Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

K. Demographic and Economic Interrelations

Studies concerned with the relations between population factors as a whole and economic aspects. Relations affecting a single demographic variable and economic factors are coded under the variable concerned and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1. Economic Development and Population

Studies concerned equally with economic and social development. Most studies on the microeconomics of the family will be found in G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to this division, if appropriate.

K.1.1. General Economic Development and Population

Studies on economic and social development with a worldwide emphasis, together with those with no geographical emphasis.

52:20612 Arab-Ogly, Edward A. Demography and the global problems of our epoch. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part one, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986. 23-35 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
Trends in world population growth are discussed, and prospects for the future are outlined in the context of what the author considers to be the major global problems of the present. International pronouncements concerning the world's population are mentioned, the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development is considered, and the concept of zero population growth is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20613 Gourou, Pierre; Etienne, Gilbert. From the plowing at Cluny to the green revolution: agricultural techniques and population. [Des labours de Cluny a la revolution verte: techniques agricoles et population.] ISBN 2-13-038653-9. 1985. 258 pp. Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
These are the proceedings of a conference on the relationship between agricultural development and population, held in Paris, France, May 5-6, 1983. The 11 papers are divided into two sections, past and present. The historical section includes papers on Flanders, Belgium; Macon, France; and two papers on China. The modern section includes papers on China, India, Brazil, Mexico, Africa South of the Sahara, Burkina Faso, and on the tropical regions. The papers are primarily case studies on the relationships among resources, techniques of production, and the number of people to be fed.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20614 Lapkoff, Shelley. Pay-as-you-go retirement systems in nonstable populations. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 18, Sep 1985. 14, [7] pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This paper analyzes how tax rates, benefit rates, and rates of return in a social security system respond to nonstable populations. Using a modified version of Samuelson's consumption- loan model, the paper shows how it is theoretically possible to keep rates of return equal across cohorts, thus satisfying an important component of intergenerational equity. In addition, different ways of structuring a pay-as-you-go retirement plan are analyzed."
The author develops a framework that is "used to demonstrate how different structures for the retirement plan would perform under various population trajectories. The population trajectories explored are stylized models of an aging population, a population that would arise from one specification of Easterlin's relative income hypothesis, and a population trajectory that is essentially random."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20615 Lieberson, Jonathan. Too many people? New York Review of Books, Vol. 33, No. 11, Jun 26, 1986. 36-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A general review of the current debate concerning global population trends and their effect on the development process is presented in the form of a review of the conference proceedings published under the title "Are World Population Trends a Problem?" Consideration is given to the role that family planning programs can play and to the role of the United States in supporting such programs. The author concludes that "creating the conditions in which people decide to have fewer children has usually been a matter of improvisation and is likely to remain so."
For the proceedings referred to, edited by Ben Wattenberg et al., and published in 1985, see 51:20766.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20616 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Economic issues in population policy. Chapter one: review of welfare economics. Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Paper, No. 39-84, Nov 1984. 27 pp. Tel Aviv University, Foerder Institute for Economic Research: Ramat Aviv, Israel. In Eng.
This is the first of three papers concerning economic issues in population policy. The authors review fundamental concepts in the theory of welfare economics and resource allocation, treating population as an economic resource. They discuss Pareto-efficiency, competitive equilibria, the social welfare function, and second-best redistributive policies.
For the related papers by Marc Nerlove et al., also published in 1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20617 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Economic issues in population policy. Chapter three: traditional household behavior. Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Paper, No. 42-84, Dec 1984. 12 pp. Tel Aviv University, Foerder Institute for Economic Research: Ramat Aviv, Israel. In Eng.
In the last of three papers concerning economic issues in population policy, the authors "elaborate on how the responses of households [to prices] are formed and on the properties of these responses." Utility maximization and selected aspects of demand and expenditure functions are discussed. The focus is on economic theory.
For the related papers by Marc Nerlove et al., also published in 1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20618 Nerlove, Marc; Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim. Economic issues in population policy. Chapter two: economics of externalities. Foerder Institute for Economic Research Working Paper, No. 40-84, Dec 1984. 12 pp. Tel Aviv University, Foerder Institute for Economic Research: Ramat Aviv, Israel. In Eng.
The authors expand on the presentation of economic theory included in a preceding paper by discussing economic externalities, including taxes and subsidies. The purpose is to provide a framework for examining economic issues in population policy.
For the related papers by Marc Nerlove et al., also published in 1984, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20619 Osterfeld, David. Resources, people, and the Neomalthusian fallacy. Cato Journal, Vol. 5, No. 1, Spring-Summer 1985. 67-102 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
An attack on the neo-Malthusian approach to the relationship between rapid population growth and economic development problems is presented. The primary focus is on the relative inability of neo-Malthusian scholars to predict the future availability of resources. The author concludes that economic development is the best solution to population problems and that population policies should be avoided. The author argues for letting natural market forces resolve problems of poverty, malnutrition, and overpopulation.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20620 Soudoplatov, Anatoly P. Population problems in the general context of resources and development. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part one, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986. 36-49 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
The author first contrasts fertility trends in capitalist and European socialist countries; he then assesses the relative capabilities of the two forms of political system in addressing problems of employment, aging, urbanization, and the environment that are associated with demographic change. Attention is given to population problems and economic dependency in previously colonized regions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.1.2. Developing Countries

General studies on the relations between population factors and economic development in developing countries. Includes studies on dependency as they relate to developing countries.

52:20621 Agrawal, Govind R.; Kayastha, Narendra. Development of human resources, population policies and manpower and employment policies. Nov 1984. 63, [6] pp. Tribhuvan University, Centre for Economic Development and Administration: Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
This is a report of a meeting held in Katmandu, Nepal, June 25-27, 1984 on the relationships between human resources and population, manpower, and employment policies in Southern Asia. It includes separate papers on Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Consideration is given to the possibilities for regional cooperation in these areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20622 Agrawal, Govind R.; Kayastha, Narendra. Development of human resources, population policies and manpower and employment policies. Country paper: Nepal. 1984. ii, 72 pp. Tribhuvan University, Centre for Economic Development and Administration: Katmandu, Nepal. In Eng.
A general review of development problems in Nepal is presented. Population, human resource development, employment, and manpower are discussed in separate chapters. The chapter on population includes sections on policy, population size, age distribution, sex distribution, vital rates, regional distribution, urbanization, and internal migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20623 Alba, Francisco; Potter, Joseph E. Population and development in Mexico since 1940: an interpretation. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 47-75, 167-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"Beginning in 1940, Mexico enjoyed a 30-year period of sustained economic growth; on the demographic side, this interval was characterized by sustained high fertility and rapidly falling mortality. By the early 1980s, the country faced crises of liquidity and inflation; a fertility decline had set in after the early 1970s. This assessment of four decades of economic, social, and demographic change explores reasons why fertility remained high in the face of rapid development; how demographic change contributed to the current economic crisis; and why fertility declined precipitously in the most recent period."
The authors argue that although the development policies adopted generally favored high fertility, the country's population policies have exercised an identifiable downward influence on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20624 Bueno Sanchez, Eramis. Population and the new international economic order. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part two, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1986. 3-19 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
The author attempts "to analyse the interaction between NIEO [the New International Economic Order] and the unequal development from the standpoint of the demographic future of the developing countries." An interpretation of the NIEO is outlined, and the impact of population growth on socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Selected experiences in Cuba are cited.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20625 Burkina Faso. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso). A summary of studies on population and development in Burkina Faso. [Synthese de quelques etudes sur population et developpement au Burkina Faso.] Sep 1984. 116 pp. Ougadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
This report attempts to summarize the findings of selected studies on the relationship between population and development in Burkina Faso.
Location: Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, France. Source: INED, Liste d'Acquisitions, Mar-Apr 1985.

52:20626 Cain, Mead. Consequences of reproductive failure: dependence, mobility, and mortality among the elderly in rural South Asia. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 119, Nov 1985. 30 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper examines the proposition that the economic mobility of persons in rural South Asia is affected by their reproductive outcomes: specifically, that reproductive failure (defined as the failure to rear a surviving son) entails material loss. Underlying this proposition is the notion that sons in this setting constitute an important source of insurance against the risk of income insufficiency in old age and in a variety of other contingencies." Data on the living arrangements and economic status of the elderly population are from fieldwork conducted in one village in Bangladesh from 1976-1978 and in several villages in India in 1980 and 1983.
The analysis "suggests that the consequences of reproductive failure include increased mortality risks and a high probability of property loss; that these consequences are more severe for women than for men; and that they are considerably more severe in rural Bangladesh than in the sampled areas of rural India."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20627 Chin, Peggy T. C. The relationship between poverty and fertility in some less developed countries. Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography, Vol. 6, No. 2, Dec 1985. 139-52 pp. Singapore. In Eng.
The author investigates the extent to which both absolute and relative poverty affect population growth in developing countries. Aggregate data from U.N. sources for 26 countries at various stages of the fertility transition are used. The results indicate that the most significant steps in reducing fertility would be more effective provision of basic human needs and reforms in land tenure. The need to distinguish between absolute and relative poverty in formulating population policies is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20628 Clinton, Richard L. Population and development in Peru. [Poblacion y desarrollo en el Peru.] [1985]. 207 pp. Universidad de Lima, Oficina Coordinadora de Investigacion Cientifica: Lima, Peru. In Spa.
This study is concerned with opinions about the relationship between population and development in Peru. It is based on a survey involving interviews with 170 opinion leaders in Peru carried out in 1982-1983. The study includes a review of past, present, and probable future demographic trends; a discussion on the intellectual climate in which the population debate takes place; and a review of current population policy. The conclusion is that Peru faces major development problems which are generally made worse, rather than caused by, population factors.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20629 Gomaa, Saad. Population and development issues in the third world. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 12, No. 72, Jan-Mar 1985. [3-29], 45-60 pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Ara. with sum. in Eng.
This is a general review of the relationship between population factors and development problems in developing countries. The author views population growth as being predominantly a socioeconomic and political problem, as it puts pressures on a given political system to adapt and change. He concludes that appropriate changes in the development strategies of the countries concerned will resolve population problems.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20630 Guzevatyi, Yaropolk N. The global problem of reproduction and utilization of labour resources of developing countries in its demographic aspect. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part one, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986. 50-62 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
The author discusses the socioeconomic consequences of population growth in developing countries, giving particular attention to employment and the status of women. He contends that "the accelerated growth of population in the developing countries, given the preservation in their economy of the vast sector characterized by the stagnating traditional production and archaic social relations promotes an alarming and growing alienation of the ever-greater number of able-bodied people from the means of production."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20631 Hudson, Ray; Lewis, Jim. Uneven development in Southern Europe: studies of accumulation, class, migration and the state. ISBN 0-416-32840-7. 1985. xi, 398 pp. Methuen: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This book consists of selected papers originally presented at a conference entitled National and Regional Development in the Mediterranean Basin held at the University of Durham in April 1982. The geographic focus is on Southern Europe including Turkey. Papers are included on the effects of emigration on regional development in Turkey, the economic impact of returned emigrants in Turkey, and return migration and rural economic change in southern Italy.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20632 Ivory Coast. Ministere de l'Economie et des Finances. Direction de la Statistique (Abidjan, Ivory Coast). The Permanent Household Survey: provisional results, 1985. [Enquete Permanente Aupres des Menages: resultats provisoires 1985.] Nov 1985. 76 pp. Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In Fre.
This preliminary statistical report provides an overview of selected key economic and social indicators drawn from a data collection system recently implemented in the Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast's Direction de la Statistique and the World Bank's Development Research Department are collaborating, under the auspices of the Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study, to interview 160 households per month on a continuous basis for 10 months out of the year. Data are collected concerning population size, age structure, sex distribution, family size, nationality, proportion of female heads of household, fertility, migration, health, education, type of residence, occupations, employment status, financial assistance among family members, and consumption.
Annual statistical reports based on each round of the survey are to be published, along with brief semiannual updates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20633 Khalatbari, P. Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Parts one and two. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 2 and 3, 1986. 63; 67 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
These two volumes contain nine papers presented at a seminar held at Humboldt University Berlin in November 1984. Sponsored by the University's Demography Unit, the conference was "mainly concerned with the connections between population growth and underdevelopment as a system of global issues. Such critical issues as food supply and employment were included as sub-systems."
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20634 Khalatbari, Parviz. Population growth as a global problem. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part one, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1986. 4-22 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
The author briefly traces the growth of world population in the last century, with a focus on difficulties arising from rapid population growth in developing regions. While recommendations aimed at promoting economic growth in developing countries are suggested, the emphasis is on general policy guidelines and theoretical aspects of the relationship between population growth and "backwardness"..
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20635 King, Timothy; Kelley, Allen C. The new population debate: two views on population growth and economic development. Population Trends and Public Policy, No. 7, Feb 1985. 24 pp. Population Reference Bureau: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report consists of two separate articles presenting different opinions concerning the relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development. The paper by Timothy King emphasizes the need to examine population problems on a country-by-country basis, since global trends mask a variety of local conditions. He critically assesses the pro-growth philosophy exemplified by Julian Simon's 1981 book, The Ultimate Resource, and points out the problems of land shortage that occur if rapid population growth is sustained in poor countries dependent on agriculture.
Allen Kelley presents a critique of the traditional arguments that population growth hinders development. He suggests instead that population growth is a catalyst that brings other problems to a head more quickly and limits the time in which political answers to those problems can be found. He also asserts that the impact of rapid population growth is tempered when its positive indirect effects are considered.
For the book by Julian L. Simon, published in 1981, see 47:4640.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20636 National Research Council. Committee on Population. Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development (Washington, D.C.). Population growth and economic development: policy questions. ISBN 0-309-03641-0. LC 86-862. 1986. ix, 108 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This report summarizes evidence on the relationships between population growth and economic development, concentrating on the developing nations. Following an introduction that sets forth the problem, the report addresses nine relevant and currently debated major questions bearing on these relationships and then summarizes the conclusions in a final chapter." The authors find little support for either the most alarmist or the most complacent views concerning the economic effects of population growth. However, it is concluded that on balance, slower population growth would be beneficial to economic development for most developing countries.
Most of the questions considered concern the anticipated effects of slower rates of population growth. These effects include the areas of per capita income growth through increased availability of exhaustible and renewable resources, pollution and environmental degradation, increased output and consumption per worker, technological innovation and exploitation of economies of scale, schooling and health, inequality and income distribution, and the impact of the absorption of workers in the modern sector on urbanization. The report also considers the costs to society of individual couples' fertility behavior.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20637 Peiris, W. A. A. S.; Meegama, S. A.; Wickremasekara, P.; Wilson, P.; Fernando, W. S. M. Socio-economic development and fertility decline in Sri Lanka. No. ST/ESA/SER.R/54, 1986. xi, 112 pp. U.N. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs: New York, New York. In Eng.
This study is part of a project in which the relationship between socioeconomic factors and fertility decline in developing countries is explored. It is concerned with Sri Lanka and includes chapters on the socioeconomic background, the demographic background, the economic structure and trends, development policy and strategy, and the fertility transition.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20638 Ramsay, Ansil. Population pressure, mechanization, and landlessness in Central Thailand. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 19, No. 3, Apr 1985. 351-68 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The author examines the relative contribution of increasing population and technological change to the growing problem of landlessness in Central Thailand. Data are from a study undertaken by the Division of Land Policy and Planning in 1974-1976. The author concludes that new technologies have in fact increased the demand for labor, and that increases in the rural population and the consequent pressures on finite land resources are a major cause of landlessness.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.; Princeton University Library (PR).

K.1.3. Developed Countries

Studies on the relations between population and economic factors as they affect the developed world. Also includes studies on the economic effects of a stationary or declining population, the effects of aging on the economy, retirement, and problems of economic dependency in developed countries.

52:20639 Czechoslovakia. Federalni Statisticky Urad (Prague, Czechoslovakia). Development of society in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (based on data from the 1980 census of population and housing). [Vyvoj spolecnosti CSSR (podle vysledku scitani lidu, domu a bytu 1980).] 1985. 238; 141 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
This report describes the process of socioeconomic development in Czechoslovakia since the end of World War II using data from official sources, including the 1980 census. Sections are included on social characteristics, demographic trends, spatial distribution and population density, nationalities, education, economic activity, commuting, housing, and the organization and methodology of the 1980 census. The report is in two parts: the first part presents the analysis; the second, the statistical data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20640 Dickinson, James; Russell, Bob. Family, economy and state: the social reproduction process under capitalism. ISBN 0-312-28045-9. LC 85-2138. 1986. 340 pp. St. Martin's Press: New York, New York. In Eng.
This book is a collection of 11 papers by various authors on aspects of the relationships among the family, the economy, and the state. The focus is on the social reproduction process, and the papers examine the institutions, social processes, and forms of state intervention that contribute to the reproduction of households and working populations in the developed countries. The geographic focus is on Europe and North America. The linkages between reproduction at the family level and the needs of the state as a whole are examined, with emphasis on the role played by the welfare state.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20641 Kasarda, John D.; Irwin, Michael D.; Hughes, Holly L. The South is still rising. American Demographics, Vol. 8, No. 6, Jun 1986. 32-9, 70 pp. Ithaca, New York. In Eng.
The authors review and discuss economic and demographic indicators that project sustained growth in the southern United States into the twenty-first century. Attention is given to in-migration and employment opportunities, and comparisons are made with other regions of the country.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20642 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver; Leisering, Lutz. Demographic changes as a problem for social security systems. International Social Security Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1984. 388-409 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The relationship between demographic changes and the social security system is explored. The focus is on the current situation in the Federal Republic of Germany, but consideration is also given to comparable developments in other developed countries. Emphasis is placed on how changes in the age distribution of modern populations affect the relative proportion of the productive and the dependent populations.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20643 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver; Leisering, Lutz. Studies on the three-generation contract. [Studien zum Drei-Generationenvertrag.] IBS-Materialien, No. 15, 1984. 156 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This publication contains three papers on the relationship between demographic trends, particularly declining fertility, and problems involving social security and the dependency burden. All of the papers have been previously published. The geographic focus is on the Federal Republic of Germany and other developed countries. The need to consider three generations (the young, the working-age population, and the elderly) when studying such problems is stressed.
Individual papers deal with the demographic conditions for optimizing the economic burden on the economically active population, changes in the relationship between the child and old-age dependency burdens, and demographic changes as a problem for the social security system.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20644 Lee, Ronald D.; Lapkoff, Shelley F. Intergenerational flows of time and goods: consequences of slowing population growth. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 19, Nov 1985. 45 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
"This paper develops a theoretical model of intergenerational transfers incorporating time use. With the aid of time budget and consumer expenditure surveys, empirical estimates of the age profiles of various types of time and goods consumption are presented, and [the authors] conclude that: 1) the net direction of intergenerational transfers is from younger to older ages; 2) these transfers largely constitute an externality to childbearing; 3) they are not large enough to offset the capital dilution effect which would result from higher fertility and more rapid population growth." The focus is on developed countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20645 Lee, Ronald D. Population growth and intergenerational transfers in a household setting. Program in Population Research Working Paper, No. 20, Jan 1986. 36 pp. University of California, Institute of International Studies, Program in Population Research: Berkeley, California. In Eng.
The author focuses on the estimation of the net direction and magnitude of intergenerational transfers in developed countries, an area he considers neglected in the published literature. According to the author, "this gap is due in part to the conceptual difficulties surrounding the measurement of individual consumption, arising from the existence of quasi-public goods and economies of scale within the household. In this paper I show that when the conceptual issues are clarified, it is possible to draw on existing data and research to quantify the transfers, establish their net direction, and evaluate the externalities to child bearing arising from transfers."
It is found that "for the marginal child, net transfers are substantially from younger to older members of the population, in the amount of about 25,000 dollars (1972) per incremental birth. If it is assumed that within-household transfers to the marginal child are exactly offset by direct utility flows from enjoyment of the child, then the externality to the birth of an incremental child appears to be on the order of 40,000 dollars (1972). However, this calculation reflects only the intergenerational transfer effect; the negative effect arising from capital dilution should be somewhat larger, and reverse the sign of the net effect."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20646 Leuchten, Karl-Heinz. Changes in the age structure of the population and the economic burden on the labor force. [Altersstrukturveranderungen der Bevolkerung und die okonomische Belastung der Aktiven.] Contributions to Quantitative Economics/Beitrage zur Quantitativen Okonomie, Vol. 7, ISBN 3-88339-381-9. LC 85-104127. 1984. 224 pp. N. Brockmeyer: Bochum, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
An economic model is used to analyze how changes in age structure will affect the economic burden placed on the labor force by both the elderly and children. The emphasis is on the long-term consequences of demographic aging in the Federal Republic of Germany and the problem of paying for social security. The model is first described, different types of dependency burden are distinguished, and the demographic basis of the model is examined. The effects of changes in age structure on the economic dependency burden are then analyzed. Attention is also given to the impact of shortened working hours.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20647 Trebici, Vladimir. The future population of developed regions and the question of aging. In: Population growth as a global problem. 5th International Demographic Seminar, Berlin, November 20-22, 1984. Scientific programme. Part two, edited by P. Khalatbari. Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin Berichte, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1986. 56-66 pp. Humboldt University Berlin, Department of Economics, Demography Unit: Berlin, German Democratic Republic. In Eng.
An overview of the current situation involving demographic aging in developed countries is first presented, and selected economic consequences are noted. The author then presents projections of the proportions of those younger than 14 and those older than 60 for developing and developed regions through the year 2025. Projections are included concerning the age structure in Europe, and particular reference is made to the situation in Romania.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20648 van der Wijst, Ton; van Poppel, Frans. Economic and social implications of ageing in the Netherlands. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 67, Dec 1985. ix, 85 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
The process of demographic aging in the Netherlands is described, and its expected socioeconomic implications are reviewed. "First...the observed and expected demographic trends over the years 1950-2030 are outlined. Next, the study deals with various aspects of the living conditions of the elderly. Subsequently, some of the consequences of ageing are looked at, regarding the labour force, public expenditure, social security and private consumption." The paper concludes with a summary, which emphasizes the heterogeneity of the projected elderly population.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20649 Vukovich, Gabriella. Socioeconomic consequences of the aging of the population. [A nepesseg oregedesenek nehany tarsadalmi--gazdasagi osszefuggese.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 64, No. 2, Feb 1986. 109-21 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The economic and social implications of demographic aging in Hungary are reviewed. The demographic characteristics of the elderly population are first described using data from official sources. Next, the significance of current demographic trends for changes in the dependency burden are considered. The impact of demographic aging on consumption patterns and on the need for and cost of social services is also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.2. Population Growth and Natural Resources

Studies on the environment, quality of life, conservation, food production, etc., and their interrelations with population factors.

52:20650 Smil, Vaclav. Food production and quality of diet in China. Population and Development Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 25-45, 166-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Recent trends in the adequacy of food supplies in China are reviewed. The author concludes that although improvements in food supply and nutrition were minimal up to 1974, agricultural reforms since 1978 have resulted in significant improvements. However, some considerable inadequacies exist in certain regions. The prospects for future improvements are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20651 USSR. Ministerstvo Vysshego i Srednego Spetsial'nogo Obrazovaniya SSSR. Nauchno-Tekhnicheskii Sovet. Sektsiya Narodonaseleniya (Moscow, USSR). Population and the environment. [Narodonaselenie i priroda.] Narodonaselenie, No. 46, 1984. 95 pp. Finansy i Statistika: Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
This issue consists of 10 papers by different authors on issues concerning population and the environment. Topics covered include biological means of increasing life expectancy, the relationship between population and the rational use of the environment, population policy, population growth and global ecological issues, assessment of future demographic processes, and the relationships among population density, land supply, and demographic processes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

K.3. Employment and Labor Force Participation

Studies of employment and labor force statistics that are of demographic relevance. Includes studies of the labor force (employment status, occupation, and industry) and of the relations among employment, labor force participation, and population factors. Studies on the effect of female labor force participation on fertility are coded under F.1. General Fertility and cross-referenced here.

52:20652 Barkat-e-Khuda. Female employment in Bangladesh: evidence from census and micro level studies. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 236-46 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author presents some findings about female employment in Bangladesh based on 1974 census data and points out "some of the weaknesses in the census approaches adopted in the measurement of female labour force that lead to a gross underreporting of female workers. On the basis of evidence from several micro level studies...[he] attempts to examine briefly the relative contribution of women to the household economy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20653 Bartlett, Will. Unemployment, migration and industrialization in Yugoslavia, 1958-1982. EUI Working Paper, No. 90, Feb 1984. 39 pp. European University Institute, Department of Economics: Florence, Italy. In Eng.
High levels of unemployment and emigration in Yugoslavia during the years since World War II are examined. "In section 1 the conventional explanation of the Yugoslav unemployment experience is discussed and criticized. In section 2 the basis of an alternative approach is set out, and a formal model is developed in section 3. In section 4 the empirical results are presented, and conclusions are drawn in section 5."
It is observed that "in Yugoslavia high rates of growth of urban labour demand, together with over-protection of the industrial sector, a system of industrial organization favourable to industrial labour, and 'urban bias'...in investment policy, led to a consistently maintained gap between urban and rural incomes. In this situation urban unemployment rose as industrialization proceeded, even though it was modified somewhat by opportunities for external migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20654 Bloom, David E.; Freeman, Richard B. The "youth problem": age or generational crowding? Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-3, May 1986. 60, [6] pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to distinguish between two alternative views of the labor market problems faced by young workers in a number of industrialized countries in the 1970s and early 1980s. The first view is that the low relative earnings and high unemployment rates experienced by these workers were largely 'age' related....The second view is that the labor market problems of recent youth cohorts are consequence of their large size."
The authors analyze patterns of cohort size, earnings, unemployment, and the occupational distribution of young workers in selected OECD countries. Evidence is presented of earnings and employment effects of cohort size in various countries. Differences among countries in the timing and magnitude of the baby boom, the labor market impact, and the absorption of young workers in a range of industries are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20655 Hlukhanova, H. L. Statistical characteristics of the post-retirement age population employed in public production. [Statystychna kharakterystyka zainyatosti naselennya pensiinoho viku u suspil'nomu vyrobnytstvi.] Demohrafichni Doslidzhennya, No. 9, 1985. 64-70 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Characteristics of labor force activity among the population of retirement age in the Ukrainian SSR are examined. The focus is on the socioeconomic and demographic factors that affect pensioners' productive activity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20656 Kruminya, I. Levels and changes in the length of the economically active life of the population. [Uroven' i dinamika prodolzhitel'nosti ekonomicheski aktivnoi zhizni naseleniya.] Vestnik Statistiki, No. 1, 1986. 17-21 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Life tables for the length of an individual's working life in the USSR are presented using 1970 data for the Latvian Republic.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20657 McMahon, Patrick J. An international comparison of labor force participation, 1977-84. Monthly Labor Review, Vol. 109, No. 5, May 1986. 3-12 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The labor force participation rates and the ratios of employment and unemployment to population in six countries for the years 1975 and 1984 are compared. The author examines behaviorally and demographically induced changes in the labor force in the United States, Japan, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, and Sweden.
A marked contrast in the job-creation capabilities of the United States and the other countries is noted. It is observed that in Australia and West Germany in particular, there were behaviorally induced declines in labor force participation and substantial increases in unemployment to population ratios, while "the United States experienced a large behaviorally induced increase in the participation rate, accompanied by strong growth in the employment ratio and a small decline in the unemployment-population ratio....Modest falls in male participation rates and enormous increases in female rates occurred in the United States and to a lesser extent in the other countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20658 Narain, Vir. Marginal workers in India. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 227-35 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Following a brief review of the definitions of worker used in the Indian census, the author quantifies marginal workers by sex, rural or urban area, and state. The relative importance of marginal workers in the various sectors of the economy and the age pattern of the marginal workers are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20659 Szentgali, Tamas. Demographic analysis of the economic activity of the population. [A nepesseg gazdasagi aktivitasanak demografiai vizsgalata.] Statisztikai Szemle, Vol. 64, No. 1, Jan 1986. 22-33 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An analysis of labor force trends in Hungary since World War II is presented. The author examines the extent to which the increase in the number of active earners is explained by changes in the numbers of the population of working age and to what extent it is the result of an increasing level of labor force participation. The analysis uses data from censuses taken since 1945, and the findings are organized by sex.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20660 Valentei, D. I. Population and forms of employment. [Naselenie i formy zanyatosti.] Narodonaselenie, No. 49, 1985. 94 pp. Mysl': Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
This publication contains 12 papers by various Soviet authors concerning employment and labor force issues in the USSR.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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