Volume 52 - Number 3 - Fall 1986

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

52:30270 Adeokun, Lawrence A. Fertility inhibiting effects of the intermediate fertility variables in two Nigerian sub-groups. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 89-106 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper, the fertility-inhibiting effects of the intermediate fertility variables among the Ikale-Yoruba are contrasted against those of the Ekiti, another Yoruba group for which more conventional family building practices have been reported. The objectives of the comparative approach are as follows: (a) to show that abstinence is not a factor in the reduction of marital fertility among the Ikale-Yoruba, as it is in other sub-groups studied so far; (b) that alternative outlets of fertility reduction, such as reliance on the protection offered by post-partum amenorrhoea, and some practice of folk and modern methods of contraception, are employed."
The data, which were collected in Nigeria in 1977, concern 460 currently married Ikale-Yoruba women and some of their husbands, and 535 eligible Ekiti-Yoruba women. The results show that although total fertility rates between the two groups were similar, there were significant differences concerning the relative reliance by each group on postpartum abstinence and contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30271 Arnold, Fred; Liu, Zhaoxiang. Sex preference, fertility, and family planning in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 221-46, 376-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Data from a large, nationally representative fertility survey in China provide important new evidence of the existence of son preference in every part of China except Beijing and Shanghai. The survey documents difference in son preference by place of residence, nationality, and educational attainment. Contraceptive use, abortion, fertility, childspacing, and the acceptance of a one-child certificate are all affected by the sex of the surviving first child or the sex composition of surviving children in the family." The authors conclude that the prevalence of son preference is not a major problem for the country's population program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30272 Bean, Frank D.; Swicegood, Gray. Mexican American fertility patterns. Mexican American Monograph, No. 10, ISBN 0-292-75087-0. LC 85-20363. 1985. x, 178 pp. University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This monograph reports research findings dealing with the effects of generation on fertility and with the relationship between linguistic patterns and fertility among Mexican Americans. Research results are also presented concerning the manner in which several variables that measure access to social and economic opportunities condition the effects of female education on fertility within not only the Mexican American but also the black population." The relative effects of opportunity costs and minority group status are considered.
The study is based on data from the 1970 and 1980 U.S. census Public Use Sample and the 1976 Survey of Income and Education. Consideration is given both to fertility variations within the Mexican American population and between Mexican Americans and other U.S. populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30273 Chaudhry, Mahinder D.; Choudhry, Nanda K. The fertility rate in Canada, 1950-1976: a socio-econometric analysis. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1985. 1-30 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The causes of the fertility decline that has occurred in Canada since the 1950s are analyzed. "Use is made of a four-equation model, which determines simultaneously the fertility rate, an age-specific female labour force participation rate, age-specific marital ratio (proportion of women who are married) and the infant mortality rate."
The results suggest that "the age-specific female labour force participation rate (20-44 years) and the age-specific marriage rate (15-44 years) were the most important variables in determining the fertility rate over the sample period." The factors affecting nuptiality and female labor force participation are also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30274 Chaudhury, Rafiqul H. Female labour force status and fertility behaviour in Bangladesh: search for policy interventions. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1983. 59-102 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
Published studies and official data for Bangladesh are examined in this analysis of the impact of female labor force participation on fertility behavior. Contraceptive use and numbers of children ever born among women with varying levels of work experience and education, age, place of residence, and income are considered. Experiences in neighboring countries are compared.
The author finds that "providing employment opportunities to rural poor women even in the traditional sector will not only improve their personal and family income but also motivate them to limit their fertility through wider use of contraception." The factors resulting from improved employment opportunities for women "will create an environment favourable for small family size norm, leading to restriction of fertility on the part of working women either through wide use of contraception or delayed marriage or longer birth-spacing or all of them together."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30275 Chhabra, S.; Jajoo, U. N.; Wagh, R. N. Child loss and fertility in rural Eastern Mahararhtra. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 55-8 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
The relationship between child loss and fertility in a rural area of Eastern Mahararhtra, India, is explored. The data concern a population of some 743 couples. Differences in replacement fertility between acceptors and nonacceptors of family planning are analyzed.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30276 Cutright, Phillips; Smith, Herbert L. Multiple thresholds and fertility declines in third world populations: paths to low fertility by the years 2000 and 2010. In: Persistent patterns and emerging structures in a waning century, edited by Margaret P. Karns. 1986. 273-302 pp. Praeger: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This chapter reviews recent empirical research on the determinants of fertility among [developing countries] LDCs and then develops a new method of forecasting birth rates. The results indicate reason for optimism in some large LDCs, but also suggest that population growth rates in the year 2010 will remain high (2 percent a year or greater) in 15 of the 33 largest less-developed nations." The method used involves the linkage of the achievement of multiple development thresholds with fertility trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30277 Desplanques, Guy. Fifty years of French fertility: birth rates and birth intervals. [50 ans de fecondite en France: rangs et intervalles entre naissances.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 233-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The author examines changes in fertility in France over a 50-year period, drawing particularly from the results of a survey of 300,000 women conducted in conjunction with the 1982 census. "The results may be compared with those obtained from routine statistics, but they make possible two new types of investigation, dealing with the number of children born and the parity progression ratios for cohorts born in 1917 or later, and with changes in birth intervals during the period of low fertility which began in 1965. During the 1960s there were relatively few childless women and intervals between first and second births were relatively short. The fall in fertility after 1965 can be attributed to changes in these two variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30278 Desplanques, Guy; de Saboulin, Michel. First birth and marriage from 1950 to the present. [Premiere naissance et mariage de 1950 a nos jours.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 10, 47-55 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in the relationship between timing of first birth and marriage in France from 1950 to the present are examined. The authors note that until 1972, an increasing proportion of first births were being conceived outside of marriage. This trend was changed by the spread of effective modern contraception. Since 1978, the trend toward conception outside marriage has reemerged, particularly among older women; however, more frequently such conceptions result in births outside of formal marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30279 Donkov, Kiril. The status and dynamics of fertility and mortality in Bulgaria. [Sastoyanie i dinamika na razhdaemostta i smartnostta v Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1985. 27-50 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Fertility and mortality trends in Bulgaria are analyzed for the period 1960-1983. Changes are examined for the country as a whole and for urban and rural areas. The impact of demographic factors and of the country's pro-natalist policy is assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30280 Grindstaff, Carl F. The baby bust revisited: Canada's continuing pattern of low fertility. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1985. 103-10 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
The author updates a 1975 study on the fertility decline in Canada using official data and shows that the predicted trends in fertility have continued into the 1980s. The importance for future fertility trends of choice in childbearing for women is stressed.
For the author's original study, published in 1975, see 43:3326.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30281 Guatemala. Consejo Nacional de Planificacion Economica. Departamento de Poblacion y Empleo (Guatemala City, Guatemala). Fertility in Guatemala, 1950-1981. [La fecundidad en Guatemala, 1950-1981.] Serie: Resultados, No. 3, Jun 1983. [345] pp. Guatemala City, Guatemala. In Spa.
An analysis of fertility trends in Guatemala from 1950 to 1981 is presented. The sources of data are first described; these include vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. Basic fertility measures are provided, and fertility differentials are considered by ethnic group, rural or urban residence, and region. Aspects of age-specific fertility are then analyzed. Separate consideration is given to the estimation of fertility using census data. The various methods used to estimate fertility and factors affecting fertility levels are also reviewed.
Location: International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland.

52:30282 Jain, R. K.; Sharma, R. D.; Jain, S. Application of ARIMA model in adjustment of seasonal and non-seasonal variations in births of Ontario. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 127-33 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The objective of this paper is to justify the use of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models for birth time series data of the province of Ontario [Canada]." The results show that the model provides satisfactory short-term forecasts. "It shows that along with seasonal varations, non-seasonal variations due to reporting etc. must be taken into account for interpreting similar time series data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30283 Joe, Shirley. Regional fertility in Quebec, 1961-1982. [Les fecondites regionales au Quebec, 1961-1982.] Mar 1986. 76 pp. Bureau de la Statistique du Quebec, Service de l'Analyse et de la Prevision Demographiques: Quebec, Canada. In Fre.
An analysis of fertility trends in the province of Quebec, Canada, is presented, with the focus on the period 1961-1982. The first two sections present a period analysis and a cohort analysis of fertility trends in Quebec. The next two sections examine regional differences in fertility using both the period and cohort approaches. The author concludes that fertility has declined from a high level to below replacement level in nearly all parts of the province and that there is no evidence for a change in this situation in the forseeable future.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30284 Kamuzora, C. L. Socialisation and high fertility behaviour in early modernisation: a case study of Wasukuma of Mwanza region, Tanzania. In: Population and development. Proceedings of the symposium held at Cairo Demographic Centre, 3-7 November 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 14, 1986. 167-76 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author presents a statistical analysis of fertility behavior among the Wasukuma of the Mwanza region in Tanzania. Data are from a 1980 pregnancy history survey based on a random sample of 3,000 rural and urban women. The author concludes that "the apparent increase in fertility among younger women may be the result of change in the process of socialisation relating to child-bearing and child-rearing (or family life education)." Specifically, the effect of education is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30285 Kanjanapan, Wilawan. A study on the relationship between fertility behaviour and size, structure, and functions of the family in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 92, Sep 1985. [x], 127 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
This report represents the Thai contribution to a comparative project on the relationship between fertility behavior and family size, structure, and functions, being carried out under the auspices of the U.N. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The focus is on "the impact of family structure and intra-household obligations upon the decision-making process of the married couple with respect to the number and spacing of children as well as family planning practice."
The data concern 611 married women aged 20-49 living in Roi Et and Chiang Rai provinces; both rural and urban residents were included. The results confirm the importance of relatives sharing the same residence, and other relatives, friends, and neighbors on a couple's fertility-related behavior.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30286 Kapala, Karl-Heinz. Recent trends in population development and reproductive behavior in Poland. [Neuere Tendenzen der Bevolkerungsentwicklung und des generativen Verhaltens in Polen.] In: Geographie als Sozialwissenschaft: Beitrage zu ausgewahlten Problemen kulturgeographischer Forschung, Wolfgang Kuls zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Franz-Josef Kemper, Hans-Dieter Laux, and Gunter Thieme. Colloquium Geographicum, Vol. 18, ISBN 3-427-74181-8. 1985. 108-43 pp. Ferdinand Dummlers: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Changes in fertility in Poland between 1950 and 1982 are analyzed using data taken primarily from official sources. Regional differences in fertility are also examined. The data indicate that fertility rates remained high until the late 1950s, decreased substantially during the 1960s, and rose again during the 1970s and early 1980s. A slight weakening of regional differentials is evident. Attention is also given to factors affecting fertility, including age structure, marriage patterns, female employment, educational levels, consumer behavior, income and housing conditions, contraceptive use, abortion, and population policy measures.
Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, N.Y.

52:30287 Khalifa, M. A. Determinants of natural fertility in Sudan. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 325-36 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
Data from the 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey are analyzed in order to examine determinants of fertility in the northern part of the country. It is observed that "the fertility of the Sudanese population (North) is close to natural. The high observed fertility rate in Sudan is found to be a function of the high proportion married and ineffective family planning procedures. The main inhibitor is prolonged lactational amenorrhoea. The high level of fertility exists in spite of a low level of fecundability. The duration of separation between spouses, due to temporary or seasonal migration of husbands, and the pathological causes of high primary sterility, which contribute to the low fecundability, need further investigation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30288 Klijzing, F. K. H.; Keilman, N. W. Fertility and living arrangements in the Netherlands: some expectations. [Vaker 'alternatieve' relatievorming dan 'alternatieve' vruchtbaarheid.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 6, Jun 1986. 25-8 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Selected results from the Survey of Living Arrangements, conducted in the Netherlands in 1984, are presented. The data concern approximately 1,600 men and women aged 18-54. The focus is on living arrangements, partner relationships, and fertility. The results show that most children will be born within marriage, although most men and women have experienced a nonfamily living arrangement before starting a family.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30289 Knodel, John; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Debavalya, Nibhon. The cultural context of Thailand's fertility decline. Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1986. 23-48 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The recent decline in fertility in Thailand is analyzed. The focus is on the various aspects of Thai culture that are relevant to understanding how such a rapid change in reproductive behavior has taken place. Data are from a variety of sources, including ethnographic studies, sample surveys, and focus group discussions conducted among rural people.
"The major thesis is that the ready limitation of family size and the adoption of birth control by Thai couples as ways to adjust to changing socio-economic circumstances have been facilitated by several important features of Thai culture. These include the notable absence of several pro-natalist cultural props to high fertility and barriers to fertility decline characteristic of many third world societies. The analysis starts with a consideration of parent repayment expectations....Three other crucial cultural features, i.e. the locus of reproductive decision making, the extent of female autonomy and the influence of Theravada Buddhism, are then discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30290 Kono, Shigemi; Ishikawa, Akira. Age, parity, and time in fertility. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 178, Apr 1986. 18-32 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The authors analyze fertility trends in Japan from 1935 to 1969 using "vital statistics data upon which age-parity adjusted net reproduction tables were constructed for 35 different female birth cohorts." These tables are used to calculate "cohort net reproduction rate and total fertility rate by parity and age, [as well as] mean age at first birth, second birth, etc. and average length of birth interval in each cohort."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30291 Lavely, William R. Age patterns of Chinese marital fertility, 1950-1981. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 419-34 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Coale and Trussell's model of marital fertility is used to analyze data from China's National One-per-Thousand Fertility Survey. Rural China experienced a regime of natural fertility until 1970, after which levels of fertility control rose with unprecedented speed and with an age pattern starkly dissimilar from that observed in other populations. Urban marital fertility was apparently under a modest level of deliberate control in the 1950s, with a sustained rise in control beginning in 1963. Natural fertility was low relative to other populations, with the urban level exceeding the rural."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30292 Marques, Rubens M. Least squares fitting of a beta distribution to age-specific fertility rates. [Ajuste, por minimos quadrados, de uma distribuicao beta as taxas de fecundidade por idade.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 145-62 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
"The paper shows at first that using the method of moments to estimate the parameters of a Beta function to fit age specific fertility rates is inadequate. A solution by means of the least squares method is proposed, under the constraint that the implied Total Fertility Rate should equal the observed value."
This "iterative solution by means of the Newton-Raphson method turns out to be extremely efficient, converging in only a few steps. In addition, some characteristics of the Beta distribution related to the problem are obtained. The results, applied to 1980 data from the State of Sao Paulo [Brazil], clearly show a better global fit, especially in the area around the peak of the fertility curve."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30293 Menken, Jane; Larsen, Ulla. Fertility rates and aging. In: Aging, reproduction, and the climacteric, edited by Luigi Mastroianni and C. Alvin Paulsen. ISBN 0-306-42142-9. LC 85-28299. 1986. 147-66 pp. Plenum Press: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
"The purpose of this chapter is to review evidence of the level and age pattern of decline in fecundity for women and for men and then to focus on delayed childbearing." Attention is given to both modern and historical populations; the geographic focus is worldwide. Consideration is also given to the role of disease in the analysis of the relationship between fertility and aging.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30294 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Some welfare theoretic implications of endogenous fertility. International Economic Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1986. 3-31 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors explore the implications of endogenous fertility for a number of population policy issues. "By endogenous fertility the authors mean that parents determine their number of children and their bequests to them in the forms of human and physical capital by maximizing their own satisfaction subject to a set of economic constraints. This framework is used to provide new insights regarding the optimal size and rate of growth of population, the optimal within-generation income distribution, the potential for market failure due to public goods, Malthusian scarcity, differential ability, marriages tied to bequests, and old-age security needs." The geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30295 Ni Bhrolchain, Maire. Women's paid work and the timing of births: longitudinal evidence. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 1986. 43-70 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"It has been suggested that work-motivated women may shorten their birth intervals to allow a faster return to the workforce. This paper: (i) considers the circumstances under which such contraction would be expected; (ii) argues that British conditions in the 1940s to 1970s were favourable to the adoption of this strategy, among others; [and] (iii) discusses some methodological issues arising in the empirical treatment of the question...."
The analyses of the relationship between work and birth interval are based on data from the National Survey of Health and Development, a longitudinal study of a sample of children born in 1946 and their mothers, and on retrospective data from the Family Formation Survey of 1976. The results, presented in tabular form, "suggest that during the post-war period, labour-force participation was associated with both a contraction and a lengthening of birth intervals."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30296 Nosseir, Nazek. Measurement of intermediate variables affecting fertility in rural Egypt. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 27, Dec 1985. 109-25 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
This study examines socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as the fertility behavior of 22,803 married women under age 45 from 38 villages in Egypt using the results of a 1977 survey. A Bongaarts model is applied to assess the intermediate variables that affect fertility, including exposure factors, deliberate marital fertility control factors, and natural marital fertility factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30297 Nour, El-Sayed. Parity-specific fertility tables. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 187-92 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author proposes procedures for constructing fertility tables using female parity, rather than age. Sample tables are presented for ever-married white females in the United States, aged 15-44, for 1970. "A parity-specific statistical model of fertility which forms the theoretical basis for these tables is outlined...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30298 Patnaik, M. M. Socio-economic, cultural and demographic rationality of fertility behaviour. 1985. viii, 208 pp. Janaki Prakashan: Patna, India. In Eng.
This is an analysis of the socioeconomic, cultural, and demographic factors affecting fertility behavior in India. Data are from a sample survey conducted in Bihar in 1977 and 1978 and concern approximately 800 households, most of which are in the city of Patna. Univariate and bivariate rather than multivariate methods are used to analyze the data. The first chapter focuses on the socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. The author concludes that high fertility is associated with low education, low occupational status, and low income.
Chapters are also included on the effect of age at marriage on fertility, cultural factors affecting fertility, and the impact of infant mortality on birth intervals and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30299 Rao, K. Vaninadha; Beaujot, Roderic. Effect of infant mortality on subsequent fertility in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 297-303 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The relation between infant mortality and fertility is studied using data from the 1975 fertility surveys in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. It is found that the unadjusted data support child replacement, but that this is much less the case once controls are introduced for demographic and socioeconomic factors. Replacement is slightly more pronounced when there are fewer surviving male children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30300 Redburn, David E. The world system and demographic responses: the case of fertility. Pub. Order No. DA8604911. 1985. 183 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The relationship between world system position, as measured by the Snyder-Kick model and fertility levels, is investigated. The data are from the World Fertility Survey....Additional data were obtained from other international sources including the United Nations and the World Bank....Multiple regression models were estimated which included terms to test for the interaction between position in the world system and certain intranational indicators of development....These analyses suggest that there are important structural differences between modernization and fertility. In addition, the importance of strong family planning programs in terms of subsequent fertility levels is confirmed."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Utah.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30301 Robinson, W. C. High fertility as risk-insurance. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 289-304 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This is a critical analysis of the hypothesis developed by Mead Cain that insurance against risk is a contributing cause of high fertility in poor South Asian countries. The proposition is subjected to a series of historical and cross-sectional empirical tests. The author concludes "that there are serious conceptual and theoretical weaknesses in the basic argument which cast serious doubt on its validity. Also the empirical tests undertaken lead us to reject the hypothesis." A reply by Cain (pp. 299-304) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30302 Robinson, Warren C. Studies in the fertility impact of development programmes in Bangladesh. Dec 1985. 70 pp. Planning Commission, Population and Development Planning Unit: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, May 15-18, 1985, on the relationship between development and demographic variables in Bangladesh. Six papers are included in which the impact on fertility of rural development, rural electrification, female education, women's programs, female labor force participation, and social welfare programs are considered. A final paper summarizes the impact of such factors on fertility.
Location: University of Pennsylvania, Demography Library, Philadelphia, Pa.

52:30303 Rodriguez Wong, Laura. Recent trends in fertility in the state of Sao Paulo. [Tendencia recente da fecundidade no estado de Sao Paulo.] Revista Brasileira de Estudos de Populacao, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 75-103 pp. Sao Paulo, Brazil. In Por. with sum. in Eng.
Fertility trends in the Brazilian state of Sao Paulo are analyzed for the period 1960-1980 using census and vital statistics data. The total fertility rate declined from 4.69 in 1960 to 3.40 in 1980; however, fertility has remained constant since 1975 following a rapid decline in the early 1970s.
"The stability of the 1975-80 period is explained by an increase in the order of 10% of the native population of the State, an increase of the proportion of migrants, and an improvement of mortality levels, favoring women in the reproductive ages. Taking the socio-economic conjuncture of the State and the birth registration data of the first years of the 1980 decade as a reference, it is expected that the fertility decline will continue."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30304 Rosenzweig, Mark R. Birth spacing and sibling inequality: asymmetric information within the family. International Economic Review, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1986. 55-76 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The author argues that the timing of childbearing is an important source of both within- and across-family income and human capital inequality. "The paper formulates a dynamic model of birth spacing under uncertainty of each child's endowments and determines how the spacing of children responds to shocks in prior birth outcomes. New estimation techniques are developed to test the importance of heterogeneity bias arising from intrafamily optimal allocations and to estimate spacing determinants. The empirical results indicate that intrafamily heterogeneity bias is more important in a health outcome equation than interfamily heterogeneity bias."
The model is tested using data from a probability sample of U.S. white, married couples. The data are analyzed to describe the extent of intra-family variation in birth outcomes and spacing and to test for heterogeneity bias.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30305 Rothman, Barbara K. The products of conception: the social context of reproductive choices. Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 188-92 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper addresses the changing ideology regarding reproduction, an evolving [U.S.], and potentially worldwide, value system regarding children and parenthood. Children are increasingly being seen as products, and the new technology of reproduction, including the sale of reproductive material and services and especially prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion, encourage this commodification of the fetus. While the new technology does indeed offer new choices, it also creates new structures and new limitations on choice. In the contemporary [U.S.] social structure, these choices are inevitably couched in terms of production and commodification, and thus do not offer individuals genuine choice or control."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30306 Saghayroun, Atif A. R. Feasibility of fertility control in rural areas in the Sudan. Economic and Social Research Council Bulletin, No. 99, LC 84-980256. Sep 1983. ii, 25 pp. National Council for Research, Economic and Social Research Council: Khartoum, Sudan. In Eng.
Fertility in rural Sudan is analyzed, with a focus on the prospects for developing programs designed to control fertility. Previous research on fertility in the Sudan is first reviewed. Consideration is next given to fertility differences among provinces and between rural and urban areas. Finally, the socioeconomic factors affecting fertility in rural areas are outlined, including religion, cultural factors, poverty, illiteracy, and infant mortality.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30307 Sander, William. Farm women, work, and fertility. Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 101, No. 3, Aug 1986. 653-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines fertility among U.S. farm families in light of the economic theory of fertility. "I shall provide new evidence regarding the negative effect of female earning ability on fertility. I shall demonstrate that state-level population density, an exogenous measure of the value of female time in the farm sector, increases the value of the farm wife's time in off-farm market work and reduces fertility. After a review of farm family fertility, I shall present estimates of fertility in the farm sector for 1980. The estimates will be discussed in a concluding section."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:30308 Shields, Michael P.; Tracy, Ronald L. Four themes in fertility research. Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 53, No. 1, Jul 1986. 201-16 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This study is concerned with four main themes that have been combined to describe U.S. fertility trends since 1920. These themes are identified as a time adjustment mechanism, income, the wife's labor force activities, and some intergenerational factor. "In order to obtain an unambiguous picture each theme will be represented by only one variable. After selecting the variables and estimating a model, an examination of the changing role these variables have had in explaining changes in fertility (the total fertility rate) throughout much of this century will be made. Finally, the implications these themes have for future fertility will be examined."
The authors conclude that "in interpreting historical U.S. fertility rates, the results seem to indicate that much of the early decline in U.S. fertility was due to falling infant mortality. After the Second World War, fertility rose sharply as the age-structure variable declined and income rose. Eventually both women's labor force participation rates and the age-structure variable rose and, consequently, fertility fell." They also suggest that the age structure variable may cause a temporary upward swing in fertility in the near future.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30309 Somalia. Ministry of Health (Mogadishu, Somalia); Westinghouse Public Applied Systems (Columbia, Maryland). Fertility and family planning in urban Somalia. Results of the Somali Family Health Survey in five cities, 1983. Jul 1985. xi, 100, [15] pp. Mogadishu, Somalia. In Eng.
This report presents results from a survey carried out in Somalia in 1983. "The main objective of the survey was to collect information concerning fertility, attitudes towards and use of family planning methods, and family health practices in the five major urban areas in Somalia. A total of 3,016 ever married women were interviewed in Mogadishu, Hargeisa, Kismayo, Baydhaba, and Burco....These cities were selected because they were the focus of a recently-launched family health/family planning project."
Information is also included on survey methodology, respondents' characteristics, breast-feeding, and contraceptive knowledge and availability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30310 Stark, Oded. Inducing fertility change: a game-theoretic approach. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 1986. 31-42 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper explores the inducement of fertility change in situations where actual fertility levels do not coincide with socially optimal fertility levels." The analysis is equally applicable to higher than socially optimal fertility levels in developing countries and to suboptimal levels in developed countries as well; the focus of the paper is on the former situation. The author outlines what is referred to as a prisoner's dilemma characterization and its resolution through the generation of mutual altruism.
"The prisoner's dilemma characterization hinges on the assumption that there is some social sharing of the costs associated with a given level of fertility but less or none with respect to the benefits. The mutual altruism solution depends on representing an agent's preferences as a specific convex combination of his/her and the other agent's original utilities. The unique critical level of such altruism is identified and hence a stopping rule is provided."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30311 Stokes, C. Shannon; Schutjer, Wayne A.; Bulatao, Rodolfo A. Is the relationship between landholding and fertility spurious? A response to Cain. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 305-17 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The relationship between landholding and fertility is reviewed, with particular reference to a recent study by Mead Cain that suggested that this relationship was not a significant determinant of fertility. The geographic focus is on developing countries. The authors conclude that both the demand for and the supply of children appear to be influenced by landholding. A reply by Cain (pp. 313-7) is included.
For the study by Cain, published in 1985, see 51:20232.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30312 Streatfield, Kim. Fertility decline in a traditional society: the case of Bali. Indonesian Population Monograph Series, No. 4, ISBN 0-86784-711-5. 1986. xvii, 177 pp. Australian National University, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
The author analyzes the fertility decline that has occurred in Bali, Indonesia. The focus is on how such a decline has taken place in a society that has remained largely traditional in terms of living arrangements, family relationships, community cooperation, economic distribution, and social control. The data are primarily from a 1980 survey of approximately 1,000 women in the regency of Klungkung. The factors associated with the rapid spread of family planning are identified as concern about the shortage of agricultural land combined with a strong desire to remain in the natal village. The linkage between central government policy and the community-level administration, or banjar, is seen as a key factor in the success of the family planning program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30313 Suchindran, C. M.; Horne, A. Dale. Some statistical approaches to the modeling of selected fertility events. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 629-34 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors "develop analytic expressions for the distributions of age at first birth, age at last birth, span of childbearing, and number of children ever born when only age specific birth and death rates are known....[A] proportional hazards type model is suggested to study the effect of covariables on age specific fertility rates. Examples are provided with data from Egypt."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30314 Surbey, Michele K.; de Catanzaro, Denys; Smith, Martin S. Seasonality of conceptions in Hutterite colonies of Europe (1758-1881) and North America (1858-1964). Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 337-45 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Birth records of Hutterite colonies were examined for the presence of seasonal variation in conception rate. Month of conception was inferred by counting back 9 months from date of birth. Over 4,300 births, occurring between 1758 and 1964 and spanning the years that the colonies inhabited the Ukraine and then migrated to the United States and Canada, were included in the analysis. When combined, the European and North American births showed a seasonal pattern with a general rise in conceptions from December to June followed by a decline in conceptions from July to November. The major peaks in conceptions were in April and June, with a minor peak in December."
When the European and North American populations are considered separately, the seasonal pattern in the former is shown to be more marked than in the latter. "It is assumed that both biological and cultural factors are responsible for the seasonal variation observed. The influences of light cycle, date of marriage, and work and holiday schedules on conception rates are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30315 Swicegood, Gray; Bean, Frank D.; Stephen, Elizabeth H.; Opitz, Wolfgang; Cardenas, Gilberto. Language usage and fertility in the Mexican-origin population: results from the 1980 census. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.013, 1986. 38 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper presents evidence concerning the effects of English proficiency and female education on both cumulative and recent fertility within the Mexican origin population in the United States....Using data from the 1980 United States Census five-percent Public Use Microdata Sample for ever-married Mexican origin women aged 15-44, we find that for almost all age cohorts, the effects of English proficiency on fertility are negative and increase with rising education."
This paper was originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America. For more detailed information, see the abstracts of PAA papers at the beginning of this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30316 Teachman, Jay D. Historical and subgroup variations in the association between marriage and first childbirth: a life-course perspective. Journal of Family History, Vol. 10, No. 4, Winter 1985. 379-401 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper takes a life-course approach in examining empirically the patterning of marriage and first childbirth among white and black [U.S.] women first married between 1950 and 1971. The results indicate considerable historical and racial differences in the joint arrangements of marriage and childbirth." Data are from the 1973 National Survey of Family Growth.
"A major distinction is that the historical variation among white women was a consistent shortening of maritally conceived first-birth intervals over the 1950s followed by a consistent lengthening of these intervals over the 1960s and early 1970s. Among black women, on the other hand, historical variations have been less consistent and have involved the sequencing rather than the timing of maritally conceived births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30317 Trent, Katherine. Determinants of parity distribution: a cross-national analysis of the effects of modernization on fertility. Pub. Order No. DA8527661. 1985. 285 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation addresses the inconsistent effects of social and economic development on fertility reported in previous studies. The main objective is to incorporate current knowledge of the determinants of fertility at the cross-national and sub-national levels into an investigation of parity differentials in the modernization/fertility relationship." The focus is on developing countries.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Texas at Austin.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(10).

52:30318 United States. Bureau of the Census (Washington, D.C.). Fertility of American women: June 1985. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 406, Jun 1986. iv, 65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Fertility trends in the United States are reviewed using data from the June 1985 supplement to the Current Population Survey. The introduction includes sections on current fertility patterns, changes in childlessness between 1976 and 1985, and birth expectations. The bulk of the report consists of statistical tables, which present data on distribution of women and average number of children ever born by race, age, and marital status; children ever born and childlessness by race; children born to married couples; women who have had a child in the last year by race; and expected fertility by various characteristics including marital status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30319 Weiss, Thomas. Economic determinants of fertility in Western industrial countries. [Okonomische Bestimmungsgrossen der Fertilitat in westlichen Industrielandern.] Materialien zur Bevolkerungswissenschaft: Sonderheft, No. 5, 1986. 222 pp. Bundesinstitut fur Bevolkerungsforschung: Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
The aim of this publication is to examine various economic theories that seek to explain fertility trends and differentials and to assess these theories in the light of empirical data. The geographic focus is on Western industrial countries. In the first four chapters, several theories are outlined, including the new household economics, the relative income hypothesis, theories involving social mobility, and theories based on cross-sectional data for the Federal Republic of Germany and Canada.
In the next two chapters, trends in Western fertility over time are summarized, and an attempt is made to explain these trends in terms of the theories already discussed. Fertility trends in selected countries are then investigated more closely. A final chapter deals with possible future developments.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30320 Wolfe, Barbara L.; Behrman, Jere R. Child quantity and quality in a developing country: family background, endogenous tastes, and biological supply factors. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 34, No. 4, Jul 1986. 703-20 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors explore the implications of the "Chicago-Columbia" economic model and the "Pennsylvania" economic model for the determination of child quality and quantity in developing countries using data collected in 1977-1978 on Nicaraguan adult female siblings. The focus is on "the relevance of the alternative child quantity-quality approaches, with significant implications for understanding fertility and school determinants and for formulating related policies."
The authors conclude that their "empirical estimates basically support the Pennsylvania extension of the economic model of fertility beyond the Chicago-Columbia model to incorporate endogenous taste and biological supply factors in the analysis of child quantity and quality determinants in a particular developing country."
Among the implications of this finding for developing countries are that increased female education and expanded employment opportunities for women may have a smaller fertility impact than some studies have maintained; that fertility declines may be largely attributable to changing tastes, thus implying more ambiguous private welfare effects; and that health and nutrition improvements may work through biological supply channels to increase fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:30321 Wong, George Y.; Mason, William M.; Entwisle, Barbara. A generalization of the hierarchical normal linear model for multilevel analysis. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 181-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The specific problem this paper concentrates on arises as part of the work of the Michigan Comparative Fertility Project, which is using the data of the World Fertility Survey to carry out comparative fertility analyses." The authors elaborate a model and obtain initial results concerning age at first birth.
"We have extended the multilevel linear model to allow for context-specific variables, and variables whose effects are constant over contexts [and have] developed a strategy for the treatment of ethnicity in comparative, multilevel analysis....[We have also] developed an approach for modelling age at first birth as a function of both micro and macro characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30322 Zha, Ruichuan; Ji, Yonghua. An analysis of the fertility of Chinese women. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 6, Nov 29, 1984. 11-20 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Fertility in China is analyzed using data from a 10 percent sample of the 1982 census. Topics covered include the current status and the historical development of China's fertility norms; the continuation of high fertility rates; basic changes in the fertility model; social factors influencing fertility; and changes in women's lifetime fertility. The authors conclude that since family planning began in the 1970s, the birth rate has declined from over 30 per 1,000 to about 20 per 1,000; childbearing is concentrated within the 20-29 year range; some high fertility is due to the continued existence of a relative large number of multiple births; the declining fertility rate is due to the increase in the ratio of one-child families; and fertility rates vary greatly from area to area.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30323 Zhao, Xuedong. An analysis of the birth rate in the Soviet Union after World War II. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1984. 51-5 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Trends in fertility in the USSR since World War II are reviewed. The author identifies three phases during this period. From the end of the war to the end of the 1950s, fertility and marriage rates were the highest of the entire postwar period, while divorce and abortion rates were relatively low. During the 1960s, the birth rate declined irrespective of various social and demographic influences. In the 1970s, the birth rate began to increase because the number of women of fertile age increased. Graphs and tables showing fertility rates by age are included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

52:30324 Basu, Alaka M. Birth control by assetless workers in Kerala: the possibility of a poverty induced fertility transition. Development and Change, Vol. 17, 1986. 265-82 pp. The Hague, Netherlands. In Eng.
Official data for the state of Kerala, India, are analyzed to support the hypothesis of a poverty-induced fertility transition, in which a fertility decline occurs in response to undesirable changes in material welfare. The author argues that "(i) a significant proportion of the fertility decline in Kerala is due to birth control by one group--the assetless labourers--of the poorest section in the state; and (ii) the lot of this section of the population in Kerala has not unambiguously improved as much as is generally imagined, and may actually have worsened in the areas relevant to fertility behaviour."
The evidence presented indicates that the assetless workers "are becoming less and less able than their socio-economic counterparts in other occupations to have several children with the assurance that these children will soon support themselves at least partly. Given such an unenviable set of circumstances, it seems more reasonable to infer that this group is reducing its fertility because it just cannot afford the number of children it would like, rather than because it nourishes hopes of fulfilling new material and personal ambitions through reduced childbearing."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30325 Bean, Frank D.; Williams, Dorie G.; Zsembik, Barbara. Religious background as a factor in the relationship between sibship structure and fertility. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.015, 1986. 16, [10] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"Using data from the 1970 [U.S.] National Fertility Study, this paper examines the effects of sibship structure (as indicated by the birth order of the respondent and by the gender composition of her siblings) on wanted and unwanted fertility. We develop hypotheses about such effects on the basis of relationships between sibship structure and patterns of sex-role socialization reported in the literature. The strength of hypothesized relationships between sibship structure and fertility variables is also predicted to depend upon childhood religious background...."
It is found that "among women from more conservative religious backgrounds, those who grew up without brothers exhibit higher levels of unwanted births than do women who grew up with other gender combinations of siblings. Also, among women from more liberal religious backgrounds, those who grew up without brothers and were last-born exhibit lower levels of wanted births than women with other sibship structures."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30326 Bennett, Claudette E. The effect of minority group status on differential fertility. Pub. Order No. DA8528725. 1985. 233 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author develops a model that "predicts that membership in a numerical minority group is an important determinant of racial fertility differences. A secondary analysis of data collected by the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics, Survey of Family Growth Cycle II, was performed. [Data concern] 8,611 ever-married women between the age of 15 and 44. The interviews were conducted between January and September 1976."
Evidence is found to "lend support for the causal link between selected background, socioeconomic and demographic variables and fertility differences between white and black ever-married women."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Howard University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30327 Bhatia, Jagdish C. Polygamy-fertility inter-relationship: the case of Ghana. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jun 1985. 46-55 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The impact of polygyny on fertility is examined using data for 857 married women aged 15-44 collected during the course of the DANFA Comprehensive Rural Health and Family Planning Project carried out in Ghana in the early 1970s. The results indicate that fertility among polygynous wives is significantly lower than that of monogamous wives.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30328 Das, Narayan; Pandey, Divya. Fertility differentials by religion in India: an analysis of 1971 census fertility data. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1985. 119-35 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The association between religion and marital fertility, based on Indian census fertility data, has been explored. The results indicate that religion has a significant effect on marital fertility in India. Of the various religious groups studied, Buddhists were found to have the highest fertility, followed by Christians, Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs; Jains exhibited the lowest fertility. Religious differential in fertility persisted even after controlling for the effect of several major indices of social and economic development, such as, urbanisation, women's education and age at marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30329 Day, L. H. The age of women at completion of childbearing: Australian differentials by religion and country of birth. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 237-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The proportions of mothers completing their childbearing by various ages were calculated for different groups with different religions and countries of birth within the Australian population using data from the Census of 1971....The oldest ages at birth of the last child are found among mothers born in the Netherlands; the youngest, among those born in Yugoslavia or Greece. There is also a consistent and marked difference by religion: Catholic mothers complete childbearing at a generally later age than do non-Catholics."
The results also show that "age at completion of childbearing varies directly with age at marriage (controlling for parity), but, in general, is determined mostly by the number of births. However, spacing appears to be an important element in certain groups. In some instances this derives from an interruption of childbearing following immigration; in others, from the differential exercise of control over births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30330 Evans, M. D. R. American fertility patterns: a comparison of white and nonwhite cohorts born 1903-56. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 267-93, 377, 379 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This paper focuses attention on the general pattern of racial differences in cohort fertility in the United States. The mean age at fertility, standard deviation of age at fertility, cohort total fertility rate, percent ever having a birth, and mean completed parity of mothers are presented for single-year cohorts using actual data for the cohorts of 1903-31 and partially projected data for subsequent cohorts. Bounds for projections are also developed. Mean age at fertility for whites and nonwhites diverges after the 1940 cohort, but the total fertility rate and completed fertility of mothers converge."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, p. 403).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30331 Ketema, Teserach. Modernization and differential fertility in Ethiopia--a multivariate analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8600235. 1985. 177 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"Based on the results of national sample surveys, this dissertation explores the social and demographic factors that influenced fertility differentials in Ethiopia around 1970, employing multiple regression and path analysis. More specifically, the study involves 74 urban areas and 13 provinces (rural populations only) and attempts to explore the extent to which modernization as measured by urbanization, education and proportion of females married at ages 20-24 contributes to variations in fertility."
The author finds that "the country is approaching the threshold of the second transitional stage in the process of demographic change."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

52:30332 Krishnan, P.; Yeung, W. Jean. Fertility differentials by religion in India, 1971. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 175-80 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Census data are analyzed in an attempt to study the fertility dynamics of the six major religious groups in India, i.e., Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains. Education, age at marriage and minority status are used as independent variables to explain fertility differentials among these religious groups."
It is found that "education and age at marriage are significant predictors of fertility in both urban and rural areas. Minority status is significant only in urban areas. Fertility differentials within some religious groups are partly explained by the socio-economic characteristics of the followers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30333 Lancaster, Jane B.; Hamburg, Beatrix A. School-age pregnancy and parenthood: biosocial dimensions. Foundations of Human Behavior, ISBN 0-202-30321-7. LC 86-1054. 1986. xvii, 403 pp. Aldine de Gruyter: Hawthorne, New York. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors on aspects of adolescent pregnancy and parenthood. The 19 papers are divided into four substantive sections. The first is concerned with the life cycle and biological development and includes consideration of changes in age at menarche. The next section is concerned with the emotional, cognitive, and sexual aspects of sexual development and includes consideration of adolescent contraceptive behavior. The third section is concerned with comparative dimensions of adolescent sex behavior, pregnancy, and parenthood. The final section deals with some problems specifically related to the modern world. The geographic focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30334 Mosher, William D.; Johnson, David P.; Horn, Marjorie C. Religion and fertility in the United States: the importance of marriage patterns and Hispanic origin. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 367-79 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The marital fertility of white Catholic wives in the United States was higher than that of non-Catholic wives in 1977-1981, but when Hispanics were excluded, the differential disappeared; therefore, the Catholic-non-Catholic differential in recent years was due entirely to the higher fertility of Hispanic Catholics. The Total Fertility Rates (TFR) of Catholics were slightly lower in 1977-1981 than those for white Protestants, primarily because Catholic women tend to marry later than Protestant women." Data are from Cycle III of the National Survey of Family Growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30335 Ogawa, Naohiro; Hodge, Robert W. Urbanization, migration and fertility in contemporary Japan. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 28, Mar 1986. vi, 22 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
The authors first "draw heavily upon the 17th Mainichi Survey of Fertility and Family Planning conducted in 1984, to examine urban-rural fertility differentials as observed in contemporary Japan. Second, the fertility behavior of migrants is analyzed. Third, based upon birth history records, we examine the development of urban-rural fertility differentials in recent cohorts."
The analysis indicates that "as Japan moves through the final stages of her demographic transition, a small urban-rural differential in fertility still continues to persist, and this differential is intertwined with migration status. Moreover, cohort data reconstructed from birth histories reveal that the urban-rural differential in fertility varies over the life cycle of a cohort."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30336 Plutzer, Eric. Fertility and agricultural structure: rural America in 1930. Rural Sociology, Vol. 51, No. 2, Summer 1986. 156-68 pp. Bozeman, Montana. In Eng.
Aggregate data from the 1930 U.S. census for 197 rural counties are used to explore and test a model linking variation in fertility rates to characteristics of agricultural structure and to nonagricultural socioeconomic determinants. "The model includes four dimensions of agricultural structure: (1) land tenure arrangements, (2) farm occupational structure, (3) inputs into agricultural production, and (4) type of agricultural product."
A multivariate regression analysis "shows statistically significant relationships between fertility and variables from all four dimensions, net of the effects of education and urbanization. The model, strongly supported by the data, explains 54 percent of the total variation in rural fertility rates. The structure-of-agriculture dimensions explain nearly half of this."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30337 Retherford, Robert D.; Sewell, William H. Intelligence and family size reconsidered. CDE Working Paper, No. 86-3, Jan 15, 1986. 75, [12] pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between measured intelligence and fertility using data for approximately 9,000 Wisconsin high school graduates from the class of 1957 who were reinterviewed in 1975. Following a critical review of the literature on intelligence and family size, the authors analyze the relationship between the respondents' intelligence as measured by tests taken during school and the number of children born alive to them by age 35. Estimates of mean IQ, fertility, and mortality for high school dropouts, not included in the Wisconsin sample, are also derived.
From an analysis of previous studies, it is concluded that "differential fertility by IQ in the United States appears to have been negative in this century. It probably became less negative during the baby boom (and positive for some samples). It seems to have diverged again in the negative direction after the baby boom....Our own empirical results, based on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS), confirm a small but statistically significant negative relationship between fertility and IQ for a large representative sample of the cohort of Wisconsin high school graduates in 1957, whose reproduction commenced at the end of the baby boom."
Differences in the findings according to sex are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30338 Rumbaut, Ruben G.; Weeks, John R. Fertility and adaptation: Indochinese refugees in the United States. International Migration Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1986. 428-66 pp. Staten Island, New York. In Eng.
"Levels of fertility among Indochinese refugees in the United States are explored in the context of a highly compressed demographic transition implicit in the move from high-fertility Southeast Asian societies to a low-fertility resettlement region. A theoretical model is developed to explain the effect on refugee fertility of social background characteristics, migration history and patterns of adaptation to a different economic and cultural environment controlling for marital history and length of residence in the U.S." The chief source for the data and analyses is the Indochinese Health and Adaptation Research Project (IHARP), San Diego State University.
"Multiple regression techniques are used to test the model which was found to account for nearly half of the variation in refugee fertility levels in the United States. Fertility is much higher for all Indochinese ethnic groups than it is for American women; the number of children in refugee families is in turn a major determinant of welfare dependency. Adjustments for rates of natural increase indicate a total 1985 Indochinese population of over one million, making it one of the largest Asian-origin populations in the United States."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30339 Sautory, Olivier. Trends in regional disparities in fertility from 1954 to 1982. [Evolution des disparites geographiques de fecondite de 1954 a 1982.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 9, 37-46 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in differential fertility by region in France are examined. "Since 1954, a geographical homogenisation process characterizes fertility in France: reduction in the relative dispersion of regions and [departmental] fertility indicators; convergence of fertility in rural communes (traditionally the most fertile) and big agglomerations to the national average; slight diminution of regional differences in the proportion of illegitimate births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30340 Sorenson, Ann M. Ethnicity and fertility: the fertility expectations and family size of Mexican-American and Anglo adolescents and adults, husbands and wives. Pub. Order No. DA8603356. 1985. 243 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author analyzes "cultural as well as socioeconomic factors which may contribute to higher Mexican-American fertility....The sample, which is drawn from the 1980 Census data for Arizona, Texas, and New Mexico, is limited to Mexican-American and Anglo women who have been married only once and live with their husbands. Two complementary methods of analysis are used. Linear regression describes the significance of husband's and wife's language use, nativity, and socioeconomic characteristics to mean family size. Parity progression ratios are used to study the contribution of these variables to the likelihood of the addition of one more child at each stage of the family building process."
It is found that "while wife's characteristics are sufficient to account for most of the variation observed in Anglo fertility, husband's socioeconomic characteristics significantly contribute to variation observed in the fertility of Mexican-American couples. Husbands' identification with Mexican-American culture may be somewhat more important to couples' fertility than that of their wives. This is consistent with research which suggests that children are more central to male sex role expectations as they are expressed in the context of Mexican-American culture than in that of Anglos."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Arizona.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30341 Tienda, Marta; Gonzalez Diaz, Violeta; Smith, Shelley A. Community education and differential fertility in Peru. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 2, 1985. 137-57 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper investigates how community characteristics moderate the influence of individual characteristics on completed fertility in Peru. Although the median community education level did not condition the influence of women's education on completed fertility as hypothesized, this contextual variable exerted a significant negative effect on fertility. Thus, the social climate in which women make decisions about family formation does affect reproductive behaviour above and beyond what one would predict on the basis of individual characteristics alone; but it operates to set boundaries on the range of feasible alternatives rather than to amplify the influence of individual characteristics."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30342 Wineberg, Howard; McCarthy, James. Differential fertility in the United States, 1980: continuity or change? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 311-24 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper considers how changes in women's socio-cultural characteristics have influenced recent patterns of differential fertility in the United States and whether the convergence of fertility differentials observed up to 1970 has continued." The data are from the June 1980 U.S. Current Population Survey.
"Age at first birth, length of first birth interval, income and education were all negatively associated with fertility, among both older and younger women. When fertility expectations were examined, however, the association of the independent variables with expected completed fertility was weaker among younger women, indicating that there has been some convergence in expected completed fertility. Further narrowing of differentials in actual fertility depends on how successful the younger women are in preventing future unplanned births."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30343 Wong, Aline K.; Ng, Shui Meng. Ethnicity and fertility in Southeast Asia: a comparative analysis. Research Notes and Discussions Paper, No. 50, ISBN 9971-988-02-X. 1985. xii, 393 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
The relationship between ethnicity and fertility among the major ethnic groups in five Southeastern Asian countries is analyzed. The data are from comparable surveys carried out in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand in the period 1980-1982. The objectives of the research were to describe and explain ethnic fertility differentials, to assess their role on ethnic relationships, and to suggest policies for dealing with such fertility differentials. The samples consist of approximately 600 husbands and wives from each of the 20 ethnic groups investigated. Consideration is also given to ethnic differences in family planning and contraceptive behavior.
The results indicate that ethnic fertility differentials have been reduced most in Singapore and to a lesser extent in Malaysia, while persisting in importance particularly among underprivileged groups in the region. Approval of family planning is general, but cultural factors affect methods chosen, and problems of access to contraceptive services play a critical role. The importance of child mortality and son preference is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

52:30344 Bostofte, E.; Serup, J.; Bischoff, N.; Rebbe, H. Socio-economic status and fertility of couples examined for infertility, social status and fertility. Andrologia, Vol. 17, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 564-9 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Ger.
The fertility of 1,000 couples originally examined for infertility in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1950-1952 and followed up 20 years later is examined. The relationship between socioeconomic class and number of living children, abortions, and abnormal pregnancies is analyzed. Reasons for the higher fertility of those of higher socioeconomic status are considered.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30345 Ridley, Jeanne C.; Myers, David E. The determinants of sterility among ever married women: a proportional hazards analysis. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 318-23 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Hazards models are used to study the effects of women's age at first marriage, age at first birth, religion, and education on changes in the fecundity of 1,049 white ever-married U.S. women belonging to the 1901-1910 birth cohort. Estimates of the likelihood of becoming sterile from various causes are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30346 Strobino, Barbara; Fox, Harold E.; Kline, Jennie; Stein, Zena; Susser, Mervyn; Warburton, Dorothy. Characteristics of women with recurrent spontaneous abortions and women with favorable reproductive histories. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 8, Aug 1986. 986-91 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (repeaters) are compared with women who have had live births and no spontaneous abortions (multiparae) and women who have had live births and only one spontaneous abortion (sporadics) to identify characteristics of the women and their abortuses that might predict subsequent fetal loss." The data are for 3,755 women in New York City who sought medical care for spontaneous abortion between April 1974 and July 1979 and a comparison group of 1,633 women who delivered at 28 weeks gestation or later.
"A number of risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion have been identified: the loss of a chromosomally normal conception, loss after the first trimester of pregnancy, a delay in conceiving prior to the study pregnancy, a diagnosis of cervical incompetence, and a history of very low birthweight deliveries. The odds ratios associated with being a repeater vary from 1.4 to 5.6 depending on the number of characteristics present."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

52:30347 Abdel-Aziz, Abdallah; Anderson, John E.; Morris, Leo; Wingo, Phyllis; Shrydeh, Borhan. Family planning in Jordan: 1983 survey data. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 199-206 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from the 1983 fertility survey in Jordan indicate that 26 percent of married women were using contraceptives, reflecting a very small relative increase in use in the seven years before the survey. Only 5 percent of nonusers stated that they desired to use a method. Other data from the same survey suggest a potential demand for contraception, for spacing as well as limiting births, among those not using."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30348 Ayad, Mohamed; Pierre, Fritz; Jemai, Hedi. Family planning, fertility, and family health in Haiti, 1983. Report on the results of the Haitian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. [Planification familiale, fecondite et sante familiale en Haiti, 1983. Rapport sur les resultats de l'Enquete Haitienne sur la Prevalence de la Contraception.] Aug 1985. xv, 174 pp. Departement de la Sante Publique et de la Population, Direction d'Hygiene Familiale et de Nutrition: Port-au-Prince, Haiti; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
Results from the 1983 Haitian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are presented. Initial chapters are included on the demographic situation and the country's policies concerning population and family planning. The methodology of the survey and characteristics of the respondents are described. The survey included 1,125 urban and 3,196 rural women aged 15-49. Chapters are also concerned with nuptiality, fertility, knowledge and use of contraception, reasons for nonuse and future possibilities for contraceptive use, availability of contraceptive services, and maternal and child health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30349 Ayad, Mohamed; Zoughlami, Younes. Fertility and family planning in Tunisia, 1983. Report on the results of the Tunisian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. [Fecondite et planification familiale en Tunisie, 1983. Rapport sur les resultats de l'Enquete Tunisienne sur la Prevalence de la Contraception.] Jul 1985. xv, 176 pp. Ministere de la Famille et de la Promotion de la Femme, Office National de la Famille et de la Population: Tunis, Tunisia; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
The results of the 1983 Tunisian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey are presented. The report begins with a review of demographic trends and population policy in Tunisia. The survey methodology and characteristics of those surveyed are then described. The survey included some 2,500 women of reproductive age from both urban and rural areas. Chapters are included on nuptiality, fertility, and infant mortality; knowledge and use of contraception; and availability of contraceptive services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30350 Barkat-e-Khuda. Population control in Bangladesh: the prospects. In: Demographic transition in Asia, edited by Gavin W. Jones. ISBN 9971-954-20-6. LC 84-942134. 1984. 147-69 pp. Maruzen Asia: Singapore. In Eng.
A review of the current status of family planning practice in Bangladesh is presented using data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey undertaken in 1975 and the Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys of 1979 and 1981. The development of a national family planning program is first described, and evidence from KAP surveys is summarized. Other topics considered include the demand for family planning, the efficiency of services supplying contraception, the popularization of sterilization, and the impact of religious Islamic teaching on family planning. The author concludes that family planning practice remains low and reviews some possible policy measures to rectify this situation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30351 Bean, Frank D.; Burr, Jeffrey A.; Opitz, Wolfgang; Trent, Katherine; Williams, Dorie G. Heterogamy and the decision for voluntary sterilization. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.011, 1986. 14, [10] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This research examines the relationships of religious and age heterogamy to the choice of sterilization and to the decision for a male or a female procedure. Two perspectives are set forth that provide bases for expecting heterogamy effects. One is a 'strain' perspective, which predicts that heterogamous couples would be less likely than homogamous couples to elect sterilization and to elect male sterilization. The other is a 'selectivity' perspective, which predicts that heterogamous couples would be more likely than others to obtain a sterilization procedure and to choose a male procedure." The data are for the United States and are from three large, national probability samples.
It is found that "in the case of choosing sterilization over other contraceptive methods, the results support the [selectivity] perspective, with couples of disparate ages and mixed-faith marriages exhibiting a greater tendency to elect sterilization than other couples. No relationship emerges, however, between the measures of heterogamy and the tendency to choose male over female sterilization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30352 Bean, Frank D.; Williams, Dorie G.; Opitz, Wolfgang; Burr, Jeffrey A.; Trent, Katherine. Sociodemographic and marital heterogamy influences on the decision for voluntary sterilization. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.016, 1986. 25 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
This is a revised version of a paper concerning the relationships between religious and age heterogamy and voluntary male and female sterilization in the United States.
An earlier version of this paper, also published in 1986, is cited elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30353 Beck, L.; Freundl, G. Final observations and critical remarks on natural family planning. [Schlussbetrachtung und kritische Bemerkungen zur naturlichen Familienplanung.] Gynakologe, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1985. 234-6 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Some critical remarks on natural family planning and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. This article serves as a conclusion to several other articles published in the same issue of Gynakologe.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30354 Bertrand, Jane T.; Landry, Evelyn G.; Araya Zelaya, Jose D. Is female sterilization voluntary in El Salvador? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 40-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"To examine assertions that poor women in El Salvador are being sterilized without their full knowledge or consent, researchers interviewed 648 women who underwent the operation in one of seven facilities in 1984. The women were questioned within one month of surgery, and their responses indicate that female sterilization in El Salvador is in fact voluntary."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30355 Bone, Margaret. Family planning in Scotland in 1982: a survey carried out on behalf of the Scottish Home and Health Department. ISBN 0-11-691147-6. 1985. v, 97 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS], Social Survey Division: London, England. In Eng.
The results of a survey on family planning in Scotland in 1982 are presented. The main purposes of the survey were to describe the two main family planning service outlets, general medical practitioners and family planning clinics, and the reasons for using one outlet rather than the other; to examine recent trends in sterilization; and to identify the effects of changes in contraceptive usage on unplanned and unwanted conception rates. The survey included 3,410 women aged 16 to 54.
"Over the past 20 years three factors, apart from changes in the population, have affected the extent and composition of potential demand for the family planning services in Scotland. They are: the rise and decline in popularity of the pill; the widespread adoption of sterilisation; and a reduction in the age at which sexual relationships begin."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30356 Bumpass, Larry. The risk of an unwanted birth: the changing context of contraceptive sterilization in the U.S. CDE Working Paper, No. 85-27, 1985. 40 pp. University of Wisconsin, Center for Demography and Ecology: Madison, Wisconsin. In Eng.
"Data from the 1976 and 1982 National Surveys of Family Growth are used to analyze the changing structure of factors affecting contraceptive sterilization in the U.S. The paper begins with life-table estimates of the age at which women have their last wanted birth....Life-table estimates are then considered of the timing of sterilization after the last wanted birth."
Logistic regression analysis is used to examine the determinants of male and female sterilization. "Covariates considered are age and parity at last wanted birth, year and duration of marriage at last wanted birth, wife's and husband's education, wife's and husband's religion, whether residence is in a central city, region, pill use history and timing failure histories prior to last wanted birth, and unwanted birth." Similar models by race for female sterilization show significant similarity in terms of most variables except region, with regional variations being pronounced among white but not among black women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30357 Carroll, Jennifer J. Family planning: a population study of women aged 40-44 years. Community Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 4, Nov 1985. 248-56 pp. Bristol, England. In Eng.
The use of family planning services and contraceptive methods by women aged 40 to 44 in England is examined. The data, which concern approximately 150 women living in Melton Mowbray who had not had a hysterectomy or a sterilization operation, were collected in 1981. The results indicate that 15 percent of fecund ever-married women did not know of any place where they could obtain contraceptive advice and that knowledge of the location of the local family planning clinic was slight.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30358 Choi, H. Hoyle; Park, Jae Young. Political capacity, development and family planning programs in developing countries: a cross-national analysis. Studies in Population Problems, Vol. 1, Dec 1984. 45-94 pp. Pusan, Korea, Republic of. In Eng. with sum. in Kor.
The relationship between political and economic factors on the one hand and the successful development of national family planning programs on the other is explored using data for 30 non-Communist Asian countries for the period 1960-1975. The emphasis is not on policy formation but on the relative capacity of a given political system to carry out an adopted policy efficiently. The results indicate that the addition of such a capacity variable to a model for investigating differences in program performance among countries substantially increases the proportion of the total explained variance in performance using level of development and program implementation.
"The general conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that: the overall success or effectiveness of family planning programs in the developing countries is most likely to be achieved in countries where [a] strong, stable political system has been the major vehicle for sustained efforts of modernization and development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30359 Clarke, Lynda; Gregson, Sue. Who has a vasectomy reversal? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 253-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The characteristics of the first 200 cases of vasectomy reversal [in the United Kingdom] have been analysed. The mean time from vasectomy to reversal was 4.8 years. It varied according to the reason for requesting reversal, and was particularly short when the operation had been performed at the time of the partner's pregnancy. Thirty percent of the men were with the same partner and 70% a new partner. Vasectomy reversal cases tended to be younger than vasectomy patients as a whole but did not differ significantly in social class."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30360 Cliquet, Robert; Lodewijckx, Edith. The contraceptive transition in Flanders. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 2, No. 1, May 1986. 71-84 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The authors use data from quinquennial probability surveys on fertility behavior to document changes in contraceptive use between 1966 and 1983 in Flanders, Belgium. "Particular attention is paid to changes in the methods of contraception used. The contraceptive transition observed for Flanders is compared with information for other countries to assess whether a specific pattern can be delineated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30361 Covington, Deborah L.; Otolorin, E. O.; Janowitz, Barbara; Gates, Deborah S.; Lamptey, Peter; Ladipo, O. A. Physician attitudes and family planning in Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 172-80 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines family planning attitudes and practices of 681 Nigerian physicians selected from cities in which large university teaching hospitals are located. About half of the physicians were practicing family planning; the method of choice was the IUD. Obstetrician/gynecologists and general practitioners were more likely to provide methods to their patients than were other types of physicians. The physicians were concerned about population growth and favored family planning, yet a substantial minority believed that family planning is foreign to the culture and that it promotes promiscuity. Physicians were reluctant to promote family planning on a wide scale; many disapproved of non-physicians providing oral contraceptives or IUDs."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30362 Danda, Ajit K. Family planning: an adaptive strategy (a case study from West Bengal). LC 84-900475. 1984. xiii, 138 pp. Inter-India Publications: New Delhi, India. In Eng.
This study involves the use of an anthropological approach to the analysis of the adoption of family planning in rural India. The data concern the village of Basudha in West Bengal and were primarily collected in 1967-1968. Consideration is given to family planning knowledge, information dissemination, attitudes, and family planning acceptance, with particular emphasis on the factors associated with the adoption of family planning.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30363 DeClerque, Julia; Tsui, Amy O.; Abul-Ata, Mohammed F.; Barcelona, Delia. Rumor, misinformation and oral contraceptive use in Egypt. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 1, 1986. 83-92 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Rumor and misinformation about oral contraceptives continue to prevail in much of Egypt. This study tests the hypothesis that rumor involvement can have a negative and independent impact on pill usage by focusing on a common misbelief that the pill causes 'weakness'. The data come from a 1981-1982 national self-weighted sample survey of 3,283 currently married men and women dealing with family planning and mass media behaviors." The results confirm that such rumors decrease current or future use of oral contraceptives and emphasize the need for strong contraceptive education programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30364 Dholakia, Ruby R.; Kindra, G. S.; Pangotra, Prem. Marketing of birth control in LDCs: with special references to India. Revue Canadienne d'Etudes du Developpement/Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, Summer 1985. 147-59 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
The authors outline a marketing approach for family planning programs in developing countries, with references to experiences in India. Following an overview of types of population programs, suggestions for strengthening program efforts are offered, and a framework for marketing birth control is described.
"This approach was based on the recognition that acceptance of a small family norm is interwoven with the freedom to make that choice....This framework suggests that marketing plans should be aimed at the three-dimensional goal of increasing the population's desire, ability, and capability toward acceptance of the small family norm and the practice of birth control [and] that in consideration of the wide geographical variations in population growth, per capita income, and the level of development in general, programs should be designed in a segmented manner to suit the socio-economic nature of each group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30365 Dominican Republic. Consejo Nacional de Poblacion y Familia [CONAPOFA] (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York); Westinghouse Health Systems (Columbia, Maryland). Dominican Republic. National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey: men. Report on findings. [Republic Dominicana. Encuesta Nacional de Prevalencia de Anticonceptivos: hombre. Informe de resultados.] 1984-1985. xiii, 149 pp. Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. In Spa.
The results of the Contraceptive Prevalence Survey concerning men, carried out in the Dominican Republic in 1984, are presented. The data concern some 4,200 men from both rural and urban areas. Survey methodology and the characteristics of those surveyed are first described. Chapters are then included on fertility and fertility preferences, attitudes toward family planning, knowledge and availability of contraception, contraceptive usage, attitudes toward other social issues, and issues such as sexual experience and sexually transmitted disease.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30366 Dueholm, Margit; Moller, Margrethe. Choice of contraception in connection with the closing of a contraception clinic. Results of an anonymous questionnaire answered by 401 women. [Valg af kontraception i relation til lukning af svangerskabsforebyggende klinik. En konsekutiv anonym sporgeskemaundersogelse af 401 kvinder.] Ugeskrift for Laeger, Vol. 147, No. 48, Nov 25, 1985. 3,940-6 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan. with sum. in Eng.
The impact of the closing of a contraceptive clinic in Viborg, Denmark, in 1983 on contraceptive choice is analyzed. The data concern 401 clinic users. The results indicate that economic considerations play an important role in method choice and that 13 percent of the clinic clientele, mainly women under 20 years of age who had been using the pill, planned to change to less effective methods.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30367 Frank, P.; Freundl, G.; Gray, R. H. Natural family planning: introduction and epidemiologic studies. [Naturliche Familienplanung: Einfuhrung und epidemiologische Untersuchungen.] Gynakologe, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1985. 224-30 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
An introduction to natural family planning methods is presented, and the epidemiological literature on these methods is reviewed. Methods discussed include the calendar rhythm method, temperature rhythm method, Billings method, and sympto-thermal method. Attention is given to the extent of use in developing and developed countries, use-effectiveness, method acceptability, and possible risks.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30368 Gairola, Gerry A.; Hochstrasser, Donald L.; Garkovich, Lorraine E. Modern contraceptive practice in rural Appalachia. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 8, Aug 1986. 1,004-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines contraceptive practice in a traditionally high fertility and economically disadvantaged rural county of central Appalachia [in Kentucky]. A key consideration is the extent to which the modernization of birth control observed nationally has diffused to and been adopted within this rural area. Data from the community study indicate that professional family planning services are, in fact, widely available and easily accessible to the vast majority of county residents."
The data are from interviews with a random sample of 407 currently married women aged 15-45. It is found that "87 per cent of contraceptors were using either sterilization, the pill, or the IUD, with sterilization used by close to half of all couples practicing family planning. Moreover, this widespread use of modern contraceptives and sterilization was found among all educational and income groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30369 Gallen, Moira E.; Rinehart, Ward. Operations research: lessons for policy and programs. Population Reports, Series J: Family Planning Programs, No. 31, May-Jun 1986. [40] pp. Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program [PIP]: Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
The authors review the use of operations research techniques to improve the delivery of health and family planning services around the world. The emphasis is on the results of operations research into the community-based distribution of family planning services, the integrated delivery of family planning and primary health services, and the cost-effectiveness of different approaches. An extensive bibliography is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30370 Heisler, Douglas; Lewis, Gary L. The Dominica Male Family Planning Survey Country Report 1982. LC 85-50794. Aug 1985. ix, 66 pp. Dominica Planned Parenthood Association: Rouseau, Dominica; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a male family planning survey carried out in Dominica in 1982 as part of a worldwide series of contraceptive prevalence surveys are reported. The survey, which included 961 men aged 15 to 49, was designed to provide information on male use of family planning, attitudes toward various family planning methods, attitudes toward marriage, and attitudes toward children. Survey methodology and respondents' characteristics are first described. Information is also included on contraceptive knowledge and the availability of family planning services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30371 Hodge, Robert W.; Ogawa, Naohiro; Kobayashi, Kazumasa. Contraceptive use and childbearing in contemporary Japan. NUPRI Research Paper Series, No. 30, Mar 1986. vi, 35 pp. Nihon University, Population Research Institute: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
"The present paper attempts to examine the relationship between contraceptive and reproductive behavior at the micro-level, utilizing the 16th round of a series of studies on fertility and family planning [in Japan] conducted by the Mainichi Newspapers the first round of which was conducted in 1950. One of the principal findings of the present study is that current contraceptive use and cumulative fertility are positively related, owing to the conjunction of relatively late marriages, small family size goals, entry into marriage only when prepared to begin family formation, and the acceptance of contraceptives primarily after family size goals are complete."
It is also found that "while about three-fifths of married Japanese women of childbearing age are currently using contraceptives, the experience of younger cohorts strongly suggests that probably ninety percent or more of the cohorts presently in the prime ages of reproduction will use contraceptives at some point in their life cycle....Tastes, as measured by family size goals, are generally more potent determinants of reproductive behavior than are the social positions of respondents."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30372 Janowitz, Barbara; Covington, Deborah L.; Suazo, Margarita; Potts, Malcolm. Knowledge and practices of community distributors of contraceptives in Honduras. [Conocimientos y practicas de las distribuidoras comunitarias de anticonceptivos en Honduras.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 101, No. 1, Jul 1986. 48-57 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Por.
An evaluation of the activities of community distributors of contraceptives in Honduras carried out in 1983 is presented. "The purpose was to determine how they applied the specified screening procedures and the follow-up advice given to the users of the products distributed: two brands of standard-dose oral contraceptives, one of low dosage, spermicides, and condoms." The need for distributors to learn more about the differences among the oral contraceptive brands they distribute and between standard and low dose brands is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30373 Kluge, Debbie. Selected papers of the 1984 Annual Conference of the National Council for International Health. Conference theme--international health and family planning: controversy and consensus, June 11-13, 1984, Arlington, Virginia. 1985. iv, 273 pp. National Council for International Health [NCIH]: Washington, D.C.; Samaritan Medical Foundation: Phoenix, Arizona. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the 1984 Annual Conference of the National Council for International Health, which was devoted to international health and family planning. The 27 papers are divided into the following topics: policy issues; methodological issues, with the focus on evaluation of programs; training programs; communication strategies; economic and cost considerations; program integration of family planning with health services, including malaria programs; and administrative and management issues in Sudan, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Indonesia, Nepal, and Egypt. The geographic focus is on developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30374 Kulig, John W. Adolescent contraception: an update. Pediatrics, Vol. 76, No. 4, Pt. 2, Suppl, Oct 1985. 675-80 pp. Elk Grove Village, Illinois. In Eng.
A review of recent trends in adolescent sex behavior in the United States over the past 10 years is presented. "Increased adolescent sexual activity in the past decade has resulted in corresponding increases in pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion, as well as a changing spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases. Contraceptive use in this age group remains limited and is subject to developmental, peer, family, and cultural influences. The most appropriate contraceptive methods may differ among adolescents when compared with older parous women based upon such factors as efficacy, availability, cost, side effects, reversibility, and the need for preplanning."
The author describes "changes in patterns of contraceptive use among adolescents, presents recent data on both the benefits and the potential risks of the oral contraceptive pill, and addresses the risk of complications with the intrauterine device."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30375 Lanctot, C. A. Natural family planning: international developments, current status, future aspects. [Naturliche Familienplanung: internationale Entwicklung, derzeitiger Stand, Zukunftsaspekte.] Gynakologe, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 1985. 231-3 pp. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
An international overview of the development of the natural family planning movement is presented, and the current status and results of research on natural family planning are examined. Expected future developments in this area are also noted.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30376 Lassner, Karen J.; Janowitz, Barbara; Rodrigues, Cecelia M. B. Sterilization approval and follow-through in Brazil. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 188-98 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that affect approval for and completion of sterilization in Rio de Janeiro [Brazil]. Of 2,186 new female family planning clients, 1,256 requested sterilization and 925 were approved for surgery. Among the approved women, 639 scheduled surgery and, of these, 595 were sterilized within three months of approval. While approval is dependent mainly on demographic variables, especially age and parity, follow-through by a woman is related to her education and income. The steps that a woman must complete to obtain a sterilization also affect whether she ultimately undergoes surgery."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30377 Lebanon Family Planning Association (Beirut, Lebanon); Westinghouse Public Applied Systems (Columbia, Maryland). Family planning in rural Lebanon, 1983-1984. May 1985. ix, 66 pp. Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Results from the Lebanon Contraceptive Prevalence Survey of 1983-1984 are presented. The survey was carried out in two rural areas and included 1,445 currently married women of reproductive age. The survey methodology and respondents' characteristics are first described. Chapters are then included on fertility behavior and attitudes, knowledge and use of family planning, and contraceptive availability.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30378 Lewis, Gary L.; Heisler, Douglas. The Barbados Male Family Planning Survey Country Report 1982. LC 85-50795. Aug 1985. ix, 68 pp. Barbados Family Planning Association: Bridgetown, Barbados; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a male family planning survey carried out in Barbados in 1982 as part of a worldwide series of contraceptive prevalence surveys are presented. The survey included 1,301 males aged 15 to 49. The report first describes the survey methodology and survey variables. Chapters are included on contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, male attitudes, and availability and attitudes toward family planning services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30379 Lewis, Gary L.; Heisler, Douglas. The St. Kitts-Nevis Male Family Planning Survey Country Report 1982. LC 85-50793. Aug 1985. ix, 70 pp. St. Kitts-Nevis Family Planning Association: Basseterre, St. Kitts; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
The results of a male family planning survey carried out in St. Kitts-Nevis in 1982 as part of a worldwide series of contraceptive prevalence surveys are presented. The survey included 967 men aged 15 to 49. The report first describes the survey methodology and survey variables. Chapters are then included on contraceptive knowledge, contraceptive use, male attitudes, and availability and attitudes toward family planning services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30380 MacCormack, C. P. Lay concepts affecting utilization of family planning services in Jamaica. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 88, No. 4, Aug 1985. 281-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Factors affecting the utilization of contraceptive services in Jamaica are analyzed using data on 268 women. These factors included fears about altered patterns of menstruation, about irreversible sterility, and about other contraceptive side effects. Recommendations for improved services and public education are made.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30381 Makani, Bakutuvwidi; Niwembo, Kinavwidi L.; Way, Ann. Family planning, fertility, and family health in Zaire, 1982-1984. Report on the results of a regional survey on contraceptive prevalence. [Planification familiale, fecondite et sante familiale au Zaire, 1982-1984. Rapport sur les resultats d'une enquete regionale sur la prevalence contraceptive.] May 1985. xxii, 210 pp. Institut National de la Statistique: Kinshasa, Zaire; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
This report presents results from a contraceptive prevalence survey carried out in four urban and two rural locations in Zaire between 1982 and 1984. The survey included some 5,500 women aged 13 to 49. Following an introduction to the country and its demography, the methodology of the survey is described, and the characteristics of those surveyed are outlined. Chapters are included on nuptiality and fertility, knowledge and practice of family planning, past or present use of contraception, maternal and child health, and family health services.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30382 Mia, Ahmadullah. Development of rural women and population implications: the Bangladesh experience. In: Population and development. Proceedings of the symposium held at Cairo Demographic Centre, 3-7 November 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 14, 1986. 303-15 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
After reviewing the chief issues affecting women's development and fertility behavior, the author discusses the national family planning program in Bangladesh. The focus is on contraceptive use among members of the government-sponsored Rural Mother's Centre. Changes in the role and socioeconomic status of women are also assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30383 Morrison, Diane M. Adolescent contraceptive behavior: a review. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 98, No. 3, Nov 1985. 538-68 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This review examines the psychologically oriented literature on adolescent contraceptive use [in the United States]. Descriptive studies, individual difference studies, and theory-based studies from family planning, medical, and applied journals are covered, as well as studies appearing in psychology journals. The research covered suggests that adolescents are largely uninformed about reproductive physiology and about many methods of contraception. They have negative attitudes toward contraception generally and toward using contraceptives. The widespread nonuse of contraception by sexually active adolescents is not irrational, given their levels of information and their beliefs and attitudes."
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30384 Mosher, William D.; Horn, Marjorie C. Source of service and visit rate of family planning services: United States, 1982. Public Health Reports, Vol. 101, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 405-16 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The factors that affect how women choose their source of family planning care and how often they go for such care were investigated in the [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth. The survey is based on a national sample of women 15-44 years of age interviewed in 1982, 4,318 of whom had family planning visits in the last 3 years."
The results indicate that "race, income, and insurance coverage had important effects on provider choice; marital status was important for white women, but not for black women. Contraceptive method, insurance coverage, and race were important determinants of the frequency of family planning visits, independent of other variables. It is suggested that relative costs or ability to pay, confidentiality, knowledge of alternative sources, and convenience of location affect choice of provider and visit rates."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30385 Ogbeide, D. O.; Edebiri, A. A. A two-year study of organised family planning services in a developing country: experiences in Bendel State of Nigeria. East African Medical Journal, Vol. 61, No. 6, Jun 1984. 470-6 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
An analysis of family planning trends in Bendel State, Nigeria, is presented using data on 1,131 new patients in 1975 and 2,144 new patients in 1979 who registered at Planned Parenthood Federation of Nigeria clinics. The focus is on changes over time in the educational status of acceptors. The average number of children of women aged 40-44 was about seven.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30386 Oni, Gbolahan A.; McCarthy, James. Use of contraceptives for birth spacing in a Nigerian city. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 165-71 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the use of contraceptives among women aged 15-35 in the urban area of Ilorin, Nigeria, with particular focus on use for the purpose of spacing births. Approximately 19 percent of ever-married women in the sample had used contraceptives at some time and approximately 6 percent were using at the time of the survey. Results suggest that some women have used or are using contraceptives as a substitute for prolonged periods of postpartum sexual abstinence....Other variables found to have a significant independent effect on contraceptive use were total number of children desired, maternal age, and maternal education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30387 Ouakrim, M'hamed; Ayad, Mohamed. Family planning, fertility, and family health in Morocco, 1983-1984. Report on the National Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. [Planification familiale, fecondite et sante familiale au Maroc 1983-84. Rapport de l'Enquete Nationale de Prevalence Contraceptive.] Feb 1985. xv, 184 pp. Ministere de la Sante Publique, Direction des Affaires Techniques, Service d'Exploitation Mecanographique (Statistiques Sanitaires): Rabat, Morocco; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Fre.
This report concerns the National Contraceptive Survey carried out in Morocco in 1983-1984. It is concerned both with contraceptive knowledge and practice and with the impact of a system being developed to assess the merits of a household contraceptive distribution system currently being expanded throughout the country. The data concern some 6,000 rural and urban women aged 15 to 49. The methodology of the survey is first described, and the characteristics of those surveyed are analyzed. Chapters are included on nuptiality and fertility, the knowledge and practice of contraception, contraceptive availability, and maternal and child health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30388 Porapakkham, Yawarat; Vorapongsathorn, Thavatchai; Pramanpol, Somjai. Review of population/family planning related needs of adolescents in Thailand. IPSR Publication, No. 93, Jan 1986. 113, 49 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
The authors review the family planning needs of adolescents in Thailand using data from a 1982 nationwide adolescent fertility survey and from two surveys conducted in Bangkok schools. "The first part [of the study] deals with adolescents' characteristics, family background, their life styles, knowledge of basic reproductive biology, conception and family planning, attitudes toward mate selection, premarital sex, marriage, sexual experiences and their problems." These characteristics are then compared with those of respondents to the two surveys, conducted in Bangkok schools in 1982 and 1985, that provide information on the sexual behavior of high school students in Thailand.
Following a summary of the characteristics of Thai adolescents relevant to family planning issues, the authors present population projections for the years 1987-1991 for the number of adolescents by age, marital status, school status, and residence.
A review of literature and programs related to adolescent fertility, jointly produced by the Faculty of Public Health of Mahidol University and the Family Health Division of the Ministry of Public Health, is also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30389 Poston, Dudley L. Patterns of contraceptive use in China. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.006, 1986. 40 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The author examines contraceptive use in China and its cultural and socioeconomic correlates using regional and subregional data from the 1982 census, the 1982 fertility survey, and the National Family Planning Commission. Fertility trends and developments in family planning policy since 1949 are discussed as a background to the investigation of contraceptive behavior.
The findings include considerable variations in fertility by region; a relatively large number of IUD users nationwide; variations by age in contraceptive methods chosen; and a contraceptive prevalence rate in China similar to the U.S. rate but accompanied by marked differences in contraceptive methods chosen between the two countries. Among Chinese subregions, variations in contraceptive use, the use of efficient contraceptive methods, and methods chosen are noted; and correlations with indicators pertaining to minorities, urban or rural residence, literacy, and health services are observed. Explanations for the variations are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30390 Powell, Dorian L. Report on the Jamaica Contraceptive Prevalence Survey 1983. Aug 1984. xvii, 171 pp. National Family Planning Board: Kingston, Jamaica; Westinghouse Health Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents results from the contraceptive prevalence survey carried out in Jamaica in 1983. Survey methodology and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the survey respondents are first described. The survey included some 1,200 urban and 1,000 rural women. Chapters are also included on nuptiality patterns and fertility, family planning awareness and attitudes, contraceptive use, and unmet needs for contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30391 Rahman, Makhlisur; Kane, Penny; Ruzicka, Lado. Tradition, development, and the individual: a study of conflicts and supports to family planning in rural Bangladesh. Asian Population Change Series, No. 1, ISBN 0-86784-812-X. 1986. ix, 190 pp. Australian National University, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
This study is concerned with variations in levels of contraceptive practice in Matlab thana, Bangladesh. The focus of the study was "to examine to what extent theories and findings of other studies on the causes of variation in levels of contraceptive practice apply in the rural area of Bangladesh. A corollary objective was to identify some policy guidelines that could be utilized to improve or modify the present educational and motivational strategy of the Matlab project, in particular, and the national population control programme, in general."
The data are from five surveys conducted in Matlab in 1982. The results show that an individual's practice of contraception is affected by the characteristics of his or her immediate social group, as well as by individual characteristics. Thus, the regional variations observed in Matlab are primarily due to the conservative or progressive nature of the communities concerned, particularly the attitudes of local community leaders. Individual factors affecting contraceptive use include number of living sons, wife's listening to radio, and educational status of husband and wife.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30392 Reddy, M. Munikrishna. Sex-combination of living children and the adoption of sterilisation--a rural study in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jun 1985. 61-8 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper aims at measuring the influence of different sex-combinations of living children within the families on the adoption of permanent family planning methods in the rural areas of South Central India." The data, which were collected in 1982, concern a sample of 200 couples living in six villages in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. The preference for a male child in rural areas is shown to affect significantly the adoption of a permanent family planning method such as sterilization.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30393 Reddy, P. H. Government interventions to control population growth in India. In: Demographic transition in Asia, edited by Gavin W. Jones. ISBN 9971-954-20-6. LC 84-942134. 1984. 97-110 pp. Maruzen Asia: Singapore. In Eng.
The history of organized family planning programs in India is presented, with the emphasis on the development of the national program. A section is included on the characteristics of family planning acceptors. An attempt is made to assess the impact of the program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30394 Rizo, Alberto; Roper, Laura. The role of sterilization in Colombia's family planning program: a national debate. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 44-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
An analysis of the national debate concerning family planning that occurred in Colombia in 1984 is presented. This debate, which was triggered by a controversy over sterilization as a method of birth control, involved those from religious, political, ideological, and family planning milieus. The authors conclude that if the programs offered meet high standards of professional and ethical conduct, it is not hard for their advocates to defend them in such debates so that they can gain wider public acceptance through the process.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30395 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Wolpin, Kenneth I. Evaluating the effects of optimally distributed public programs: child health and family planning interventions. American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 3, Jun 1986. 470-82 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the causes of cross-area variability in government-subsidized family planning and health programs. The authors "formulate and test an optimizing model determining the distribution of family planning and health subsidies across heterogeneous households, and assess the biases in cross-area estimates of the health effects of such subsidies due to public resource optimization. The model incorporates both health externalities and the endogeneous response of the size of the recipient population to program subsidies."
The model is tested using Philippine data for the period 1975-1979 for Laguna province. The results confirm that "the positive and significant child-health effects of both the family planning and health programs are completely obscured when no account is taken of the systematic associations between program placement and pre-program health endowments."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30396 Ross, John A.; Huber, Douglas H.; Hong, Sawon. Worldwide trends in voluntary sterilization. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 34-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
A review of the current status of voluntary sterilization around the world is presented. The data are primarily from the study by the same authors entitled "Voluntary sterilization: an international fact book", although some more recent data are included. The report concludes that despite the widespread use of sterilization around the world, services are not always easily available and that some 40 percent of couples in developing countries lack reasonable access to female sterilization.
For the book by John A. Ross et al., published in 1985, see 51:30366.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30397 Sayed, Hussein A. A. H.; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Way, Ann A. Fertility and family planning in Egypt, 1984. Dec 1985. xxiii, 313 pp. Egypt National Population Council: Cairo, Egypt; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This report presents the findings from the 1984 Egypt Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. "In addition to reviewing the basic information on fertility levels and on the prevalence of contraceptive use, the report focuses attention on a number of other issues of key importance to the family planning program in Egypt, especially the accessibility of contraceptive services, patterns of contraceptive continuation and the level of unmet need. The report also presents information on the levels of knowledge and use of various brands of oral contraceptives which is useful in evaluating the recently expanded social marketing project (Family of the Future)."
Chapters are also included on survey methodology, respondent characteristics, nuptiality, breast-feeding and postpartum amenorrhea, desired family size, availability of family planning services, and husband-wife communications.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30398 Shen, Guoxiang. Family planning policy and its implementation in China. Population Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, Oct 1985. 6-13 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The development of a national family planning policy in China is described. The author stresses the importance paid during the development of the family planning program to the principle of voluntarism and to obtaining public acceptance.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30399 United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office of Family Planning. National Clearinghouse for Family Planning Information (Arlington, Virginia). Family planning grantees, delegates, and clinics: 1985 directory. 1985. vii, 170 pp. Arlington, Virginia. In Eng.
"The purpose of this directory is to facilitate communication among the various family planning clinics supported by the Office of Population Affairs. This ninth edition provides listings for 89 grantees, which include one new grantee this year, approximately 800 delegates, and more than 3,700 clinics. The information in this edition is current as of May 1985."
The directory is in three parts. "The first part consists of a list of the family planning grantees arranged by region, and alphabetically within region by State, city, and organization name. The second part lists the family planning delegate agencies that receive a sum of money from the grantee to contract for services in a particular area....The third part lists the family planning clinics which are supported by the grantees, and in some cases, by delegates. The clinics are also arranged by region and alphabetically within region by State, city, and organization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30400 Valdez, Hugo. Strategies for the development of a family planning program. Administration applied to a social problem: the focus on systems. [Estrategias para el desarrollo de un programa de planificacion familiar. La administracion aplicada a un problema social: enfoque de sistemas.] [1982?]. vii, 222 pp. Centro de Investigacion para el Desarrollo de la Administration: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This study is concerned with alternative strategies toward the development of a national family planning program in Peru. The focus is on the administrative considerations that need to be taken into account in developing such a program.
Location: New York Public Library.; Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30401 Warren, Charles W.; Westoff, Charles F.; Herold, Joan M.; Rochat, Roger W.; Smith, Jack C. Contraceptive sterilization in Puerto Rico. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 351-65 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"For twenty years Puerto Rico has had the world's highest prevalence of sterilization. From the 1982 Puerto Rico Fertility and Family Planning Assessment we examine whether the probability of obtaining sterilization is changing and what impact sterilization has on fertility, finding that the use of contraceptive sterilization has not declined and will probably continue to increase in Puerto Rico. Nonuse rather than temporary methods of contraception is the second most likely circumstance after sterilization. We also find that sterilization has reduced the total marital fertility rate by over 33 percent...."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 383).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30402 Wellings, Kaye. Trends in contraceptive method usage since 1970. British Journal of Family Planning, Vol. 12, No. 1, Apr 1986. 15-22 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Trends in contraceptive usage by method since 1970 in the United Kingdom are analyzed using data from a number of recent surveys supplemented by data from official sources, hospital records, and contraceptives sales. "The last two decades have witnessed two distinct phases in contraception; the period between the early 1960s and the mid 1970s marked by a decline in mechanical methods (traditional barriers and withdrawal) and the precipitous rise of hormonal methods of contraception, and the period since the mid 1970s marked by a move away from oral contraceptives at the aggregate level, simultaneous with a move towards surgical methods of contraception."
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30403 Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (Harare, Zimbabwe); Westinghouse Public Applied Systems (Columbia, Maryland). Zimbabwe Reproductive Health Survey, 1984. Jun 1985. xxix, 209 pp. Harare, Zimbabwe. In Eng.
This report presents results from the Zimbabwe Reproductive Health Survey of 1984, one in a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys carried out by local institutions in cooperation with Westinghouse Public Applied Systems. The survey methodology is first outlined, and the characteristics of the 2,574 rural and urban women aged 15-49 included in it are described. Chapters in the report are included on nuptiality and fertility, maternal and child health indicators, family planning knowledge and attitudes, use of family planning, and availability of contraceptive methods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

52:30404 Fortney, Judith A.; Harper, James M.; Potts, Malcolm. Oral contraceptives and life expectancy. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 117-25 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Using an actuarial life table and data from death certificates for all deaths occurring in the United States in 1981, the authors estimate average life expectancy for women and mortality rates by causes of death, with particular emphasis on mortality attributable to diseases that are affected by the use of oral contraceptives.
The findings indicate that "life expectancy for women in the United States is 77.34 years; women who take oral contraceptives (OCs) for five years before the age of 30 can expect to live about four days longer. This is due primarily to protection against ovarian and endometrial cancers. For women taking pills for five years in their thirties there is a maximum loss of 18 days on the average that is attributable to OC use, and for women over 45 this rises to 80 days."
The authors explain that "the decreased life expectancy is due mainly to the increased mortality from myocardial infarction and stroke. This is substantially less than life lost due to use of a variety of other substances, most notably tobacco."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30405 Janowitz, Barbara; Kane, Thomas T.; Arruda, Jose M.; Covington, Deborah L.; Morris, Leo. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 261-71 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The subsequent contraceptive behaviour following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in the southern region of Brazil is examined in relation to discontinuation of pill use, changing to other methods, termination of contraceptive use, the role of the physician in influencing a woman's decision to discontinue pill use, and discontinuation according to the type of problem experienced." Data are for 2,904 currently married women aged 15-44 who were interviewed in the 1981 Maternal and Child Health/Family Planning Survey.
"Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than the women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups. Women who stop using oral contraceptives are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill and so were women advised to stop by their physician, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30406 Matlin, Stephen A. Perspectives for the development of new contraceptives. Social Biology and Human Affairs, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1984. 43-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
After presenting estimates of the worldwide usage of contraceptive methods collected from published literature, the author reviews the status of and prospects for developments in mechanical and barrier methods, spermicides, IUDs, and female and male systemic agents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30407 Tatum, Howard J.; Connell, Elizabeth B. A decade of intrauterine contraception: 1976 to 1986. Fertility and Sterility, Vol. 46, No. 2, Aug 1986. 173-92 pp. Birmingham, Alabama. In Eng.
A review of IUD contraception during the decade 1976 to 1986 is presented. The authors focus on gains in technology and basic information concerning IUDs that have been made during the decade. The geographical focus is worldwide. Consideration is given to contraindications of IUD use and to the identification of potential complications.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30408 Verbitskii, M. Sh. Immunological methods of birth control. [Immunologicheskie metody regulyatsii rozhdaemosti.] Vestnik Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, No. 1, 1986. 28-36 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
A review of the current status of immunological methods of contraception is presented, based primarily on non-Soviet sources.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30409 Waites, G. M. H. Male fertility regulation: recent advances. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1986. 151-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author surveys the current status of research in the field of male fertility regulation, giving attention to hormonal, chemical, and immunological approaches. The limitations of the various methods are described. The author notes that "while the search for new and safer chemical and hormonal approaches goes on, the recent evidence that vasectomy offers a safe surgical option leaves responsible men with some choice to add to the condom."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30410 Zatuchni, Gerald I.; Goldsmith, Alfredo; Spieler, Jeffrey M.; Sciarra, John J. Male contraception: advances and future prospects. PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation, ISBN 0-06-142907-4. LC 86-2845. 1986. [461] pp. Harper and Row: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Male Contraception: Advances and Future Prospects, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1985. The 43 papers are grouped under the following headings: overview; clinical issues in vasectomy and reversal; male reproductive physiology and contraception; assessment of sperm function; experimental approaches for male contraception; hormonal approaches; and immunologic approaches. The geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

52:30411 Ahmed, Alauddin; Bhuiyan, M. Karimullah; Hossain, Dewan M. Estimation of births averted in rural Bangladesh: a case study of Uthali. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1983. 87-98 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The authors estimate births averted in a rural population in Bangladesh between 1978 and 1979 and use the results to favorably assess the impact of the Uthali family planning program. Acceptor characteristics are also described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30412 Bose, Ashish. Demography beyond decimal points. 1985. 18 pp. Indian Association for the Study of Population [IASP]: Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author surveys the history of population growth and family planning programs in India since the 1950s, with a particular emphasis on data collection for demographic studies. It is concluded that "the major weaknesses of India's family planning programme are: (1) undesirable foreign orientation, (2) monopoly of bureaucrats, (3) monopoly of the Central Government, and (4) sole concern for quantitative targets and their achievement irrespective of the impact on the birth rate." Anticipated future trends are also summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30413 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. The family planning programme at the local level: a study of a village area in South India. In: Demographic transition in Asia, edited by Gavin W. Jones. ISBN 9971-954-20-6. LC 84-942134. 1984. 111-24 pp. Maruzen Asia: Singapore. In Eng.
The authors report on a study of the family planning program in India at the local level. The study concerns a village population in rural Karnataka. The demography of the population is first described, including factors affecting fertility. Next, the level of social change in the village is asssessed. The authors then describe the level of family planning practice, consisting primarily of sterilization, and the development of the family planning program. A significant percentage of the decline in fertility that has occurred is attributed to the program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30414 Gopal, K. Rani. Benefit-cost analysis of the Indian Family Welfare Programme. Indian Economic Journal, Vol. 31, No. 4, Apr-Jun 1984. 45-52 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
An attempt is made to evaluate the impact of the Indian Family Welfare Programme. The need for a cost-benefit analysis of the program is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:30415 Karkal, Malini. Family planning in India: a critical appraisal. International Review of Natural Family Planning, Vol. 10, No. 1, Spring 1986. 23-42 pp. Collegeville, Minnesota. In Eng.
A critical review of the achievements of the national family planning program in India is presented. Consideration is given to the problems raised by the legalization of abortion and the pressures imposed on individuals to accept sterilization under the Emergency.
The author suggests that the program should focus more on improvement of the health of women and children and states that "even in populations where fertility is regulated, the health of women, infants, and children has shown no improvement; more importantly, their health is shown to be poorer compared even to populations where the results of family planning are comparatively less successful."
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30416 Khan, M. E.; Gupta, R. B. Determinants of high family planning practices: a case study of Nilgiris. LC 85-903408. 1985. xii, 132 pp. Operations Research Group: Bombay, India; Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This is a case study of an area, Nilgiris, in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, which has a particularly high level of contraceptive acceptance. The data concern some 800 respondents from both rural and urban areas. The objectives of the study were to identify the factors associated with this high acceptance rate and to assess the benefits of family planning to those practicing it.
The factors associated with a successful family planning program were the equitable distribution of the benefits of development, well-organized health and family planning services and easy access to them in rural areas, a well-developed private sector program in association with government efforts, and improved levels of women's status as measured by educational status and labor force participation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30417 Lewis, Maureen A. Do contraceptive prices affect demand? Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 126-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author investigates the need for government subsidization of family planning services in developing countries, examining studies that have compared free and fee-for-service family planning programs.
"The importance of price in determining family planning demand is also explored through studies of demand shifts in response to changes in contraceptive prices. Contraceptive price increases in established programs have generally had a minimal effect on utilization. Price reductions in established programs, however, have led to increases in contraceptive demand. These findings suggest that moderate fees can be imposed for family planning services without affecting demand; however, full cost recovery may pose a deterrent to low- and moderate-income couples."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30418 Pandjaitan, Sahala. National family planning program and fertility decline in Indonesia. In: Population and development. Proceedings of the symposium held at Cairo Demographic Centre, 3-7 November 1985. CDC Research Monograph Series, No. 14, 1986. 135-56 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng.
The author reviews the policies, strategies, activities, and achievements of the National Family Planning Program in Indonesia. Tabular data are included on the number of new contraceptive acceptors, 1969-1985; the total number of contraceptive users, 1973-1985; the number of couple years of protection and years of effective protection, 1979-1984; total fertility rates by province, 1967-1985; and a comparison of impact indicators measuring program success. The author also examines theories of fertility determination in relation to interventions undertaken by the Indonesian program. The general fertility decline in Indonesia since the late 1960s is briefly analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30419 Roy, T. K.; Rao, G. Rama. Introduction to evaluation of demographic impact of family planning programme. 1985. 198, [2] pp. Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
This book is designed as an introductory text for postgraduate students on evaluation of the demographic impact of family planning programs. It is based on a 30-hour course that has been taught at the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay, India, since 1978-1979. The first chapter presents an introduction to family planning programs, concepts of evaluation, and data sources. The second chapter is concerned with the measurement of the intermediate impact of such programs through surveys, follow-up surveys, and service statistics.
The third chapter deals with measurement of the longer-term impact, and includes sections on standardization technique, fertility projection and trend analysis, the component projection method, and experimental design. Four specific statistical techniques used in evaluation are described in the next chapter: test factor standardization, analysis of variance and multiple classification analyses, multiple regression, and the analysis of covariance.
Chapters are also included on induced abortion and its impact and on target setting in family planning. The geographic focus is worldwide, with particular emphasis on India.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30420 Satia, J. K.; Maru, Rushikesh M. Incentives and disincentives in the Indian family welfare program. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 136-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This article reviews the available evidence regarding the impact of incentives on the quality and quantity of family planning services in India. Administrative concerns related to the implementation of incentive programs are discussed, and the current debate on disincentives, as well as the brief period when disincentives were used, is summarized."
According to the authors, "incentives to acceptors help to increase the level of contraceptive acceptance, especially when they are part of a well designed strategy of service delivery and client motivation. Incentives do not appear to have an adverse effect on quality of services and acceptors, and they do not seem to influence method choice. Disincentives, if they are used, should not impinge on fundamental individual rights of either the parents or the child."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30421 Zabin, Laurie S.; Hirsch, Marilyn B.; Smith, Edward A.; Streett, Rosalie; Hardy, Janet B. Evaluation of a pregnancy prevention program for urban teenagers. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 119-26 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors "report on a school-based program for the primary prevention of pregnancy among inner-city adolescents that was designed and administered by the staff of The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine's Department of Pediatrics and Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics." The project was conducted in four schools in Baltimore, Maryland, between November 1981 and June 1984. The effects of the program on changes in knowledge, attitude, and behavior and on pregnancy rates are evaluated.
It is concluded that "the rapid effect on clinic use exerted by [the program]...suggests that it was the accessibility of the staff and of the clinic, rather than any 'new' information about contraception, that encouraged the students to obtain services."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

52:30422 Bhuyan, S. B.; Bhuyan, K. C. Fertility preference and family planning practices in rural Bangladesh--a case study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 1, Sep 1985. 59-68 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Differences in fertility preferences and family planning practices among 195 married women of reproductive age living in the Noakhali district of Bangladesh are explored. The emphasis is on the effect on fertility of educational status of husband and wife, housing conditions, duration of marriage, and number of children ever born.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30423 Campbell, Elaine. The childless marriage: an exploratory study of couples who do not want children. ISBN 0-422-60060-1. LC 85-14705. 1985. x, 160 pp. Tavistock Publications: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of voluntary childlessness is presented based on data from interviews with 78 individuals living in a Scottish city, representing one or two partners from 44 married couples. Consideration is given to the reasons for remaining childless and to the consequences for the couples concerned.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30424 Cernada, George P.; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Hui-Sheng; Sun, Te-Hsiung; Chen Cernada, Ching-Ching. Implications for adolescent sex education in Taiwan. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 4, Jul-Aug 1986. 181-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This first Taiwan-wide sample survey of adolescent sexual awareness, knowledge, attitude, and behavior shows that secondary school students there: (1) lack basic knowledge about contraception and reproduction, (2) are often not being taught adequately about these subjects in school, (3) have fairly permissive attitudes about sexual relationships, particularly males, (4) are sexually active, particularly males and those in the private vocational high schools (although less so than their US counterparts), (5) want to learn more about the nature of intimate relationships between males and females, and (6) look to school and public health agencies to be more active sources of information and education."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30425 Choudhury, Abu Y.; Choudhuri, Shafiqur R.; Huq, M. Najmul; Khan, Atiqur R. Motivational factors that determine the non-use of contraceptives. Feb 1985. vii, 50 pp. Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology, Bangladesh [PIACT, Bangladesh]: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The reasons for the nonacceptance of contraception in Bangladesh are explored. The method used is called the Focus Group Discussion technique, developed from commercial marketing, which allows for qualitative rather than quantitative responses to questions concerning motivation. Other topics covered include desired age at marriage, ideal number of children, and birth intervals.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30426 Conton, Leslie. Reproductive decision-making in the Upper Ramu District, Papua New Guinea: cognitive aspects of adaptive problem-solving. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1985. 163-76 pp. Boroko, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"This paper identifies specific interrelationships between political-economic, ecological, health and cultural parameters that shape reproductive choice in rural lowland families of the Usino region, Upper Ramu District, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Additionally, it compares their reproductive choices and strategies with those of upland groups in the same district. Lowland and upland cultural groups occupy distinct technological niches and follow distinct adaptive reproductive strategies consistent with their different perceptions of the value of children."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30427 Crawford, Thomas J.; Boyer, Robyn. Parity and the expected consequences of childbearing. Population and Environment, Vol. 7, No. 4, Winter 1984. 234-45 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"In this study 163 young married women with 0, 1, or 2 children described the advantages and disadvantages of having a (another) child in the next three years and the expectations of significant others regarding their childbearing behavior." The data concern women in Orange County, California, and were collected by purposive sampling in 1978. The emphasis is on differences in motivations for parenthood by parity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30428 Dhindsa, K. S. New aspects of fertility behavior: illustrated with survey data from North-West India. International Review of Natural Family Planning, Vol. 10, No. 2, Summer 1986. 121-9 pp. Collegeville, Minnesota. In Eng.
Fertility intentions among younger couples in India are examined using data from a survey of 600 couples living in North-West India. The sample, interviewed in 1982-1983, was selected by multistage random sampling techniques and contained representatives of high and low castes. The results indicate that those of higher castes and younger ages are having fewer children, although those from lower castes are not. The impact of preference for sons on family size is noted.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30429 Frankel, Stephen. Social and cultural aspects of family planning programmes. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal, Vol. 28, No. 3, Sep 1985. 155-62 pp. Boroko, Papua New Guinea. In Eng.
"In all societies fertility is an important issue imbedded within a specific cultural framework. Changes in fertility rates, in particular, where these are intended to be brought about by family planning programmes, require sensitive understanding of the interactions of belief, social organization and individual choice. The anthropological method of inquiry is very useful in this regard and is here illustrated in a study of family planning among the Huli of the Southern Highlands [of Papua New Guinea]."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30430 Miller, Christine D. The effects of socioeconomic development upon a model of women's fertility decision making in a Tunisian community. Pub. Order No. DA8527426. 1985. 336 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
A model to analyze the impact of socioeconomic development on fertility decision-making is developed and applied to survey data for 198 ever-married Tunisian women aged 18-76 interviewed in 1979. "The decision-making model was supported by the data, and the concomitants of development affected all phases of it. Effects extended to (a) childbearing rationale, (b) family size, (c) family decision-making style, and (d) goal-consistent fertility behavior."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Irvine.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(10).

52:30431 Oni, Gbolahan A. Contraceptive knowledge and attitudes in urban Ilorin, Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 273-83 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Examination of the effect of various socioeconomic, cultural and demographic characteristics of married women in Ilorin, Nigeria, who are in their prime childbearing ages, on their contraceptive knowledge and on their attitudes towards modern contraception shows that only the woman's education, age and area of residence within the city have significant independent effects on contraceptive knowledge." The data are from a household survey conducted between September 1983 and January 1984.
It is found that "90% of the women interviewed thought that women should be free to practise family planning. Also, more than 95% of all the women believed that too frequent births could endanger the health of the mother and her children. However, only the women with previous contraceptive knowledge overwhelmingly (more than 80%) thought that the best way to prevent too frequent births is by family planning. On the contrary, 66.5% of those without previous contraceptive knowledge before this study suggested that traditional abstinence should be used and only 28.9% suggested family planning."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30432 Oyeka, I. C. A. Family planning among Nigerian postsecondary female students. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 146-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This study examines the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning among postsecondary female students in an urban area of Anambra State, Nigeria. Although only a few of the women sampled expressed knowledge of modern contraceptive methods, the majority had favorable attitudes toward family planning. Among those who had knowledge of family planning, those who had attended a coeducational secondary school were more familiar with modern contraceptive methods, and those who had attended an all-girls' secondary school were more familiar with the rhythm method."
It is also noted that "of the 23.3 percent who had ever practiced family planning, almost half had used rhythm; only a very small minority had ever used the pill. Among those who had ever used contraception and who had a positive attitude toward family planning, the greatest proportion was made up of older, married Protestant women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30433 van de Walle, Francine; Traore, Baba. Attitudes of women and men towards contraception in Bobo-Dioulasso. African Demography Working Paper, No. 13, Jun 1986. 36 pp. University of Pennsylvania, Population Studies Center: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
The authors report on a survey conducted in July and August 1983 and January 1984 in which 80 women of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso, all of whom had a child between 25 and 28 months of age, were interviewed concerning aspects of postpartum behavior. The focus is on qualitative responses to survey questions pertaining to beliefs, attitudes, and practices relevant to the determination of birth intervals. Detailed responses are provided to questions concerning the knowledge and use of contraception, motivations to use contraception, and obstacles to its acceptance.
Information from interviews with 25 husbands of women in the survey is also provided. Differences in the motivations of men and women for avoiding births are noted, as are differences between the sexes in the level of knowledge of modern contraceptive methods. Birth spacing behavior achieved through abstinence is seen as a primary concern; contraception is perceived as a Western import, to which popular African religious beliefs and tradition present a considerable obstacle.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

52:30434 France. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED] (Paris, France). Statistics concerning abortion in France: 1976 yearbook. [Statistiques de l'avortement en France: annuaire 1976.] ISBN 2-7332-8076-7. 1985. viii, 96 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
This report presents the first results of the national system of abortion registration in France following changes in the law enacted in 1975. Tables present data on abortions by gestational period, number of previous pregnancies, marital status, occupation, medical technique employed, region and department, woman's age, employment status, urban residence, previous abortion, previous pregnancy outcome, and marriage duration. Also included is a copy of the questionnaire used and the text of the 1975 law.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30435 Hogberg, Ulf; Joelsson, Ingemar. Maternal deaths related to abortions in Sweden, 1931-1980. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, Vol. 20, No. 4, Dec 1985. 169-78 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Deaths related to abortion accounted for 20% of all maternal mortality in Sweden during the period 1931-80. The risk of dying as a consequence of abortion, per 100,000 pregnancies, declined with a factor of 160 during the study period. Three main reasons for the improvement are discussed."
The importance of the introduction of antibiotics in reducing mortality from illegal abortion is noted. "Liberal legislation and abortional practice subsequently eliminated illegal abortions, and resulted in a more accurate and favorable statistical distribution of abortions by pregnancy week. This together with new technology reduced the legal abortions mortality rate to one-fiftieth over the last 30 years even though the number of legal abortions increased 7-fold."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30436 Mittal, Suneeta; Misra, Snehlata. Contraceptive trends in patients opting for medical termination of pregnancy. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 4, Jun 1985. 56-60 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
Contraceptive practice among women obtaining legal abortion in India is analyzed using data on 12,312 patients at the Lady Hardinge Medical College who have had abortions since its legalization in 1972. The results show an increase in contraceptive usage over time and an increased tendency to resort to abortion in cases of contraceptive failure.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30437 Nair, P. S.; Kurup, K. Balachandra. Factors influencing low performance of legal abortion in India: a community study. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 32, No. 1, Sep 1985. 30-40 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The impact of the legalization of abortion on both legal and illegal abortion in India is examined. Data are from 2,304 rural and 636 urban couples sampled in the state of Tamil Nadu. The results indicate that knowledge about the reform of the abortion law or about the existence of abortion services was extremely low, that the relatively few abortions performed were largely illegal, and that the provision of abortion services as specified by the act has not taken place.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30438 Powell-Griner, Eve. Induced terminations of pregnancy: reporting states, 1982 and 1983. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 35, No. 3, Suppl., Jul 14, 1986. 36 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report on induced terminations of pregnancy is based on 1982 and 1983 data reported to the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) by 13 States....Abortion data are shown on an occurrence and a residence basis....The occurrence tables represent characteristics and factors associated with the utilization of health services within the geographic area in which the abortions occurred. In contrast, ratio tables...show the frequency of abortions in relation to demographic characteristics associated with births to residents of the area."
Abortion ratios are reported separately by age, race, marital status, and educational attainment. It is found that "between 1982 and 1983 the ratio of induced abortions to live births decreased for the 13 States....The ratio for black women was 2 times that for white women....The highest ratios were reported for the youngest and the oldest women....For both the white and black groups, married women have much lower ratios than unmarried women....For white women, ratios generally decrease with increasing educational attainment, but for black women the ratios generally increase with increasing educational attainment."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30439 Torres, Aida; Donovan, Patricia; Dittes, Nancy; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Public benefits and costs of government funding for abortion. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 111-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine the costs and benefits of public funding for abortions in the United States using findings from a state-level analysis conducted by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI). "For every tax dollar spent to pay for abortions for poor women, about four dollars is saved in public medical and welfare expenditures....Public costs examined in the AGI analysis include Medicaid expenditures for prenatal care, delivery and postnatal care for the mother, and for newborn care, neonatal intensive care and pediatric care for the child for the first two years of life; as well as expenditures for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), food stamps and the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) during those first two years."
The findings indicate that "the benefit-to-cost ratio varies from about 9:1 in Massachusetts to 2:1 in Hawaii and Pennsylvania. The net savings for the nation as a whole over a two-year period if abortions were publicly funded in every state would total at least 339.6 million [dollars]."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30440 United States. New York. Department of Health (Albany, New York). Induced abortions recorded in New York State, 1983: with five year summary, 1979-1983. [1983?]. 82 pp. Albany, New York. In Eng.
"This report describes selected characteristics of the induced abortions performed in New York State in 1983, and summarizes these data for the years 1979 through 1982." Statistics are reported separately for New York City and for the remainder of the state. Among the topics covered are woman's age, race, marital status, education, number of living children, previous induced abortions, state of residence, county of occurrence, facility of occurrence, gestation, operative procedure, and complications associated with induced abortions. Absolute and percentage changes from the 1982 figures are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

52:30441 Akin, John S.; Bilsborrow, Richard E.; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M. Breastfeeding patterns and determinants in the Near East: an analysis for four countries. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 247-62 pp. London, England. In Eng.
A comparative study of the patterns and determinants of breast-feeding in four Middle East countries--Egypt, Jordan, Tunisia, and Yemen--is presented using data from the World Fertility Survey. "Differences in factors influencing ever-breastfeeding, continuing breastfeeding from very short to moderate durations, and extending breastfeeding into the second year are observed, indicating 'structural shifts' in the determinants of breastfeeding. Differences between countries are also found which can only roughly be associated with differences in modernization and urbanization....Interesting results are observed regarding effects of pill use and sex of child (boys being breastfed longer), suggesting the need for thorough studies to explain these findings further."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30442 Anderson, John E.; Becker, Stan; Guinena, A. H.; McCarthy, Brian J. Breastfeeding effects on birth interval components: a prospective child health study in Gaza. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, May-Jun 1986. 153-60 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine data from a child health study conducted in 1978 in Gaza in order to analyze the relationship between breast-feeding and two components of birth intervals, the postpartum anovulatory period and the waiting time to conception.
"The Gaza population is similar to other populations in the Middle East in having moderate durations of breastfeeding and short intervals between births. The finding of a strong positive association between breastfeeding and the length of postpartum amenorrhea is as expected from numerous other studies. The relationship between breastfeeding behavior and the waiting time to conception is examined using hazard model analysis. Women who are breastfeeding when menstruation resumes and continue to do so are less likely to conceive than other women, according to the analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30443 Bongaarts, John. What can future surveys tell us about the proximate determinants of fertility? International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 11, No. 3, Sep 1985. 86-90 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The author offers suggestions for improving the information gathered in national surveys concerning the proximate determinants of fertility. Those proximate determinants identified as high priorities for future research are contraception, exposure to the risk of pregnancy, and breast-feeding; the probability of spontaneous fetal loss and natural sterility are seen to be of relatively little interest. It is noted that induced abortion, fecundability, and pathological sterility are determinants that may not be readily investigated using single-round surveys.
The author recommends that "data on coital frequency should receive greater attention in future surveys. This information, as well as more detailed marital histories, could also shed more light on variations in women's exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The effect of breastfeeding on fertility can be investigated further by determining the duration of lactational amenorrhea and by measuring patterns of suckling."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 396).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30444 Edmonston, Barry; Avery, Roger; McKee, Lauris; Smith, Ken. Duration of breastfeeding with interruptions due to child death and pregnancy. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 169-74 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper estimates the mean losses and proportionate interruptions of breastfeeding intervals due to child death and pregnancy. These estimates rely on a microanalytic model with stochastic risks for the basic processes of human reproduction. Selected parameters are included for variations in breastfeeding, mortality during the early years of life, and pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30445 Irwin, Kathleen L.; Peterson, Herbert B.; Hughes, Joyce M.; Gill, Sara W. Hysterectomy among women of reproductive age, United States, update for 1981-1982. CDC Surveillance Summaries, Vol. 35, No. 1SS, 1986. 1-6 pp. Atlanta, Georgia. In Eng.
The prevalence of hysterectomy in the United States, particularly among women of reproductive age, is examined using data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey. "This report provides an analysis of the influence of age, race, geographic region, and surgical approach on hysterectomy rates for 1981-1982 and updates the analysis of hysterectomy rates for 1970-1980. [A] previous analysis showed that the nationwide hysterectomy rate declined from 1975 to 1980 among women of reproductive age. The current analysis, however, indicates that the noted decline may have begun to plateau, although rates in 1982 were the lowest since 1970."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30446 Jesel, Renate. Cultural and biological aspects of reproductive behavior in East African societies. [Kulturelle und biologische Aspekte generativen Verhaltens in ostafrikanischen Gesellschaften.] Sozialwissenschaftliche Studien zu Internationalen Problemen/ Social Science Studies on International Problems, No. 109, ISBN 3-88156-325-3. 1986. 170 pp. Breitenbach: Fort Lauderdale, Florida/Saarbrucken, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
"The first purpose of this study is to describe traditional reproductive behaviour in two East-African ethnic groups and their customs of birth control, as well as changes caused by colonization." The groups studied are the Kikuyu and Kamba of Kenya. An attempt is also made to determine the extent to which breast-feeding was a contraceptive factor in precolonial times and whether it is possible to use this method in current family planning programs.
The findings indicate that after colonization, changes occurred in the methods of birth control used. It is also found that child spacing in the past was influenced more by postpartum abstinence and by traditional contraceptive practices than by breast-feeding. It is suggested that breast-feeding should not be used as a contraceptive in modern family planning programs.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30447 Lee, Lily W. Postpartum amenorrhea: behavioral and socio-demographic correlates. Pub. Order No. DA8525031. 1985. 249 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses data for women from Semarang, Indonesia, and Nairobi, Kenya, to assess the major factors influencing the duration of postpartum amenorrhea. The findings indicate that the frequency and pattern of breast-feeding are the primary determinants. The correlations of selected demographic and socioeconomic variables with patterns of breast-feeding are discussed.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of California at Berkeley.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

52:30448 Olukoya, A. A. Traditional child spacing practices of women: experiences from a primary care project in Lagos, Nigeria. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1986. 333-6 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Changes in traditional child spacing practices among women in the target population of a primary health care project in Lagos, Nigeria, are examined. It is found that "the traditional length of abstinence has decreased, and more women now resume sex before termination of breast-feeding....Other changes regarding the opinion of mothers about some of the practices, and the danger of the current trend of starting infant formula earlier in the post partum period are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

52:30450 Pailhe, Joel. Births outside of marriage: permanence and change. [Naissances hors mariage: permanences et transformations.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 10, 57-64 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in illegitimacy in contemporary France are analyzed using data from official sources. These indicate that the increase in the number and percentage of illegitimate births continues as legitimate fertility declines. They also show that the differences by geographic region persist and are even increasing between rural and urban areas. The development of new practices, including the acknowledgement of the child born outside marriage by both father and mother, is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.