Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

M. Policies

Studies and documentary statements relating to governmental policy as it affects population.

M.1. General Population Policy and Legislation

Studies relating primarily to national and international population policies and development assistance for population activities. Studies of policies affecting the quality of populations that are not covered by L.4. Demographic Factors and Human Genetics are classified under this heading.

52:20680 Bell, David E. Population policy: choices for the United States. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-1, Mar 1986. 24 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"The paper identifies a few elements of world population change that are of high importance to the United States, selects two policy issues for discussion (what should be the U.S. policy toward rapid population growth in the Third World, and what should be our policy toward slow population growth in the industrialized countries), and addresses for those issues questions of what our interests are, what our objectives ought to be, and how we might achieve them. Principal emphasis is placed on what appear to the author to be major areas of consensus among informed views of the subject."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20681 Benzine, Mustapha. The demographic question in Algeria: recent approaches and perspectives. [La question demographique en Algerie: approche recente et perspectives.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21-25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 15-20 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Changes in official attitudes in Algeria toward the relevance of population issues in development planning from the 1960s to the present are described. The author notes renewed concern with population issues in the 1980s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20682 Centro Peruano de Investigacion Aplicada (Lima, Peru). Integrated action concerning population policies. [Accion integrada de politicas de poblacion.] LC 85-188883. 1985. 89 pp. Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This report is one of the products of a seminar on the projected population in Peru in the year 2050 held in 1983. It is primarily aimed at summarizing some of the deliberations of that seminar for the benefit of those responsible for national policy making. The papers, by various authors, cover topics such as the role of family planning; population policy; the role of private organizations in population matters; attitudes of the Peruvian elite to population questions; the Catholic church and population policy; Peruvian demographic research; the law, family, and population; and means of communication with regard to population policy.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20683 Demeny, Paul. Bucharest, Mexico City, and beyond. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 2-3, Jul 1985. 131-9 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The author examines the world population conferences held in Bucharest, Romania, in 1974, and in Mexico City in 1984, and their impact on population policies and programs around the world. In particular, he reviews the World Population Plan of Action and suggests that the reason for its limited impact on government actions is related to its failure to set priorities and to take into account the process of policy formulation and implementation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20684 Freedman, Ronald. Policy options after the demographic transition: the case of Taiwan. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 77-100, 167-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The policy options open to a developing country that has completed the demographic transition are examined using the example of Taiwan. The author suggests that "now that Taiwan has attained universal contraceptive practice, a net reproduction rate of 1.0, and low mortality rates, the central concerns of population policy are likely to shift from fertility and family planning to other issues. After setting forth a range of plausible population projections, this paper considers policy options related to population growth, the family planning program, projected changes in the age structure, population distribution, and the status of women."
The positive contributions to social welfare that the persistence of traditional family relationships can make are noted. "Linkage of emerging health and welfare institutions to aspects of the Chinese family is proposed as a way to avoid some of the impersonal aspects of the Western system, and to avoid the staggering costs the West now faces in expenditures for the old. Transferability of the Taiwan experience is considered in the final section."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20685 Gould, W. T. S.; Lawton, R. Planning for population change. ISBN 0-389-20606-7. LC 85-26828. 1986. 214 pp. Barnes and Noble Books: Totowa, New Jersey. In Eng.
This book is a collection of papers by various authors dealing with the impact of population change on policy-making processes. "It is concerned...with the consequences of population change for present and future social and economic policy towards such questions as employment, educational provision and health care, as well as the spatial and temporal variations in demand which arise from both demographic and geographical differences between and within different cultural and socio-economic groups, whether at the global scale--such as between core and peripheral areas of Europe--or in different localities such as town and country or within different districts of cities."
Papers are included on the labor force and employment in Western Europe and in the third world, demographic change and social provision in Western Europe, service provision in the third world, planning for health care provision in Britain, health policies in the third world, education provision and demographic change in England and Wales, and population analysis for the planning of primary schools in the third world. A summary chapter is also included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20686 Hauser, Philip M. Changing perspectives on population. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1985. 32-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reviews changing perceptions of population issues since the 1940s. He describes the role of the United Nations in increasing worldwide awareness of population problems and emphasizes the need to integrate population policy with socioeconomic policies and programs. He notes that improved demographic data and increased awareness of population problems have had a significant impact on fertility levels and population growth in the third world, and adds that continued work is needed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20687 Henderson, Julia. The UN and population NGOs. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1985. 22-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author offers a history of the role of private and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the field of population issues and describes the relationship between the United Nations organizations and the NGOs. The work of specialized organizations concerned with international and national population policies and programs is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20688 Jamias, Eugenia G. The Philippine Population Program: an overview. Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1985. 8-13 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
A brief overview of the population program that has been functioning in the Philippines since 1970 is presented. The basic principles underlying the program are summarized, and information is provided on sources of funding, achievements to date, and future targets.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20689 Johnson, Stanley. The growth of population assistance. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1985. 38-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A former member of the European Parliament offers his observations on the growth of population assistance in the past 40 years as it relates to the leadership and involvement of the United Nations. The increasing number of developing countries on the U.N. membership roll is seen as the largest single factor leading to the work of the United Nations in this area. The activities of three world population conferences are also reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20690 Mera, Koichi. Population stabilization and national spatial policy of public investment: the Japanese experience. International Regional Science Review, Vol. 10, No. 1, Apr 1986. 47-65 pp. Morgantown, West Virginia. In Eng.
"This paper presents a new method that can be used to reveal the policy objectives with which actual public investment decisions are consistent. Japanese regional investment expenditures from 1958 to 1978 are analyzed, and the dominant policies in effect during this period are identified using this method. A connection between Japanese regional public investment policies and the convergence of population growth across regions is suggested." The suitability of redistributive investment policies as a mechanism for the spatial stabilization of other populations experiencing rapid economic growth is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20691 Salas, Rafael M. Population assistance is here to stay. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1985. 4-14 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author, currently the Executive Director of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), chronicles events in the 1960s, particularly in developing countries, that led to the creation of this agency. He also discusses how the focus of population assistance has changed to include an emphasis on aspects of human welfare and the need to treat population issues and socioeconomic factors at the same time. The current status of the UNFPA is outlined, with particular attention to the changing role of the United States.
It is concluded that current population trends and the desire of developing countries for economic growth have led to the acceptance of government involvement in population programs and that bilateral and multilateral assistance for population activities will continue to increase.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20692 Srikantan, K. Sivaswamy. Seminar on the use of demographic knowledge for policy formulation, implementation and evaluation: the case of South, East and South-east Asia. An overview. IUSSP Reprints Series, No. 9, [1985?]. [26] pp. International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a report on an IUSSP seminar on the use of demographic knowledge for policy formulation, implementation, and evaluation in Asia, held in Bombay, India, January 24-28, 1985. The seminar involved case studies for Bangladesh, India, the Republic of Korea, and Malaysia. The report includes a discussion of the analytical framework and of the experience of developed countries. The general focus is on policies designed to reduce fertility.
This paper was previously published in the IUSSP Newsletter (Liege, Belgium), No. 25, Sep-Dec 1985, pp. 71-96.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20693 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Policy relevance of findings of the World Fertility Survey for developing countries. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/59, 1986. vi, 160 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The policy relevance of the findings from the World Fertility Survey (WFS) for developing countries is considered using data from the 38 countries for which first country reports were available in the middle of 1984 and from other analytical studies using WFS data. Among the topics discussed are the encouragement of education for girls up to 17 or 18, deferring marriage until the same age, emphasizing birth spacing as well as birth limitation, promotion of the small family norm, adapting family planning programs to local cultures, and promoting female employment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20694 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Algeria. [1985?]. 7, [1] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Algeria in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20695 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Guatemala. [1985?]. 6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Guatemala in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20696 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Ivory Coast. [1985?]. 7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Ivory Coast in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20697 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Kenya. [1985?]. 6, [1] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Kenya in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20698 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Nicaragua. [1985?]. 6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Nicaragua in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20699 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. [1985?]. 7, [1] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Democratic Yemen in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20700 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Uganda. [1985?]. 7, [1] pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Uganda in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20701 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division (New York, New York); United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). Population policy compendium: Yemen Arab Republic. [1985?]. 7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report presents information on population policy and basic demographic data for Yemen in a standard format to permit a rapid comparison among countries. The text elaborates on governmental perceptions of demographic problems as well as on the actual policies and measures adopted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20702 Wasilewska-Trenkner, Halina; Witkowski, Janusz. On population policy in Poland. [O polityce ludnosciowej w Polsce.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/82, 1985. 33-50 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The authors review population policy measures adopted in Poland since World War II, including social policy measures that have had a demographic impact. They conclude that the measures adopted did not often affect demographic trends in the manner intended and that demographic differences within the country have widened over time. They also consider whether there is in fact a need for a population policy in Poland and if so, what its main features should be.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility

Government policies aimed at directly influencing fertility and nuptiality, and policies with an indirect effect on fertility such as family allowances, pregnancy and maternity benefits, infant welfare measures, and government regulation of fertility controls, including abortion.

52:20703 Mosher, Steven W. Human rights in the new China. Society, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jan-Feb 1986. 28-35 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author maintains that China "presents the world's most serious long-term human rights problem." Amongst other examples, he gives examples of human rights abuses carried out during the course of the campaign to reduce the rate of population growth. These alleged abuses include forced induced abortion and female infanticide.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20704 Robey, Bryant. Sons and daughters in China. Asian and Pacific Census Forum, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1985. 1-5 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The author describes the demographic impact of China's one-child policy, with particular attention given to evidence of sex preference. The information summarized is primarily from papers presented at the International Symposium on China's 1-in-1,000 National Fertility Sample Survey held in Beijing, October 14-18, 1985.
Data collected during the 1982 fertility survey are presented to show proportions of couples accepting a one-child certificate, proportions of couples renouncing the certificate by having a second child, and proportions of couples using contraception, according to the sex of the first child. Research findings concerning parity progression ratios and sex of children are also summarized. The author concludes that "while son preference still persists in China today, it is less likely than one might expect to be a major barrier to the success of the family planning program....The use of contraception would increase only marginally even if son preference somehow were completely eliminated in China."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20705 Tien, H. Yuan. As China's one-two fertility debate turns. Population Today, Vol. 14, No. 4, Apr 1986. 6-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author summarizes the debate concerning possible changes in China's population policies, with reference to discussions held at the Fourth National Conference of the Chinese Demographic Society in 1985. Proposed plans to find an alternative to the one-child policy are outlined. The author believes that future trends will include birth spacing at stipulated intervals for families who wish to have a second child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20706 Wolf, Arthur P. The preeminent role of government intervention in China's family revolution. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 101-16, 167, 169 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article argues that government policy on birth control is the preeminent cause of the family revolution in China, characterized chiefly by the trend toward later marriage, lower fertility, and smaller household size. Contrary to the expectations of the modernization thesis, which would attribute these changes in the Chinese family largely to the influence of industrialization and urbanization, the author argues that they are chiefly the outcome of direct government intervention."
Data are from interviews conducted by the author in seven widely separated collectives in 1980-1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

M.3. Measures Affecting Migration

Government policies relating to emigration, immigration, and population resettlement. See also the appropriate categories under H. Migration that include general studies also covering policy issues.

52:20707 Conde, Julien. South-north international migrations. The development of immigration laws and regulations in OECD Member countries up to 1981. Development Centre Papers, Pub. Order No. 36.070. Apr 1986. 43 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Development Centre: Paris, France. In Eng.
The author presents an overview of migration policies in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1981. Among the aspects of international migration addressed by these laws are entry, residence permits, work permits, return migration, family reunification, social services and aid to immigrants, assimilation and naturalization, and refugees. A summary note and tables provide data from a variety of published sources concerning international migration involving OECD countries and trends in its regulation. This publication is also available in French.
Separate documents summarizing the current situation and trends in immigration laws in 23 member countries are available in French from the OECD Development Centre.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20708 Lowell, B. Lindsay; Bean, Frank D.; de la Garza, Rodolfo O. The dilemmas of undocumented immigration: an analysis of the 1984 Simpson-Mazzoli vote. Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 67, No. 1, Mar 1986. 118-27 pp. Austin, Texas. In Eng.
"This paper examined factors associated with whether or not members of the U.S. House of Representatives voted for or against the 1984 Simpson-Mazzoli bill. Congresspersons from more Hispanic districts were more likely to vote no on the bill, and more senior representatives and those from more Republican districts were more likely to vote yes. Being from a 'Sunbelt' (especially southwestern) state was also associated with opposition to the legislation. The pattern of voting suggests the operation of factors having little to do with the actual threat of undocumented immigration."
The authors conclude that "in those districts where real world referents for the problem least existed and where the deleterious impact of illegals has scarcely been felt, the voting of representatives may have been affected by ethnic, cultural, and regional prejudices as much as by other factors...."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20709 Taylor, J. Edward. Selectivity of undocumented Mexico-U.S. migrants and implications for U.S. immigration reform. Impacts of Immigration in California Policy Discussion Paper, No. PDS-85-4, Dec 1985. 44 pp. Urban Institute: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper explores what types of undocumented Mexico-U.S. migrants and migrant households are likely to be most influenced by changes in U.S. immigration laws. The first part of the paper draws from existing empirical studies to examine the motives for illegal Mexico-U.S. migration and their implications for migrant selectivity. In the second part, a multinomial logit technique is utilized to isolate the characteristics that distinguish undocumented Mexico-U.S. migrants from Mexican internal migrants and nonmigrants in a 1982 sample of rural Mexican households."
It is found that "on average, undocumented Mexico-U.S. migrants are from households in Mexico with strong economic motives for sending migrants to the United States but which can afford, or else control, the risks and costs associated with illegal Mexico-U.S. migration. Undocumented migrants who appear most vulnerable to changes in U.S. immigration policy include individuals who lack the resources or else the incentive to withstand an increase in the risks and costs of working illegally in the United States."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.