Volume 52 - Number 3 - Fall 1986

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

52:30143 Abraham, S.; Gotpagar, K. B. An annotated bibliography of mortality studies in India. LC 85-904129. 1985. vii, 191 pp. International Institute for Population Sciences: Bombay, India; Himalaya Publishing House: Bombay, India. In Eng.
An annotated bibliography of mortality studies in India since 1921 is presented, with a focus on works since 1947. 380 works, both published and unpublished, are included, most of which are physically located at the library of the International Institute for Population Sciences at Bombay, India. The bibliography is organized into four sections by subjects: general mortality and causes; infant, perinatal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality; maternal mortality; and life tables. Within each section, the organization is alphabetically by author.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30144 Benjamin, Bernard. Implications of levels and differentials in mortality and morbidity for insurance and pension schemes. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 165-74 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author analyzes the effects of mortality declines on the insurance industry using data for England and Wales. Three separate projections of mortality rates and expectation of life through the year 2017 are considered. Attention is given to current and anticipated changes in the life insurance and pension systems in England and Wales and to the major characteristics of life insurance and social security in developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30145 Brenner, M. Harvey. Mortality and economic instability: detailed analyses for Britain and comparative analyses for selected industrialized countries. International Journal of Health Services, Vol. 13, No. 4, 1983. 563-620 pp. Farmingdale, New York. In Eng.
"This paper discusses a first-stage analysis of the link of unemployment rates, as well as other economic, social and environmental health risk factors, to mortality rates in postwar Britain. The results presented represent part of an international study of the impact of economic change on mortality patterns in industrialized countries. The mortality patterns examined include total and infant mortality and (by cause) cardiovascular (total), cerebrovascular and heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide, homicide and motor vehicle accidents."
The beneficial effects on mortality of economic growth and stability and health service availability and the negative impact of unemployment on morbidity are noted. The negative impacts of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and cold temperatures are also noted. The models developed that include economic changes only and those including behavioral and environmental risk factors are applied to the analysis of mortality in other developed countries.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30146 Caldwell, John C. Routes to low mortality in poor countries. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 2, Jun 1986. 171-220, 376, 378 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The paper examines Third World mortality experience in order to identify the ways in which poor countries can achieve low mortality without having to await prior economic growth. A detailed examination is made of the experience of Sri Lanka, Kerala (India), and Costa Rica. The analysis demonstrates the importance of the position of women and their education and of a radical political tradition, as well as of government interventions in the areas of health and nutrition." Consideration is also given to the role of religion in the mortality decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30147 Caldwell, John C. The role of mortality decline in theories of social and demographic transition. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 31-42 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
Literature concerning social change, the demographic transition, and the role of mortality decline in both of these phenomena is reviewed. Selected concepts of the mortality transition are discussed, with particular attention to Malthusian equilibrium and pre-transitional demographic theory. The causes of mortality decline and its impact on other demographic behavior are assessed. The emphasis is on the interrelationships between modernization and fertility and mortality declines, as well as on the need to more fully develop a theory of mortality transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30148 Cantrelle, P.; Diop, I. L.; Garenne, M.; Gueye, M.; Sadio, A. The profile of mortality and its determinants in Senegal, 1960-1980. In: Determinants of mortality change and differentials in developing countries: the Five-Country Case Study Project. Population Studies, No. 94; ST/ESA/SER.A/94, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151151-8. 1986. 86-116 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The purpose of this case study is to collect and analyse data on the profile of mortality and its determinants in Senegal over the two decades following independence (4 April 1960)....The study involves the national level as well as the regional level. In each case an attempt is made to extract what is known of mortality trends and determinants, and in particular those of infant and child mortality, an age group that represents more than one half of total deaths and nearly two thirds in rural areas."
Following an introductory section concerning the climate, administrative and ecological regions, economy, and demographic situation, the authors describe the development of health services in Senegal and discuss mortality levels and trends during the period. A case study of the rural region of Ngayokheme for the years 1963-1981 is also included.
Among the findings characterizing mortality developments in Senegal are a high mortality rate for those under age 5 and a particularly high rate for those aged 18-36 months; little mortality difference according to sex among those younger than 5 years; substantial differences in mortality between urban and rural areas, among ecological zones, and among ethnic groups; and a relatively small net impact of parents' education on child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30149 Caselli, Graziella; Vallin, Jacques; Vaupel, James; Yashin, Anatoli. Developments in the age structure of mortality in Italy and France since 1900: period and cohort effects. [L'evolution de la structure par age de la mortalite en Italie et en France depuis 1900: effets de periode et effets de generation.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 4, Feb 1986. 28 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre.
Mortality trends in Italy and France over the course of the twentieth century are compared using a selection of primary and secondary data based on official sources. The focus is on differences in mortality by age and sex in order to distinguish cohort from period effects. The data are presented using the contour maps of population surfaces developed by Vaupel and others.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30150 Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Pejaranonda, Chintana. Levels, trends and differentials of mortality in Thailand. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 527-41 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review and estimate levels, trends and differentials in mortality in Thailand during the current period." The current period is defined as being since 1950. The data are from a variety of sources including vital statistics, a dual record system, and indirect estimation using census and survey data. Topics covered include age-specific death rates, life expectancy, infant and child mortality, regional differentials, and socioeconomic differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30151 Chernichovsky, Dov. Interactions between mortality levels and the allocation of time for leisure, training, consumption and saving over the life cycle. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 126-31 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author seeks to develop a framework depicting the interaction of mortality levels and the allocation of time for leisure, training, consumption, and saving over the life cycle in the context of a household's decision-making process. "The discussion suggests that longevity is conducive to saving, schooling and training, and technological change. Rising survivorship is postulated to be a major force behind rising productivity because rising levels of productivity are almost the only means to spread consumption of goods and leisure over an increasing life span."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30152 Chiang, Chin Long; van den Berg, Bea J. Measures of maternal death and its impact on the female population. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 153-71 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study deals with problems concerning the measurement of maternal mortality and its impact on the female population. The methodological issues in the development of measures for mortality, survivorship, and longevity are first considered. The measures discussed are applied to data from a selection of 33 countries. Comparisons are then made among these countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30153 Curtin, Lester R. Estimation of the variance of mortality rates. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 335-40 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper examines the 'exact' variance of age-specific and age-adjusted death rates. The exact variance requires single year of age data. Often these data are not available, so an approximation to the variance is needed....Several approximations based on binomial and Poisson assumptions are compared."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30154 D'Souza, S. Mortality structure in Matlab (Bangladesh) and the effect of selected health interventions. In: Determinants of mortality change and differentials in developing countries: the Five-Country Case Study Project. Population Studies, No. 94; ST/ESA/SER.A/94, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151151-8. 1986. 117-44 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author describes the Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) established in 1963 in Matlab, Bangladesh, and attempts "to illustrate the utility of maintaining a 'small study area' within which mortality and morbidity processes can be investigated. For a developing country, such an area can provide immensely valuable data about a wide range of health and population issues."
Data from the DSS and from other published sources are used to discuss levels and trends in mortality in Matlab and in the country as a whole; mortality differentials by socioeconomic status; causes of death; and health interventions, particularly maternal-child health programs, and mortality. The design and costs of data collection of the DSS are outlined and compared with the Companiganj health project, begun in 1973. Advantages and limitations of the Matlab system are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30155 Ewbank, D.; Henin, R.; Kekovole, J. An integration of demographic and epidemiologic research on mortality in Kenya. In: Determinants of mortality change and differentials in developing countries: the Five-Country Case Study Project. Population Studies, No. 94; ST/ESA/SER.A/94, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151151-8. 1986. 33-85 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors examine and summarize findings of demographic and epidemiologic research on mortality in Kenya, with a particular focus on the issues that are most important for formulating a national policy to reduce mortality. "This study includes three major components. The first is the estimation of the levels and trends in mortality for each of the 41 districts. This analysis provides the basis for discussing geographic differentials and for evaluating the reliability and generalizability of epidemiologic data on cause of death. The second component is a review of the studies of the effect of socio-economic and environmental factors and health programme availability on mortality differentials."
In the third part, the authors attempt "to estimate mortality rates by cause for the country and whenever possible to examine geographic differentials or time trends for specific causes of death. The emphasis on mortality reflects the authors' belief that cause-specific and overall mortality rates should be the primary tool used by health planners in developing countries for setting priorities."
It is concluded that "Kenya has experienced a substantial, sustained decline in mortality for at least 35 years. Although it is clear that several health programmes have contributed to this decline (in particular immunization programmes), there is no evidence that the general availability of health facilities has been responsible for much of the decline. Instead most of the decline seems to be associated with general socio-economic development and related cultural changes. This is most clear in the relationship between education and mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30156 Ewbank, Douglas C. A re-evaluation of levels and trends of mortality in East Africa. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18, 1986. 41-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author uses census data to estimate "trends of infant, child and adult mortality in Kenya, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania....He drew heavily on new techniques, including methods for estimating mortality from age distribution when fertility and/or mortality are not stable, methods for using orphanhood data from two censuses, a method for adjusting child survival data for differences in infant mortality by birth order, and an approach to estimating simultaneously the trends and the age patterns of child mortality."
According to the analyses, "all three countries experienced substantial declines over the period for which data are available. While Kenya has continued to have a substantially lower infant mortality rate than the United Republic of Tanzania, the gap between Uganda and Kenya seems to have virtually disappeared between 1950 and 1965." The overall quality of the census data used is favorably assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30157 Freund, Paul J.; Kalumba, Katele. Maternal health and child survival rates in Zambia: a comparative community study. Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 18, No. 2, Jun 1984. 12-7 pp. Lusaka, Zambia. In Eng.
"This paper presents the summary results of maternal/reproductive data and child mortality patterns collected in two rural communities in Zambia." The data concern some 200 women who have been continuously monitored since 1982. The impact of factors such as poor nutrition, high morbidity, and environmental conditions on maternal mortality and pregnancy wastage is noted.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30158 Gage, Timothy B.; Dyke, Bennett; MacCluer, Jean W. Estimating mortality level for small populations: an evaluation of a pair of two-census methods. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 263-73 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A pair of two-census methods of estimating mortality levels are tested with simulated census data. The populations considered range in size from 250 to 1,500 individuals of each sex; censuses were taken at intervals of five and ten years. In general, the methods are resistant to bias, and yield variances similar in magnitude to those obtained using vital registration data and life table techniques for censored data. The two-census methods represent a substantial improvement over the techniques of mortality estimation previously available for small populations, since two reliable censuses are more likely to be available for these populations than complete vital registration."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, p. 428).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30159 Hansluwka, H. Mortality in South and East Asia: an assessment of achievement and failure. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 325-408 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to review the available evidence on trends and differentials in mortality in the countries of...Asia [excluding Western Asia] between 1950 and up to the early 1980s. In a comparative assessment of achievements and failures, an attempt will be made to identify some of the crucial factors which account for differences in the pace of mortality change." Particular attention is given to the different approaches to mortality reduction taken by China and India and to their relative effectiveness.
The paper begins with a review of data availability and quality. Health policies and programs in the region are then described. Consideration is given to mortality differentials both among and within countries. The pattern of causes of death in the region is considered separately. The paper concludes with a review of future priorities for improving the situation with regard to mortality in Asia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30160 Hansluwka, Harald; Lopez, Alan D.; Porapakkham, Yawarat; Prasartkul, Pramote. New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. vi, 546 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This is a collection of papers by various authors concerning new developments in mortality analysis. It is the product of a collaboration between the World Health Organization and the United Nations and includes articles dealing with the mortality transition; uses of mortality data and the development of an index of preventable deaths; methodological developments; cause of death analysis; health, nutrition, and mortality; and paths of mortality change.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30161 Heligman, Lawrence. The modelling of age patterns of mortality and the use of such models to evaluate the quality of recorded census age distributions. Pub. Order No. DA8603647. 1985. 241 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objectives of this study are to discuss the modelling of age patterns of mortality, with specific reference to developing countries, and to illustrate the use of such model age patterns for evaluating the quality of recorded census age distributions in the South Asian region. Namely the age distributions from the 1961 and 1974 censuses of Bangladesh, the 1961 and 1971 censuses of India, the 1961 and 1971 censuses of Nepal, and the 1961 and 1972 censuses of Pakistan are considered. The methodology used is the integrated procedure developed by Samuel Preston for estimating demographic parameters."
The author extends the procedure by "combining the estimated demographic parameters with the age-specific intercensal growth rates to produce a 'correct' intercensal age distribution....The study finds consistent patterns of errors in age recording among these four South Asian countries, which need to be taken into consideration when using demographic data from this region."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30162 Hetzel, Basil S. The use of mortality and other epidemiological information in the assessment of preventable deaths. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 57-100 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the use of mortality data and other epidemiological information to analyze differential mortality and to assess the level of preventable deaths. The indexes of preventable deaths from various causes are first reviewed using mortality data. Next, the use of derived mortality data to prepare such indexes is considered. Finally, the author examines the use of mortality data to assess life-style and to develop public health programs. The geographic focus is worldwide, with the emphasis on developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30163 Heysen, Socorro; Musgrove, Philip. Interdepartmental differences in life expectancy at birth in Peru as it relates to income, household drinking-water, and provision of medical consultations. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1986. 31-44 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the Central Reserve Bank of Peru and the 1981 census are used here to examine one of the indicators of poverty, which is life expectancy at birth. The focus is on the relationship between life expectancy on the one hand, and income, the drinking water supply, and the provision of medical services in the country's 25 departments.
"Considered separately, each of the three study variables appeared capable of explaining between 60 and 68% of the observed interdepartmental variance in life expectancy....Overall, the three variables together appeared capable of accounting for 80% of the observed interdepartmental variance in life expectancy at birth."
This is a translation of the Spanish article published in 1985 and cited in 52:20144.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30164 Hull, Terence H.; Jones, Gavin W. Introduction: international mortality trends and differentials. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 1-9 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors present an overview of global mortality trends and differentials in the twentieth century and discuss such topics as age patterns of mortality, changing patterns of causation, relationships between morbidity and mortality in the context of declining mortality, and social and economic differentials in mortality. Consideration is given to the implications of mortality decline for aging, family structure, and social policy; rising life expectancy and health care costs; and the stabilization of population growth.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30165 LaPlante, Mitchell P. Mortality and the business cycle. Pub. Order No. DA8602498. 1985. 267 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study is a review and re-analysis of the controversial relationship between aggregate mortality and the business cycle....Data on mortality and the rate of unemployment from 1870-1980 are analyzed in an attempt to reconcile this dispute." Selected studies on the issue are critically assessed. The focus is on the United States.
"This analysis differs from previous studies in that prior epidemiological knowledge of the role of influenza epidemics in total mortality variation is used to identify and separate short- from long-term variations in mortality. Furthermore, while influenza epidemics are demonstrated to be the primary source of variation in total mortality over the short-term, this influenza related variation is not significantly associated with the rate of unemployment either on an annual or monthly basis."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Stanford University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30166 Lobban, Richard A.; Coli, Waltraud; Tidwell, Robert J. Cape Verdean life expectancy. Rhode Island Medical Journal, Vol. 69, No. 1, Jan 1986. 23-6 pp. Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
An analysis of the life expectancy of individuals of Cape Verdean origin resident in the United States is presented. The data are from 777 obituaries published between 1973 and 1983 in two U.S. newspapers catering to this population.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30167 Makuc, Diane; McMillen, Marilyn; Feinleib, Manning; McMillen, David; Schwartz, Sidney; Rogot, Eugene. An overview of the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 19-26 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This paper describes the study design, areas of analytic activity, and possibilities for expanding the data base of the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study, which is a collaborative effort by the Bureau of the Census, the National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS], and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. A pilot study to develop and test procedures for creating a data base linking census files with the National Death Index, containing records for deaths since 1979, has been completed, and the authors provide a timetable for analytic results.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30168 McMillen, Marilyn M. The impact of revised death rates for the 1970's. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 352-5 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author examines the differences between the unrevised and revised U.S. population estimates for the intercensal years 1971-1979 and the impact of these differences on death rates. She suggests that the findings from some age-, race-, and sex-specific analyses of trends in mortality during the recent period of decline, as well as population projections based on the unrevised rates, must be reconsidered in light of changes associated with the revised death rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30169 McNicoll, Geoffrey. Adaptation of social systems to changing mortality regimes. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 13-9 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This paper is concerned with the behavioral and social structural adaptations to mortality change. "Of especial interest are the existing or emerging societal capacities to cope with novel mortality conditions over the (demographically) short or medium run of a generation or so."
Four characteristics of mortality regimes are identified: "level and age-pattern, volatility over time, variation across socio-economic classes and pattern of cause-of-death and antecedent morbidity." Four kinds of societal adaptation are discussed, and economic, demographic, social organizational, and cultural responses to changes in mortality patterns are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30170 McQuillan, Kevin. Ontario mortality patterns, 1861-1921. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1985. 31-48 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to take a new look at mortality change in Ontario during the nineteenth century by using Canadian census data to construct estimates of expectation of life at birth in the period from 1861 to 1921. Relying on techniques developed for the study of Third World populations, we will construct life tables for the Ontario population for each decade from 1861-1921. In the final section of the paper, we will compare the course of change in mortality in Ontario with the pattern in Quebec...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30171 Meegama, S. A. The mortality transition in Sri Lanka. In: Determinants of mortality change and differentials in developing countries: the Five-Country Case Study Project. Population Studies, No. 94; ST/ESA/SER.A/94, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151151-8. 1986. 5-32 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines changes in mortality in Sri Lanka, with a primary focus on the first half of the twentieth century. It is noted that "a major aspect of mortality in Sri Lanka before the 1940s was the great variation in disease types which existed between areas. Although the ecology of disease depended partially on climate and topography (mainly affecting prevalence of the malarial mosquito), it was also affected by social and economic forces which led to the dispersal and congregation of the population and to the development of sharp regional and social class divisions." Trends in mortality in the developed, southwest zone and in other regions of the country in early decades are contrasted.
Attention is given to five broad categories of causes of death: famine and malnutrition; diseases due to insanitary conditions, contaminated water, and soil pollution; airborne diseases; maternal and infant mortality; and malaria. The author identifies various phases of mortality decline, one of which occurred in the late nineteenth century and is attributable to a reduction in famine and cholera epidemics.
"The decline in the second phase started well before the Second World War and before the advent of antibiotics and malaria eradication. It occurred among both sexes and all age groups in both the endemic and non-endemic malarial zones. One of the main factors leading to the decline was the expansion of maternity and child welfare services which lowered infant mortality as well as mortality among women in the reproductive age groups." Other factors influencing the mortality transition are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30172 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Record longevity maintained. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 25-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Life expectancy in the United States in 1985 is reviewed. Data are provided on life expectancy at various ages by race and sex. A life table for 1983 is presented by race and sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30173 Ogawa, Naohiro. Consequences of mortality change on aging. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 175-84 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present chapter deals with some of the major effects of age-structural transformations caused by mortality changes upon Japanese society. Section A...discusses the trends and patterns of demographic changes, particularly mortality, and their effects on the age structure of the Japanese population, covering both pre-war and post-war periods. In section B, the aging mechanism of the Japanese population is analysed with tools of formal demography, in order to clarify the role of mortality improvements in the process of aging."
In two final sections, the author "examines the impact of alternative mortality paths upon Japan's future economic performance and social needs...[and] considers some of the policy implications."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30174 Palloni, Alberto; Heligman, Larry. Re-estimation of structural parameters to obtain estimates of mortality in developing countries. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18, 1986. 10-33 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors use U.N. model life tables to produce indirect estimates of mortality in developing countries. "This paper provides improved regression equations for transforming survivorship of kin statistics into measures of infant, early childhood and adult mortality. After a short description of the mortality models upon which the new methods are based, the first section of this paper covers the treatment of estimation of mortality in infancy and early childhood. The second section is devoted to transformations of orphanhood data into conditional probabilities of survivorship for adults. Finally, the third section provides illustrative applications of the new equations."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30175 People's University of China. Department of Demography (Beijing, China). A preliminary analysis of data from the survey on 1981's mortality of the Haidian district of Beijing. Population Research, Vol. 2, No. 4, Oct 1985. 14-24 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
The results of a retrospective survey on mortality and causes of death carried out in the Haidian district of Beijing, China, in 1983 are presented. The survey involved the 3,744 deaths registered in 1981. Consideration is given to differential mortality by sex, rural-urban residence, and season.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30176 Pollard, J. H. Mortality, expectation of life and the Hungarian experience. School of Economic and Financial Studies Research Paper, No. 304, ISBN 0-85837-578-8. Jan 1986. 59 pp. Macquarie University, School of Economic and Financial Studies: North Ryde, Australia. In Eng.
"In this paper, the relationship between mortality and expectation of life is explored in some detail, and formulae are developed for analysing the effects of mortality changes on expectation of life, and trends in mortality differentials on [expectation of life at birth] differentials....We study the relationship between absolute changes in mortality, generally different at different ages, and the corresponding absolute change in [expectation of life at birth]."
The author derives formulas "which allow the analysis of the contributions of various causes of death at different ages to the change in expectation of life at birth of a population. These formulae can also be used to analyse the sex differential in life expectancy and differentials in life expectancy between different populations. The formulae are used to examine changes in the Hungarian expectation of life at birth and the Hungarian sex differential in life expectancy, and to make certain international comparisons."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30177 Preston, Samuel H. Mortality and development revisited. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18, 1986. 34-40 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author uses U.N., Unesco, and World Bank data to examine factors contributing to the mortality decline in developing countries since the middle of the 1960s. The primary aim of the paper is to present an analysis of developments in the recent period similar to earlier studies by the same author concerning factors influencing mortality declines during the period from the 1930s to the 1960s.
"The study finds that, contrary to previous periods, the social and economic variables of income, literacy and nutrition were the dominating factors in explaining mortality decline during the 1965-1969 to 1975-1979 decade....The exogenous factors appear to have operated with sharply reduced intensity in the more recent period. Reduced international commitment to health in developing countries may be one explanation; surely Governments and international agencies continue to have many tools available for improving health. Results also suggest the major role that can be played by educational change in fostering mortality gains."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30178 Prior, Lindsay. Making sense of mortality. Sociology of Health and Illness, Vol. 7, No. 2, Jul 1985. 167-90 pp. Henley, England. In Eng.
"This paper focuses upon the collection and processing of government mortality statistics, and especially upon the organisational and theoretical contexts within which such statistics are assembled. Two items of mortality data in particular are examined with a view to illustrating the broader issues: medical causes of death, and social class of deceased." The data are from a 10 percent sample of death certificates issued in Belfast, Northern Ireland, in 1981.
The author examines the process these data pass through before their incorporation into mortality reports and suggests that there are numerous grounds for believing that these data are flawed at their points of origin and further distorted by the coding process. These flaws and distortions are primarily due to the theoretical frameworks in which the data are collected and processed. The author suggests that existing arrangements for registering the dead need to be changed away from those involving a primary concern with forensic medicine if the data are to be of greater use in the study of disease and its social distribution.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30179 Rabell, Cecilia A.; Mier y Teran, Marta. Mortality decline in Mexico from 1940 to 1980. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 437-69 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Mortality trends in Mexico from 1940 to 1980 are reviewed. Separate consideration is given to changes in life expectancy, infant mortality, and causes of death. Among the reasons suggested for the slackening pace of the mortality decline since 1960 are the continuance of high mortality differentials among regions and the persistence of high levels of mortality in the least developed regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30180 Ruzicka, L. T. Intersectoral aspects of mortality projections in developing countries. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 105-20 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The methodological problems involved in estimating future mortality trends in developing countries are examined, with particular reference to the implications of such projections for development and public health programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30181 Ruzicka, L. T. The elusive paths of mortality transition. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 5-24 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Some issues concerning the transition from traditional to modern patterns of mortality are discussed. "The questions to be addressed are: (a) what determined the levels of mortality in the pre-transition period; (b) what caused the subsequent change; (c) did the causes of the sustained mortality decline differ among societies and in time." Factors considered include the role of medical science and technology; food availability and nutrition; water supply, hygiene, and sanitation; and economic development and standard of living. The geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30182 Ruzicka, L. T.; Kane, P. Nutritional deficiencies as a factor in differential infant and child mortality: the experience of the countries on the Indian sub-continent. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 257-94 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the relationship between nutrition and mortality, with a primary geographic focus on South Asia. The approach is interdisciplinary, involving both demography and the health sciences. Mortality differentials among the countries of the Indian subcontinent are first described, with particular reference to differences in infant and child mortality. Consideration is next given to food supply and nutritional status indicators. The effects of severe and of moderate malnutrition on morbidity and mortality are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30183 Ruzicka, Lado T. Mortality transition in Asia: technology confronts poverty. In: Demographic transition in Asia, edited by Gavin W. Jones. ISBN 9971-954-20-6. LC 84-942134. 1984. 31-56 pp. Maruzen Asia: Singapore. In Eng.
A review of recent mortality trends in Asia is presented. After a brief review of mortality differentials among countries and by socioeconomic status, the author focuses on the recent slowdown in the mortality decline. Reasons for this slowdown are considered in relation to three main concepts, the impact of development programs and strategies, the impact of health programs, and food supply and malnutrition. The implications for future development strategies are assessed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30184 Schoen, Robert. The direct and indirect effects of mortality decline on demographic variables. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 20-30 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author focuses on the demographic impact of the worldwide mortality decline of the last century, with particular attention to its effects on measures of mortality, fertility, population growth, and age composition. "First, the effects of a mortality decline on the experience of a cohort...will be examined, using the life table model. Secondly, the effects of a mortality decline on a cross-sectional (or period) population will be explored, using the stable population model. In both instances, Coale-Demeny 'West' models will be used to illustrate the typical pattern of mortality. Thirdly, the possible influences of population heterogeneity on mortality will be considered."
It is found that "from a cohort or life table perspective, actual mortality declines appear to have involved roughly proportional falls in death rates at most ages....From a period perspective, mortality declines in stable populations have led to increased population growth and, in most cases, to a younger population." While evidence is presented concerning the role of population heterogeneity, it is noted that much ambiguity persists concerning its effects on the nature and extent of mortality decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30185 Surault, Pierre. Observations on mortality trends. [Reflexions sur les perspectives de mortalite.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 11, 85-93 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The prospects for further increases in life expectancy in France are considered. The author suggests that socioeconomic changes, such as unemployment and family breakdown, may significantly increase the stress factor among the younger population, which may in turn adversely affect their mortality. In consequence, he suggests that further increases in life expectancy are not inevitable, even though the greatest risk is in the widening of the gap in life expectancy between rich and poor.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30186 Timaeus, Ian. An assessment of methods for estimating adult mortality from two sets of data on maternal orphanhood. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug 1986. 435-50 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Survey and census data about the survival of respondents' mothers have been used widely for the estimation of adult mortality. Four methods are described that combine two sets of orphanhood data and yield estimates for the intersurvey period. They are applied to enquiries conducted in Peru, Kenya, and Malawi. This provides improved estimates of recent mortality and also clarifies the nature of the errors that affect the basic data. Age misreporting and other errors affect the information about older respondents and orphanhood of children is sometimes underreported. In contrast, data supplied by young adults seem plausible."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30187 Totev, Anastas. On the life expectancy of the Bulgarian population. [Za prodalzhitelnostta na zhivota na naselenieto na Balgariya.] Naselenie, Vol. 3, No. 3, 1985. 3-11 pp. Sofia, Bulgaria. In Bul. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The author examines life expectancy among the population of Bulgaria, with some discussion of selected other European countries. The difference between biological and demographic life expectancy is first described. Theoretical and methodological issues involved in estimating life expectancy at birth are then discussed. Topics considered include total and infant mortality, expected future increases in life expectancy, and sex differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30188 Wang, Weizhi. A preliminary analysis of mortality in China. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 5, Sep 29, 1984. 25-31 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
An analysis of mortality trends in China, based on data from the 1982 census, is presented. It shows that the mortality rate has gradually declined since 1949, but has recently leveled off and is now on the rise again. The main reasons for this decline were fewer deaths from disease and the changing age structure of the population. It is noted that the mortality rate varies from region to region, with infant mortality in border areas accounting for a large portion of total deaths. An increase in life expectancy has occurred as a result of declining mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30189 Wilson, Stephen E. The estimation of recent levels of adult sibling mortality. Pub. Order No. DA8527346. 1985. 147 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A methodology is described to transform the proportions of respondents' natural siblings, alive at the beginning who die during a specified reference period, into estimates of adult mortality....Employing stable population assumptions for the derivation of sibling age distributions, and logit transformations of standard life tables to reproduce the proportions of respondents' siblings dying within a reference period, the sensitivity of the proposed methodology to its assumption is examined. Data to test the proposed techniques were collected by the author and his colleagues from the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics during the second round of the East Java Population Survey."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(11).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

52:30190 Corman, Hope; Grossman, Michael. Determinants of neonatal mortality rates in the U.S.: a reduced form model. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sep 1985. 213-36 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is to contribute to an understanding of the determinants of differences in race-specific neonatal mortality rates among large counties of the U.S. in 1977. After estimating cross-sectional regressions, we apply their coefficients to national trends in the exogenous variables to 'explain' the rapid decline in neonatal mortality since 1964."
The results "point to the importance of abortion availability, neonatal intensive care availability, females' schooling levels, Medicaid, and to a lesser extent Bureau of Community Health Services projects, poverty, maternal nutrition programs and organized family planning in trends in black neonatal mortality between 1964 and 1977. They also underscore the importance of schooling, neonatal intensive care, poverty, Medicaid, maternal nutrition programs, abortion, and organized family planning clinics in trends in white neonatal mortality in those years."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30191 Wilcox, Allen J.; Russell, Ian T. Birthweight and perinatal mortality: III. Towards a new method of analysis. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1986. 188-96 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors develop a model summarizing the relationship between perinatal mortality and birth weight. "The components of this model are the frequency distribution of birthweight and the curve of weight-specific mortality....The perinatal mortality of two populations can be meaningfully compared by plotting each weight-specific mortality curve relative to its own birthweight distribution."
Data for blacks and for whites in North Carolina from 1970 to 1973 are analyzed using the method developed. "The excess mortality in one population can usually be expressed as the sum of two excess mortalities--one that occurs uniformly over the whole birthweight distribution, the other due to an increased number of small births....We find that the excess mortality of black infants is chiefly due to an excess of small black births, but also to higher mortality over all (adjusted) birthweights."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

52:30192 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Infant mortality in the Soviet Union: regional differences and measurement issues. Population Studies Center Research Report, No. 86-93, Apr 1986. 26, [10] pp. University of Michigan, Population Studies Center: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Reasons why reported infant mortality rates (IMR) in the USSR rose in the early 1970s following a period of apparent decline are analyzed. The authors conclude that "the rise in the reported IMR in the 1970s probably results from a combination of improved registration and changes in the definitions of live births and infant deaths used by Soviet statisticians." Adjusted IMRs are analyzed for the USSR as a whole and its regions. It is found that "the IMR has become lower in relation to adult female mortality in the country as a whole and in the European regions."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see elsewhere in this issue).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30193 Arnold, Richard B.; Soewarso, Titi I.; Karyadi, Albertus. Mortality from neonatal tetanus in Indonesia: results of two surveys. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 64, No. 2, 1986. 259-62 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The authors present the results of two retrospective surveys concerning neonatal mortality from tetanus conducted in Indonesia in 1982 using the 30-cluster sample method. "The first survey, in the city of Jakarta, identified 16 deaths from neonatal tetanus among 2,310 live births, giving a mortality rate of 6.9 per 1,000 live births. The second survey covered 19 of Indonesia's 27 provinces. Fifty-three neonatal tetanus deaths occurred among 4,971 live births, giving a mortality rate of 10.7 per 1,000 live births. Overall, 68.8% of mothers interviewed in the second survey received antenatal care on at least two occasions when tetanus toxoid was, in principle, available."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30194 Begum, Sharifa. Infant mortality in Bangladesh: trends and differentials. Bangladesh Development Studies, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1983. 17-59 pp. Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The author uses indirect estimation methods and data from two nationwide surveys, conducted in 1974 and 1981, to analyze infant mortality trends and differentials in Bangladesh for the period 1955-1975. Attention is given to differentials related to urban or rural residence, education, religion, type of housing, and marital status. The relatively static situation characterizing the decade of the 1960s is contrasted with the rise in infant mortality during the war and famine of the early 1970s. Differences in urban and rural responses to these crises are noted. Evidence is also presented of a "negative relationship between infant mortality and the parent's education particularly with the mother's education and also with the house types or housing conditions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30195 Brandstrom, Anders; Brostrom, Goran; Persson, Ake. The impact of feeding patterns on infant mortality in a nineteenth century Swedish parish. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 30, No. 3, Jun 1984. 154-9 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of the relationship between infant feeding practices and infant mortality in nineteenth-century Sweden is presented. The data concern the parish of Nedertornea and are from a variety of sources, including parish records, vital statistics, and the Demographic Data Base at the University of Umea, Sweden. The relative impact of improved medical services and changing breast-feeding patterns are explored. Regional differences are also considered.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30196 Chandler, William U. Investing in children. Worldwatch Paper, No. 64, ISBN 0-916468-64-X. LC 85-51252. Jun 1985. 66 pp. Worldwatch Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This study is concerned with child survival around the world, with a focus on the situation in developing countries. The author reviews the data on infant mortality around the world. Next, he considers the primary causes of infant and child deaths and describes some of the programs that have been developed to reduce mortality from such causes. The importance of integrated development projects involving such benefits as clean water supply, better health services, and improved nutritional status is stressed. The significance of family planning programs is also noted.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30197 Fernando, Charles. Indirect estimation of infant mortality trends: simulation tests on the Feeney method. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 65-88 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The methods developed by Griffith Feeney for the indirect estimation of infant mortality are reviewed and tested using simulated data. It is concluded that the proposed method provides excellent results if all the specified conditions are satisfied. "The 'short-cut' method usually applied is appropriate only when the age-pattern of mortality is of (or close to) the Brass type. The more general method involving the solution of a complex equation will otherwise have to be used."
By "simulating ideal situations where the method should otherwise work, the article shows the type and level of error that results when the age-pattern of mortality does not correspond to that of the model. The non-respect of other assumptions means a risk of further error but the crucial assumption is that which concerns mortality."
For articles by Feeney, published in 1976 and 1980, see 43:2244 and 46:3227.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30198 Gujarat Institute of Area Planning (Ahmedabad, India); Population Council (New York, New York). The determinants of infant mortality in India: a summary report of a seminar held at Ahmedabad, October 1-4, 1984. Jan 30, 1985. 35 pp. Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
This brochure presents a summary report of a seminar on the determinants of infant mortality in India held in 1984. The main recommendations that the participants made, designed to reduce the high rates of infant mortality prevalent in rural areas, involved the vaccination of pregnant women against tetanus, the provision of kits for safe and hygienic delivery, and the encouragement of longer periods of breast-feeding.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30199 Haynes, Pamela; Merritt, Dick; Reese, Douglas. Intergovernmental options for reducing infant mortality: proceedings from a conference, September 13-15, 1984. 1985. 175, [62] pp. George Washington University, Intergovernmental Health Policy Project: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a conference held in September 1984 on intergovernmental options for reducing infant mortality. The focus of the conference was on programs sponsored by U.S. federal, state, and local governments and by private organizations to improve maternal and infant health and to reduce infant mortality and morbidity. In the first section, papers are included that present a background and review of infant mortality in the United States. In the second section, papers dealing with innovative state and local programs are organized under the headings interventions before birth, teenage pregnancy, interventions after birth, and intergovernmental cooperation. Findings from the group workshops are summarized, and closing remarks are included in a final section.
Location: Katharine Dexter McCormick Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30200 Jorge, Maria H. de M.; Marques, Marilia B. Violent deaths among those under 15 years of age in Brazil. [Mortes violentas em menores de 15 anos no Brasil.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 100, No. 6, Jun 1986. 590-606 pp. Washington, D.C. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Spa.
An analysis of deaths from external causes, including accidental deaths, homicides, and suicides, among children in Brazil is presented. The data are from official sources, specifically from the uniform national death certificates introduced in the 1970s. The importance of studying the causes of accidental deaths, particularly those due to accidents involving motor vehicles, is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30201 Kandeh, Borbor S. Causes of infant and early childhood deaths in Sierra Leone. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1986. 297-303 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality among infants and children in Sierra Leone is examined using data from a vital registration system, hospital records, and two sample surveys conducted in 1977 and 1980. "A breakdown of certified deaths in infancy showed that tetanus is quite important in the neonatal period accounting for as much as 68% of neonatal deaths. Measles and diarrhoea were the leading causes of death in the last 6 months of infancy. The leading causes of early childhood deaths were measles, diarrhoea and fevers. Nutritionally related diseases such as measles and diarrhoea were seen to account for up to 40% of all early childhood deaths."
Among "the major factors affecting these causes of death were childbirth and childcare practices in the case of tetanus and the nutritional status of the children in the case of measles and diarrhoea."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30202 Leowski, Jerzy. Mortality from acute respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age: global estimates. [Mortalite due aux infections aigues des voies respiratoires chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans: estimations a l'echelle mondiale.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1986. 138-44 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
Child mortality from acute respiratory infection is investigated using data on reported deaths in developed countries as well as estimates for infant and child mortality and for mortality by cause for the rest of the world. It is found that "out of nearly 15 million children under 5 dying each year, 4 million die of acute respiratory infection, and two-thirds of both these figures are infants. More than 90% of all these deaths occur in developing countries where children under 5 represent about 15% of the total population and contribute to over 50% of all deaths. In all these countries, acute respiratory infections together with diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition constitute the main cause of high childhood mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30203 McKee, Lauris. Sex differentials in survivorship and the customary treatment of infants and children. Medical Anthropology, Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring 1984. 91-108 pp. Bedford Hills, New York. In Eng.
Practices that function selectively to reduce the probability of survival of children in various cultures around the world are reviewed. These practices are defined as progenicide. The author's main goal "is to convince the reader that progenicide exists, and to argue that two of its potentially numerous functions are (1) the limitation of population growth; and (2) the management of demographic structure by control of the sex ratio. The latter, it is suggested, results in selective female progenicide to compensate for universally higher male mortality in infancy and childhood, and may be implicated in the prevalence of systems of male preference."
The geographic focus is worldwide and includes a historical review of the European experience.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30204 Monckeberg, Fernando; Mardones, Francisco; Valients, Sergio. The evolution of malnutrition and mortality in infants and young children over the past 20 years in Chile. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 295-321 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The relationship between the improvement in the nutritional status of infants and preschool age children and the decline in infant and child mortality in Chile over the past 20 years is analyzed. The various social and economic factors associated with this decline in mortality are considered, including economic factors, health programs, and nutrition programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30205 Okore, Augustine O. Effect of changing child mortality on value of children to parents. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 52-9 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines components of the demand for children, especially those related to child mortality. Attention is first directed to insurance and replacement strategies in reproductive behavior, given high child mortality risks and actual child loss, respectively. Aspects of the costs and benefits of children and the value of children in the social context are then considered. Finally, the effects of changes in child mortality on the value of children are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30206 Palloni, Alberto; Millman, Sara. Effects of inter-birth intervals and breastfeeding on infant and early childhood mortality. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 215-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Data from the World Fertility Survey for selected Latin American countries are used to produce estimates of the simultaneous effects of breastfeeding and pace of childbearing on mortality during infancy and between first and fifth birthday. This is done by postulating models which take into account the reciprocal influences between the dynamics of birth intervals and breastfeeding. We also attempt to show that the effects vary according to several important characteristics of the child, mother, or community of residence."
The authors also "investigate possible pitfalls in the inferences drawn by using alternative measurements of the main variables and by applying competing methods for the estimation of their effects. Although the results we obtain are quite robust to the definition of several indices and to the type of estimation method used, they remain partially inconclusive as a result of lack of proper controls for past and current health status of the infant."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 419).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30207 Park, Chai Bin. The place of child-spacing as a factor in infant mortality: a recursive model. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 8, Aug 1986. 995-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study investigates the role of a preceding birth interval in infant mortality by considering a causal ordering of seven variables. Data are from the 1974 World Fertility Survey for [the Republic of] Korea and cover the survival of 6,161 index children. A two-stage logit model was used. The analysis suggests that infant mortality is directly influenced by the preceding birth interval which, in turn, is influenced by five other explanatory variables: maternal age, birth order, immediately preceding infant's death, education of mother, and place of residence. Maternal age and prior infant death also exert direct effects on mortality."
It is found that "prior infant death has the strongest effect of all the explanatory variables. A longer birth interval increases the odds of an infant's survival by 25 per cent, whereas the death of a preceding child decreases the odds by 45 per cent. However, infant deaths in Korea occur infrequently in comparison with short birth intervals. Thus, the two factors present comparable attributable risks in unadjusted measurements. The first-stage causal structure affecting a birth interval is more complicated than the second-stage structure affecting infant mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30208 Rantakallio, Paula. Inequalities in children's deaths in the country with the lowest infant mortality? Public Health, Vol. 100, No. 3, May 1986. 152-5 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Social class differences in childhood mortality up to the age of 16 years are studied in a Northern Finland birth cohort of 12,000 children born in 1966. A clear social class difference is seen in infant mortality, but the discrepancy is only slight for the older age groups in terms of mortality from all causes. Social class differences are clearest in infectious and perinatal diseases. Mortality is found to be significantly higher among the children of farmers than among the rest in all age groups due to regional and sociocultural factors such as an excess of older mothers."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30209 Sandell, J.; Upadhya, A. K.; Mehrotra, S. K. A study of infant mortality rate in selected groups of population in district Gorakhpur. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 29, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1985. 37-42 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
An analysis of infant mortality differentials among rural, semi-urban, and urban areas of the district of Gorakhpur, India, is presented. The data were collected in 1980 and concern some 162 infant deaths. Consideration is given to differences in causes of death by area of residence.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30210 Suchindran, C. M.; Adlakha, Arjun L. Level, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Yemen. Population Bulletin of ESCWA, No. 27, Dec 1985. 43-71 pp. Baghdad, Iraq. In Eng.
Using data from the 1979 Yemen Fertility Survey, the authors present "neonatal, postneonatal, infant and child mortality rates by sex for four birth cohorts from 1961 to 1978. All rates display a trend of declining mortality for this period." They discuss the influence on infant and child mortality of various demographic factors, including birth interval, birth order, and age of mother; socioeconomic factors; and breast-feeding.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30211 Utomo, Budi; Adioetomo, Sri Moertiningsih; Hatmadji, Sri Harijati. Trends and differentials in infant and child mortality in Indonesia in the 1970s. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 489-507 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Trends and differentials in infant and child mortality in Indonesia are analyzed, with the focus on the period of the 1970s. The differentials considered include province, rural or urban residence, biological factors, and socioeconomic factors. Consideration is also given to the availability and quality of the data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30212 van Norren, B.; van Vianen, H. A. W. The malnutrition-infections syndrome and its demographic outcome in developing countries. PCDO Publication, No. 4, Jun 1986. 36 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI], Programming Committee for Demographic Research [PCDO]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author outlines a model for the study of infant and child mortality in developing countries, incorporating the proximate determinants approach developed by John Bongaarts concerning fertility and building on the child mortality model devised by W. Henry Mosley. The model contains five levels that are theoretically homogeneous, one of which is behavioral, three biological, and one both behavioral and biological. Variables pertaining to mother and child are kept at separate levels. The model specifies 13 intermediate variables, most of which are health-related practices of the child's mother. The model is designed for use in developing primary health care services designed to lower levels of infant and child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

52:30213 Kabir, Mohammad; Moslehuddin, Mohammad. Estimating adult mortality from a census based method. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 3-4, Jul-Dec 1985. 135-40 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"In this paper a simple method is presented to derive current adult mortality level. The sensitivity of estimates to various forms of data error is considered, and procedures are proposed for removing errors resulting from differential census coverage completeness and from age misstatement. The estimated life expectancy at age 5 derived from the method seems plausible." The method is applied to census data for Bangladesh to estimate adult mortality for the period 1974-1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30214 Kim, Ock-Kyung. Estimation of adult mortality in Korea: levels, trends, and socioeconomic differentials. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 3, Jul 1986. 347-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey indicate levels, trends, and socioeconomic differentials in adult mortality in the Republic of Korea. The indirect techniques of parental survival and the time location of mortality are used to estimate mortality levels and to discern time trends in adult mortality. Socioeconomic variables are considered for their relationship with levels of adult mortality."
Primary factors in differential adult mortality are shown to be household wealth and education. "The trend in mortality decline is most pronounced for the subgroups representing higher levels of educational attainment and greater ownership of modern goods even after adjusting for the interrelationship between these two variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

52:30215 Bidegain, Gabriel; Ludyinduladio, N'Zinga. An evaluation of the life tables for Uruguay and a comparison with the Princeton and OECD model life tables. [Evaluacion de las tablas de mortalidad del Uruguay y comparacion a las tablas modelos de Princeton y de la O.C.D.E.] Serie Documentos de Trabajo, [1985?]. 47 pp. Centro de Informaciones y Estudios del Uruguay [CIESU]: Montevideo, Uruguay. In Spa.
The quality of available data on mortality in Uruguay is first reviewed. The authors then use those data to develop life tables, which are in turn compared to the model life tables developed at Princeton and at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in Paris.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30216 Chow, R.; Krishnan, P.; Lalu, N. M. Model tables of working life. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 45, Jun [1986?]. 4, [44] pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"Tables of working life, or working life expectancy (WLE) are provided for different levels of crude labour force participation rate (CPR) and mortality. The life tables used here are the Coale-Demeny model life tables divided into North, East, South and West families. The model tables of working life indicate only the WLE at selected ages for certain levels of CPR and mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30217 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Life tables 1984. [Kuolleisuus- ja eloonjaamislukuja 1984/Dodlighets- och livslangdstal 1984.] Tilastotiedotus/Statistisk Rapport, No. VA 1986:1, Mar 26, 1986. 13 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Eng; Fin; Swe.
Life tables for Finland by sex are presented for 1984, together with data on life expectancy by age and sex. Data are also included on differences in life expectancy by province.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30218 Golbeck, Amanda L. Probabilistic approaches to current life table estimation. American Statistician, Vol. 40, No. 3, Aug 1986. 185-90 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Two simple current life table estimators of conditional probabilities of death result from making either a uniform or exponential distributional assumption of time at death in the age interval. Each is compared with Chiang's estimator based on the concept of fraction of the last age interval of life. Graphical and numerical results are presented to assess the magnitude and direction of differences between estimators when the true value of Chiang's fraction takes on specific values."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30219 Hsieh, John J. A parametric life table method for the first year of life. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 347-51 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author fits a three-parameter mathematical model to the age distribution of infant deaths in order to construct an infant life table that permits calculation of various functions not found in the conventional life table. As an example, an infant life table for Canadian males for the years 1980-1982 is presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30220 India. Office of the Registrar General. Vital Statistics Division (New Delhi, India). Census of India, 1981. SRS based abridged life tables, 1970-75. Census of India Occasional Paper, No. 1 of 1984, 1984. iii, 71 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
"An attempt has been made here to construct abridged life tables for the period 1970-75 for major States [of India] separately for rural and urban areas and also by males and females. A brief note on the methodology used and the salient features of the results obtained are also included." Data are from the Sample Registration System.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30221 Malaker, C. R.; Roy, S. Guha. Reconstruction of Indian life tables for 1901-81 and projections for 1981-2001. Jul 1986. 39, [10] pp. Indian Statistical Institute, Demography Research Unit: Calcutta, India. In Eng.
An attempt is made to reconstruct life tables for India from 1901-1911 to 1971-1981, with particular attention to the period 1921-1941, for which official life tables prepared by the census actuaries are not available. The method of cohort survival based on two consecutive census age distributions is used. Projected life tables up to the year 2001 are also attempted. The life tables are presented separately by sex. Graphs of the probability of dying are also included for selected decades.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30222 New Zealand. Department of Statistics (Wellington, New Zealand). New Zealand life tables, 1980-82. Pub. Order No. 02.301. Apr 1986. 34 pp. Wellington, New Zealand. In Eng.
"This volume contains the latest in the series of official life tables for New Zealand, in this case based on population data from the 1981 Census of Population and Dwellings, and mortality statistics for 1980-82." The data are presented separately for the Maori and non-Maori population and by sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30223 Tas, R. F. J.; van der Hoeven, L. T. J. Life tables for the Netherlands, 1980-1984. [Overlevingstafels voor Nederland, 1980-1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 4, Apr 1986. 28-38 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of the official life tables for the Netherlands for the period 1980-1984 is presented. It is noted that for almost all ages, the mortality quotients for females are lower than that for males, with the greatest differences at ages 16.5-27.5 and 55.5-74.5 years. A bibliography of publications on life tables in the Netherlands since 1840 is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

52:30224 Anderson, Barbara A.; Silver, Brian D. Sex differentials in mortality in the Soviet Union: regional differences in length of working life in comparative perspective. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 2, Jul 1986. 191-214 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In this paper we take a different approach from other authors to the study of differences between the mortality of the two sexes in the USSR. First, we use measures of mortality that are not sensitive to the most common types of error in data and that reflect experience in an age range that is important from a policy perspective: the working ages. Secondly, we measure variation in mortality between regions of the USSR. Thirdly, we compare these regional mortality trends with experience in 33 developed countries."
The results suggest that "the sex differential in mortality in the USSR is an amalgam of very different regional patterns. Its size and rate of change are more extreme in the USSR than in other countries, and are mainly due to the poor and rapidly worsening mortality of men in the Russian Republic. But the widening sex differentials and increasing mortality of men in the older working ages in Soviet regions are similar to trends in many other developed countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30225 Fox, A. J.; Jones, D. R.; Moser, K. A.; Goldblatt, P. O. Male socio-demographic mortality differentials from the OPCS Longitudinal Study 1971-81. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 10-8 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
After reviewing the scope of analyses resulting from the OPCS Longitudinal Study (LS) of a one percent sample of the population of England and Wales, the authors use LS and census data from 1971 to 1981 to explore mortality differentials related to social class, unemployment, and socioeconomic status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30226 Hansluwka, H. Reflections of the measurement of social inequality of death. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 121-52 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Some basic issues concerning the study of social inequality in mortality are discussed, with reference to differential mortality as an indicator of inequalities in health status. Problems of definition are first discussed, including the underlying philosophical, political, and ideological factors involved. The author describes the ways in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has dealt with these problems and considers the methodological problems involved in the choice of alternative measures of mortality or survivorship and the selection of an appropriate summary index of inequality. The geographic focus is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30227 Hollmann, Frederick W.; Rosenwaike, Ira. Methods of analyzing mortality by ancestry: United States urban areas, 1979-1981. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 341-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors use census and registration data for five large U.S. cities to derive mortality estimates for three ethnic groups: Puerto Ricans, Italians, and Poles. "The focus of this study is primarily methodological. The objective is to develop procedures for estimating mortality specific for age, sex, and cause for a few major ancestry (ethnic) groups, given a lack of appropriate data in the death records."
Two methods are described and tested. "One involves the computation of rates in urban ethnic enclaves defined by different ancestry groups. The second relies on aggregate multiple regression analysis to estimate rates through the prediction of deaths by population composition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30228 Horn, Marjorie C. A cohort analysis of the sex differential in mortality among older adults: England and Wales. Pub. Order No. DA8603650. 1985. 426 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author uses a cohort approach to investigate underlying causes of the sex differential in mortality. "The analysis focusses on the experience of England and Wales. The data are based on mortality rates from the Registrar General's office, and on a variety of social, economic and demographic factors. The analysis is limited to mortality trends for the age groups 50-54 through 80-84....Separate models are estimated for changes in mortality rates by sex and in the sex differential for all causes and for cardiovascular diseases, neoplasms and influenza, pneumonia and bronchitis. In each case, the dependent variables are regressed on a set of cohort-specific factors and on a combined set of cohort and period specific variables."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(12).

52:30229 Irfan, M.; Alam, I. Socioeconomic correlates of mortality in Pakistan. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 471-88 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper discusses socioeconomic mortality differentials in Pakistan on the basis of data collected in 1979 from a nationally representative sample of over 10,000 households in a survey carried out for the Population, Labour Force and Migration [PLM] project of Pakistan Institute of Development Economics/International Labour Organization....This data-set not only affords a comparison with [the Pakistan Fertility Survey of] 1975 but also permits a study of the relation between income, land holding, tenurial status, and the mortality experience of households. The mortality data obtained from the PLM survey are discussed briefly in the first section of the paper. Mortality differentials by characteristics of the child, mother, household and village are discussed in the second section."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30230 Laux, Hans-Dieter. Mortality differences in Prussian cities, 1905: beginnings of an explanation. [Mortalitatsunterschiede in preussischen Stadten 1905: Ansatze zu einer Erklarung.] In: Geographie als Sozialwissenschaft: Beitrage zu ausgewahlten Problemen kulturgeographischer Forschung, Wolfgang Kuls zum 65. Geburtstag, edited by Franz-Josef Kemper, Hans-Dieter Laux, and Gunter Thieme. Colloquium Geographicum, Vol. 18, ISBN 3-427-74181-8. 1985. 50-82 pp. Ferdinand Dummlers: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
Mortality differentials among Prussian cities are analyzed for the year 1905 using official census and vital statistics data. Particular emphasis is given to causes of death. The quality of the data, overall patterns of urban mortality, and contrasts between urban and rural areas are first discussed. Inter-city mortality differences are then investigated, and an attempt is made to explain them in terms of two groups of factors: the specific physical and social conditions of the urban environment on the one hand, and large-scale socioeconomic and sociocultural determinants on the other.
Location: State University of New York Library, Albany, N.Y.

52:30231 Minturn, Leigh. Changes in the differential treatment of Rajput girls in Khalapur: 1955-1975. Medical Anthropology, Vol. 8, No. 2, Spring 1984. 127-32 pp. Bedford Hills, New York. In Eng.
A review of differential treatment of children by sex among the Rajput caste in the village of Khalapur, Uttar Pradesh, India, is presented using data collected in the field in 1954-1955 and 1974-75. The results suggest that the situation regarding the higher mortality of female children has improved over time.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30232 Okolski, Marek. Relationship between mortality and morbidity levels according to age and sex and their implications for organizing health care systems in developed countries. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 150-64 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author examines age- and sex-specific morbidity and mortality patterns in selected developed countries and their implications for health-care systems. The data are from various official sources and are for the 1970s. Among the patterns noted are the high and growing frequency of chronic diseases among the elderly; the high percentages of handicapped in the middle- and older-age groups; the large share of middle- and older-age deaths relative to infant and child deaths; the predominance of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and violence among all causes of death; and the relatively high excess male mortality at all ages and for most causes.
Challenges to health-care systems entailed in the observed patterns are outlined, including the need for community care, self-care, new legislation, and new health and social security systems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30233 Sullivan, Teresa A.; Gillespie, Francis P.; Rogers, Richard G. Effects of ethnic classification on apparent life expectancy: the case of Texas in 1980. In: American Statistical Association, 1984 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1984]. 356-61 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors explore the mortality variations that result from using different definitions of ethnicity. Unpublished Texas vital statistics mortality data and 1980 U.S. census data are used to calculate death rates.
The findings indicate "the persistence of racial and ethnic group differentials in mortality, but the nature of the differentials is complex and varies over the life course and by gender. At least some of the variations appear to result from data deficiencies or from variations in the definitions of the racial/ethnic groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30234 Trovato, Frank. Mortality differences among Canada's indigenous and foreign-born populations, 1951-1971. Canadian Studies in Population, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1985. 49-80 pp. Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"Vital statistics and census data are used to investigate the relationship between nativity and mortality in Canada for the census periods between 1951 and 1971....A comparison of native-born/foreign-born mortality differences shows a minimal disparity in mortality; however when these two broad categories of nativity are broken down into more specific groupings, wide disparities emerge." The results show the native-born of British descent have the lowest levels of mortality, and the native-born aboriginal population the highest, with European immigrants falling between these two extremes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30235 Waldron, Ingrid. What do we know about causes of sex differences in mortality? A review of the literature. Population Bulletin of the United Nations, No. 18, 1986. 59-76 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The present paper reviews current evidence concerning the causes of sex differences in mortality. One useful approach to the topic has been to identify major causes of death that contribute to sex differences in total mortality and then to identify factors that contribute to sex differences for those causes of death. Results of that approach are summarized in the first section of the present review. The second section summarizes evidence concerning the causes of historical and cross-cultural variation in sex differences in mortality. The third section discusses several general issues and hypotheses concerning the causes of sex differences in mortality, together with relevant evidence."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30236 Ware, Helen R. Differential mortality decline and its consequences for the status and roles of women. In: Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. 113-25 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author surveys issues concerning the demographic and social effects of sex differentials in mortality, with particular emphasis on the increasing numbers of older women. The geographic scope is worldwide, with special attention given to the prospect of excess male mortality in developing countries and to the experience of Australia. The anticipated adaptations of social institutions and policies in light of the growing population of single females aged 65 and over are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30237 Young, Christabel. Selection and survival: immigrant mortality in Australia. Studies in Adult Migrant Education, ISBN 0-644-05085-3. 1986. xiii, 251 pp. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Mortality data for immigrants in Australia are analyzed. "The study examines the overall mortality experience of fifty different birthplace groups in Australia during the three year period, 1980-82, with further analysis with respect to age, period of residence and cause of death for the larger birthplace groups. The main techniques used are the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and age-specific mortality rates."
It is found that "most birthplace groups in Australia have lower levels of mortality than for all Australia, but there are also some variations between the birthplaces, particularly with regard to causes of death. The mortality of the overseas-born differs most from the Australian-born at the middle adult ages, and changes in the level of mortality with increasing duration of residence in Australia are generally small in comparison with the range in the levels of mortality of the various birthplace populations. Reasons for the different patterns in survival between birthplace groups in Australia are still somewhat speculative, but it would seem that selection, diet, lifestyle and national characteristics may each play some part."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

52:30238 Andorka, Rudolf. Extensive plague epidemics in Europe. [Az Europai nagy pestisjarvanyok.] Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezet Torteneti Demografiai Fuzetei, No. 2, 1985. 47-70, 99, 102-3 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Nepessegtudomanyi Kutato Intezetenek: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study reviews the history of plague epidemics in Europe from early medieval times to the 19th century. The first part gives an account of the epidemiology of plague and its debated issues....In the part dealing with the history of plague epidemics the author first reviews the criteria which make it probable that a given mortality crisis was due to a plague epidemic. He describes the events of the epidemics of early medieval times (541-764) and those of the period between 1346 and the 19th century."
Estimates of mortality due to plague epidemics and results from analyses of parish registers are presented. Economic, social, and cultural effects of the plagues in Europe are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30239 Boing, H.; Martinez, L.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Oltersdorf, U. Regional nutritional pattern and cancer mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 7, No. 3, 1985. 121-30 pp. Hillsdale, New Jersey. In Eng.
The relationship between regional cancer mortality and nutrition in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1976 and 1980 is analyzed using data from a survey including 50,000 households. "For alcohol, vitamin C and calcium variations range about 20%, whereas deviations in the consumption of protein, fat, and most carbohydrates appear of minor importance. Some of the 45 correlation coefficients significant at the 5% level (out of 210) may have etiologic importance. The associations that coincide in both sexes are alcohol and disaccharide consumption with stomach cancer and protein intake with pancreatic cancer."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30240 Carmichael, Ann G. Plague and the poor in Renaissance Florence. Cambridge History of Medicine, ISBN 0-521-26833-8. LC 85-17451. 1986. xv, 180 pp. Cambridge University Press: New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This book uses Florentine death registers to show the changing character of the plague [in Italy] from the first outbreak of the Black Death in 1348 to the mid-fifteenth century." The author "discusses the extent to which true plague epidemics may have occurred, by considering what other infectious diseases contributed significantly to outbreaks of 'pestilence'."
Significant differences between epidemics in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are established, in that fourteenth-century epidemics affected all classes of citizens, while those in the fifteenth century could largely be avoided by the wealthy by leaving the city. "This understanding led the way to measures for dealing with recurrent plague: the quarantine, the pest house and health boards. These controls actually increased the death toll of the poor, supporting future efforts to treat differently this perceived (by the wealthy) dangerous element of Renaissance society."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30241 Chamblee, Ronald F.; Evans, Marshall C. TRANSAX: the NCHS system for producing multiple cause-of-death statistics, 1968-78. Vital and Health Statistics, Series 1: Programs and Collection Procedures, No. 20, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 86-1322. ISBN 0-8406-0269-3. Jun 1986. iv, 83 pp. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]: Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
"This report describes the characteristics of the TRANSAX (for TRANSlation of AXis) computer software developed by staff of the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics to translate multiple cause-of-death data contained on death certificates from a condition (entity) axis of classification to a person (record) axis of classification. This conversion is an essential step in the development of data for meaningful tabulation and analysis. System development, implementation, benefits, features, and applications are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30242 China. People's University. Department of Population Science. Student Survey Group (Beijing, China). A brief analysis of the causes of death in the Haidian district of Beijing in 1981. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1985. 41-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
Results of a study undertaken in 1983 on causes of death in the Haidian district of Beijing, China, are presented. Data from the 3,744 deaths recorded in 1981 show that the average age at death was 62.91 years and the mortality rate was 4.21 per 1,000 (far lower than the rates for the nation, Beijing as a whole, and Shanghai) due to well-developed economic and public health conditions. The leading cause of death was heart disease, followed by circulatory diseases, and malignant tumors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30243 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Cancer mortality in Italy, 1979. Tumori, Vol. 71, No. 6, Dec 31, 1985. 519-28 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
"In the present report, data are presented on cancer death certification in Italy in 1979, thus updating the previous work summarising trends from 1955 to 1978." The data are from official sources and are presented by age and sex for major cancer sites.
For a related study by Decarli et al., published in 1984, see 51:40179.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30244 Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo. Environmental factors and cancer mortality in Italy: correlational exercise. Oncology, Vol. 43, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 116-26 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
"Mortality rates for 21 cancer sites in 20 Italian regions have been correlated with several economic and dietary variables (including alcohol and coffee consumption), patterns of cigarette smoking and reproductive habits. In both sexes, a large number of strong correlations emerged, the most notable ones being the strong positive coefficients between cigarettes sold in the early 1950s and lung cancer mortality in middle-aged males in the early 1970s, between gross internal product or meat consumption and cancer of the intestines in both sexes, between total per caput consumption and cancer of the prostate and between mean age at first birth, gross internal product and milk consumption and cancer of the breast."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30245 Duffy, J. C.; Latcham, R. W. Liver cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales compared to Scotland: an age-period-cohort analysis 1941-81. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A: General, Vol. 149, No. 1, 1986. 45-59 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Rates of death from liver cirrhosis in England and Wales and in Scotland are presented for the period 1881-1981. A subset of these are analysed using an age-period-cohort model. The results of the analysis are discussed with special reference to the role of alcohol consumption in the aetiology of cirrhosis, and possible differences in consumption between the areas."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:30246 Friedman, Lisa A.; Kimball, A. W. Coronary heart disease mortality and alcohol consumption in Framingham. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 124, No. 3, Sep 1986. 481-9 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"The relationship between ethanol consumption and coronary heart disease was examined in the original Framingham [Massachusetts] Heart Study cohort (1948) with a 24-year follow-up from exam 2 (2,106 males and 2,639 females). Ethanol consumption shows a strong U-shaped relationship with coronary heart disease mortality for male nonsmokers and heavy smokers both in the raw age-adjusted data and in the Cox regression analyses, where ethanol consumption is modeled quadratically. No ethanol effects were found for female nonsmokers. The age-adjusted data suggest a U-shaped curve for female smokers, although this was not confirmed by the Cox analysis."
The authors note that "separate analyses relating alcohol consumption to mortality from all causes showed similar effects except that the reduction in mortality for males was much less." Consideration is given to the differences between the effects of beer, wine, and spirits.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:30247 Gallagher, R. P.; Threlfall, W. J.; Band, P. R.; Spinelli, J. J.; Coldman, A. J. Occupational mortality in British Columbia, 1950-1978. [Mortalite par profession en Colombie-Britannique, 1950-1978.] Pub. Order No. 84-544. ISBN 0-660-52872-X. Apr 1986. 72 pp. Statistics Canada: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng; Fre.
This monograph presents "the first province-wide compilation of occupational mortality risks produced in Canada." It is based on death registration data for residents of British Columbia who died between 1950 and 1978. Proportional mortality ratios by occupation are analyzed to identify unusual patterns. A number of groups with elevated risks of death, particularly from cancers, are identified.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:30248 Gaminiratne, K. H. W. Trends in causes of death in Sri Lanka: 1971-79. Population Information Centre Research Paper Series, No. 1, Oct 1984. 43 pp. Ministry of Plan Implementation, Population Information Centre: Colombo, Sri Lanka. In Eng.
Trends in major causes of death in Sri Lanka are analyzed for the period 1971-1979 by sex and age. The main deficiencies in the vital statistics system, particularly concerning death registration, are described. Some consideration is also given to probable future trends in mortality.
Location: Population Council Library, New York, N.Y.

52:30249 Haberman, S.; Capildeo, Rudy; Rose, F. Clifford. Contributing causes of death among individuals dying of hypertensive disease, ischemic heart disease, or stroke. Neuroepidemiology, Vol. 2, No. 3-4, 1983. 135-47 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
An analysis of 1975 official data on multiple-cause tabulations for deaths in England and Wales is presented, with a focus on hypertensive disease, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. "The similarities and differences between the age and sex distributions of these contributing causes of death are noted. The results show that the appearance of hypertensive disease or ischemic heart disease as an underlying cause is principally associated with the presence of other heart diseases and arteriosclerosis as contributing causes. With cerebrovascular disease as an underlying cause, the principal contributory causes are pneumonia, arteriosclerosis, and hypertensive disease."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30250 Hakulinen, T.; Hansluwka, H.; Lopez, A. D.; Nakada, T. Estimation of global mortality patterns by cause of death. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 177-205 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
A general review of the global situation concerning causes of death is presented. The report is part of an ongoing effort by the World Health Organization (WHO) to monitor trends in this area. Previous studies on the estimation of mortality patterns are first reviewed. The regression method developed by Samuel H. Preston is than described and applied to mortality data from around the world. Comparisons are made among the various regions of the world. The authors note that mortality from neoplasms is becoming a major health hazard in the more advanced developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30251 Hakulinen, T.; Hansluwka, H.; Lopez, A. D.; Nakada, T. Global and regional mortality patterns by cause of death in 1980. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 2, Jun 1986. 226-33 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors estimate mortality by major cause for various regions of the world in 1980. "The World Health Organization's mortality data bank has been employed to derive the rates for the developed areas in the world whereas for the developing areas, cause-specific mortality has been estimated on the basis of total mortality using a linear regression method."
The estimates indicate that "infectious and parasitic diseases claim one third of all deaths in the world. Although diseases of the circulatory system and neoplasms are the two most common causes of death in the developed countries, more than 50% of all deaths in the world due to these causes occur in the developing world. Mortality due to injury and poisoning is--contrary to that due to the other main causes of death--almost independent of the level of development of the area."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30252 Hogberg, Ulf; Wall, Stig. Age and parity as determinants of maternal mortality--impact of their shifting distribution among parturients in Sweden from 1781 to 1980. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1986. 85-91 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The reduction in maternal mortality in Sweden between 1781 and 1980 is analysed with respect to changes in the distribution of age and parity among parturients over this period. Changes in maternal age contributed to almost 3% of the reduction in mortality over the period 1781-1911 and to 5% between 1911 and 1980. From 1965 to 1980, however, about 50% of the reduction in mortality was caused by a decrease in maternal age."
It is also noted that "changes in parity have had the opposite effect. Maternal deaths attributable to the risk factors of age and parity increased from 46% during the 19th century to 80% from 1951 to 1980."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30253 Hogberg, Ulf. Maternal mortality--a worldwide problem. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec 1985. 463-70 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"Death during pregnancy and delivery is one of the leading causes of death among women in the developing countries. A review of literature, and a comparison of the decline of the maternal mortality in Sweden, concludes that maternal mortality is a sensitive socioeconomic index of health in the society, but also that this death cause is one of the few that it is really possible to prevent by the impact of medical services--antenatal and delivery care."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30254 Hogberg, Ulf; Wall, Stig. Secular trends in maternal mortality in Sweden from 1750 to 1980. Bulletin of the World Health Organization/Bulletin de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Sante, Vol. 64, No. 1, 1986. 79-84 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Official statistics concerning maternal mortality in Sweden are analyzed for the years 1750-1980. The findings show that "the maternal mortality rate declined from 900 to 6 per 100,000 live births over the period 1750 to 1980. Two-thirds of this decrease occurred during the 19th century and the remainder in the 20th century."
The authors also note that "in the 18th century, 10% of deaths among women aged between 15 and 49 years were due to complications at parturition, but today this accounts for only 0.2% of deaths in women of this age group. Life-table analysis indicates that 1 out of 29 women in Sweden lost her life in parturition during the 18th century, while today only 1 out of 1,000 women dies as a result of complications during pregnancy and parturition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30255 Hogberg, Ulf; Brostrom, Goran. The demography of maternal mortality--seven Swedish parishes in the 19th century. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 23, No. 6, Dec 1985. 489-97 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
An analysis of maternal mortality in nineteenth-century Sweden is presented. The data concern 170 maternal deaths recorded in seven parishes. The emphasis is on the causes of death. "Maternal deaths accounted for 40-50% of all deaths in the central ages of reproduction, leaving the motherless children with a highly increased death risk. Of the live born, 3% survived 5 years after the mothers' death. Of children aged 1-5, only 13% survived 5 years after the mothers' death."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30256 Hoogendoorn, D. The suicide rate increasing with changing methods. [Stijgend aantal gevallen van zelfmoord met veranderende methoden.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 130, No. 5, Feb 1, 1986. 209-12 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
A review of recent trends in suicide in the Netherlands is presented. An increase, particularly since 1970, is noted. Differences by age and sex are considered as well as changes in method of suicide over time.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:30257 Horm, John W.; Asire, Ardyce J.; Young, John L.; Pollack, Earl S. SEER Program: cancer incidence and mortality in the United States, 1973-81. Rev. ed. Pub. Order No. NIH 85-1837. Nov 1984. vii, 330 pp. U.S. National Cancer Institute: Bethesda, Maryland. In Eng.
Data are presented on cancer incidence and mortality in the United States from 1973 to 1981, primarily taken from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. The data are presented for individual years and for the summary periods 1973-1977 and 1978-1981. The data concern 10 areas selected for their ability to provide adequate data on a continuing basis: these areas are selected areas within states, whole states, and Puerto Rico. The mortality data are presented by site, year, race, sex, and geographic area.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30258 Israel, Robert A.; Rosenberg, Harry M.; Curtin, Lester R. Analytical potential for multiple cause-of-death data. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 124, No. 2, Aug 1986. 161-81 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"This paper describes multiple cause-of-death data as produced by the [U.S.] National Center for Health Statistics....As background for understanding the nature of multiple cause-of-death data, a discussion of the medical certification on the death certificate is presented. The epidemiologic potential of multiple cause data is then explored through examples which use the newly available data and through a review of past and current applications of multiple cause data."
Some further comments on problems in death certification by George W. Comstock and Robert E. Markush (pp. 180-1) are also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:30259 Junge, B. Decline in mortality in Japan, USA, and the Federal Republic of Germany--the contribution of the specific causes of death. Klinische Wochenschrift, Vol. 63, No. 17, Sep 2, 1985. 793-801 pp. Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng.
Changes in causes of death in Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United States for the period 1968 to 1978 are compared using data from sources published by the World Health Organization (WHO). The main reason for the mortality decline recorded in all three countries during this period was a decline in mortality from diseases of the circulatory system: cerebrovascular diseases in Japan, ischemic heart diseases in the United States, and other forms of heart diseases in the Federal Republic of Germany. The highest percentage increase in mortality was for lung cancer in all three countries and for other forms of heart diseases in the United States.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:30260 Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan. Geographical patterns of cancer mortality in China. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 3, 1986. 241-7 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This research note discusses the China cancer mortality data and the methodological problems involved in spatial analysis of these data. Some of the research findings produced by mapping and analyses of the cancer data at the provincial level are also summarized. The two most common cancers in China, stomach and esophagus, were found to have no significant correlation with some selected physical variables and population density, suggesting the need to examine other socio-economic variables such as dietary habit."
Consideration is also given to other cancer sites, which were found to have very high positive spatial auto-correlation and high correlation with population density.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:30261 Melia, R. J. W.; Swan, A. V. International trends in mortality rates for bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma during the period 1971-1980. [Tendances internationales des taux de mortalite par bronchite, emphyseme et asthme au cours de la periode 1971-1980.] World Health Statistics Quarterly/Rapport Trimestriel de Statistiques Sanitaires Mondiales, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1986. 206-17 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng; Fre.
"This paper reports an analysis of mortality rates [worldwide] for bronchitis, emphysema and asthma for the period 1971-1980. For those countries providing sufficient data for the intervening years the trends in the mortality rates and their associations with factors such as tobacco consumption and measures of health care are also discussed." The data are from the World Health Organization and are presented separately by age and sex for selected countries. Graphs showing developments during the decade for selected countries are included.
It is concluded that "(1) the standardization of mortality data for international studies should be improved; (2) the presentation of conditions such as bronchitis, emphysema and asthma in aggregate should be reconsidered because of the difficulties inherent in interpreting trends in conditions known to have different etiologies; (3) the trends in mortality rates observed in some countries would be worthy of further investigation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30262 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Accident mortality among men of working ages. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1986. 18-24 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Accident mortality among U.S. males aged 15 to 64 is analyzed. Consideration is given to the differences in leading causes of death by age group and by major ethnic group. It is noted that more than half of deaths from accidents are caused by motor vehicles. Consideration is also given to disability due to injuries and to the cost to society of accidents.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30263 Noin, Daniel; Thumerelle, Pierre-Jean; Kostrubiec, Benjamin. Geographic analysis of causes of death in France (1981-1982). [Analyse geographique des causes de deces en France (1981-82).] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 2, 1986. 11, 69-83 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of causes of death in France is presented based on a computerized data base of all registered deaths in 1981 and 1982. Once allowances are made for differences in the age distribution, the results show little change from the regional differences in mortality recorded in 1968.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30264 Notkola, Veijo. Living conditions in childhood and coronary heart disease in adulthood: a mortality and morbidity study in two areas of Finland. Commentationes Scientiarum Socialium, No. 29, ISBN 951-653-131-8. 1985. 119 pp. Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters: Helsinki, Finland. In Eng.
Aspects of regional differences in coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity in Finland are explored. "The aim of this study is to investigate, at the level of the individual, the role of living conditions in childhood, as measured by the socio-economic position in childhood, in the development of coronary heart disease in adulthood. In addition to that, the relative risks of stroke, claudication and death due to causes other than cardiovascular diseases are also analysed. The question is whether the effect of socio-economic position in childhood may or may not be specific to certain diseases."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30265 Porapakkham, Yawarat; Prasartkul, Pramote. Cause of death: trends and differentials in Thailand. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 207-37 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Trends and differentials in causes of death in Thailand are analyzed. The data are from official vital statistics sources and the Supplement to the Report of Notifiable Diseases and concern the period 1970-1983. The results indicate that non-infectious diseases and accidents became the major causes of death during the 1970s, while infectious diseases remained the principal causes of death for those under age five. Regional differences in causes of death are also analyzed and shown to have a strong correlation with regional levels of development.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30266 United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service. Office on Smoking and Health (Rockville, Maryland). Bibliography on smoking and health, 1985. Public Health Service Bibliography Series, No. 45, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 86-50196. Apr 1986. i, 552 pp. Rockville, Maryland. In Eng.
The 1985 edition of this annual bibliography contains some 2,000 citations with abstracts on the relationship between smoking and health. The bibliography is organized by subject, and sections are included on mortality and morbidity, selected diseases, and pregnancy and infant health. Author and subject indexes are provided. The geographic focus is worldwide.
For the 1984 edition, published in 1985, see 51:30246.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30267 Vallin, Jacques; Mesle, France. The causes of death in France from 1925 to 1978: the reconstruction of coherent series over the long term within the framework of the International Classification of Diseases. [Les causes de deces en France de 1925 a 1978: comment reconstruire des series coherentes sur une longue periode, dans le cadre de la Classification internationale.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 5, May 1986. 34, 3, [2] pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The problems involved in constructing a consistent series of cause of death statistics over the long term is examined, particularly in the light of changes in the International Classification of Diseases that have been adopted at various times. These problems are examined using official French mortality data for the period 1925-1978. The authors first describe the problems posed by successive revisions of the International Classification of Diseases, then present revised series for France based on the eighth revision, and finally consider the problems posed by incomplete or incorrect data on causes of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30268 van den Berg, Bea J.; Chiang, Chin Long. Maternal mortality and differentiation by cause of death. In: New developments in the analysis of mortality and causes of death, edited by Harald Hansluwka, Alan D. Lopez, Yawarat Porapakkham, and Pramote Prasartkul. ISBN 974-585-857-9. 1986. 239-52 pp. Mahidol University, Faculty of Public Health, Institute for Population and Social Research: Bangkok, Thailand; World Health Organization [WHO], Global Epidemiological Surveillance and Health Assessment: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
Recent global trends in maternal mortality and its causes are reviewed using official data. Separate consideration is given to induced abortion as a cause of maternal mortality in both countries where it is legal and those where it is illegal.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:30269 Wyndham, C. H. Deaths from and mortality rates for largely preventable causes of death in whites in the RSA. Comparison of the situations in 1970 and 1980. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 67, No. 24, Jun 15, 1985. 975-6 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
"The numbers of deaths from and age-adjusted mortality rates (MRs) for largely preventable causes of death in white males and females aged 15-64 years in 1970 and 1980 [in South Africa] were compared. The causes of death considered were lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease, chronic lung diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and suicide."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.


Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.