Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

G. Nuptiality and the Family

Studies that quantitatively analyze aspects of nuptiality and the family. Studies concerned equally with marriage and the family are coded first under G.2. Family and Household and cross-referenced to G.1. Marriage and Divorce . Methodological studies on nuptiality and the family are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate.

G.1. Marriage and Divorce

Studies of trends in marriage and divorce, nuptiality, duration of marriage, age at marriage, and demographic characteristics of marriage partners. Also includes studies of unmarried cohabitation and consensual unions.

52:20430 Audirac, Pierre-Alain. Cohabitation: a million unmarried couples. [La cohabitation: un million de couples non maries.] Economie et Statistique, No. 185, Feb 1986. 13-33, 71, 73 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent trends in consensual unions in France are reviewed. It is noted that the extent of cohabitation has increased from 67,000 couples in 1968 to nearly 600,000 couples in 1985. Although the popularity of consensual couples is spreading through every region and social class, it is more frequent when the woman has a higher social status than her partner. It is more common in Paris than in the provinces and is less common in northern France. However, it is also noted that the proportion of young people living in couples, whether married or not, continues to decline.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20431 Begum, Hosne A.; Chowdhury, A. K. M. Alauddin. Reporting bias in marriage age among rural Bangladesh females. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 124-9 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Trends in age at first marriage among women in Matlab, Bangladesh are examined. Particular attention is given to social pressures that influence age reporting, schooling that might improve awareness of age, out-migration of wives from the region, and shortcomings of available data. Data were collected in 1966, 1970, 1976, and 1982 by the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research.
The authors note discrepancies between ages reported immediately preceding and immediately following marriage. The mean age at marriage for out-migrating wives is contrasted with that for women marrying and remaining in Matlab. It is concluded that "real increases in the last 16 years only contributed about 1.4 years, while the overall increase in marriage age was 3 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20432 Braun, Werner; Proebsting, Helmut. Marriage tables for single Germans, 1980-1983. [Heiratstafeln fur ledige Deutsche 1980/83.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 12, Dec 1985. 921-31 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Marriage tables for single German men and women are presented for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1980-1983. The data are based on official sources. The methodology used in preparing the tables is first described. The results are then discussed, and comparisons are made with tables for earlier years and with cohort tables. Trends in the age-specific probability of marriage are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20433 Braun, Werner; Proebsting, Helmut. Nuptiality tables for widowed Germans for 1979-1982 and divorced Germans for 1980-1983. [Heiratstafeln verwitweter Deutscher 1979/82 und geschiedener Deutscher 1980/83.] Wirtschaft und Statistik, No. 2, Feb 1986. 107-12 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Nuptiality tables for widowed and divorced Germans are presented by sex using official data from the Federal Republic of Germany. The data on widowed persons are for 1979-1982, and those on divorced persons are for 1980-1983. Trends in marriage and divorce since 1910 are first reviewed. Major results of the tables are then discussed, and comparisons are made with similar tables for 1972-1974 and with tables for single persons. The findings indicate a decline in the probability of remarriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20434 Chamie, J. Polygyny among Arabs. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 55-66 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author investigates "reported current and past practices of polygyny among Arab Muslims by examining levels, trends and differentials in those Arab Muslim countries for which data are available." It is concluded that "the practice appears to be neither extensive nor uniform throughout the Arab countries. In addition, the trend in its prevalence varies between different countries. While in some countries the practice is decreasing, in others it seems to be increasing and in still others it has remained unchanged. The implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions are offered for areas of further research on the subject."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20435 Dornsife, Cinnamon; Mahmoed, Adnan. An evaluation of Pathfinder's early marriage education program in Indonesia. Pathfinder Fund Working Papers, No. 4, Feb 1986. 41 pp. Pathfinder Fund: Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors evaluate the progress of a program that was initiated in Indonesia in 1981 by the Pathfinder Fund to expand compliance with the 1974 Marriage Law Reform Act. This law increased the legal minimum age for marriage in an effort to reduce the country's population growth rate. The Pathfinder program involved six projects in a dual strategy of educating the Indonesian people about the marriage law and identifying factors contributing to early marriage and pregnancy. Specific recommendations are presented concerning the project management performance of the various organizations involved.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20436 Eldridge, Sandra; Kiernan, Kathleen. Declining first-marriage rates in England and Wales: a change in timing or a rejection of marriage? European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 4, Nov 1985. 327-45 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
Two different methods devised by Ryder and by Le Bras and Roussel are used "to assess how far the changes in first-marriage rates in England and Wales arise from a shift to marrying at later ages or from a decline in the popularity of formal marriage. The two methods yield consistent results, and indicate that the majority of young people...will continue to marry but that during the 1970s many were postponing marriage. The pattern of cohabitation and prevailing attitudes to marriage are compatible with such a finding. Recent marriage patterns in England and Wales are found to differ from those in France and Sweden."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20437 Festy, Patrick. The contemporary evolution of family formation in Western Europe. [Evolution contemporaine du mode de formation des familles en Europe occidentale.] European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 2-3, Jul 1985. 179-205 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in family formation in Western Europe are reviewed. The author notes that changes occurring during the first half of the century tended to increase nuptiality rates; however, this trend has changed over the past 20 years, largely due to the growing popularity of consensual unions. The roots of these changes are examined, and the author observes that some of the contributing factors reflect long- established characteristics of family formation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20438 Frisbie, W. Parker. Variation in patterns of marital instability among Hispanics. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 1, Feb 1986. 99-106 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
Marital disruption among the three largest Hispanic populations in the United States is analyzed. The focus of the study is a comparison between the low levels of marital disruption observed among Mexican Americans and indicators for other Hispanic populations. The results indicate substantial diversity among the Hispanic populations observed with regard to marital stability and instability. The importance of socioeconomic factors is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20439 Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A. The institutionalization of premarital cohabitation: estimates from marriage license applications, 1970 and 1980. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1986. 423-34 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
Marriage license applications from Lane County, Oregon, in 1970 and 1980 are examined to determine "the extent to which couples who marry cohabit prior to marriage....The data indicate that premarital cohabitation in the county increased from 13% to 53% during the decade. Trends and differentials for demographic subgroups are compared to national estimates. Hypotheses that premarital cohabitants were less homogamous and delayed first marriages longer than noncohabitants were supported. The high proportion of married couples who lived together prior to marriage suggests that premarital cohabitation may be a new normative step leading to marriage."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 403).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20440 Haskey, John; Coleman, David. Cohabitation before marriage: a comparison of information from marriage registration and the General Household Survey. Population Trends, No. 43, Spring 1986. 15-7 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Cohabitation before marriage in the United Kingdom is examined. A comparison is made between the data on cohabitation from marriage registration and data from the General Household Survey. The authors conclude that similarity of address in the marriage register may well be a good proxy variable for premarital cohabitation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20441 Haskey, John C. Grounds for divorce in England and Wales--a social and demographic analysis. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 127-53 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the social and demographic features of divorcing couples by the grounds on which their decrees are made absolute and by the party granted the divorce. The demographic characteristics include ages at marriage and at divorce of husbands and of wives granted decrees, duration of marriage, number of children, and the social class of both the husband and the wife. The data are also analysed for particular categories of couples: in which the wife is a housewife, couples where the husband is unemployed, couples who have a child which was pre-maritally conceived, and couples who have dependent children."
The data are from official sources and concern England and Wales. The results indicate "clear and interesting differences in the demographic characteristics of couples who successfully petition on the various grounds, suggesting that the law is used in different ways by different couples. Reasons for the observed patterns are considered."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20442 Hatti, Neelambar; Ohlsson, Rolf. Impact of education on age at marriage. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 159-73 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
This analysis of the relationship between education and age at marriage in India is "based on household interview data, collected from a stratified sample of 2,725 households in Sirsi taluk, Karnataka, during January 1980-June 1981. The data relate to income, landholding, general living conditions as well as demographic characteristics such as age, marital status, age at marriage, family size and education."
Qualitative data concerning the timing of marriage decisions, dowry, and attitudes concerning the impact of the education of women on age at marriage were also collected from a subsample of 400 households. The focus is on two castes with contrasting economic and social backgrounds in a rural economy. The authors conclude that "the observed changes in length of schooling over time do not seem to have contributed towards the marriage delay. Instead it is more likely that the marriage delay is caused by other factors and that the longer period of schooling is partly a response to the marriage delay."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20443 Hinde, P. R. A. Household structure, marriage and the institution of service in nineteenth- century rural England. Local Population Studies, No. 35, Autumn 1985. 43- 51 pp. Matlock, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this paper is threefold: first, to present some data on household structure in two contrasting areas of rural England between 1851 and 1881; second, to provide an analysis of the changing institutions of domestic and agrarian service; and, third, to relate the history of marriage and household formation in late nineteenth- century rural England to the hypothesis put forward recently by Hajnal that in preindustrial north west Europe the institution of service acted as 'an essential part of the mechanism by which marriage could be delayed, with the result that population growth was under partial control'." Data are from census enumerators' books for two registration districts for the years 1851, 1861, 1871, and 1881.
The findings concerning these two contrasting rural populations appear to support Hajnal's hypothesis. "It does seem that domestic and in particular agrarian service acted as controls upon the mean age at first marriage and consequently upon the formation of new households. This control operated partly because of the prohibition upon marriage whilst in service, and partly because service provided a means by which to acquire the wherewithal necessary to establish a new household."
For the article by Hajnal, published in 1982, see 48:40531.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20444 Kiernan, Kathleen E. Teenage marriage and marital breakdown: a longitudinal study. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 35-54 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Given the extent of the risk of marital breakdown amongst teenage brides, it would be useful to know whether women who marry in their teens differ from those who marry at later ages, and whether there are any features that distinguish between teenage marriages which survive and those which break down. In this study we examine these issues, using data from a longitudinal study of a cohort of women [in Great Britain] born in 1946. We identify characteristics of these women, in childhood, adolescence and early adult life, which differentiate teenage brides from those who marry later. We also isolate characteristics that distinguish teenage brides whose marriages have survived by their early thirties from those who have been divorced or separated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20445 Kwiecien, Wladyslaw. Marriages in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Malzenstwa w Republice Federalnej Niemiec.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/81, 1985. 45-62 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Nuptiality trends in the Federal Republic of Germany from 1961 to 1981 are analyzed using official data. Consideration is given to overall number of marriages; marriages by marital status; first and second marriages; consensual unions; and marriages by age, sex, and nationality. Comparisons are made with other European countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20446 Labov, Teresa; Jacobs, Jerry A. Intermarriage in Hawaii, 1950-1983. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 1, Feb 1986. 79-88 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines the extent of intermarriage between racial, occupational, age, prior-marital- status, and residential groups in Hawaii from 1950 to 1983. State of Hawaii Vital Statistics are the primary source of data, and U.S. Census data are analyzed for comparison whenever possible. The evidence suggests increases in the extent of intermarriage, but the rates of increase are smaller than expected. Blau's hypotheses concerning structural constraints as determinants of intermarriage are tested. Detailed analysis of the Hawaiian case reveals it to fit broadly into his model, although changes over time require cultural as well as structural explanation."
This paper was originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 455).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20447 Lee, Kok Huat; Tan, Poo Chang; Siti Rohani Yahaya. Family events and marital stability in Peninsular Malaysia. Population Studies Unit Discussion Paper, No. 6, 1985. 32 pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Population Studies Unit: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"It is the intent of this paper to study a few selected contributing factors to marital instability in Peninsular Malaysia and to trace the paths of the impacts that these factors bear upon marital instability within a tentatively conceived causal model structure. The 1974 World Fertility Survey: Malaysia Fertility and Family Survey (MFFS) provides the needed national cross- sectional data for this study, covering only ever-married women."
The authors employ multiple classification analysis and path analysis techniques to determine the net effect of selected variables on the number of times married. Among the variables considered are a combined race and childhood residence factor; family type, nuclear or nonnuclear; education in years; years worked after marriage; family income; and duration of marriage. The findings of each form of analysis for each of the variables are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20448 Les, Ewa. Family breakdown in Poland: the problem of divorce. [La dislocation de la famille en Pologne: le probleme du divorce.] Revue d'Etudes Comparatives Est-Ouest, Vol. 16, No. 4, Dec 1985. 147-57, 181 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in divorce in Poland from 1960 to 1982 are analyzed using data from official sources. The demographic factors associated with divorce that are considered include age, sex, place of residence, and social status. The causes of divorce are also reviewed, with particular attention given to the extent to which the recorded causes of divorce accurately reflect the real causes of divorce.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20449 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Increased chances of a golden wedding anniversary. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 2-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The relationship between changes in life expectancy in the United States and potential duration of marriage is explored. Data are compiled from official sources. The findings show that "the likelihood that today's typical bride and groom will both survive the next 50 years is 2 1/4 times higher than the chances during 1900-02." The years of joint expectation of life and the chances of joint survival for 10, 25, and 50 years are presented by age of male and female at marriage. A comparison is made between the figures for 1900-1902 and 1979-1981. Death is the only form of marriage dissolution considered in these calculations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20450 Pandey, Arvind. Determinants of age at marriage of females in India. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 2, Dec 1984. 105- 15 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In the present paper some socio-economic determinants of female nuptiality in India have been discussed. An integrated path analysis approach is adopted to ascertain the direct, indirect and joint effect of the socio-economic factors on the age at marriage of females in rural and urban areas of various states of India. From the analysis, it became evident that effective literacy is the most dominant factor influencing the age at marriage of the females. Poverty is also a contributing factor in preventing a rise in the age at marriage."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20451 Pavek, Frantisek. Divorce among the recently married in Czechoslovakia in 1983. [Rozvody mladych manzelstvi v CSR a SSR 1983.] Populacni Zpravy, No. 1-2, 1985. 33-44 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
An analysis of divorce patterns in Czechoslovakia is presented. The author notes that one out of three divorces concerns marriages lasting less than five years. Comparisons are made between the situations in the Czech and Slovak parts of the country. An English summary is available separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20452 Pejaranonda, Chintana; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. 1980 population and housing census. Subject report No. 5. Nuptiality. Pub. Order No. N-Rep-No. 3-85. [1985?]. [9], 31, 33 pp. National Statistical Office: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This is the fifth in a series of analytical reports on the 1980 census of Thailand. The focus is on nuptiality in 1980, and comparisons are made with marriage patterns in 1970. Selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women are examined by region and by municipal and nonmunicipal areas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20453 Pison, Gilles. A demographic study of polygyny. [La demographie de la polygamie.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 93-122 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The demographic implications of polygyny are examined. The data primarily concern the Peul Bande of Senegal. Topics considered include the marriage market in the context of polygyny, the relationship between polygyny and fertility, and relationships within the family and kinship system concerned. The factors which encourage the continuation of polygyny in Western Africa are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20454 Schweitzer, Walter. Compiling nuptiality and marital status tables. [Zur Ermittlung von Heirats- und Familienstandstafeln.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 367-400 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Methodological aspects of using stochastic models to construct nuptiality tables and marital status life tables are discussed. The first part of the article deals with nuptiality tables for single persons; only transitions between the single and married states are considered. The second part, on marital status life tables, takes into account single, married, divorced, and widowed persons. Empirical examples are presented using data for the Federal Republic of Germany in 1972-1974.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20455 Tas, R. F. J. Marriage dissolution table by duration of marriage, 1984. [Huwelijksontbindingstafel naar duur van het huwelijk, 1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 2, Feb 1986. 34-41 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
A life table of marriages in the Netherlands in 1984 is presented. It is used to examine trends in marriage and divorce since 1971. The data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20456 Trovato, Frank. The relationship between migration and the provincial divorce rate in Canada, 1971 and 1978: a reassessment. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 1, Feb 1986. 207-16 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"Sustained differences among Canadian provinces in the rate of divorce have been observed for some time, but few attempts have been made to provide a systematic analysis of the relevance of region and migration to divorce. This study examines the interrelationship between these variables at two times, 1971 and 1978. The results concerning migration are consistent with the hypothesis that regions characterized by high rates of population mobility have high divorce rates, while regions with low migration rates experience relatively low levels of family dissolution." The results also indicate persisting differences among provinces in divorce patterns even if the migration factor is excluded.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20457 van de Walle, Etienne. Community-level variables and institutional factors in the study of African nuptiality. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 103-11 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The author emphasizes the importance of examining the impact of community-level factors on nuptiality in Africa and critically assesses the attention given to this issue in the course of the World Fertility Survey (WFS). He notes that "most of the variability of nuptiality in Africa is encountered with data relative to the following four subjects: type of conjugal union, polygyny, age at marriage and the stability of unions..." and uses examples from the WFS reports on Kenya, Lesotho, and Senegal. Explanations offered by anthropologists for the observed differentials in nuptiality among traditional African societies are considered.
The author concludes that "the nature and the rationale of the mechanisms linking society and marriage are poorly understood. Perhaps their complexity is to blame. Perhaps too, demographic research has badly neglected the study of nuptiality as no more than the handmaid of fertility and not worthy of investigation for itself. Certainly the WFS surveys have neglected marriage and downplayed the study of its inter-relation with the institutional factors." Suggestions for investigating factors influencing nuptiality in future surveys are outlined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20458 Watkins, Susan C. Regional patterns of nuptiality in Western Europe, 1870-1960. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 314-36 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
Data compiled during the Princeton European Fertility Project are examined for evidence of a "change in variation in nuptiality between the provinces of most of the countries of Western Europe during a period from roughly 1870 to 1960." The author concludes that during this period "the traditional Western European pattern of marriage was abandoned: increases in the proportions married by age--and especially the rapid increases after the early 1930s that Hajnal described as a marriage boom--occurred in every province....In 1960 there was less variation in nuptiality within most countries than there had been either at the first data for which figures are available or in 1930.
Where significant regional differences persisted longest, the patterns of nuptiality in 1960 appeared to be the residue of cultural differences in the previous century.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

G.2. Family and Household

Studies of household structure and of family composition and size and the factors influencing them. Includes the full range of family concepts from the one-parent to the extended family and includes studies on the life course of the family. Studies on attitudes toward family size are coded under F.4.4. Attitudes toward Fertility and Fertility Control .

52:20459 Bernhardt, Eva; Hoem, Britta. Cohabitation and social background: trends observed for Swedish women born between 1936 and 1960. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 4, Nov 1985. 375-95 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This paper throws some light on changing family-building patterns in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. The family-building events analyzed are first informal cohabitation, first marriage, birth of first child (both outside a union and within a consensual union), and separations from childless informal cohabitation."
The relevant literature is first reviewed. "The new results presented here are based on analyses that use multiplicative hazard models, permitting isolation of the effects of socio-economic background and region of childhood and adolescence respectively. It is generally found that socio-economic background is more important than the region where the woman grew up. Marriage intensities, however, which exhibit a clear regional pattern, are exceptions to this."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20460 Bouraoui, Abdelhamid. The collective representation of family size by primary school students. [Representation collective de la dimension de la famille par les eleves des ecoles primaires.] Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 22, No. 82-83, 1985. 11-28 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
The author analyzes the results of a survey of 150 primary school students in three sections of Tunis and one rural region of Tunisia concerning actual and ideal family size. The students, aged 10-13, drew pictures in response to questions asked. Findings are presented concerning attitudes about family size and sex preference. Differences in responses are noted among those of differing socioeconomic background and place of residence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20461 Brown, Audrey. Family circumstances of young children. Population Trends, No. 43, Spring 1986. 18-23 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from the OPCS Longitudinal Study are used to examine the family circumstances of legitimate and illegitimate children born in England and Wales. The main concern is with the stability of unions into which illegitimate children are born. Estimates are presented concerning the proportion of all children born between 1971 and 1981 who have lived with both their parents until the 1981 census. "For those aged under 3 at Census it is 88 per cent, for those aged 3-5, 84 per cent, and for those aged 6-9 it is 81 per cent."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20462 Chu, David S. K. Sociology and society in contemporary China, 1979-1983. Chinese Sociology and Anthropology, Vol. 16, No. 1-2, Fall-Winter 1983-1984. 219 pp. M. E. Sharpe: Armonk, New York. In Eng.
This issue of this journal presents a selection of papers, translated from the original Chinese, on social questions in contemporary China. A section of 10 papers is devoted to studies on the family. Topics covered in this section include changes in family structures; urban families; family size and structure in rural areas; marriage patterns, divorce, and remarriage in Shanghai; divorce; and attitudes toward marriage and fertility in a village of Jiangsu province.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20463 De Vos, Susan; Murty, K. Radhakrishna. Some reflections on the demographic study of the households in India. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 49-69 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"The purpose of this paper is to offer some ideas on how existing data could be used to advance the study of the household in India, with a few examples from the 1971 Census." Particular attention is given to the numbers of heads of households by sex and age and to the extent to which these figures are related to indicators of urbanization, literacy, and development.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20464 Farago, Tamas. Types of peasant households and work organization in Hungary in the middle of the eighteenth century: households of landed peasants in Pilis district in the area around Buda, 1745-1770. [Paraszti haztartas- es munkaszervezet-tipusok Magyarorszagon a 18. szazad kozepen: Pilis-Buda kornyeki birtokos paraszti haztartasok 1745-1770 kozott.] Torteneti Statisztikai Fuzetek, No. 7, ISBN 963-02-3529-3. 1985. 187 pp. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal, Konyvtar es Dokumentacios Szolgalat: Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng.
The structure of peasant households in Hungary in the middle of the eighteenth century is examined. The data concern the Pilis district near Budapest, selected as representative of the country at that date, and are taken from the nominal listing of inhabitants (status animarum), tax records, and parish records. Consideration is given to marriage patterns, including age at marriage and marital status. The focus is on the existence of nuclear and extended families and changes over the life course in family type. The author also examines employment and occupations. The differences among ethnic and national groups are analyzed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20465 Festy, Patrick. Demographic trends and rhythms of family life: some examples from Quebec. [Conjoncture demographique et rythmes familiaux: quelques illustrations quebecoises.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 37-58 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent demographic changes in Quebec are examined using data from official provincial sources. Care is taken to distinguish real changes in demographic behavior from changes in timing and to distinguish cohort from period effects. The focus is on changes that are occurring in family characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20466 Guraj-Kaczmarek, Kazimiera; Nowak-Sapota, Kazimiera. Households in Poland in light of the general national census of 1978. [Gospodarstwa domowe w Polsce w swietle narodowego spisu powszechnego 1978 r.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 3/81, 1985. 77-86 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The study is a short analysis of number and structure of the households in Poland according to voivodships based on figures of the General National Census of 1978. The heads of the households were characterized by the following demographic features such as: age, sex and marital status. Moreover, structure of farms according to their size, with regard to their spatial differentiation, was discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20467 Heida, Hans; Gordijn, Hugo. The Primos household model: analysis and projection of household trends in the Netherlands. [Primos huishoudenmodel: analyse en prognose van de huishoudensontwikkeling in Nederland.] Jan 1985. 81 pp. Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer: The Hague, Netherlands; Directoraat-Generaal van de Volkshuisvesting, Directie Onderzoek: The Hague, Netherlands. In Dut.
Trends concerning households in the Netherlands are analyzed. The emphasis is on the nature of changes over the family life cycle and their effects on housing needs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20468 Lemel, Yannick; Verger, Daniel. Demographic composition and life cycle: some thoughts on the content and concept of "household type". [Composition demographique et cycle de vie: quelques reflexions sur le contenu et la notion de "type de menage".] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 27, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 273-300 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The authors focus on theoretical and empirical bases for the use of household classifications in studies in the social sciences. Using a life cycle approach, they develop a typology that aims to provide complete coverage for all forms of family composition.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20469 Molnar, Edit S.; Pataki, Judit. Application of variables containing opinion elements in demographic analyses. [Velemeny-elemeket tartalmazo valtozok alkalmazasa demografiai elemzesekben.] Demografia, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1985. 183-98 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
This study is concerned with changing opinions concerning demographic issues and the measurement of these changes in surveys. Three examples are presented of opinions in Hungary pertaining to ideal number of children, degree of religiosity, and level of optimism with regard to the future. The authors conclude that such opinion variables can be used in the differential analysis of certain structural characteristics of public opinion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20470 Perez Moreda, Vicente. Marriage and the family. Some considerations concerning a Spanish marriage model in the modern era. [Matrimonio y familia. Algunas consideraciones sobre el modelo matrimonial espanol en la edad moderna.] Boletin de la Asociacion de Demografia Historica, Vol. 4, No. 1, Mar 1986. 3-51 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
A review of the literature on changes in nuptiality, family formation, and family structure in Spain since the seventeenth century is presented. Consideration is given to the various changes in socioeconomic conditions, legislation, philosophical and cultural attitudes, and kinship customs that occurred over time and that had effects on family characteristics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20471 Polit, Denise F. Effects of family size: a critical review of literature since 1973. Final report. Nov 1982. xvii, 334, [136] pp. American Institutes for Research: Washington, D.C.; U.S. National Technical Information Service [NTIS]: Springfield, Virginia. In Eng.
The author reviews literature published since 1973 concerning the consequences of family size for both children and parents. An annotated bibliography is included in an appendix. The geographic focus is on the United States. The author finds that recent research using more sophisticated research techniques and sampling designs has generally supported the findings of earlier studies.
The evidence suggests that "children from smaller families are advantaged with respect to intellectual performance, academic achievement, and, as adults, occupational prestige, even when their social class of origin is controlled. Research on children's personality, mental health and behavioral problems is less conclusive....In the past decade there has been considerably more interest in the effects of family size on parents, and this work also tends to favor small families. Of particular note is the economic research that has estimated the financial costs, including opportunity costs of children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20472 Shimizu, Hiroaki. A study of the process of forming three-generational households, Part 2: analysis of the survey by the Management and Coordination Agency. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 177, Jan 1986. 1-13 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The process of formation of three-generation households in Japan is analyzed using data from a 1985 survey. A distinction is made between families in which the three generations live together on a permanent basis and those who have three generations living together during various stages of the family life cycle. The focus is on the problems raised by such living arrangements.
For Part 1, published in 1985, see 51:30461.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20473 Singh, J. P. The changing household structures in Bihar, Kerala and West Bengal: a comparative overview. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 34-48 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Changes in household structure in three states in India are analyzed using census data for 1951, 1961, and 1971. The author examines three hypotheses: that the average household size has increased as a result of population growth, that the average size of urban households is generally smaller than that of rural ones, and that although most heads of households are men, there are more female than male household heads aged 50 and over.
Among the author's findings are an increase in the size of the average household, due mainly to a decline in mortality; a somewhat smaller average household size in urban areas than in rural areas of Bihar, West Bengal, and India as a whole, but not in Kerala; and, despite a high proportion of male heads of households overall, a high proportion of women among heads of households aged 50 and over, ranging from 39 percent in Bihar to 53 percent in Kerala.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20474 Thomas, Kausar. Household structure in Canada: historical and provincial variations and their correlates. 1985. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This thesis (1) employs a new measure of household headship to study the time trends and provincial differentials in household structure in Canada between 1901 and 1981; and (2) analyzes the effects of measures of industrialization/urbanization, income, kin availability and tastes and preferences on the historical and cross-sectional variations in household structure in the Canadian provinces over the 1921 to 1971 period through multiple regression using pooled cross-sectional and time series data."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Western Ontario.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International 46(9).

52:20475 Whithear, Deborah. Family: Australian family studies database. Vol. 2: 1985. Dec 1985. xv, 246 pp. Institute of Family Studies, Family Information Centre: Melbourne, Australia. In Eng.
This is a bibliography on various aspects of the family in Australia that is produced in conjunction with a computerized, on-line bibliographic reference system. It is one in a series of annual cumulative volumes and half-yearly updates. This volume contains 1,455 annotated citations to Australian marriage and family literature. Entries are categorized under 70 detailed subject headings and 13 broad subject groups. Among the demographic aspects of the family covered are marriage patterns, family policy, fertility, employment, education, family structure and relationships, children, and organizations providing services to families.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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