Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

52:20252 Adam, Abbas Y. The relation between nuptiality and fertility in the Sudan. Economic and Social Research Council Bulletin, No. 98, LC 84-980093. Aug 1983. 47 pp. National Council for Research, Economic and Social Research Council: Khartoum, Sudan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the effects of nuptiality on fertility in the Sudan. Particular attention is given to factors affecting age at marriage.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20253 Ahmad, Sultan. Husband's occupation and marital fertility in four Muslim populations. Asian Profile, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jun 1985. 243-51 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The relationship between husband's occupation and marital fertility in four Islamic populations is explored. The data were collected during the course of the World Fertility Survey and concern Bangladesh, Indonesia, Jordan, and Pakistan. No significant fertility differences of this kind were noted in Bangladesh or Pakistan. However in Java, husbands in the "agriculture and household" category, and in Jordan, husbands in the "professional and clerical" category, had lower marital fertility. Problems in data reporting concerning husband's occupation are noted and their implications on the analysis are considered.
Location: New York Public Library.; Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20254 Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa; Catasus Cervera, Sonia. Studies of the intervals between marriage and first birth and between successive births using pregnancy histories. [Estudios de los intervalos protogenesicos e intergenesicos a partir de historia de embarazos.] Serie Monografica del CEDEM, No. 3, Aug 1984. [37] pp. Universidad de la Habana, Area de Ciencias Economicas, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Birth intervals in Cuba are studied using data from the 1982 Survey on the Role of Women and Demographic Change. Separate consideration is given to first birth intervals and subsequent birth intervals and to differences by socioeconomic characteristics of women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20255 Amin, Ruhul; Mariam, A. G.; Faruqee, Rashid. Fertility, contraceptive use, and socioeconomic context in Bangladesh. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 1-16 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
Data collected during a 1977 survey of 1,384 ever-married women in four rural areas of Bangladesh are analyzed for evidence of the effects of contraceptive use and other factors on fertility. The authors conclude that "breast-feeding, interruption of postpartum amenorrhea via child and infant mortality, and secondary sterility (reflected by age of women) still dominate the...fertility pattern in Bangladesh. Since the effects of these...factors on fertility are counterbalanced by socioeconomic status, our hypothesis of no major socioeconomic differences in fertility is confirmed."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 432).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20256 Anderson, Barbara A. Regional and cultural factors in the decline of marital fertility in Europe. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 293-313 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author analyzes regional and cultural factors affecting the decline of marital fertility in Europe over the course of the last century using data from the Princeton European Fertility Project. Characteristics including region and terrain, religion, religiosity, ethnicity, and language are considered.
It is concluded that "the European Fertility Project showed that the relation of cultural and regional variables to marital fertility decline cannot be completely explained away by spurious association with socioeconomic characteristics at the individual level. A number of mechanisms have been proposed through which forces leading to differences in the level and timing of decline in marital fertility could be manifested through regional or cultural variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20257 Anderton, Douglas L. Urbanization, secularization, and birth spacing: a case study of an historical fertility transition. Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 1, Spring 1986. 43-62 pp. Greenwich, Connecticut. In Eng.
The author examines the sociological implications of fertility transition theories and the validity of five hypotheses on the relation of social change in a frontier population to birth- spacing behavior, using data on nineteenth-century Mormons in Utah. A model is developed to partition the variance in birth intervals among effects of age at marriage, age at end of childbearing, and the number of children ever born during the childbearing years. The effects of modernization and of pro-natalist Mormon teaching on fertility are then analyzed, as well as the impact of urbanization.
The results confirm the importance of birth spacing in the Mormon fertility transition rather than deliberate fertility control at the beginning of marriage and at the end of childbearing. Comparisons are made to the fertility transition among non-Mormon populations.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20258 Ayeni, Olusola. Seasonal variation of births in rural southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1986. 91-4 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
"A total of 12,708 live births registered between 1965 and 1975 in Igbo Ora, a rural area in southwestern Nigeria, were examined for seasonal variation using trigonometric regression analysis. The monthly number of registered births showed a significant seasonal pattern with a peak in May and corresponding minima in November." The relevance of climatic factors as well as socioeconomic and cultural factors is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20259 Barkat-e-Khuda. Age at marriage and fertility in a rural area of Bangladesh. Asian Profile, Vol. 13, No. 6, Dec 1985. 541-53 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
This study is part of a larger project in which the impact of rural development on socioeconomic and demographic life in rural Bangladesh is explored. The data concern 340 women in Sreebollobpur, a village four miles from Comilla in Kotwali thana, and were collected in 1979-1981. They concern marital status, age at first marriage, and mean number of children ever born. The importance of development, leading to improvements in economic and social conditions, which in turn lead to higher ages at marriage and lower fertility, is stressed.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20260 Barkat-e-Khuda. Agricultural development and fertility transition in rural Bangladesh: some evidence. Asian Profile, Vol. 13, No. 4, Aug 1985. 361-75 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
"The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of rural development on reproductive behaviour in rural Bangladesh." The data, which were collected between 1979 and 1981, are from a number of social surveys, local censuses, and anthropological-type interviews. They concern Comilla-Kotwali thana, an area in which concerted efforts have been made to implement rural development projects. The results indicate that fertility in the village studied is lower than the national average and that this decline in fertility is linked to successful agricultural development projects. The success of these projects leads to an increased demand for consumer durables, for education, and for lower levels of desired fertility.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20261 Barrett, John C. Selective effects in potential fertility: a simulation study. Population et Famille, No. 57, Nov 1985. 1-15 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The effect of various factors on selection for family planning status and for natural fecundability is studied in a Monte Carlo simulation that incorporates heterogeneity of natural fecundability and of risks of foetal loss. Selection depends crucially on the duration of marriage at which contraceptive status is recorded, and on desired family size....The contraceptive status of sterile women is also revealed in the simulation, including users who do not know that they have become sterile. Formulae are developed to allow the estimation of births averted and potential fertility among the users, and results checked by further simulation."
The results indicate "that selection for foetal loss is much less important than selection for natural fecundability in its effect on numbers of averted births and potential fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20262 Bean, L. L.; Mineau, G. P. The polygyny-fertility hypothesis: a re-evaluation. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 67-81 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"Previous studies of the relationship between polygynous marriages and fertility have produced mixed results, although on balance evidence suggests that fertility levels are lower in polygynous than in monogamous marriages. It is argued that the inconsistent results stem from the aggregation of fertility data among all wives in polygynous unions, and that major differences are due to variations in fertility by wife-order and number of wives in polygynous unions. Data for 2,534 polygynists with 7,378 marriages are analysed and contrasted with fertility data from once married women, using information covering population of Utah during the nineteenth century."
It is found that there are "significant variations in fertility levels by wife-order; these fertility differences are largely due to variations in length of exposure to the risk of conception and birth intervals."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1982 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 48, No. 3, Fall 1982, p. 459).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20263 Bhattacharya, B. N.; Singh, K. K. A modification of a model for number of births and estimation of age specific fecundability and sterility. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1984. 1-18 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"This paper deals with derivation of models to describe the number of births to women during interval (O,T) of length T, when the start of the observation is marriage as well as when it is a distant point after marriage. These models are extensions of the models of Singh, et al., (1973) and of Sheps and Menken (1973) and can suitably be applied to data for short periods of observation as the parameters are assumed to be homogeneous in time. The methods to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters are outlined."
The models are applied to data from a sample survey on rural development and population growth carried out by the Demographic Research Centre of Banaras Hindu University in 1978 in order to examine trends in fecundability and sterility by age of women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20264 Bhattacharya, M.; Joshi, P. L.; Raj, B. Socio-economic correlates of fertility and contraceptive practices amongst target couples of a rural community. Indian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1984. 139-46 pp. Calcutta, India. In Eng.
Factors affecting fertility and contraceptive practice in rural India are examined. The data concern 500 couples in the Jasura region. Factors affecting contraception and parity that are identified include literacy, income, and age of the women concerned. The need for more reliable reversible methods is stressed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20265 Bianco, Lucien. Family planning programs and fertility decline in Taiwan and Mainland China: a comparison. Issues and Studies, Vol. 21, No. 11, Nov 1985. 53-95 pp. Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
A comparative analysis of the fertility declines that have occurred in mainland China and in Taiwan is presented. The similarities in demographic trends that have occurred in both societies are first described, with particular reference to traditional pronatalist views. Next, the dissimilarities are considered, with emphasis on the differences in population and family planning programs and policies, and in socioeconomic conditions and changes. The author concludes that the demographic events of the past 30 years pose more of a problem for mainland China in the foreseeable future than for Taiwan, because of the present age distribution of the population.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20266 Biswas, Suddhendu; Pachal, Tapan K. On the application of Palm probability for obtaining the waiting time distribution between the first and higher order conceptions. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 277-312 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
This paper presents "a Demographic application of the Palm Probability technique by constructing the monthly distribution of the waiting time of 2nd conception given that the first conception for a cohort taking place at a time T=0. Such procedures can easily be extended for obtaining the waiting time distribution between (n-1)th and nth conception using the same technique." The parameters are estimated using Indian data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20267 Bucht, Birgitta; El-Badry, M. A. Reflections on recent levels and trends of fertility and mortality in Egypt. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 101-13 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The primary aim of the paper is to investigate whether the observed increase in the crude birth rate of Egypt between 1973 and 1979 which followed years of decline reflects a genuine fertility increase during this period. Specifically the question considered was, since other possible reasons behind the trends connected with the wars of 1967 and 1973 were not fully satisfactory, to what extent demographic factors could have influenced the trends in the crude birth rate during the 1960s and the 1970s?"
It is found that "to a large extent the fall and rise in the crude birth rate can be explained by the effect on the age structure of past mortality trends, particularly of the rapid decline that took place during the late 1940s. These trends, even in the absence of any change in fertility, would cause the crude birth rate to decline to a low point during the early 1970s, increase and then decline again during the early 1980s. Fertility changes that seem to have taken place during the 1940s would further deepen the decline of the crude birth rate during the early 1970s and augment the increase during the late 1970s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20268 Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Elwan, Ann. Fertility and mortality transition: patterns, projections, and interdependence. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 681, ISBN 0-8213-0529-8. LC 85-6583. 1985. 87 pp. World Bank: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This report consists of two coauthored papers on aspects of population change and development, which were prepared as background for the "World Development Report 1984". The first paper describes and provides representations of the patterns of rapid fertility and mortality decline in developing countries. Comparisons are made between projections incorporating the rapid declines described here and the standard World Bank projections. These comparisons show that population growth in developing countries will continue to be substantial even with rapid fertility decline and that rapid mortality decline increases growth much less than rapid fertility decline reduces it.
The second paper is concerned with the linkage between the fertility and mortality transitions. "Using World Bank data, an attempt is made to link the timing of fertility transition to levels of life expectancy at birth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20269 Burkina Faso. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation. Institut National de la Statistique et de la Demographie. Direction de la Recherche Demographique (Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso). The post-censal survey in Upper Volta, 1976: some aspects of fertility among Voltaic women. [Enquete post-censitaire en Haute-Volta, 1976: quelques aspects de la fecondite des femmes voltaiques.] Apr 1984. 5, 92 pp. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In Fre.
An analysis of current fertility trends in Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) is presented. The data are from studies by R. Clairin and A. R. Laurentin, a demographic survey undertaken in 1960-1961, and the provisional results of a 1976 post-enumeration survey. Fertility trends over the 16-year period are reviewed, and the impact of factors such as ethnic group, religion, and marital status is assessed. Particular attention is given to geographic differentials in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20270 Byun, Yong Chan. Estimation of birth rates for Korea during 1970-1980 through Preston's technique. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1985. 3-18 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
An attempt is made to estimate changes in the birth rate in the Republic of Korea from 1970 to 1980. Data are primarily from the censuses of 1970, 1975, and 1980. Estimates of adult mortality are also made and used to construct life tables for females aged five and over. The results indicate that the birth rate was 27.7 per 1,000 during the period 1970-1975, and 23.3 for 1975-1980. Life expectancy for women at age five was 64.0 and 64.7 for the same periods.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20271 Cain, Mead. Intensive community studies. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 213-23 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The author seeks to "discuss the relative merits of intensive community studies as an approach to incorporating 'community variables and institutional factors' in research on the determinants of fertility." Findings and experiences from the author's fieldwork in Bangladesh are included. The mixing of local survey data collection and other forms of data collection is described, and the feasibility of expanding to a wider geographic scale the type of data collection utilized in intensive community studies is considered.
In concluding, the author expresses the doubt "that large-scale surveys, employing highly structured, pre-coded questionnaires, can contribute very much to an institutional analysis of fertility....With respect to the determinants of fertility (excepting the proximate determinants), I do not feel that we know enough at this time usefully to approach the topic with such a research instrument."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20272 Campisi, D. The spatial components of demographic change. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 18, No. 4, Apr 1986. 457-64 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"In recent years, fertility in developed countries has drastically fallen towards replacement levels, so that further changes play an increasing role in determining the dynamics of population systems. In this paper, the dynamics of multiregional populations are analyzed when occasional perturbations resulting from changes in social and economic conditions exist. A perturbation theory for population models is introduced and the increasing effect of changes in demographic rates in determining the spatial component of the multiregional population growth is shown."
The author outlines the critical situations in which perturbations produce drastic demographic changes. Data for Italy are used to show the theory's usefulness in analyzing both short- and long-term effects of changes in vital rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:20273 Casterline, John B. Community effects on fertility. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 65-75 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This paper reviews findings on community effects on fertility [in developing countries]. The review includes two non-WFS [World Fertility Survey] studies....Otherwise attention is confined to findings from analysis of WFS community data....Findings from the analysis of both fertility preferences and achieved fertility will be considered, as the theoretical propositions concerning the two are roughly similar."
Following a discussion of the methods of analysis used and the models formulated in the 13 studies reviewed, the author considers seven propositions concerning the relation of fertility to agricultural development, industrial development, village modernization and prosperity, educational opportunities, health services and public sanitation, community isolation, and social pressures. The author notes the absence of significant, systematic relationships between various measures of community development and fertility, comments on findings that suggest the need for further investigation, and briefly assesses the value of community survey data in cross-national research.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20274 Chandrasekaran, C.; Reddy, P. H.; Badari, V. S.; Raju, K. N. M. Has "modernization" increased fertility in Karnataka, India? Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 174-96 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors analyze data from two studies conducted in Karnataka, India, in 1951-1952 and 1975 in an effort to examine the effects of modernization on fertility. The differences in cumulative and current fertility rates between the Mysore Population Study (MPS) and the Bangalore Population Study (BPS) and the effect of the family planning program are discussed.
It is concluded that "the increase in cumulative fertility between the MPS and the BPS is mainly due to the indirect effect of a reduction in mortality lessening the incidence of widowhood and not to any increase in 'potential fertility' due to the loosening of the more important cultural taboos that had kept fertility low....The changes in the pattern of marital fertility rates between the MPS and the BPS are in keeping with the expectation that modernization in the long run will reduce the total fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20275 Chasteland, Jean-Claude; Szykman, Maurice. Recent evolution of fertility in the third world, 1960-1965/1980-1985. [Evolution recente de la fecondite dans le tiers-monde 1960-65/1980-85.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 484, 489-513 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine trends in fertility in the third world for five-year periods beginning in 1960 and extending through 1985. The general decline in fertility in Asia and Latin America during this period is noted, as well as the absence of a similar decline in sub-Saharan Africa. The population policies of several developing countries during the last two decades are discussed, and an attempt is made to distinguish between the fertility impact of modernization factors and anti-natalist policies. Comparisons in trends among regions and countries are presented in tabular form.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20276 Coale, Ansley J.; Treadway, Roy. A summary of the changing distribution of overall fertility, marital fertility, and the proportion married in the provinces of Europe. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 31-181 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
This overview focuses on four indexes of fertility: overall fertility, marital fertility, fertility of unmarried women, and the proportion married among women of childbearing age. The geographic focus is on Europe.
In this chapter and its appendixes, "the large array of fertility indexes is presented in a variety of forms: in a long table that lists most of the indexes that have been calculated, in maps that show the geographical distribution at different dates of the three principal indexes, in frequency distributions, and in special graphs and diagrams. One appendix describes the indexes in technical detail, lists their advantages, and states their limitations. Other apppendixes contain a list of the sources of data, methods of adjustment, etc....Most of the text of this chapter is a nontechnical discussion of some of the more important points contained in or implied by this large body of data."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20277 Coale, Ansley J. The decline of fertility in Europe since the eighteenth century as a chapter in demographic history. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 1-30 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author attempts to sketch the broad demographic setting in which the fertility decline in Europe has occurred. He argues "that the decline in fertility that has been almost universal in Europe was a change from (a) moderate fertility, kept from a very high level by late marriage and permanent celibacy, and by nonparity-specific limitation of marital fertility, to (b) low fertility brought about primarily by the parity-specific practice of contraception or abortion."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20278 Coale, Ansley J.; Watkins, Susan C. The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project. ISBN 0-691-09416-0. LC 85-42682. 1986. xxii, 484 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
These are the revised proceedings of a conference held in Princeton, New Jersey, in July, 1979, concerning the Princeton European Fertility Project. This project aimed to "create a detailed quantitative record of fertility in each of the several hundred provinces of Europe during the period of major decline, and to determine the social and economic conditions that prevailed when the modern reduction in the rate of childbearing began." This volume attempts to summarize the project's findings in 11 papers; country- specific findings have been published previously.
In addition to summary chapters on the demographic history of the fertility decline, the various authors address such topics as social-group forerunners of fertility control in Europe; infant mortality; differences in fertility between rural and urban areas; modes of production, secularization, and the pace of the fertility decline, 1870-1930; regional and cultural factors in the decline of marital fertility; regional patterns of nuptiality, 1870-1960; demographic transitions in German villages; and policy implications of historical fertility studies.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20279 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas. Instituto de Investigaciones Estadisticas [INSIE] (Havana, Cuba). Fertility trends among Cuban women in the period 1959-1984. [Evolucion de la fecundidad de la mujer cubana en el periodo 1959-1984.] Nov 1985. 110 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This is one in a series of analytical studies based on data from the 1981 census of Cuba. The present study concerns fertility trends for the period 1959-1984. A detailed analysis of the demographic characteristics of women aged 15 to 49 in 1981 is presented, together with an analysis of family and household characteristics. For the period 1967-1981 comparisons are made between estimates of fertility using sample census data and estimates using the own children method.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20280 Domingo, Lita J.; Flieger, Wilhelm; Madigan, Francis C. Current fertility: a first glimpse from the 1983 National Demographic Survey. Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1985. 58-78 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"This paper highlights initial findings from the 1983 [National Demographic Survey] NDS based on a 25 percent sub- sample of the survey respondents. The discussion focuses on measures of current fertility as well as on selected fertility 'predictors' for the three major island groups--Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Owing to the restrictive nature of the data set, no statistical tests are performed to measure the influence on fertility of these explanatory variables. Instead, inferences are drawn from a descriptive analysis of the patterns exhibited. Findings point to a continuation of fertility decline as evidenced by the estimated [crude birth rate] of 33.6 births per thousand."
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20281 Edmonston, Barry; Smith, Ken. A microanalytic fertility model for high mortality populations. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 418-23 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents a microanalytic stochastic model of human reproduction, with special features for use in examining reproduction in high mortality populations. The model builds on prior work by including (a) a beta distribution for fecundability, permitting variations between women and during a woman's childbearing years, (b) fetal deaths and stillbirths that vary with a woman's age, and (c) sterility that varies as a function of two random probability distributions." The assumptions are outlined, the model is described in detail, and its usefulness and limitations are assessed using data for Bangladesh.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20282 Fernando, Dallas F. S. Environmental and other factors influencing fertility in Sri Lanka. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 209-14 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The paper explores factors that influence fertility levels in Sri Lanka. It shows that three environmental variables and two socioeconomic variables explain 76.4% of the variance among districts."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20283 Grimes, David A. Unplanned pregnancies in the United States. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 67, No. 3, Mar 1986. 438-42 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Unplanned pregnancies constitute an epidemic in the United States. Over 3 million unplanned pregnancies occur, and over 1.5 million induced abortions are performed each year. Women of minority races and those with less than 12 years of education are at high risk of having unwanted children."
The author notes that "fear of complications (not the complications themselves) is the most powerful deterrent to women's use of contraception. Much of this fear is due to bad press. Recent good news about contraception, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, protection against ectopic pregnancy, and absence of teratogenic effects, has not received appropriate media coverage. For healthy women younger than 35 years, failure to use fertility control is more dangerous than use of any method."
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20284 Gunasekaran, Subbiah; Palmore, James A. Estimating the gross reproduction rate using a GMDH-type algorithm. Asian and Pacific Census Forum, Vol. 12, No. 2, Nov 1985. 7-10, 12 pp. Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
The authors develop and apply a new regression method for estimating fertility rates. The new method, which uses a GMDH (Grouped Method of Data Handling)-type algorithm, is contrasted with other methods, including one developed by the authors in 1984. "The new method eliminates the need for life expectancy as an input parameter...[and] makes progress in reducing the information required on the female age distribution and reducing the terminal age effects....This method utilizes the enormous computational capabilities of modern high speed computers and, in effect, attempts an empirical solution to finding the form for the model."
The model is applied to 53 countries with reliable data, and the authors conclude that the model works well under most conditions. While they note that the estimating equation is long and complex, the advantage of the method is its wider applicability, given the limited age distribution data necessary to use it.
For the article by Subbiah Gunasekaran et al., published in 1984, see 50:30284.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20285 Gurumurthy, G. Kinship interactions and fertility among Yanadis--a tribal community in South India. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 197-203 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author examines kinship interaction and its relationship with fertility among the Yanadi tribe of southern India. Using a random sampling procedure, 600 couples were selected and surveyed, and the number of live births was used as a dependent variable in a regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that fertility will increase as the interference of kinship groups increases.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20286 Hamzawi, Riad. Factors affecting Egyptian rural women's fertility. A theoretical explanation. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 12, No. 72, Jan-Mar 1985. 29-43, [35-7] pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
This study is concerned with factors affecting fertility in rural Egypt, particularly with the causes of the fertility differences observed between rural and urban women. It is based on a review of the published literature.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20287 Happel, Stephen K. United States and Australian fertility: past, present and future. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper, No. 114, ISBN 0-949293-21-0. Jan 1985. i, 50 pp. Australian National University, Centre for Economic Policy Research: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
"This paper provides a comparison of Australian and US fertility rates...for the period 1920 to the present and provides both empirical and theoretical evidence for consideration of possible future trends in both countries. Differing theoretical reasonings for swings in fertility rates are presented together with historical data from both countries to support those arguments."
The book is divided into three main sections. "In section I U.S. and Australian fertility series are compared annually from the 1920's and alternative theoretical explanations for the observed patterns are discussed. In section II economic and socio-demographic statistics and empirical tests are presented for both countries. In section III the likely directions for U.S. and Australian rates over the remainder of the century are debated. The paper then concludes with a summary and overview."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20288 Hernandez Castellon, Raul; Farnos Morejon, Alfonso; Gonzales Quinones, Fernando. Some characteristics of recent fertility trends in Cuba. [Algunas caracteristicas de la reciente evolucion de la fecundidad en Cuba.] Serie Monografica del CEDEM, No. 5, Apr 1985. 47 pp. Universidad de la Habana, Area de Ciencias Economicas, Centro de Estudios Demograficos [CEDEM]: Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
This report includes three separate studies on recent fertility trends in Cuba. The first paper, by Raul Hernandez Castellon, describes fertility trends over the past 30 years. The second, by Alfonso Farnos Morejon, examines the demographic transition and the changing economic and social roles of women. The third, by Fernando Gonzalez Quinones, deals with the relationship between fertility and female employment.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20289 Hirschman, Charles. The recent rise in Malay fertility: a new trend or a temporary lull in a fertility transition? Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 161-84 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Period fertility rates show a recent rise in the fertility of the Malay population of Peninsular Malaysia that became evident in the late 1970s, after more than fifteen years of slow but steady declines. Detailed analysis of age-parity-specific fertility rates suggests that the recent rise is largely due to a 'making up' of lower order births (first, second, and third) that had been postponed by a rapid increase in age at marriage. The period trend in higher order births and cohort trends of cumulative fertility from census data point to a continued reduction in completed Malay fertility. Regional analysis shows several states on the east coast with persistent high fertility, although the revolution in marital postponement is national in scope."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20290 Islam, S. M. Shafiqul. Fertility estimates for Bangladesh based on birth history data. Population Research Laboratory Discussion Paper, No. 43, Apr 1986. 32 pp. University of Alberta, Department of Sociology, Population Research Laboratory: Edmonton, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper attempts to estimate the levels and trends in fertility for Bangladesh and to study the effects of various response errors on these estimates using the birth history data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey, 1975-76." The author notes that fertility remained high until 1970 and declined during the period 1971-1975 in association with the war of liberation and the associated famine. Consideration is given to whether this decline in fertility was temporary and to the quality and reliability of the available fertility data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20291 Jensen, Eric. A comment on Glenn Firebaugh's "Population density and fertility". Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 283-9 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author comments on an article by Glenn Firebaugh concerning the relationship between population density and fertility, in which he uses data from 22 villages in India. A reply by Firebaugh (pp. 285-9) is included.
For the article by Firebaugh, published in 1982, see 48:40294.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20292 Kabir, M. Impact of development programme on fertility. Centre for Population Management and Research Research Monograph, No. 1, LC 83-907869. 1983. 52 pp. University of Dhaka, Centre for Population Management and Research: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
The impact of development programs on fertility and family planning behavior in two rural villages in Bangladesh is examined. The results show that although desired family size remains high, contraceptive use is higher when family planning services are accompanied by successful socioeconomic development. However, as women's educational and economic opportunities improve, breast-feeding is likely to decline, which may in turn increase fertility in the short term and contraceptive practice in the long term.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20293 Kabir, M.; Uddin, M. Mosleh; Chowdhury, Mazeda H. Preliminary estimates of fertility decline in Bangladesh. Asian Profile, Vol. 13, No. 3, Jun 1985. 253-61 pp. Hong Kong. In Eng.
The role of family planning programs in promoting fertility declines in developing countries is explored. The primary purpose of this paper is to provide alternative estimates of fertility using the proximate determinants of fertility model developed by Bongaarts to analyze data from Bangladesh for the period 1961-1983. The data are from official sources, including the 1981 census. The four determinants included in the analysis are marriage, contraception and sterilization, induced abortion, and breast-feeding.
The results suggest that fertility began to decline around 1975 and declined by 16 percent by 1983. The fertility decline at younger ages was primarily due to rising age at marriage, and at older ages, to increased use of family planning.
Location: New York Public Library.; Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20294 Kamuzora, C. Lwechungura. Socialisation gap and high fertility behaviour among younger generations: evidence from Wasukuma of Mwanza region, Tanzania. Biology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 1, Mar 1986. 28-36 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Data from a survey of pregnancy history carried out in the Mwanza region of Tanzania in 1980 are analyzed. The data, which concern some 3,000 rural and urban women of Sukuma ethnic origin, indicate that fertility is increasing among younger couples. This is due both to earlier marriage and shorter intervals between births. Reasons for this increase in fertility are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20295 Klijzing, F. K. H.; Taylor, Harry W. Spatial order in the demographic transition: the Costa Rican case. Revista Geografica, No. 96, Jul-Dec 1982. 54-9 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng.
Aspects of the demographic transition in Costa Rica are examined using census data for 1950, 1963, and 1973. The focus of the study is on regional fertility differentials and on the spatial diffusion of fertility reduction. The results suggest that "factors strategic to fertility reduction during the demographic transition are spread from the economic and social core of the system in both a contagious and hierarchical fashion."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20296 Knodel, John. Demographic transitions in German villages. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 337-89 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author examines the early stages of the demographic transition in 14 villages in rural Germany using micro-level, family reconstitution data from village genealogies based on parish records. The approach is contrasted to the use of macro-level census and vital statistics data in the Princeton European Fertility Project.
The impact of infant and child mortality and age at marriage on trends in marital fertility is examined, with attention to natural fertility, the extent of family limitation, occupational factors, and birth spacing. Substantial variation in the findings across villages is observed. The perspective derived from this micro-level study is compared to macro-level findings.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20297 Knodel, John; van de Walle, Etienne. Lessons from the past: policy implications of historical fertility studies. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 390-419 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
Drawing on data compiled during the Princeton European Fertility Project, the authors find that "the historical record suggests the relative lack of importance of income and prices in determining the demand for children prior to or during early stages of the fertility decline [in Europe during the last century]." They assert that some early features of the European transition from high to low fertility "can only be explained by a change in tastes or a decline in the cost of fertility regulation or some combination of the two."
Among the features of Europe's demographic transition that the authors note are "the variety of social, economic, and demographic conditions under which the decline of fertility occurred; its remarkable concentration over time; the apparent coincidence of the decline with the sudden adoption of family limitation practices; the rapid generalization of such practices, once they appeared; the resultant drastic change of reproductive regimes; and finally, the importance of cultural factors among those that appeared to influence the onset and the spread of the fertility decline." An innovation-diffusion dimension to the change in reproductive patterns is observed, and implications for family planning programs in developing countries are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20298 Kohli, K. L.; Al-Omaim, Musa'ad H. Fertility levels, trends and differentials in Kuwait. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 197-208 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the levels, trends, patterns and Kuwaiti-non-Kuwaiti differentials in fertility, by socioeconomic variables and the major factors that may account for recent changes. Kuwaiti fertility is very high: in 1980, the crude birth rate was about 47 and the total fertility was 6.8 per woman. Childbearing still extends to later ages but fertility in the early and middle reproductive years has declined recently, as a result of the rise in age at marriage and the fall in the proportion of currently married women in the younger age groups."
Consideration is also given to non-Kuwaiti fertility, which is consistently lower than the Kuwaiti level. Reasons for these differences are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20299 Lee, Bun Song; Farber, Stephen C. The influence of rapid rural-urban migration on Korean national fertility levels. Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 17, No. 1-2, Jan-Feb 1985. 47-74 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
The authors apply an auto-regressive model to data on migration and pregnancy histories from the 1974 survey carried out in the Republic of Korea as part of the World Fertility Survey in order to examine the adaptation effect of rural-urban migration on fertility. "The results support the hypothesis that there is a substantial adaptation effect which increases as the size of the destination city increases. The effect of rural-urban migration on national fertility levels is significant. It was estimated that the 945,400 rural-urban women migrants who moved between 1965 and 1970 would avoid, on average, 71,300 births annually during their 24 years of urban residence."
A comment by Irma Adelman (pp. 73-4) is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20300 Lesthaeghe, Ron; Wilson, Chris. Modes of production, secularization, and the pace of the fertility decline in Western Europe, 1870-1930. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 261-92 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The authors hypothesize that "the decline of marital fertility [in Europe from 1870 to 1930] depended on the extent to which households were still operating along the lines of the familial, labor-intensive mode of production...[and] that moral factors, especially the degree of secularization, also play a role in explaining the fertility transition." Data on the proportion of economically active males in agriculture and cottage industries and on the proportion of votes cast for non-confessional or social-reformist parties in the first national elections in which there was universal male suffrage are examined for Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland.
The authors conclude that "both the survival of a familial, labor-intensive mode of production and the relative level of secularlization are related to the speed with which different regions moved along the road of demographic transition, and the importance of the two independent variables differs markedly between societies with a Catholic and a Protestant tradition."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20301 Livenais, Patrick; Quesnel, Andre. Fertility in Mexico: emergence of a population problem and of the ways to resolve it. [La fecondite au Mexique: emergence et modalites de reglement d'un probleme de population.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 485, 581-96 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Developments in fertility levels in Mexico over the last 50 years are outlined, with the years prior to the enactment of population policies in the 1970s contrasted to the years since. Particular attention is given to the success of government programs in reducing fertility and expanding family planning services. The background of social and economic development in Mexico during this time is also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20302 Lutz, Wolfgang. On the predictive value of fertility studies. [Zur prognostischen Relevanz von Fertilitatsstudien.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 287-303 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
"This article attempts a systematic consideration of possible approaches to fertility projection based on the findings of fertility studies." Approaches examined include "accounting for socio-economic variables in trend extrapolation; using reproductive intentions as predictors of future fertility; differential desired family sizes as an indication of future reproductive intentions on the aggregate level; differential changes in the 'marginal' desired family size...as an indication of future changes in intentions, and finally the predictive relevance of the analysis of differential realisations of fertility goals. The models are illustrated with data [for 1978 and 1981-1982] from the Austrian longitudinal fertility survey."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20303 Mabud, Mohammed A. Women's development, income and fertility. Mar 1985. xi, 180 pp. Planning Commission, External Evaluation Unit: Dhaka, Bangladesh; Canadian International Development Agency [CIDA]: Ottawa, Canada. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the impact of the vocational training program for women in Bangladesh on women's income and reproductive behavior. The data are for some 500 women originally surveyed in 1976 and followed-up in 1979, and concern educational level, marital status, region, and work outside the home. Changes in attitude toward family planning over time are analyzed, as well as changes in contraceptive practice, knowledge concerning child care, and fertility. Comparisons are made between women who received vocational training and those who did not.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20304 Matthiessen, Poul C. The fertility decline in Denmark. [Fertilitetsnedgangen i Danmark.] Befolkning og Valg, Vol. 3, No. 13, Nov 14, 1985. 1-10 pp. Copenhagen, Denmark. In Dan.
The fertility decline that has occurred in Denmark since World War II is analyzed. Consideration is given to fertility differentials by age and region. The data are from official sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20305 Medchuk, I. K. Some issues concerning the birth rate of the population in western regions of the Ukrainian SSR (a socio-hygienic approach). [Deyaki pytannya narodzhuvanosti naselennya zakhidnykh oblastei Ukrains'koi RSR (sotsial'no-hihienichnyi pidkhid).] Demohrafichni Doslidzhennya, No. 9, 1985. 70-2 pp. Kiev, USSR. In Ukr. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
These are the results of a study on the birth rate in the western region of the Ukrainian SSR during the last two census periods. Factors contributing to the decline in the birth rate are discussed, and suggestions for increasing fertility in the region are offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20306 Merrill, Robert S. Planners, householders and fertility reduction. Studies in Third World Societies, Vol. 24, Jun 1983. 65-71 pp. Williamsburg, Virginia. In Eng.
Ways to resolve conflicts between individual families and societies as a whole concerning fertility are examined using the example of Singapore. The focus is on how the government developed an effective antinatalist policy during the 1960s and 1970s. The author concludes that the "non-coercive population policies aimed at altering family reproductive life-styles had relatively little to do with fertility reduction", and therefore that measures designed to penalize large families are relatively ineffective.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20307 Mitra, S. A model of changing net maternity rates leading to stability. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 130-7 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The author develops a mathematical model of changing net maternity rates, based in part on a 1983 article by Frauenthal and Swick, in which aspects of the Lotka model and Easterlin's hypothesis are joined. "Even though the model does not fit the U.S. data as well as one would like, the fact that the stability of the birth trajectory may also result from certain types of fluctuating net maternity rates is by itself a significant discovery. The model presented in the paper is particularly interesting since the proposed pattern of the fluctuation in the net maternity rates can be given a meaningful interpretation."
The model shows that "first, the magnitude of the proportion...of the birth cohort that adjusts its reproductive behavior does not in any way affect the ultimate rate of growth. Second...the segment of the cohort that adjusts its fertility completely determines the level of the birth trajectory...."
For the article by James C. Frauenthal et al., published in 1983, see 49:30681.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20308 Mitra, S. About Laplace transforms of the distribution of births in the initial population with unchanging net maternity rates. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1984. 45- 50 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"The solutions of the integral equation for the stable population by Laplace transform have been examined by shifting the origin from t=0 to other points in time. The relationship between the birth functions generated by the initial populations measured from different points of time has been found to be very simple and straight forward."
The author also shows "that for a stable population, the total number of births in the next generation can be expressed as a simple function of the net reproduction rate, the intrinsic rate of growth and number of births at the beginning of the process. For the stationary population, the same relationship simplifies even further and is given in terms of the product of the number of births at the beginning of the process and the average age of motherhood."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20309 Moberg, Mark. Household production and the value of children: a microeconomic approach to third world population trends. Anthropology UCLA, Vol. 14, 1985. 41-52 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The author develops the hypothesis that high levels of fertility in developing countries are the result of deliberate choices by individual couples in response to perceived advantages. The emphasis is on the demand for labor in agrarian societies and on the impact on fertility of colonially imposed economic systems.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20310 Moon, Hyun Sang. Estimates of the effects of intermediate fertility variables in the Bongaarts model. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1985. 31-40 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
The changes in the four main intermediate variables that have affected fertility during the transition from natural to controlled fertility in the Republic of Korea are examined. These variables, as identified by Bongaarts, are delayed marriage, contraceptive usage, induced abortion, and postpartum infecundability. Data are from the Fertility and Family Planning Survey of Korea.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20311 Morsa, Jean. What is the situation concerning Belgian fertility? [Ou en est la fecondite belge?] Population et Famille, No. 57, Nov 1985. 41-60 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Recent trends in fertility in Belgium are described. The author notes that fertility levels reached a peak in 1964 and have been declining since. Reasons for the decline are discussed, including changes in marriage patterns and a decline in the number of births, particularly those of third or higher order. The emergence of an individual, rather than a collective, concept of family life and the diffusion of modern contraceptive practices among young couples are also seen as major contributory factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20312 Mundigo, Axel I.; Landstreet, Barent. Determinants of fertility change in Cuba--recent policies and trends. [Determinantes del cambio de la fecundidad en Cuba-- politicas y tendencias recientes.] Working Paper/Documento de Trabajo, No. 16, Oct 1983. 58 pp. Population Council, Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The authors analyze some of the principal trends and determinants of fertility change in Cuba since the beginning of the twentieth century, with a focus on the past two decades. Sections are included on historical trends in fertility, including post-revolution levels and the baby bust of 1965-1977; population distribution and fertility; urban and housing policies; female labor force participation; economic and structural effects; and past and present fertility policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20313 Ofosu, Dickson Y. Hazard models as a methodology for measuring recent fertility changes via birth intervals: an exploratory study. Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 130, ISBN 2-87085-078-6. Feb 1986. viii, 99 pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Eng.
"The application of hazard models to grouped birth interval data is studied, with the measurement of recent fertility changes as the main objective. The proportional hazards (PH) model (Cox, 1972) is considered in the framework of nonparametric models, as well as in the form of a Weibull failure model. A generalization to non-PH situations is also attempted using the Weibull distribution as baseline. These models are applied to simulated data using a set of simplified maximum likelihood procedures. The results are encouraging for both PH models, but inconclusive for the generalized model."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20314 Olsen, Randall J.; Farkas, George. Conception intervals and the substitution of fertility over time. Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 28, No. 1, Apr 1985. 103-12 pp. Lausanne, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper applies the waiting-time regression methods of Olsen and Wolpin (1983) to an analysis of fertility. A utility-maximizing model is set up and used to provide some guidance for an empirical analysis. Data are from an experimental guaranteed job program, the Youth Incentive Entitlement Pilot Project." The geographic focus is on the United States.
"This study suggests that even adolescent and young women consider the economic consequences of fertility as reflected in the intertemporal substitution of fertility when wages are high in favor of fertility when wages are lower."
For the study by Olsen et al., published in 1983, see 49:40240.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20315 Oroszi, Zsuzsanna. Projection of live births on the basis of completed fertility (1984-2000). [Az elveszuletesek eloreszamitasa befejezett termekenyseg alapjan (1984- 2000).] Demografia, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1985. 244-78 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An attempt is made to calculate yearly estimates of the number of births that will occur in Hungary up to the year 2000 based on current data on completed fertility taken from longitudinal marriage surveys. Four alternative projections of future fertility trends are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20316 Payne, Michael R.; Kripalani, G. K. Changing patterns of age-specific fertility and family size: a simulation analysis for India. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 412-7 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Following a brief summary of demographic transition theory, the authors elaborate a model of "population mushroom". The simulation is applied to the case of India, and changing patterns of age-specific fertility and family size are examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20317 Poston, Dudley L.; Gu, Baochang. Socioeconomic development, family planning and fertility in the People's Republic of China: a subregional analysis. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.009, 1986. 44 pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The causes of the recent rapid decline in fertility that has occurred in China are analyzed through an examination of the relationships among socioeconomic development, family planning, and fertility in the 28 subregions of China in 1982. The data are from a variety of official sources and concern 17 socioeconomic development variables and 11 family planning variables. The results support the view that successful socioeconomic development efforts, as well as a vigorous family planning program, have had a downward impact on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20318 Poston, Dudley L.; Gu, Baochang. The measurement of childlessness with World Fertility Survey and national census data. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 401-6 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper endeavors to contribute to the modest literature on childlessness in the developing world by discussing and comparing the major data sources currently available for studying the phenomenon, viz., national censuses and world fertility surveys. We will show that childlessness rates computed for the same country with data from these two sources do not often agree."
Several possible explanations for these discrepancies are offered. "Although our investigation is very preliminary, based on the analyses conducted so far we tentatively conclude that the census-based rates on childlessness for at least some of the developing countries, may be less problematic than the WFS-based rates, and perhaps more reflective of the true level of childlessness in these countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20319 Potter, Joseph E. Explanations of fertility decline in Latin America: a seminar report. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-2, Mar 1986. 13 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The central themes of papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Social Science Research Council's Joint Committee on Latin American Studies and held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in May 1985 are summarized. "The seminar took up the experiences of Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico with a view toward assessing current socioeconomic interpretations of fertility decline in three diverse contexts, and to broadening the debate to include scholars who have not specialized in the study of demographic variables."
While important country differences are noted, it is found that common to the experience of fertility decline in all three countries are a change in the economics of children, a transformation in women's roles, the creation of a consumer society, and the spread of contraceptive technology.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20320 Robinson, Warren C. Studies in the fertility impact of development programmes in Bangladesh. Dec 1985. 70 pp. Planning Commission, Population and Development Planning Unit: Dhaka, Bangladesh. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar on the fertility impact of development projects in Bangladesh, held in Dhaka in May 1985. Six papers deal with the fertility impact of rural development, rural electrification, female education, programs to improve the status of women, women's labor force participation, and social welfare programs. Also included is a paper summarizing the views expressed in the course of the seminar.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20321 Ross, J. L.; Blangero, J.; Goldstein, M. C.; Schuler, S. Proximate determinants of fertility in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal: an anthropological case study. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 179-96 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This article employs the analytical model of Bongaarts and Potter to compare the proximate determinants of fertility among three populations in Nepal's Kathmandu valley with the following characteristics: (1) high and low caste, (2) urban and urban fringe residence, and (3) users and non-users of contraception. It is shown that while Nepal, as a whole, is firmly entrenched in Phase 1 of the fertility transition, each of the populations studied has begun to experience a demographic transition to different degrees. In fact, greater progress in controlling fertility has been made than previously known."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20322 Rossini, R. E. Recent fertility decline in Brazil. [La baisse recente de la fecondite au Bresil.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 485, 597-613 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The fertility decline in Brazil over the course of the last two decades is examined. The introduction of oral contraceptives in 1965 is seen as a significant contributing factor. An analysis of census data gives evidence of variations in fertility according to socioeconomic status and region of residence. Evidence is also presented of changing patterns in overall and infant mortality, life expectancy, and internal migration. The relationship of these demographic trends to economic development and income distribution is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20323 Schott, Jurgen. Significance of the analysis of birth rates for medicine. Part 1: analysis of changes in the birth rate in the German Democratic Republic in the period 1968 to 1982. [Zur Bedeutung der Analyse der Geburtenentwicklung fur die Medizin. Teil 1: Analyse der Veranderung der Geborenenmenge in der DDR im Zeitraum 1968 bis 1982.] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung, Vol. 79, No. 10, 1985. 445-8 pp. Jena, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Trends in the number and rate of births in the German Democratic Republic are analyzed for the period 1968 to 1982 using official data. Particular attention is given to the factors affecting yearly fluctuations in fertility. The results indicate that the total fertility rate remained at about 1.7 between 1974 and 1982.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20324 Shah, Iqbal H.; Pullum, Thomas W.; Irfan, Muhammad. Fertility in Pakistan during the 1970s. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 215-29 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A survey conducted in 1975, as part of the World Fertility Survey programme, provided evidence that fertility began to decline in Pakistan during the early 1970s. Because of the low level of contraceptive use recorded in that survey, the fertility decline was attributed to delayed marriage. However, a second and similar survey conducted approximately 5 years later showed almost exactly the same pattern of very recent decline, and indeed a reduction in contraceptive use. The two surveys disagreed for the period of overlap. It is concluded that there were essentially no changes in fertility during the decade, and that it remained at pre-1970 levels."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20325 Thapa, Shyam P. Fertility in Nepal: a sociodemographic analysis. Pub. Order No. DA8519922. 1985. 207 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This study explores fertility patterns and their determinants in Nepal. Data for the study come mostly from the Nepal Fertility Survey conducted in 1976. Employing a nationally representative probability sample, the survey interviewed 5,940 ever- married women aged 15-49. Fertility levels, trends and regional differentials are analyzed using both direct...and indirect...techniques. Then the study examines aggregate and individual level fertility variations."
A model of the proximate determinants of fertility is used "to assess aggregate level fertility variations. Individual level variations in the timing of family formation are investigated, with a special emphasis on ethnic differentials. The role of parental son preferences affecting fertility [is] analyzed. Several multivariate equations are estimated as part of the individual level analysis. The study ends with a discussion of the future fertility implications of changes in breastfeeding, the timing of marriage, and parental son preference."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International 46(9).

52:20326 Thornton, Arland; Freedman, Ronald; Sun, Te-Hsiung; Chang, Ming-Cheng. Intergenerational relations and reproductive behavior in Taiwan. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 185-97 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The character of intergenerational relationships between parents and their adult unmarried children in Taiwan is consistently and systematically related to the later reproductive behavior of the children after they marry. The greater the extent to which the adult unmarried children are exposed to nonfamilial relationships and contexts in school, at work, in the use of wages, in marriage decisions, and in first place of residence after marriage, the fewer children they will have and want and the greater the likelihood that they will begin contraception for spacing rather than for limiting their number."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 407.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20327 van de Walle, Francine. Infant mortality and the European demographic transition. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 201-33 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author analyzes trends in infant mortality in Europe during the past century, with a focus on their relation to fertility levels and trends. Evidence that the decline in infant mortality preceded the decline in fertility is assessed. Regional differences throughout Europe are noted, especially those between urban and rural areas.
While a relation is found over time between infant mortality and overall fertility, the author concludes that "we cannot report that the historical evidence confirms that the declines of infant mortality led to the decline of fertility. High mortality as well as high fertility are incompatible with the standard of living and the rational approach to the problems of health that now prevail in developed countries; both declines occurred in the course of modernization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20328 van Poppel, F. W. A. Late fertility decline in the Netherlands: the influence of religious denomination, socio-economic group and region. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 4, Nov 1985. 347-73 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The factors affecting the modern decline in fertility in the Netherlands are explored using data from censuses from 1930 to 1971 and additional unpublished sources. Particular attention is paid to the influence of religion, socioeconomic status, and region. The author concludes that "a theory formulated by Lesthaeghe and Wilson on the relation between modes of production and secularization and the pace of fertility decline in Western Europe offers--in combination with van Heek's views on the special position of Dutch Roman Catholicism--a starting point for an explanation of why the fertility decline of Roman Catholics, self-employed and agricultural labourers lagged behind."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20329 Watkins, Susan C. Conclusions. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 420-49 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author summarizes the conclusions of the various papers presented at the 1979 Summary Conference of the European Fertility Project. Among the findings are that before the demographic transition began, mean overall fertility at the national level was about 30 to 50 percent of the Hutterite standard, and mean marital fertility of the provinces of Europe (excluding France) was less than 75 percent of the Hutterite standard; that pre-transition geographic variation in both overall and marital fertility was substantial; and that the transition led to a reduction in the average number of children born to a couple and to termination of childbearing at an earlier age.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20330 Wrigley, E. A. The fall of marital fertility in nineteenth-century France: exemplar or exception? (Part II). European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 2-3, Jul 1985. 141-77 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The focus in this second part of a two-part article is on the homogeneity of French demographic history in the nineteenth century. Specifically, the author examines trends at the regional and departmental level in light of the national tendency for changes in fertility, mortality, and nuptiality to offset one another and keep the intrinsic growth rate close to zero. The author relates regional patterns to the national experience as a whole and describes the gradual dissappearance of the demographic distinctiveness of France in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
For Part I, also published in 1985, see 51:10590.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

52:20331 Ayiemba, Elias H. O. Intercensal fertility change in Kenya: a study of regional differentials between 1969 and 1979. PIDSA Abstracts, Vol. 5, No. 1, Dec 1982. v-xxii pp. Legon, Ghana. In Eng.
An analysis of fertility dynamics and differentials in Kenya from 1969 to 1979 is presented. The data are primarily taken from official sources. The focus is on regional differences in fertility and their causes. The most significant factors associated with these differentials are identified as child mortality, female sterility, and female educational status.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20332 El-Attar, M.; Nouri, M. O. Socioeconomic characteristics and fertility level in the Sudan. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 407-11 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The main objective of this study is to investigate human fertility in the Sudan in relation to education and employment of mothers and occupation of father. Specifically, the paper hypothesizes an inverse relationship between fertility level and: 1) education of mother; 2) occupation of father; and 3) employment status of mother." The analysis of data from the 1979 Sudan Fertility Survey supports the authors' three hypotheses.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20333 Flick, Louise H. Paths to adolescent parenthood: implications for prevention. Public Health Reports, Vol. 101, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 132-47 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent....[These steps involve] taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption." The geographic focus is on the United States. The emphasis is on identifying potentially effective points for intervention to reduce adolescent parenthood.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20334 Folmar, Steven J. Fertility and the economic value of children in Pokhara valley, Nepal. Pub. Order No. DA8525257. 1985. 241 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Using data from Nepal, the author tests the hypotheses that urban fertility is lower than rural fertility because the economic value of children is lower in urban areas, and that fertility varies in relation to the economic value of children. The data concern 40 households in an urban area and 40 households in a rural area and were collected by survey. Cohort analysis shows that fertility has changed in both rural and urban areas over the past 20 years.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Case Western Reserve University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International 46(9).

52:20335 Lee, Bun Song; Pol, Louis. A comparison of fertility adaptation between Mexican immigrants to the U.S. and internal migrants in Mexico. Contemporary Policy Issues, Vol. 3, No. 3, Pt. 1, Spring 1985. 91-101 pp. Long Beach, California. In Eng.
"This paper compares fertility levels of Mexican internal migrants with United States immigrants from Mexico, in an attempt to shed light on the issues of selection and adaptation in immigration literature. The data show that U.S. immigrants from Mexico have similar levels of fertility to those of urban-urban migrants in Mexico. Though somewhat speculative, the analyses suggest that some fertility adaptation does take place."
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20336 Lesthaeghe, R.; Vanderhoeft, C.; Becker, S.; Kibet, M. Individual and contextual effects of education on proximate fertility determinants and on life-time fertility in Kenya. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 31-63 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The main aim of the paper is to verify to what extent the impact of schooling for women [in Kenya] on life-time fertility and various proximate determinants of fertility will vary across the contextual levels of female education and across region." Data are for the 64 rural and 40 urban sampling strata covered in the 1977-1978 Kenya Fertility Survey and are analyzed separately for five regions of Kenya. The contextual level of education is measured as the average number of years of education for married women in each of the sampling strata. The author analyzes the individual and contextual effects of education on lifetime fertility, on duration of breast-feeding, on age at first marriage, and on current use of contraception.
"The main findings of this paper are that the fertility transition in Kenya is clearly moving away from a first stage of increasing marital fertility and progressing to the next stage characterized by a negative education-fertility relationship....The historical lesson from the Kenyan experience seems to be that the substantial national investment in female education only starts to pay off in terms of reducing marital fertility once a crucial mean level of education for women (mainly primary education) has been reached. In general terms, the turning point seems to be located at about an average contextual level of 5 years of schooling."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20337 Lim, Lin Lean; Jones, Gavin W.; Hirschman, Charles. Continuing fertility transitions in a plural society: ethnic trends and differentials in Peninsular Malaysia. Population Studies Unit Occasional Paper, No. 11, Aug 1985. 45 pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Population Studies Unit: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
Data from censuses and other published sources are used to examine ethnic differentials in fertility trends in Peninsular Malaysia. Changes in Malaysian fertility levels for the period 1947- 1983 are reviewed. Crude birth rates and general and total fertility rates are presented separately for the Malay, Chinese, and Indian populations. The authors then investigate factors influencing fertility by analyzing changes in age structure, marital patterns, desired number of children, and practice of contraception in Malaysia.
The authors assess the relative impact of these factors by using a decomposition method that "separates the contribution of changes in i) age-sex composition of the population, ii) marital structure as indexed by the proportion of women 'currently married' (and therefore exposed to the risk of childbearing), and iii) marital age-specific fertility rates, to changes in the crude birth rate." Finally, consideration is given to the future course of fertility in Malaysia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20338 Livi-Bacci, Massimo. Social-group forerunners of fertility control in Europe. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 182-200 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
European aristocracies, Jews, and some urban populations are identified as fertility-controlling groups that were "forerunners of a behavior that [was to] be imitated or rediscovered decades or even centuries later by the rest of the population." Data collected during the Princeton European Fertility Project and from a number of secondary sources are examined.
The author concludes that "forerunners had similarities and differences. The urban connection and the context of moderate mortality are points in common, and also in common is an above-average economic level. Different are their marriage strategies, their religious affiliation, and the cultural context."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20339 Powers, Mary G.; Gurak, Douglas T.; Macisco, John J.; Tanfer, Koray; Weller, Robert H. Influence of life experiences at or prior to marriage on the early fertility of Puerto Rican and Dominican women. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 86-29, 1986. 24, [5] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
The authors analyze the effects of selected characteristics present at the time of first marriage on the fertility patterns of Puerto Rican and Dominican women in the New York metropolitan area. Findings for the two Hispanic populations are compared, and a summary comparison with a group of white non-Hispanic women previously studied is outlined. Data are from a sample survey of approximately 2,000 women conducted in New York City and the surrounding area in 1985 and early 1986.
This paper was originally presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America, held in San Francisco, California, in April 1986. A more detailed abstract will be included with the abstracts of PAA papers in the Fall 1986 issue of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20340 Roja Perez, Nereyda; Alvarez Vazquez, Luisa. Reproductive behavior in two groups of young women. Arroyo Naranjo municipality, 1981. [Conducta reproductiva en 2 grupos de mujeres jovenes. Municipio Arroyo Naranjo, 1981.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 172-84 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Fertility differences by age in Cuba are examined using data for 428 women aged 15-19 and 20-24 who were interviewed in the municipality of Arroyo Naranjo in 1981. Factors considered include educational status, occupation, marital status, number of children, type of home, and relationship to head of household.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20341 Sharlin, Allan. Urban-rural differences in fertility in Europe during the demographic transition. In: The decline of fertility in Europe: the revised proceedings of a conference on the Princeton European Fertility Project, edited by Ansley J. Coale and Susan C. Watkins. 1986. 234-60 pp. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New Jersey. In Eng.
The author examines findings of the Princeton European Fertility Project concerning differences in fertility between urban and rural populations in Europe over the last century. He concludes that "urban-rural fertility differentials have limited value for the study of the demographic transition. Other differentials are larger, and urban-rural differentials are indicators of complex processes rather than factors acting directly on fertility."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20342 Singh, S. N.; Singh, B. N.; Singh, R. B. Some socio-economic characteristics of fertility. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 204-12 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The authors examine fertility differentials by age group in relation to females' caste, social status, education, and age at marriage. The analysis is based on data from a 1978 survey of 4,072 Indian couples from three villages representing different levels of social and economic development. The authors find that the average number of children ever born decreases among those of higher caste, higher social status, higher educational status, and older age at marriage.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20343 Steckel, Richard H. The economics of U.S. slave and southern white fertility. American Economic History, ISBN 0-8240-6662-6. LC 84-48314. 1985. [x], 253 pp. Garland Publishing: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
This study focuses on the measurement and comparative analysis of fertility among slaves and whites in the southern United States during the nineteenth century. Child-woman ratios for slaves and whites obtained from censuses are compared. Other sources of data include plantation records, probate records, census manuscript schedules from the 1860 census, and Civil War pension files of widows who were married to slaves before the war.
After a description of the data, the author presents a demographic explanation of the child-woman ratios and discusses demographic and socioeconomic determinants of southern white fertility. Consideration is then given to the slave fertility decision-making environment and to determinants of slave fertility. The findings for the slave and white populations are then compared.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation in 1977 at the University of Chicago.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Milton S. Eisenhower Library, Baltimore, Md.

52:20344 Wulf, Deirdre. Teenage pregnancy and childbearing in Latin America and the Caribbean: a landmark conference. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 17-22 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The author reports on the First International Conference on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of Adolescents and Young People, held in Mexico in 1985. Among the issues discussed are early childbearing, teenage marriage, trends in adolescent pregnancy, and government responses to these problems. The dimensions of adolescent fertility are outlined using data from a number of fertility and family planning surveys. The author notes that "the issue of teenage childbearing was of growing concern to all country representatives, but...the emphasis of the concern varied widely, depending upon each country's specific cultural background, level of economic development, demographic policies and health care capabilities."
Recommendations for further studies as well as for the development of regional centers for sex education, exchange of information, and cooperation between countries are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

52:20345 Kline, Jennie; Stein, Zena; Susser, Mervyn; Warburton, Dorothy. Induced abortion and the chromosomal characteristics of subsequent miscarriages (spontaneous abortions). American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 123, No. 6, Jun 1986. 1,066-79 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Data from a case-control study of miscarriages (spontaneous abortions) were used to test whether single and multiple induced abortions are associated with miscarriage in subsequent euploid (chromosomally normal) pregnancies. Cases and controls were identified in three New York City hospitals between April 1974 and November 1982. It was hypothesized that, if induced abortion increased the risk of subsequent miscarriage, an association would be observed with euploid but not aneuploid (chromosomally abnormal) miscarriage. The frequencies of single and multiple induced abortions among euploid cases and aneuploid cases were compared with those among controls."
The results of the study indicate that "for both private and public patients, neither single nor multiple induced abortions as now performed are likely to increase the risk of miscarriage in subsequent pregnancies. They also suggest a mechanical origin for some miscarriages."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:20346 Larsen, Ulla M. A comparative study of the levels and the differentials of sterility in Cameroon, Kenya and Sudan. Pub. Order No. DA8520747. 1985. 231 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"On the basis of recent data collected in collaboration with the World Fertility Survey, the methods developed here are applied in a comparative study of the levels and the differentials of sterility in Cameroon, Kenya and Sudan. This analysis showed that sterility is highly prevalent in Cameroon, moderate in Sudan and relatively low in Kenya."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Princeton University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International 46(9).

52:20347 Legator, Marvin S.; Rosenberg, Michael J.; Zenick, Harold. Environmental influences on fertility, pregnancy, and development. Strategies for measurement and evaluation. Proceedings of a meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 24 and 25, 1982. ISBN 0-8451-0230-3. LC 83-23869. 1984. ix, 177 pp. Alan R. Liss: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1982, concerned with environmental influences on fertility, pregnancy, and reproductive outcomes. The 11 papers by various authors, which were revised for publication, are concerned with "research priorities, the utility of various research strategies, methodological and design considerations in the selection of end points to be evaluated, and the contribution of animal data to human studies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20348 Pathak, K. B.; Sastry, V. S. A bivariate distribution of open birth interval and open status of currently married women. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 2, Dec 1984. 67-74 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"In the study of human reproduction process, open birth interval has been found very sensitive towards the incidence of secondary sterility. On the other hand open status indicating the reproductive state of the woman at the survey date is treated sensitive to changes in the level of fecundability due to contraception or otherwise. Keeping in view the importance of these two indices of fertility, a bivariate distribution is proposed to utilise all possible information contained in both the data on 'Open birth interval and Open status' and thereby to estimate comparatively more parameters from the same sets of data. A method of estimating different parameters [is also] suggested."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20349 Pickering, Ruth M.; Murray, G. D.; Forbes, J. F. Pre-term foetal life times in Scotland. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 115-27 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between ten categorical covariates and the risk of pre-term delivery for women having their first child and women in subsequent pregnancies. An adaptation of the model for use with grouped survival times made it possible to model foetal life times between 28 and 36 completed weeks of gestation for 67,000 Scottish singleton births in 1981....For both groups of women age, and a history of abortion, were major factors associated with increased hazard. For women experiencing a second or higher-order birth a history of perinatal death was also associated with substantially increased hazard to the pregnancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

52:20350 Alauddin, Mohammad. Community factors in contraception among Bangladeshi rural women. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 3-13 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The author analyzes census data and data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey to investigate the nature and magnitude of the relationship between community factors and the family planning behavior of rural women. Attention is given to the relative influence of the women's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the village factors. Ever-use of contraception is the dependent variable analyzed in this study; 20 individual-level measures and 18 village-level measures are the independent variables. Multivariate analysis techniques are applied, and the findings are summarized in tabular form.
The analysis indicates that "village-level knowledge has a strong positive association with individual knowledge of contraceptive methods...[and that] village access to the road transportation system and the extent of family planning workers' visits to the village seem to provide appropriate conditions to encourage use of contraception." The author also notes that "village-level factors are generally less useful as predictors of contraceptive behaviour than we had expected. The failure to uncover strong village effects on individual contraception might have arisen because of theoretical problems, both statistical and sociological, and to limitations of the data used in the analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20351 Atkinson, Linda E.; Lincoln, Richard; Forrest, Jacqueline D. The next contraceptive revolution. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 100-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Available resources for the development of new contraceptive methods, including vaccines, a male contraceptive, and a once-a-month pill, are surveyed. Factors inhibiting contraceptive research, such as concerns about safety, expensive litigation in the United States, and diverse and changing life-styles, are noted. The authors conclude that the new methods will not be developed in the forseeable future without a major infusion of new funds and suggest that a 75 percent increase in expenditures on contraceptive research over the current level of about 30 million dollars is required.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20352 Bone, Margaret. Trends in single women's sexual behaviour in Scotland. Population Trends, No. 43, Spring 1986. 7-14 pp. London, England. In Eng.
An analysis of trends in sexual behavior and contraceptive practice among single women in Scotland in the period since World War II is presented using data from a survey of 3,400 women aged 16 to 54 carried out in 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20353 Chaurasia, Alok R. Factors affecting fertility control in developing countries. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1985. 143-53 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the factors affecting the adoption of fertility control in developing countries. The focus is on the synthesis framework of fertility determination, developed by Easterlin and others, which posits that the practice of contraception is an outcome of a trade-off between pressures or motivation to use it and costs entailed. Data are from 19 countries participating in the World Fertility Survey. The author concludes that higher levels of contraceptive usage are associated with higher degrees of motivation and lower costs of contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20354 Chayovan, Napaporn; Hermalin, Albert I.; Knodel, John. The impact of accessibility on contraceptive use in rural Thailand. Institute of Population Studies Paper, No. 51, Nov 1984. [6], 64 pp. Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"The primary objective of this study is to determine the impact of accessibility of family planning services on contraceptive behavior among rural Thai women. The analysis employs a multilevel framework in which the combination of individual and community factors as influences on contraceptive behavior are taken into account." Data are from a number of surveys and concern the period 1969-1979. Some 11 measures of accessibility are considered. "Results of the study indicate variation in the effects of accessibility on contraceptive use between the younger and older women in the two periods under investigation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20355 David, Henry P.; Viravaidya, Mechai. Community development and fertility management in rural Thailand. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 8-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors describe the system for providing family planning supplies and services to rural communities in Thailand that was recently established by the Planned Parenthood Association of Thailand in partnership with government services within the framework of the national family planning program. This program links community development with family planning and provides incentives for effective fertility control.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20356 Dodoo, Nii M. S. On the micro-level decisions to limit fertility: a theoretical framework and econometric estimation using Taiwan, Korea and urban Sudan data. Pub. Order No. DA8523406. 1985. 165 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"A theoretical framework is developed to analyze two related micro-level decisions: whether or not an additional birth is desired, and if not, whether contraception is used. The approach combines a theoretical framework derived from microeconomics with a sociological analysis of interpersonal interactions. The framework provided good fits of data from the Taiwan and Korea components of the Value of Children Project (1975-76), and the Sudan component of the Changing African Family Project (1975)."
The results stress the importance of network influence on decision making with regard to fertility. "Progress along the fertility transition is found to be associated with less spousal influence, increased influence of factors representing opportunity cost of children, decreased influence of child values vis a vis disvalues in making decisions to limit fertility, and increased interdependence of the two decisions."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(8).

52:20357 Dow, Thomas; Chombo, John; Ndhlovu, Lewis; Shumba, Paul; Dhlodhlo, Benedict. Characteristics of new contraceptive acceptors in Zimbabwe. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 107-13 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report examines the characteristics of all new acceptors entering the Zimbabwe National Family Planning Council (ZNFPC) program from 4-8 March 1985. During the study period, ZNFPC clinics and community-based distributors provided 3,269 new clients with modern family planning methods. More than half of the women were under the age of 25 years and had fewer than three living children." A comparison is made between the 90 percent of women using contraception for birth spacing and the 10 percent intending to stop reproducing.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20358 Engracia, Luisa T. Community effects on contraceptive use in the Philippines. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 15-30 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The main concern here is to present empirical results of recent attempts to analyse the impact of community-level variables on the current use of an efficient method of contraception among 'exposed' married women in the Philippines. A model is proposed which incorporates effects of individual characteristics of women or mothers and variables representing the characteristics of their communities of residence on contraceptive use." Data are from the 1978 Philippine Fertility Survey.
"Results of the analysis indicated that the age of a woman, her desire for additional children, the level of development of her community of residence and its accessibility to a family planning clinic all had a significant effect on the odds of her being a current user of efficient contraception. Of these four variables, current contraceptive practice was most strongly influenced by whether or not a mother wants to have another child....Of the two types of community factors that were considered, the level of socio-economic development proved to have the stronger influence." The survey questionnaire used to collect the community-level data is reproduced in an appendix.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20359 Entwisle, Barbara; Mason, William M.; Hermalin, Albert I. The multilevel dependence of contraceptive use on socioeconomic development and family planning program strength. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 199-216 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Using World Fertility Survey data for 15 developing countries, we estimate an equation in which the dependent variable--whether the respondent has ever used an efficient contraceptive method--depends on the respondent's education and location of childhood residence."
The results indicate that "all of the coefficients of this equation, including the intercept, vary over countries. Analysis based on new methodology shows that the intercept and education effects vary as a function of national family planning program efforts and that none of the parameters of the equation depend on gross national product per capita. The results demonstrate the efficacy of multilevel analysis, provide a partial test of the theory underlying the analysis, and refocus discussion of the contributions of development and policy variables to fertility reduction."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, pp. 419-20.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20360 Fong, Chan-Onn. Integrated population-development program performance: the Malaysian Felda experience. Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 19, No. 2, Jan 1985. 149-70 pp. Macomb, Illinois. In Eng.
The author attempts to evaluate the impact of the Malaysian Felda program, an integrated population and development program, which began in 1956 and had resettled some 400,000 persons in rural areas by 1981. The program provides family planning as a routine part of its health services. The results suggest that the Felda mode of delivering family planning services has been very effective, with family planning being practiced by over 55 percent of eligible women, compared with a national average of 35.5 percent.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20361 Forrest, Jacqueline D. The end of IUD marketing in the United States: what does it mean for American women? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 52-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The implications of the decisions by the major pharmaceutical companies to withdraw IUDs from the U.S. market are explored. The author first notes that the decisions were not taken because of medical problems associated with IUDs but because of the companies' fears concerning the costs of future liability suits and their inability to obtain liability insurance. Data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth are used to describe the characteristics of U.S. IUD users, to consider what contraceptive choices they will now make, and to assess the impact on the number of unintended pregnancies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20362 Hermalin, Albert I. Integrating individual and community data in the study of contraceptive behaviour. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 113-22 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The view taken here is that a multi-level framework which combines data on individuals with information on communities is both desirable and feasible. The substantive focus is on contraceptive behaviour, though the argument is easily extended to other phenomena with appropriate modification. Succeeding sections give the general strategy of multi-level analysis, a theoretical structure which incorporates both micro and macro variables, and a discussion of the sources and nature of the data to be employed. An empirical example and several potential models are then presented, followed by a concluding section which briefly treats a number of related issues." The geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20363 Kuhne, Franz. Contraception in Switzerland: a sociological study of contraceptive usage and attitudes toward abortion among Swiss married couples. [Kontrazeption in der Schweiz: eine soziologische Untersuchung der Anwendung von Methoden zur Empfangnisverhutung und der Einstellungen zum Schwangerschaftsabbruch bei Schweizer Ehepaaren.] ISBN 3-906650-01-4. 1984. v, 306, [33] pp. Franz Kuhne: Hedingen, Switzerland. In Ger.
Contraceptive usage in Switzerland is examined using data from a 1980 survey of approximately 600 couples who were married between 1970 and 1979. The first few chapters focus on whether the fertility decline in Switzerland since the mid-1960s is the result of the spread of oral contraceptives. Patterns of contraceptive use are then analyzed according to factors such as language; rural or urban residence; place of origin; wife's educational level, labor force participation, and age; husband's occupation and income; religion; duration of marriage; and actual and desired number of children.
Other chapters deal with contraceptive knowledge, previous use of contraceptive methods, nonusers, disadvantages of contraceptive methods, sterilization, the most frequently used contraceptive methods, and attitudes toward induced abortion.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20364 Leoprapai, Boonlert; Pokpong, Sivaporn; Isarabhakdi, Pimonpan. A study of family planning incentive programs in Thailand: a research report. Pub. Order No. 89. ISBN 974-585-912-5. Aug 1985. 96 pp. Mahidol University, Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR]: Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
An evaluation of the various incentive schemes that have been tried in Thailand since 1980 in order to increase family planning acceptance and practice is presented. The demographic impact of the family planning program is first reviewed. Next, the incentive programs that have been developed in both the private sector and the public sector are described. In a final section, the authors consider the number of births averted and the cost-effectiveness of the various provincial family planning campaigns that have been developed, with emphasis on the role of incentives.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20365 Madigan, Francis C. Philippine periodic abstinence survey 1984: report on open-ended items. Dec 1985. 70 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
This publication reports on the findings of the Philippine Natural Family Planning Study (NFPS) conducted from March through May, 1984. In the course of the NFPS, 638 persons identified in the 1983 National Demographic Survey as users of periodic abstinence for family planning purposes were interviewed. The sample included respondents from the Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao regions of the Philippines.
Attention is given to aspects of the practice of periodic abstinence, practical problems and method termination, instruction in periodic abstinence, and implications for further instruction. Information is presented on the practice of a range of natural family planning and rhythm methods, including calendar rhythm, temperature rhythm, and sympto-thermal and cervical mucus methods; on the use of combinations of these methods; and on the use of methods other than periodic abstinence.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20366 Manuilova, I. A. Current principles of regulation of the reproductive function in women. [Sovremennye printsipy regulyatsii generativnoi funktsii zhenshchiny.] Akusherstvo i Ginekologiya, No. 7, Jul 1985. 49-52 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus.
Preferences for various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted births are first examined. The relative merits of available methods are then evaluated using data for a sample of 1,050 women of childbearing age in the USSR.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20367 Manyeneng, W. G.; Khulumani, P.; Larson, M. K.; Way, A. A. Botswana Family Health Survey, 1984. Jul 1985. xxxv, 245 pp. Ministry of Health, Family Health Division: Gaborone, Botswana; Westinghouse Public Applied Systems: Columbia, Maryland. In Eng.
This publication reports findings from the Botswana Family Health Survey, which was conducted in 1984 in conjunction with the worldwide Contraceptive Prevalence Survey project. The chief aim of the survey was to collect basic health data and data on contraceptive knowledge, availability, and use in order to evaluate maternal-child health services and family planning activities. A sample of 3,064 women aged 15-49 were interviewed.
Following an overview of the demographic situation in Botswana, the survey design is described. Survey findings are presented concerning background population characteristics; nuptiality and fertility; breast-feeding and postpartum abstinence; maternal and child mortality levels; knowledge, approval, and ever use of family planning; current use; and availability of family planning services.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20368 Marcil-Gratton, Nicole. From the pill to sterilization: the impact on the fertile life of couples. [De la pilule a la sterilisation: impact sur la vie fertile des couples.] Collection de Tires a Part, No. 198, [1985?]. [20] pp. Universite de Montreal, Departement de Demographie: Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
The author examines the demographic impact of the choice of sterilization as the contraceptive method by the majority of couples in Quebec who desire no more children. The data are from two surveys of married women in Quebec, conducted in 1971 and 1982. Particular attention is given to the impact on family size and average duration of couples' fertile lives. Changes over the time between the two surveys are noted.
This article was reprinted from Cahiers des Sciences Familiales et Sexologiques, No. 9, Jun 1985, pp. 98-118.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20369 Meredith, Philip; Thomas, Lyn. Planned parenthood in Europe: a human rights perspective. ISBN 0-7099-1331-1. LC 85-26888. 1986. 286 pp. Croom Helm: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
This book provides a review of the philosophy, politics, law, and practice of family planning in Europe. Information is included on 18 Western and Eastern European countries. The data were compiled by a group of professionals working within the Europe Region of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The emphasis is on legislation and practice affecting the rights of the individual to fertility regulation. Country case studies are included on Belgium, France, Poland, the United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20370 Newman, Lucile F.; Nyce, James M. Women's medicine: a cross-cultural study of indigenous fertility regulation. Douglass Series on Women's Lives and the Meaning of Gender, ISBN 0-8135-1067-8. LC 84-9788. 1985. x, 203, [11] pp. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
This book contains eight chapters by different authors on the cultural factors that affect women's fertility. It is a product of the World Health Organization's Indigenous Fertility Regulating Methods Project and focuses on developing countries. Using a mainly anthropological approach, the authors examine why certain indigenous methods of fertility regulation continue to be used even when their effectiveness is questionable. Consideration is given to how women evaluate methods and to the factors that influence women's attitudes about fertility regulation in different cultures.
An introductory chapter is concerned with population anthropology as a whole. Other chapters are included on Malaysia, Afghanistan, Egypt, Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. Methods that increase fertility are also considered. The implications of the acceptability and effectiveness of traditional methods for developing modern programs of family planning and health care are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:20371 Pebley, Anne R.; Goldman, Noreen; Choe, Minja Kim. Evaluation of contraceptive history data in the Republic of Korea. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 22-35 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The consistency of retrospective and current status data on contraceptive use from a series of national fertility surveys carried out during the 1970s in [the Republic of] Korea is investigated. Aggregate consistency is examined among random samples from the same cohort or cohorts of women interviewed in each survey. The results indicate that estimates of trends in contraceptive use from a retrospective history in one survey, or from cross-sectional estimates in a series of surveys, can each yield misleading findings."
The results suggest that "data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey (KNFS) appear to be more reliable than those from other surveys, possibly because (1) an interval-by- interval contraceptive history was used, (2) explicit definitions of contraceptive methods were given prior to taking the contraceptive history, and (3) the KNFS involved longer interviewer training and, perhaps, less time pressure during interviews."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20372 Perez, Aurora E.; Cabigon, Josefina V. Contraceptive practice in the Philippines: a synthesis. Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 1, Mar 1985. 36-57 pp. Manila, Philippines. In Eng.
"This article puts together all available data on contraceptive prevalence and effectiveness from 1968 to 1983 in an attempt to assess the Philippine family planning program's performance in reducing fertility. Three indicators of contraceptive effectiveness are discussed--Pearl pregnancy rates, 12-month continuation rates, and effective protection level. Findings on factors associated with contraceptive prevalence are presented and discussed, with special emphasis on the effects of the Outreach project variables. The argument is that population programs can influence demographic behavior, but the extent of this influence largely depends on the quality of program design and implementation."
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:20373 Roy, S. Guha. Demography of sterilization: Indian experience. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jun 1984. 51-65 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
"Using programme statistics and a few local studies, the paper examines the prevalence of sterilization in India and makes demographic analysis of the performance. Major points of note are that the prevalence rates expressed in terms of currently married women showed irregular fluctuations across time and the age pattern of acceptance hardly agreed with that of married population. The selectivity of high fertility couples for sterilization had been fairly high, resulting in a low fertility impact. Estimates of births averted due to the programme were derived by using a computerized microsimulation model CONVERSE. It appears that the path of fertility changes was not smooth in the last decennium and the impact had been, as a rule, maximum two years after acceptance."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20374 Schuler, Sidney R.; Goldstein, Melvyn C. Family planning in Nepal from the user's and nonuser's perspectives. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 66-77 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Recent data from Nepal indicate that in the urban areas reproductive attitudes are changing much more rapidly than behavior, resulting in many unwanted births. Based on transcripts from in-depth interviews conducted in 1982 by the Urban Fertility and Contraceptive Use Project, this article analyzes the 'contraceptive lag' in urban Nepal by examining contraceptive decision-making among urban couples in Kathmandu. Tracing links between attitudes, knowledge, values, and specific behavioral outcomes, the analysis reveals that for the majority of the couples in the study, unwanted births occurred for reasons that might have been obviated through more effective provision of family planning services."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20375 Shah, Nasra M.; Kamel, Samir M. Contraceptive use among women in Kuwait. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 108-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Data concerning 7,164 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Kuwait in 1978 and 1979 are used to estimate the prevalence of contraceptive usage. The results indicate that "about 35 percent of these women had used a contraceptive method during the interval prior to the current pregnancy." Differences among users by nationality and method chosen are analyzed. Child spacing rather than fertility limitation is shown to be the most prevalent motivation for contraceptive use among the women observed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20376 Shahidullah, Mohammed. Determinants of contraceptive use in Bangladesh. Pub. Order No. DA8522751. 1985. 132 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"This dissertation attempts to investigate determinants of contraceptive use in Bangladesh according to Easterlin's synthesis framework of fertility regulation. Several hypotheses are derived from the Easterlin model and tested with data from the 1979 Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. The study utilizes stepwise logistic regression models as the main statistical tool." The study establishes that the most important factor affecting contraceptive usage is motivation, followed by cost and family structure.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Florida State University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(8).

52:20377 Sieh Lee, Mei Ling. Commercial marketing of contraceptives in Malaysia: the distributors. Unit Pengajian Kependudukan Occasional Paper, No. 10, [1985?]. 57 pp. University of Malaya, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Population Studies Unit: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In Eng.
"This study attempts to evaluate the marketing practices of distributors of contraceptive products [in Malaysia]...at all levels including manufacturers (local), importers, agents, wholesalers and retailers. Secondly, it attempts to determine the distributors' attitude towards family planning in general and towards selling family planning products in particular. Thirdly, implications arising from the observations made with respect to the marketing of contraceptives at the various levels of distribution will be discussed with the intention of improving commercial distribution of family planning products in the private sector."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20378 Stampar, Dubravka. Trends in family planning in Croatia. [Pokazatelji planiranja obitelji u SR Hrvatskoj.] Lijecnicki Vjesnik, Vol. 107, No. 10, Oct 1985. 417-21 pp. Zagreb, Yugoslavia. In Scr. with sum. in Eng.
Data on family planning trends in the Republic of Croatia, Yugoslavia, for the period 1971 to 1983 are presented. A high reliance on traditional methods of contraception is noted. The author suggests that this factor is responsible for the high number of legal abortions performed. An analysis of the characteristics of abortion seekers is also included.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20379 Stoeckel, John; Fisher, Andrew A.; Viravaidya, Mechai; Pattalung, Rachita N. Maintaining family planning acceptance levels through development incentives in Northeastern Thailand. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 36-43 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"The results of a two-year longitudinal study of the effect that development program incentives have upon family planning in Northeastern Thailand are presented. These incentives, implemented by the Population and Community Development Association, Thailand, included animal raising and agricultural, home industry, and environmental activities. An experimental design including baseline and follow-up surveys supplemented by a continuous monitoring system was utilized to test hypotheses on the family planning impacts of the incentives. Findings indicate that the incentives contributed significantly to the maintenance of high levels of family planning practice through the program period 1982- 1984."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20380 Taamallah, Laamouria. Some characteristics of contraception in the private sector. [Quelques caracteristiques de la contraception dans le secteur prive.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21-25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 153-67 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
The results of a survey on contraception in the private sector carried out in Tunisia in 1979 are presented. The survey involved the completion of questionnaires by 50 doctors in the towns of Tunis, Sousse, and Sfax. Information is included on contraceptive usage, acceptor characteristics, and medical opinions concerning contraception and abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20381 Thailand. National Institute of Development Administration. Research Center (Bangkok, Thailand); Mahidol University. Institute for Population and Social Research [IPSR] (Bangkok, Thailand); Thailand. Ministry of Public Health. National Family Planning Program (Bangkok, Thailand). Thailand. Third Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Summary report. Apr 1985. vi, 29 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng; Tha.
This report concerns the Third Contraceptive Prevalence Survey undertaken in Thailand in 1984. The results show an increase in contraceptive prevalence among currently married women aged 15-44 from 59 percent in 1981 to 64.6 percent in 1984, primarily because of an increase in female sterilization. Consideration is given to regional differences in contraceptive practice by method.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20382 Tsui, Amy Ong. Community effects on contraceptive use. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 77-99 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"In this study contraceptive practice is the focus of a discussion of aggregate-level influences. The inherent technical problems of measurement and model specification are also highlighted as they impinge on the interpretation of the findings." Sixteen studies concerning developing countries are reviewed, four of which are not of the World Fertility Survey mode. The findings concerning knowledge of contraception, ever-use of contraception, current use of contraception, intention for future use, and knowledge and use of sources for contraception are discussed. The extent of community effects on contraceptive behavior in the various studies is summarized in tabular form, and problems in measurement are considered.
A table presented in the appendix summarizes the data, level of analysis, dependent variable(s), community-level independent variables, and findings for each of the studies reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20383 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]. Population Division. Fertility and Family Planning Section (Bangkok, Thailand). The use of contraception in the Asian and Pacific region. Population Research Leads, No. 21, 1985. 31 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
"This paper presents data on contraceptive prevalence from 26 national sample surveys conducted in the Asian and Pacific region during the period 1966-1984. The basic data presented are (1) contraceptive prevalence rates (the percentage of married women of reproductive age who were practising contraception at the time of the survey), cross-classified by age where possible; and (2) the percentage of couples using each contraceptive method, also cross-classified by age where possible. In order to facilitate comparison between countries and across time, the data are presented in a standardised form, both numerically and graphically."
It is found that there is a "wide variation in the mix of contraceptives used in each country. The use of various contraceptives by age, however, is similar throughout the region. Young couples generally prefer the pill, those in the middle of the reproductive ages, the IUD and, not surprisingly, those near the end of the child-bearing ages prefer sterilisation. The traditional methods, rhythm and withdrawal, appear to be favoured both by couples in the youngest and oldest age groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20384 Wawer, Maria J.; Lassner, Karen J.; Hanff, Beatriz B. C. Contraceptive prevalence in the slums of Rio de Janeiro. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 44- 52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A community-based family planning operations research project was undertaken in selected low income communities of Rio de Janeiro; project field work began in February 1982. Prevalence data were collected and service delivery strategies were tested, including home visits promoting family planning, home distribution of condoms, and the introduction of community family planning depots." Although the most economically disadvantaged subgroups made the greatest use of the subsidized services, the high rate of contraceptive use already existing precluded a large increase in contraceptive use as a result of the program.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20385 Wellings, Kaye. Sterilisation trends. British Medical Journal, Vol. 292, No. 6527, Apr 19, 1986. 1,029-30 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Recent trends in contraceptive sterilization in Britain are summarized using data from official sources, including the General Household Survey. The author notes that the percentage of married and cohabiting women choosing sterilization as their contraceptive method has increased from 4 percent in 1970 to 24 percent in 1983.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:20386 Wibaut, F. P. Bankruptcy of contraception? [Het failliet van de anticonceptie?] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 128, No. 50, Dec 15, 1984. 2,349-53 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut.
Recent trends in contraceptive usage in the Netherlands are described. The author first notes that, due primarily to widespread use of oral contraceptives, the goal of making every child the result of a wanted pregnancy was nearly achieved by 1977. However, subsequent fears of side effects have led to a decline in the use of the most efficient methods and a greater reliance on coitus interruptus, rhythm, and abstinence, as well as lower-strength oral contraceptives. This has in turn led to more induced abortions as a result of more unplanned pregnancies. The development of morning-after methods that could alleviate this problem is described.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

52:20387 Hatcher, Robert A.; Guest, Felicia; Stewart, Felicia; Stewart, Gary K.; Trussell, James; Cerel, Sylvia; Cates, Willard; Williams, Nadine B. Contraceptive technology, 1986-1987. 13th rev. ed. ISBN 0-8290-1762-3. 1986. xi, 310, 20 pp. Irvington Publishers: New York, New York. In Eng.
This is the thirteenth in a series of biennial publications designed to present in summary form the latest developments in contraceptive technology. It is designed primarily as a textbook for medical students. The present edition includes new chapters on sexually transmitted diseases, human sexuality and family planning, adolescent pregnancy, ethical aspects of family planning, and patient education and clinic management, as well as substantial revisions to the chapters on the future of family planning, sterilization, and family planning instructions.
Chapters are also included on the health benefits of family planning, infertility, lactation, population problems, choosing a contraceptive method, and the menstrual cycle, as well as chapters on each method of contraception, including natural family planning, coitus interruptus, abstinence and sex without intercourse, sterilization, and abortion. Chapters on postcoital contraception and pregnancy testing are also presented.
For the previous edition, published in 1984, see 50:20363.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20388 Kouaouci, Ali. Contraceptive effectiveness: some methodological propositions. [Efficacite de la contraception: propositions methodologiques.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21- 25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 265-73 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
Some methodological issues concerning the measurement of contraceptive efficiency are reviewed, with reference to their relevance to the situation in Algeria.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

52:20389 Castro, Elssy B.; Darabi, Katherine. Analysis of a national sex education program in the Dominican Republic. Pathfinder Fund Working Papers, No. 3, Feb 1986. 34, [3] pp. Pathfinder Fund: Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors analyze the effectiveness of the Dominican Republic's Profamilia Sex Education Program for Adolescents using information collected during a 1985 two- week field study. Important experiences, problems, and solutions are summarized in order to assist those seeking to replicate the program. Among the topics discussed are initial planning, promotion and institutional contacts, opposition to the program, organization and logistics, the educational module, evaluation, and activities with other groups.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20390 Ghosal, A. K.; Sarkar, B. N. Impact of family planning on fertility reduction in West Bengal. Janasamkhya, Vol. 2, No. 2, Dec 1984. 83-90 pp. Kariavattom, India. In Eng.
The impact of family planning on fertility in West Bengal, India, since independence is analyzed. The data are from surveys undertaken in the 1970s and from official vital statistics. The analysis shows that although overall fertility has remained relatively unchanged over time, there have been significant changes in age-specific marital fertility. The authors conclude that the overall fertility rate would have been much higher in the absence of family planning programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20391 Haaga, John. The current state of family planning program evaluation. Rand Note, No. N-2337-AID, Jul 1985. ix, 20 pp. Rand Corporation: Santa Monica, California. In Eng.
"This Note reviews the major methods of evaluating the impact of family planning programs in developing countries. The focus is on estimation of program impact on fertility rates, though other potential outcome measures, such as maternal and child health, are also discussed. The first section sets the context of recent debates over the effectiveness of family planning programs. The following sections deal with the methods of analysis and data requirements for simple standardization of fertility rates for before-and-after comparisons, quasi-experimental designs and multivariate analyses of survey data, and components models for simulating impacts."
The author observes that "the tradeoff in designing evaluations is between the difficulty and expense of the data collection and analysis and the reliability of inferences about program impact, since the more reliable and plausible methods demand data not routinely available in countries. The last section discusses the need for estimates of marginal program effectiveness as well as average effectiveness, for resource allocation decisions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20392 Nortman, Dorothy L.; Halvas, Jorge; Rabago, Aurora. A cost-benefit analysis of the Mexican Social Security Administration's family planning program. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 1-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A cost-benefit analysis of the family planning program of the Mexican Social Security System (IMSS) was undertaken to test the hypothesis that IMSS's family planning services yield a net savings to IMSS by reducing the load on its maternal and infant care service....Based on the average cost per case, the analysis disclosed that for every peso (constant 1983 currency) that IMSS spent on family planning services to its urban population during 1972-1984 inclusive, the agency saved nine pesos. The article concludes by raising the speculative question as to the proportion of the births averted by the IMSS family planning program that would have been averted in the absence of IMSS's family planning services."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20393 Nortman, Dorothy L. Family planning program funds: sources, levels, and trends. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 113, Aug 1985. 42 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
The author focuses on various aspects of funding for family planning programs worldwide. She "discusses sources of funds; reviews trends and levels of funding and the relation between funding source and program duration; considers the differing perspectives on funding of donors and recipients and the factors that limit the capacity of programs to absorb funds; and finally, examines the implications of present funding levels."
The author also notes "the complexity of estimating the family planning funding requirement to reach replacement fertility in the LDCs and presents recent World Bank estimates. An examination of MDC contributions per year as a percent of their GDPs disclosed considerable diversity among the countries, both in the proportion and in the trend over the period 1971-82."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20394 Pardthaisong, Tieng. Factors in the achievement of below-replacement fertility in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 96, ISBN 0-86638-074-4. LC 86-4584. Mar 1986. vii, 46 pp. East-West Center, Population Institute: Honolulu, Hawaii. In Eng.
"This study investigates the contribution of family planning programs to the decline of fertility in Chiang Mai Province [Thailand]....The analysis is based on a random sample of 3,805 ever married women from a demographic sample survey conducted in Chiang Mai Province between 1979 and 1980." Changes in fertility rates and age at marriage over the period since the 1950s are noted, while no evidence is found of a change in marital stability during this time. Differences in findings for the urban and rural areas of the province are noted.
It is found that "although older women in Chiang Mai City accepted modern contraceptives more readily than those in the rural areas, the difference in acceptance rates diminished in the younger age groups, which had been exposed to the programs; within the most reproductive age group at the time of the survey the proportions of contraceptive acceptors were equal in all study areas. Second, only a small proportion of women with very low fertility did not use modern contraceptives."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20395 Paul, Bimal K. Performance of supply-oriented family planning policy in Bangladesh: an examination. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1986. 639-44 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"Using data from four nationally representative sample surveys conducted since 1968, this paper examines the performance of the family planning program of Bangladesh, which placed emphasis on its supply component. The very low contraceptive prevalence rate and the large gap between knowledge and use of contraceptive methods indicates the poor performance of the program. After discussing the probable reasons for such performance, the paper suggests accelerating the demand for contraceptives among the married women of Bangladesh through persuasion and by improving the existing contraceptive distribution system."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20396 Weatherley, Richard A.; Perlman, Sylvia B.; Levine, Michael H.; Klerman, Lorraine V. Comprehensive programs for pregnant teenagers and teenage parents: how successful have they been? Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 73-8 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
A review of the effectiveness of comprehensive service programs that have been developed in the United States to tackle the problem of teenage pregnancy and childbearing is presented. The results confirm that such programs are most successful in the more affluent communities where the need for them is less; furthermore, affluent communities are more successful in obtaining state funding for these programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20397 Weeden, Donald; Bennett, Anthony; Lauro, Donald; Viravaidya, Mechai. An incentives program to increase contraceptive prevalence in rural Thailand. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 12, No. 1, Mar 1986. 11-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"This article describes in detail one of the community-based incentives programs initiated by the nongovernmental agency the Population and Community Development Association of Thailand (PDA)....The specific project described here was designed to determine whether incentives in the form of loans intended to promote small-scale income-generating activities and linked to a community's CPR [contraceptive prevalence rate] would be successful in increasing the practice of family planning in villages in northeast Thailand."
The authors conclude that "it appears that community-level incentives can achieve goals beyond those of promoting contraceptive use. By fostering community development, they can also hasten acceptance of the small-family ideal."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

52:20398 Ali, M. R. A study of knowledge about attitude towards, and practice of family planning in Zambia. Psychological Studies: Reports of the Psychology Department, No. 7, Dec 1984. 51 pp. University of Zambia, Department of Psychology: Lusaka, Zambia. In Eng.
An analysis of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of family planning in Zambia is presented. The data concern approximately 300 married men and women from urban and rural areas in Lusaka and Ndola. Although attitudes toward family planning were generally positive, practice was relatively low. The average desired family size was about 7.2 children. Factors affecting negative attitudes toward contraception and the level of contraceptive practice are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20399 Beaujot, Roderic. Cultural constructions of demographic inquiry: experiences of an expatriate researcher in Tunisia. Culture, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1985. 3-15 pp. London, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The cultural factors affecting fertility in Tunisia are analyzed. Consideration is given to sex roles, conflicts over models of development, and tribal loyalties, and to their effects on decisions to limit fertility. The process by which a researcher from another country becomes aware of such cultural factors is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR); U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:20400 Callan, Victor J. The impact of the first birth: married and single women preferring childlessness, one child, or two children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1986. 261-9 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"The primary aim of this study was to determine how the perceptions about children of voluntarily childless married and single women differ from the perceptions of mothers and of singles who intend to become parents." Data are from survey questionnaires completed by three groups of urban Australian women: "36 voluntarily childless wives and 42 single women wanting to remain childless; 18 mothers of one child by choice and 18 single women who want an only child; and 36 two-child mothers and 42 single women who want to have two children."
Background characteristics of the women interviewed and similarities and dissimilarities in the perceived costs and benefits of having a child are presented in tabular form.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20401 El-Khorazaty, Mohamed. Regional differences in attitudes toward family norms and planning, 1979/80. Dirasat Sukkaniyah/Population Studies, Vol. 12, No. 72, Jan-Mar 1985. 3-28, [31-4] pp. Cairo, Egypt. In Eng. with sum. in Ara.
Regional differences in attitudes toward family size and family planning in rural Egypt are analyzed using data from the 1979 Rural Fertility Survey and the 1980 Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. Consideration is given both to differences between Upper and Lower Egypt and to differences within each region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20402 Frank, Odile. The demand for fertility control in sub-Saharan Africa. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 117, Nov 1985. 50 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
Responses to national fertility surveys conducted in various sub-Saharan countries in the late 1970s and early 1980s are examined in order to assess the demand for modern contraception in the area. "The focus of this paper is on whether there is any evidence of demand for fertility control and for family planning in the region which may at present or could in the future lead to fertility levels lower than those determined by customary restrictions alone. This paper will first evaluate the high childbearing desires of African women, and their use of modern methods of contraception, then review the principal elements of the traditional system of fertility regulation, and finally draw inferences for the potential spread of modern contraception for purposes of limitation."
It is noted that "whereas there is little indication of change in conditions anticipated to shift the underlying demand for children, uncertainties attached to successful childraising due to risks of infertility, failure to thrive, disablement, and divorce strongly favor the traditional forms of regulation. The two major means of fertility regulation in Africa--avoidance of next pregnancy in reference to the last born child's survival and rearrangement of the timing and tempo of childrearing through fostering--are not equivalent to modern contraception in purpose or practice."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20403 Pongracz, Tiborne. International and Hungarian characteristics of attitudes toward contraception and interruption of pregnancy among teenagers. [A serdulokoruak fogamzasgatlasi magatartasanak es terhessegmegszakitasanak nemzetkozi es magyarorszagi jellemzoi.] Demografia, Vol. 28, No. 2-3, 1985. 199- 214 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Hun. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
Attitudes toward pregnancy and fertility among women aged 15-19 in Hungary are described. The author notes that nuptiality patterns in Hungary differ from those prevalent in Western Europe in that marriage of women before age 20 is relatively frequent in Hungary, a factor that in turn affects adolescent attitudes on fertility questions. The extent of induced abortion among adolescents is analyzed, and the relationship of such abortions to social status, marital status, and educational status is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20404 Poston, Dudley L.; El-Badry, Samia M. Voluntary childlessness in Egypt: an investigation of its presence and characteristics. Texas Population Research Center Papers, Series 8: 1986, No. 8.004, 1986. 21, [9] pp. University of Texas, Texas Population Research Center: Austin, Texas. In Eng.
The authors identify and examine the characteristics of voluntarily childless Egyptian women using data from the 1976 census of Egypt, the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey, and the 1980 Egyptian Contraceptive Prevalence Survey. The census- based childless rate is compared with those of 11 other Moslem countries. Socioeconomic and residence characteristics of the voluntarily childless Egyptian women are described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20405 Rall, A.; Thiele, G. A. Analysis of a survey of family planning among blacks in the Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging area. [Gehooranalise met betrekking tot gesinsbeplanning onder Swartes in die PWV-gebied.] RGN.HSRC Navorsingsbevinding, No. N-94, ISBN 0-7969-0130-9. 1984. ix, 58 pp. Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing, Instituut vir Kommunikasienavorsing: Pretoria, South Africa. In Afr.
The results of a survey on contraceptive knowledge, attitude, and practice, undertaken among black South Africans in the greater Pretoria urban area, are presented. The data concern 1,197 men and women over age 15. Particular attention is given to the sources of information on family planning, including the mass media.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20406 Simons, John. How conservative are British attitudes to reproduction? Quarterly Journal of Social Affairs, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan 1986. 41-54 pp. Hillsdale, New Jersey/London, England. In Eng.
Current British attitudes concerning fertility are examined, and the probabilities that these will lead either to a further decline to below replacement- level fertility or to a level that will sustain population replacement are assessed. The author concludes that the optimistic, or replacement-level, alternative is the more likely. The evidence for this conclusion is examined, including evidence of conservative attitudes toward fertility and childbearing, and the relative stability of the family structure; comparisons are made with the situation elsewhere in Europe.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20407 Sorenson, Ann M. Fertility expectations and ethnic identity among Mexican-American adolescents: an expression of cultural ideals. Sociological Perspectives, Vol. 28, No. 3, Jul 1985. 339-60 pp. Beverly Hills, California/London, England. In Eng.
Survey data concerning 1,955 secondary school students in Arizona, collected in 1980, are used to test the applicability of structural and minority status hypotheses to the differential fertility expectations of Mexican-American and Anglo adolescents. Analyses of the number of children expected indicate that indexes of acculturation are more important than socioeconomic status for fertility expectations. Such indexes include language spoken at home, place of birth of individual and father, and residence, all of which are associated with expected fertility.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:20408 van de Giessen, G. J.; de Graaf, A. No more children? [Geen kinderen meer?] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 2, Feb 1986. 42-6 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
The reliability of data on expected fertility is examined using data from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey. The emphasis is on the reliability of data concerning women who do not expect to have any more children. The authors develop a series of additional questions that can improve the quality of such data. These questions were applied in a follow-up study in 1985, the results of which are not yet available.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

52:20409 Aggarwal, V. P.; Mati, J. K. G. Epidemiology of induced abortion in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of Eastern and Central Africa, Vol. 1, No. 2, Jun 1982. 54-7 pp. Nairobi, Kenya. In Eng.
Data concerning 610 patients admitted to a Nairobi, Kenya, hospital in 1981 for abortion are analyzed. The authors estimate that over 62 percent of the cases were the results of induced abortion. They also note that such abortions were more frequent among younger women who had little or no knowledge of contraception.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.; U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20410 Cartoof, Virginia G.; Klerman, Lorraine V. Parental consent for abortion: impact of the Massachusetts law. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 4, Apr 1986. 397-400 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study assessed the impact of Massachusetts' parental consent law, which requires unmarried women under age 18 to obtain parental or judicial consent before having an abortion. Data were analyzed on monthly totals of abortions and births to Massachusetts minors prior to and following the April 1981 implementation of the law."
The results indicate that the law had little effect on adolescents' pregnancy-resolution behavior, since the decline in the number of abortions in the state was largely matched by the number of minors who went out of state to obtain an abortion.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20411 Davis, Nanette J. From crime to choice: the transformation of abortion in America. Contributions in Women's Studies, No. 60, ISBN 0-313-24929-6. LC 85-8018. 1985. xvii, 290 pp. Greenwood Press: Westport, Connecticut/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the process of social transformation whereby induced abortion has changed from being illegal and socially unacceptable to being both legal and acceptable to a wide range of public opinion in the United States. The emphasis is on the social and economic factors that affect human reproduction and who exercises control over them, and on women's rights concerning reproduction.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20412 Frejka, Tomas. Induced abortion and fertility. International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 125-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Induced abortion rates around the world are presented, and the impact of abortion on fertility is considered. The author notes that even in countries with high rates of abortion, contraceptive usage and marital patterns nearly always have a greater impact on fertility than does abortion. However, the effect of abortion on fertility remains substantial in many countries. The relationship between contraception and abortion is also examined.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20413 Goode, Polly T. Abortion bibliography for 1982. 13th ed. ISBN 0-87875-290-0. LC 72-78877. 1985. xxiv, 323 pp. Whitston Publishing: Troy, New York. In Eng.
This is the 13th annual listing of books and articles on topics related to induced abortion. It is unannotated and is in two sections: a listing by title in alphabetical order and a listing by subject. There is also an author index and a list of journals cited. The geographic scope is worldwide.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20414 Khan, Atiqur R.; Rochat, Roger W.; Jahan, Farida A.; Begum, Syeda F. Induced abortion in a rural area of Bangladesh. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 95-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in a rural area of Bangladesh are analyzed. The data, which were collected in 1982-1983, concern 412 induced and 177 spontaneous abortions. "All abortions were induced by indigenous health practitioners. The abortion-to-live-birth ratio was 44.2 per 1,000. Ten women died after induced abortion, yielding a death-to-case rate of 2.4 percent. The death-to-case rate was highest for women 35 and older and women of parity five and higher. The authors conclude that improved distribution of safe, acceptable means of fertility regulation may save many mothers' lives."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20415 Lallemant, Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague. The unacceptability of pregnancy among schoolgirls in Brazzaville. [La grossesse impossible chez les jeunes filles scolarisees a Brazzaville.] Cahiers ORSTOM: Serie Sciences Humaines, Vol. 21, No. 2-3, 1985. 363-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Abortion in the Congo is discussed from the perspectives of the law, demography, actual experience, and ethics. The information presented is primarily from interviews with young women attending school in the capital, Brazzaville.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20416 Park, Yeon Woo; Kong, Sae Kwon. A review of repeat induced abortions in Korea: 1974-1982. Journal of Population and Health Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, Dec 1985. 101-14 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Kor. with sum. in Eng.
An analysis of repeat abortion in the Republic of Korea is presented using data from a variety of surveys undertaken between 1971 and 1982. The results indicate that the rate of repeat abortions is increasing at a much faster rate than the rate of first abortions. Repeat abortions were particularly high among women aged 40 to 44, women with no schooling, women experiencing their fifth or higher order pregnancy, and women who have four children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20417 Popov, A. A. The control of the family's reproductive function and its determining factors. [Kontrol' reproduktivnoi funktsii sem'i i faktory ego opredelyayushchie.] Sovetskoe Zdravookhranenie, No. 7, 1985. 36-9 pp. Moscow, USSR. In Rus. with sum. in Eng.
The role of abortion and contraception in regulating the number of births in the USSR is analyzed. The social, economic, and demographic effects of widespread induced abortion are discussed. It is suggested that the high incidence of abortion is largely due to contraceptive unavailability.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20418 Porter, Ruth; O'Connor, Maeve. Abortion: medical progress and social implications. CIBA Foundation Symposium, No. 115, ISBN 0-272-79815-0. 1985. viii, 285 pp. Pitman: London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a symposium on induced abortion, held in London, November 27-29, 1984. The focus is on the methods currently available, the provision of abortion services in various societies, and the legal and ethical implications of providing such services. Papers are included on England and Wales; Slovenia, Yugoslavia; the United States; Kenya; and Thailand and Sweden. The situation in Japan is included in discussions. Consideration is also given to the social and political implications of providing abortion services.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20419 Sweden. Statistiska Centralbyran (Stockholm, Sweden). Fewer abortions: Swedish family planning and abortion in an international perspective. [Farre aborter: svensk familjeplanering och abortlag i ett internationellt perspektiv.] Information i Prognosfragor, No. 1984:3, ISBN 91-7142-027-4. 1984. 47 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
Recent developments in the prevalence of induced abortions worldwide are reviewed. The report notes that abortion is one of the most widespread methods of controlling fertility in use around the world, and that about half of the world's abortions are performed illegally. The Swedish experience concerning the effects of both legalizing abortion and providing it free of charge are described. The focus is on the benefits of abortion legalization for women's health.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20420 Szamotulska, Katarzyna M. The problem of estimating the yearly number of induced abortions in Poland, 1951-1980. [W sprawie szacowania liczby sztucznych przerwan ciazy w Polsce w latach 1951-1980.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/82, 1985. 105-19 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
"The author reviews and evaluates currently applied methods of estimating [the] number of induced abortions in Poland and presents [modifications] of the method [developed] by Z. Smolinski which she considers to be the most adequate." A review of the various estimates of the number of induced abortions occurring in Poland between 1950 and 1980 is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

52:20421 Abbas, Ibrahim; Kalule-Sabiti, I. The proximate determinants of fertility in North Sudan. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 73, Jun 1985. 35 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The authors report on the findings from a module of the 1978-1979 Sudan Fertility Survey concerning the proximate determinants of fertility. "This module, called Factors other than Contraception Affecting Fertility (FOTCAF), asked questions pertaining to the onset, patterns and termination of childbearing, elucidating such matters as menarche, menopause, breastfeeding, abstinence and sterility."
Attention is given to the relative contributions of each intermediate fertility variable to the level of fertility of the whole population and of selected subgroups. It is found that "lactational amenorrhoea plays the most important role in suppressing potential fertility. This is followed by delayed marriage. Overall, contraception, post-partum abstinence and marital dissolution have negligible impacts." Differences between urban and rural areas are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20422 Caldwell, John C.; Caldwell, Pat. Factors other than nuptiality and contraception affecting fertility. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 123-45 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The following five factors affecting fertility are considered in this paper: lactation, both in terms of duration and of type (ie whether full or with a supplement and the frequency of feeding); post-partum sexual abstinence; terminal sexual abstinence; coital frequency; and the relative pressures toward lower fertility outside marriage (ie the extent of the proscription of sexual relations, pregnancies or births except when in a recognized marriage state and as a result of marital relations with the spouse)." The geographic focus is on developing countries.
Attention is given to research approaches and the data needed to test the various propositions with regard to each fertility determinant. The authors conclude that "in most of the Third World we are still in a period of transition: in nearly all in terms of lactation, in many with regard to terminal sexual abstinence, in a significant number in the case of post-natal sexual abstinence, and perhaps in a few with regard to increasing coital frequencies. The research task is twofold: to measure the extent to which these behavioural factors still constrain fertility, and to measure the rate of change and likely future change. The latter is the more difficult problem...because it calls for an understanding of religious and moral pressures mediated through communities and families...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20423 Hull, Valerie; Simpson, Mayling. Breastfeeding, child health and child spacing: cross-cultural perspectives. ISBN 0-7099-3312-6. LC 85-9688. 1985. 216 pp. Croom Helm: Dover, New Hampshire/London, England. In Eng.
This book contains eight chapters by various authors on the relationships among breast-feeding, child health, and birth spacing. Chapters are included which deal with the situation in Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Mexico, Indonesia, Iran, Thailand, Australia, and Canada. Both rural and urban populations are considered, and the approach is multidisciplinary. The factors affecting the initiation, maintenance, and duration of breast-feeding in the different societies are explored.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20424 McLaren, Dorothy. Marital fertility and lactation 1570-1720. In: Women in English society, 1500-1800, edited by Mary Prior. ISBN 0-416-35700-8. LC 84-20547. 1985. 22-53 pp. Methuen: New York, New York/London, England. In Eng.
The author examines the relationship between lactation and marital fertility using parish registers, a recent family reconstitution study, and other published historical sources for England for the years 1570-1720. "The aim is, first, to show that the amenorrhoea of lactation (the period of infertility during breastfeeding) is a biological fact revealed by worldwide research and is more intense than the amenorrhoea of malnutrition....The second aim is to show that prolonged and non-exclusive breastfeeding was customary and woven into the English economy and society during the pre-industrial period, and was a basic part of the reproductive pattern for the majority of women."
The author also seeks to show "that the majority of normal, healthy women, well proven to be fecund, had long birth intervals; shorter intervals did occur, however, when an infant died. The fourth and final aim is to show that rich women of the period had an entirely different reproductive pattern, which was mainly due to their having abandoned maternal breastfeeding." Appendixes contain information on scientific and demographic studies concerning the relationship between breast-feeding and fertility.
Location: Rutgers University Libraries, Alexander Library, New Brunswick, N.J.

52:20425 Mock, Nancy B.; Bertrand, Jane T.; Mangani, Nlandu. Correlates and implications of breast-feeding practices in Bas Zaire. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 1986. 231-45 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A sample of 1,871 women having a child under 3 years old in Bas Zaire was studied to determine the correlates of breast-feeding practices and to examine the interrelationships among breast-feeding, contraceptive practices and desire for pregnancy. Socioeconomic factors that were related to the length of breast-feeding include economic status, maternal education, migration status, urban residence, pregnancy and sex of the index child. Among non-pregnant women, current desire for pregnancy also was related to breast-feeding status when the length of time since birth of the last child was taken into account."
The results show that rural women were ready for their next pregnancy sooner after a previous birth than urban women. Urban women, however, were less likely to be practicing abstinence or an effective method of contraception.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20426 Mpiti, A. M.; Kalule-Sabiti, I. The proximate determinants of fertility in Lesotho. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 78, Jul 1985. 44 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The authors report on the findings from a module of the 1977 Lesotho Fertility Survey concerning the proximate determinants of fertility. "This module, called Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility [FOTCAF], asked questions pertaining to the onset, patterns and termination of childbearing, elucidating such matters as menarche, menopause, breastfeeding, abstinence and sterility."
Postpartum amenorrhea and abstinence and the regular, lengthy absences from the country of young adult males working in the Republic of South Africa are seen as major factors restraining fertility in Lesotho. The authors conclude that "while in some other countries...modernization (as measured by education and urbanization) is having a significant impact on the intermediate fertility variables by reducing lactation and increasing contraception, the same is not yet true for Lesotho."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20427 Nichols, Douglas; Ladipo, O. A.; Paxman, John M.; Otolorin, E. O. Sexual behavior, contraceptive practice, and reproductive health among Nigerian adolescents. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 100-6 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The results of a 1982 sample survey of approximately 1,730 never-married residents of Ibadan, Nigeria, aged 14 to 25, are presented concerning perceptions and practices pertaining to reproductive health. "A substantial proportion of the young unmarried population is sexually active, and despite comparatively high contraceptive prevalence among that proportion, many are still engaging in sexual relations without benefit of contraceptive protection. Nearly half of the female students interviewed at both the secondary and university levels have been pregnant, as have two-thirds of those not currently enrolled in school. Among those respondents who had been pregnant, almost all reported that they voluntarily terminated their pregnancies."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20428 Potter, R. G.; Millman, S. R. Fecundability and the frequency of marital intercourse: new models incorporating the ageing of gametes. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 159-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"A companion paper [has] reviewed the literature on effects of frequency of intercourse on fecundability. At moderately high coital frequencies, predicted effects of further increases on fecundability based on previous work vary widely. New modelling reported here, designed to take into account the ageing of gametes, attempts to identify a set of limits within which the true relationship of coital frequency and fecundability at moderate to high frequencies may confidently be expected to lie."
For the previous article by the same authors, published in 1985, see 52:10381.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20429 Udry, J. Richard; Talbert, Luther M.; Morris, Naomi M. Biosocial foundations for adolescent female sexuality. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 217-30 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Despite the widespread assumption that hormones stimulate motivation for sexual behavior in adolescence, no published empirical studies have demonstrated this link. In a cross-sectional study of 78 females in the eighth, ninth, and tenth grades in [U.S.] public schools, we show that hormones have effects on sexual motivation and behavior. Comparison with previous results from a parallel sample of males indicates that for both sexes these effects are primarily androgenic in origin and for the most part exert their effects directly rather than through the social interpretation of age and hormone-induced pubertal development."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

No citations in this issue.


Copyright © 1986-1996, Office of Population Research, Princeton University.