate that declines in blood pressure levels and in the prevalence of hypertension, together with improved treatment for cardiovascular disease, may have had significant impacts. The decline in cigarette smoking may also have played a role. However, increased intake of lipids was compatible with an increase in mortality from ischemic heart disease during the period 1956-1970.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:40238 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. Causes of death in France from 1925 to 1943: reclassification according to the fourth revision of the International Classification of Diseases. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1943: reclassement selon la 4e revision de la Classification internationale.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 115, Annexe 1, 1986. 177 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is the first in a planned series of seven reference documents to be prepared by the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) in conjunction with a forthcoming publication concerning causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978. In the present document, the authors discuss the reclassification of deaths for the years 1925-1943 for France as a whole using both the abridged and detailed lists of the 1929 International Classification of Diseases. Deaths for Paris alone are reclassified according to the detailed list. Tables and charts presenting the results compose the major portion of this document.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:40239 Walczak, Korani G. The effects of socioeconomic, demographic, and health variables upon the mortality rates from infectious diseases. Pub. Order No. DA8610394. 1986. 125 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Multiple correlation and regression techniques are used to determine the degree to which a given socioeconomic, demographic, or health variable affects the mortality rate from several infectious diseases." The data are for U.S. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) for 1980. It is found that "the variables in the model explain very little, if any, of the variance in the mortality rates."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brigham Young University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 47(3).

52:40240 Wing, Steve; Hayes, Carl; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther; Knowles, Maryilyn; Riggan, Wilson; Tyroler, H. A. Geographic variation in the onset of decline of ischemic heart disease mortality in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 12, Dec 1986. 1,404-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report examines geographic variation in the onset of the decline of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality in white [U.S.] males aged 35-74 during the period 1968-78. Using a quadratic regression model, State Economic Areas (SEAs) were classified as experiencing onset of the decline in 1968 or earlier, 1969-72, or 1973 or later. In the United States as a whole, approximately one-third of SEAs experienced a late onset of the decline (after 1968)."
Differences are noted in the timing of the decline between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas and among various regions of the country. "The acceleration of the national decline after 1972 appears to be due to declines in areas in which rates had been increasing or in plateau until that time. Evidence about geographic variation in the onset of decline may provide clues about social and environmental factors responsible for the decline."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.