Volume 52 - Number 2 - Summer 1986

E. Mortality

Studies that treat quantitative mortality data analytically. Methodological studies primarily concerned with mortality are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary. The main references to crude data are in the vital statistics items in S. Official Statistical Publications .

E.1. General Mortality

Studies of overall mortality and comparisons of several types of mortality. Studies dealing with two or more of the topics listed in this division are classified under the major section covered, or, if this is not self-evident, included here under General Mortality.

52:20129 Bell, David E. What policies will reduce death rates most rapidly in less developed countries? In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 493-505 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author is concerned with the question of which combination of social, economic, and health policies in developing countries is most likely to reduce mortality. He first discusses the correlation between life expectancy and per capita income and then outlines changes in this relationship.
It is found that in spite of this correlation, "wide differences exist among countries that have similar income levels. This leads to emphasis on three factors: distribution of income, education of mothers, and the allocation of health resources to prevention, public health and community-based health programmes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20130 Bengtsson, Tommy; Ohlsson, Rolf. Age-specific mortality and short-term changes in the standard of living: Sweden, 1751-1859. European Journal of Population/Revue Europeenne de Demographie, Vol. 1, No. 4, Nov 1985. 309-26 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"The response of mortality to short-term changes in real wages is analyzed here not just in its own right but more particularly as an indicator of long- term shifts in the general standard of living. It is hypothesized that the response would have been stronger the lower the standard of living. The relationship between age-specific mortality levels and real-wage series for Sweden 1751-1860 is analyzed using a distributed- lag model and spectral analysis. The results suggest a real shift in the material standard of living during the period."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20131 Bideau, Alain. Fertility and mortality at ages 45 and over. The contribution of research in historical demography. [Fecondite et mortalite apres 45 ans. L'apport des recherches en demographie historique.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 59-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
"This paper is an attempt to describe and understand the relationships which exist between fertility and mortality after the menopause. The question is raised whether there exists a positive correlation between the number of children a woman has born and her length of life after she has reached the menopause. Both original and previously published data from studies in historical demography [concerning France] are used."
The author concludes "that there is at best a weak relationship between the number of children a woman has born and her expectation of life on her 45th birthday. However, the most fertile women seem to live longer than the remainder. If women who have born between 0 and 11 children are considered, it does not seem that the number of children born bears any relationship to the expectation of life at birthday 45."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20132 Bidegain, Gabriel. Mortality trends in Venezuela. [Evolution de la mortalite au Venezuela.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 615-8 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
The author examines aspects of the decline in mortality in Venezuela since the 1950s. Data on crude death rates, infant mortality, life expectancy, and causes of death are summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20133 Bidegain, Gabriel. The level and pattern of mortality in Venezuela. [Nivel y patron de la mortalidad venezolana.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 17, Oct 1985. 221 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
An analysis of mortality trends in Venezuela is presented. The data are from the final results of the 1971 census, a 3.85 percent sample of the 1981 census, and vital statistics sources. The focus is on obtaining the data on probabilities of survival necessary for preparing reliable population projections.
The first chapter contains a detailed analysis of available data on population, deaths, and causes of death. The second deals with national and regional life tables and with Venezuelan life expectancy in an international context. The third concerns mortality by age, with special emphasis on infant mortality. The final chapter contains discussions on socioeconomic and health conditions related to mortality, regional considerations, and predictions.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20134 Boleslawski, Lech. Differences in mortality among generations as a result of the world wars. [Roznice w umieralnosci miedzy generacjami jako skutek wojen swiatowych.] Studia Demograficzne, No. 4/82, 1985. 51-71 pp. Warsaw, Poland. In Pol. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
An attempt is made to examine the impact of the two world wars on mortality in Poland as a whole. The method used is the age-period-cohort binary-variable regression model that was developed by Shiro Horiuchi and applied to data for the Federal Republic of Germany. The author first verifies Horiuchi's results for Germany and then applies the method to Polish data. The long-lasting effects of wars on the mortality of the generations of men and women living during the period are analyzed.
For the study by Horiuchi, published in 1983, see 50:10163.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20135 Botros-Tawadrause, F. Analysis of numerical data on mortality and its causes in France from 1950 to 1969. [Analyse des donnees numeriques sur la mortalite et ses causes en France de 1950 a 1969.] Cahiers de l'Analyse des Donnees, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1984. 129, 149-72 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
Official government data published in 1974 are used to examine mortality among children over one year of age and adults in France during the years 1950-1969. "On the synchronic level, the analysis shows which causes affect subjects according to age and sex, and indicates in particular the causes of greater than average masculine mortality. As far as the diachronic level is concerned, the period is dominated by the lengthening of life due to the almost total elimination of death due to infectious diseases, and to the improvement of medical treatment. It must be pointed out that the raw data were such as to rule out, as far as possible, irregularities due to the age pyramid."
Location: Princeton University Library (SM).

52:20136 Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean. Recent changes in mortality in industrialized countries. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 507-39 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines trends in infant mortality, mortality after the first year of life, mortality by sex, causes of death, mortality from cardiovascular diseases, and mortality from other causes for selected developed countries for the years 1960-1980. "A study of the existing relationship between the crude death rate and expectation of life yields a simple method to complete the gaps in an annual series. This has been done to improve the data analyzed here for 37 industrialized countries."
According to the author, the observed "divergence in trends over the last two decades has been caused essentially by diverging trends in cardiovascular disease mortality. While the death rate from these [diseases] has increased in Eastern Europe, it has decreased noticeably in a number of western countries and especially in Japan where it was already low to begin with. In contrast, for all other causes taken together, there has been a roughly parallel decrease in mortality in almost all the industrialized countries."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20137 Brass, William. Advances in methods for estimating fertility and mortality from limited and defective data. Centre for Population Studies Occasional Publication, ISBN 0-902657-14-3. 1985. 103 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"This publication collects together a series of seven contributions to indirect estimation methods which have been developed over the past few years but sparsely distributed." Six of these papers have not been published: the seventh, by William Brass and Sheila Macrea, was published in two parts in the Asian and Pacific Census Forum.
The papers deal with a simple approximation for the time-location of estimates of child mortality from proportions dead by age of mother, further simplification of time location estimates for survivorship of adult relatives reported at a survey, the derivation of life tables from retrospective estimates of child and adult mortality, the relation between numbers of living mothers and numbers of living children, P-F synthesis and parity progression ratios, mortality in China using data from the 1982 census, and childhood mortality estimated from reports on previous births given by mothers at the time of a maternity.
For the articles by Brass et al., published in 1984 and 1985, see 51:10161 and 51:30142.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20138 Dohnal, K.; Reban, J. Verification of factors in longevity in epidemiological studies in selected regions of the Czech Socialist Republic. [Verifikace faktoru dlouhovekosti v epidemiologickem pruzkumu na vybranem uzemi CSR.] Casopis Lekaru Ceskych, Vol. 124, No. 21, May 24, 1985. 644-7 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Rus.
An epidemiological study of longevity in Southern Moravia, Czechoslovakia, is presented. The data concern the social and health conditions of nonagerians. Factors associated with longevity are analyzed.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20139 Duleep, Harriet. Implications for social security policy-making of research in mortality. International Social Security Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 1984. 410-23 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"The main purpose of this article is to outline the relationship between mortality research and policy-making in social security. Reasons are first discussed as to why more information is needed for social security purposes on how and why mortality varies over time periods and across population groups. There follows a synopsis of the correspondence between the type of policy question asked and the kind of research required to answer it. The paper concludes with a discussion of the incorporation of mortality research into policy models." The geographic focus is on the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:20140 Economos, Angelos C. Rate of aging, rate of dying and non-Gompertzian mortality--encore... Gerontology, Vol. 31, No. 2, 1985. 106-11 pp. Basel, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author questions the value of the Gompertz hypothesis in the analysis of life expectancy. He also questions the view "that the course of the rate of increase of force of mortality with age may be different in men and women, chiefly slowing down versus continuously increasing...."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20141 Forbes, John F.; McGregor, Alan. Unemployment and mortality in post-war Scotland. Journal of Health Economics, Vol. 3, No. 3, Dec 1984. 239-57, 297-305 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper presents a time series analysis of unemployment and mortality in post-war Scotland. Using a variety of model specifications and several measures of the age and duration structure of male unemployment, we find little evidence of a consistent association between unemployment and male mortality from all causes in different age cohorts." An editorial comment by Hugh S. E. Gravelle is included (pp. 297-305).
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20142 Hamajima, Nobayuki; Sasaki, Ryuichiro; Mizuno, Shoichi; Aoki, Kunio. Trends in mean age at death by major causes in Japan standardized in terms of the age structure of the population. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi/Japanese Journal of Hygiene, Vol. 40, No. 3, Aug 1985. 679-84 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
A method for calculating mean age at death, standarized in terms of a population's age structure, is demonstrated using Japanese vital statistics data for the period 1955-1980. The results are compared with mortality estimates developed from life tables and age-adjusted death rates for various major causes of death. The value of the proposed measure for epidemiological studies is emphasized.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20143 Hatcher, John. Mortality in the fifteenth century: some new evidence. Economic History Review, Vol. 39, No. 1, Feb 1986. 19-38 pp. Kendal, England. In Eng.
An analysis of mortality in medieval England is presented using data from the records of the Benedictine priory of Christ Church, Canterbury, for the period 1395-1505. The data are sufficiently complete to allow the calculation of death rates, the construction of life tables, and the analysis of the incidence of epidemic disease. "Mortality was extremely high, with frequent crises; death-rates rose above 60 per thousand on 8 occasions. Overall the mortality experience of the monks lay close to West level 3 of the Princeton Model Life Table series, where expectation of life at birth is put at less than 23 years."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20144 Heysen, Socorro; Musgrove, Philip. The relationship of life expectancy to income, drinking water, and medical consultations in Peru. [Esperanza de vida y su relacion con ingresos, agua potable y consultas medicas en el Peru.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 100, No. 1, Jan 1986. 33-46 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Por.
Data from the Central Reserve Bank of Peru for 1981 are used to investigate the correlation between three socioeconomic variables and variations in life expectancy among the country's 25 departments. The three variables are "the coverage of potable water supply (the percentage of housing units that have it), the use of medical services (consultations per inhabitant per year), and labor income per employed person."
The analysis indicates that "when the three variables are combined in one linear regression, they are able to explain 80% of the life-expectancy variance among departments, with significant positive effects from the variables water supply and income, and apparently a definite but statistically less precise effect from medical consultations....[A] revised model predicts a sharp drop in life expectancy when monthly income falls below 2,000 Peruvian soles (47 U.S. dollars) and a maximum life expectancy of about 77 years with the present maximum medical coverage achieved in the country."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20145 Hobcraft, John. The interplay of health and society: towards new surveys of mortality determinants. In: The collection and analysis of community data. WFS seminar on collection and analysis of data on community and institutional factors, 20-23 June 1983, edited by John B. Casterline. 1985. 147-55 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The author considers the interplay between individual and macro-level determinants of mortality and health, with reference to existing survey findings. Problems in measuring mortality, morbidity, and health are first discussed, and the background information concerning health systems and services that is needed prior to the initiation of a study is outlined. The importance of obtaining information regarding the accessibility of services; knowledge, attitudes, and practice concerning health; and nutrition and human development is stressed. The focus is on outlining a survey to facilitate quantification of individual and societal determinants of health and mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20146 Ifeka, Caroline; Fisher, Barbara. Investigating explanations of "normal" and "abnormal" mortality in the Indian census, 1881-1951. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul-Dec 1985. 247-60 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
"This essay focuses on the concept of mortality, and describes the change in its meaning and use brought about largely by increasing accuracy of census returns which highlighted inadequacies in the distinction between 'normal' and 'abnormal' mortality under Indian conditions."
The authors discuss the development of two views concerning mortality patterns--one prevalent prior to 1951 and the other, a more recent viewpoint. "The late nineteenth and early twentieth century census Reports endeavoured to establish 'normal' mortality patterns as models for comparison with periods when 'abnormal' mortality occurred. By 1951 Census writers had accepted that the frequency and distribution of mortality in India at different ages and between the sexes is determined by a changing relationship between factors which operate under all conditions."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20147 Joossens, J. V.; Geboers, J.; Kesteloot, H. Regional trends in nutrition and mortality in Belgium. Verhandelingen, Vol. 47, No. 3, 1985. 207-44 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Dut.
The relationship between nutrition and mortality in Belgium from the early nineteenth century to the present day is explored. The focus is on regional differences. Evidence is presented of the development over time of nutritional differences among the major regions of the country, involving higher saturated fat intake in the south and higher salt intake in the north. The relationships between differences in nutrition and mortality differentials by region, sex, and causes of death are analyzed, and changes in these relationships over time are considered.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20148 Lee, Eun-Sul. Epidemiologic transition in Korea: a new perspective in population and development studies. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 14, 1985. 1-14 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the progress and prospects for mortality reduction in [the Republic of] Korea, drawing upon [the] scanty data available in the literature. Data seem to suggest that recent mortality improvement in Korea is slowing, male mortality patterns at older ages are evolving unexpectedly, and infant and child mortality is relatively high. These trends are examined in the framework of the epidemiologic transition theory." Consideration is given to measures that might lead to further reductions in mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20149 McMillen, Marilyn M.; Rosenberg, Harry M. Trends in United States mortality. In: American Statistical Association, 1983 proceedings of the Social Statistics Section. [1983]. 88-92 pp. American Statistical Association: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The authors present "a review of historical trends (1900 to 1979) in age-adjusted mortality [in the United States] for all causes of death combined (total mortality), and in terms of race and sex. Age-specific data for all causes of death combined disaggregated by race and sex are also examined. Then, to better understand the factors contributing to changes in the aggregate death rates, we examine trends in cause-specific mortality, for both the total population and each race-sex group."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20150 Morales Del Valle, Zoraida; Carnivali, Judith. Changes in mortality in Puerto Rico measured by the analysis of life tables: 1765-1980. [Cambios en la mortalidad de Puerto Rico mediante el analisis de las tablas de vida: 1765-1980.] Programa Graduado de Demografia, No. 5, [1985]. 59 pp. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Centro de Investigaciones Demograficas [CIDE]: San Juan, Puerto Rico. In Spa.
The authors analyze changes in mortality in Puerto Rico using life tables for the period 1765-1980. Life table methodology and use are first outlined. Mortality trends by age and sex are then examined, and the effects of socioeconomic conditions, nutrition, changes in causes of death patterns, and Spanish and North American domination of the country are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20151 Moser, Kath. Levels and trends in child and adult mortality in Peru. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 77, Jul 1985. 42 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
The author derives estimates for child and adult mortality in Peru using data from the 1940, 1972, and 1981 national censuses; the 1974-1976 National Demographic Survey; and the 1977 Peru Fertility Survey. The analytical techniques used are described, and characteristics of the population and aspects of marriage and fertility are outlined as background to the examination of mortality.
Responses to retrospective questions asked of women concerning the proportion of children surviving are used to calculate differentials in child mortality according to sex, region of residence, and mother's education. Adult mortality is estimated from orphanhood data, widowhood data, current deaths, and intercensal survival. An attempt is made to obtain life tables for each sex separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20152 Newman, Stephen C. A generalization of life expectancy which incorporates the age distribution of the population and its use in the measurement of the impact of mortality reduction. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 261-74 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Two new families of indices measuring the gain in life expectancy resulting from reduction in mortality are introduced: the first looks at the impact of cause of death reduction from the perspective of the entire population; the second, at that segment of the population due to die of the cause. Special cases include both well-established measures and extensions that incorporate the age distribution of the population. A further generalization is introduced with the consideration of life expectancies that only give weight to years of life up to age 70. A number of inequalities are derived that relate cause-deleted life expectancies to their cause-reduced counterparts."
The methods described are illustrated using official Canadian data on male mortality in 1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20153 Palloni, Alberto. Health conditions in Latin America and policies for mortality change. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 465-92 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author "considers the feasibility and utility of policies to improve survivorship in the context of recent evidence of a retardation of mortality decline in Latin America. An attempt is also made to propose tools for policy formulation from the estimation and evaluation of models designed to capture the effects of mortality determinants. The first part of the paper provides a review of the nature of mortality decline in Latin America [over the period 1940-1975] and of what classes of technologies (defined in a broad sense) have accounted for the decline....The second section of the paper is an attempt at formulating a complete, albeit provisional, model of mortality determinants."
The findings indicate the significance of birth spacing and family planning for infant and early childhood mortality, the importance of preventive measures for reducing infant mortality, and the relevance of family-related factors such as family authority and sex preferences as factors potentially offsetting the intended impact of health policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20154 Pathak, K. B.; Murty, P. K. Socio-economic determinants of fertility and mortality decline in India. Demography India, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan-Jun 1985. 17-33 pp. Delhi, India. In Eng.
The relationship between socioeconomic factors and trends in fertility and mortality in India is investigated. The authors' objectives are "(1) to find the important determinants of fertility and mortality in 1971 and 1981 respectively; (2) to see whether there is any change in the importance of determinants over time; and (3) to find whether there is any change in the importance of the determinants when a lag of 10 years is applied." Two models using different assumptions concerning fertility and mortality are tested. Census and registration data as well as statistics on health and welfare for 12 major states of India are used.
Results of the analysis indicate that for both 1971 and 1981, and for 1981 when the 10-year lag is considered, the crude death rate is strongly influenced by the infant mortality rate (used as an indicator of health standards and not as a measure of mortality), the adult literacy rate, and per capita income. In 1981, both social and health development variables emerge as the main factors influencing both fertility and mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20155 Pinder, D. C. Weighting of populations for their mortality experience. Community Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 2, May 1985. 107-15 pp. Bristol, England. In Eng.
"Various methods of calculating mortality weighted resident populations, whether for resource allocation or for planning purposes, are outlined. It is found that the death proportion method (arising from the use of age-specific mortality ratios) gives results which are indistinguishable from those of traditional methods and which compare favourably in their standard errors. The method has the advantages of greater elegance and economy of data requirements. The approach could be extended to morbidity-weighting given an acceptable definition of morbid events analogous to deaths."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20156 Pullat, Raimo. The structure and seasonal distribution of mortality of the Tallinn population in the eighteenth century, based on the church registers of the Church of the Holy Spirit. [Die Struktur und die saisonmassige Verteilung der Sterblichkeit der Tallinner Bevolkerung im 18. Jahrhundert basierend auf Kirchenbuchern der Heiligengeistkirche.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 401-12 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The structure and seasonal distribution of mortality in the Estonian city of Tallinn, now in the USSR, are examined for the period 1736-1800. The data are from parish registers of the Church of the Holy Spirit, as well as other sources. Comparisons are also made with eighteenth-century data for the city of Giessen, now in the Federal Republic of Germany. The analysis covers the distribution of deaths by age, sex, month, and decade. Differences between causes of death in a rich parish and those in a poor one are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20157 Rehak, Jan. The use of Brass's relational method in demographic forecasting. [Vyuziti Brassovy relacni metody v demograficke prognostice.] Demografie, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1986. 25-40 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
The relational method developed by William Brass for making demographic forecasts is first described. The method is then applied to official Czechoslovak data to make short-term projections of trends in mortality from 1977. The author concludes that calculations using four parameters yield more accurate forecasts than those using only two parameters. The methods outlined are also used to forecast future mortality trends using 1980 data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20158 Roemer, Milton I. Social policies and health care systems: their effects on mortality and morbidity in developed countries. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 541-52 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author seeks to assess the impact of social policies and health care systems on morbidity and mortality through a comparison of data from developed countries with differing social and health programs. Official data and data from other published sources for the 1960s and 1970s are analyzed. "Cross-national comparisons of life expectancy in selected and reasonably matched pairs of developed countries, however, show relatively better records in countries where social policies and/or health care systems suggest a more equitable distribution of resources. Such comparison sets of countries include the United States and Canada, Austria and England, Belgium and the Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand, and the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic."
It is also found that "equivalent comparisons of infant mortality for the same sets of countries yield the same general conclusions--that is, better records being found in countries where social policies and health care systems would suggest greater general equity. In a larger sense, mortality trends in developed countries reflect the disorders associated with civilization or the socio-environmental conditions and personal life styles that come with modern urban living."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20159 Salinas, Umberto. Mortality in Taranto from the early seventeenth century to 1860. [I decessi a Taranto dall'inizio del seicento al 1860.] Studi di Demografia, No. 20, 1980. 3-47 pp. Bari, Italy. In Ita.
Mortality trends in Taranto, Italy, from around 1600 to 1860 are analyzed using data from parish records. Attention is given to mortality changes over time and to infant mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20160 Sankara, Michel; Vaugelade, Jacques. Mortality trends in Burkina Faso. [Evolution de la mortalite au Burkina-Faso.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 619-20 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre.
Trends in mortality in Burkina Faso since 1960 are summarized using data from the United Nations and from two sample surveys conducted in 1960-1961 and 1976. Changes in infant and child mortality and in life expectancy are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20161 Steckel, Richard H.; Jensen, Richard A. New evidence on the causes of slave and crew mortality in the Atlantic slave trade. Journal of Economic History, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mar 1986. 57-77 pp. Wilmington, Delaware. In Eng.
"The journals of slave ship surgeons of the 1790s are used to address questions on the relative importance of African conditions versus those on ships, crowding, the effectiveness of Dolben's Act, and the interaction between slave and crew health. In contrast with previous work we find that most slaves who died did so near the middle of the voyage. Crowding was important to health and mortality, but the restrictions of Dolben's Act did little to reduce losses. The crew was largely isolated from patterns of disease among slaves."
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

52:20162 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Consequences of mortality trends and differentials. Population Studies, No. 95; ST/ESA/SER.A/95, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.3. ISBN 92-1-151149-6. 1986. x, 191 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication is the result of a program jointly conducted by the United Nations and the World Health Organization from 1980 to 1984 to study mortality in developing countries. "It consists of 17 articles covering a wide range of thought on responses to high mortality and changing mortality, in the biological, cultural, social and economic spheres of the developing and developed worlds. The articles make clear how mortality change can disrupt the long-held view and traditional established relationships of an individual within the household, and of households within the social and economic milieu in which they operate. Mortality change therefore plays an integral role in--and perhaps even initiates--what is often called modernization."
Papers are organized under the following headings: societal and biological adaptations to mortality change; consequences related to the life cycle; and consequences for health-care systems and insurance and pension schemes.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20163 Vallin, Jacques; Lopez, Alan D. Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 557 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of a seminar that was held in Paris, France, February 28-March 4, 1983, and was sponsored by the IUSSP Committee on Factors Affecting Mortality and the Length of Life. The 25 papers are organized into three sections: health intervention programs in developing countries, health intervention programs in developed countries, and the impact of social and economic policies. Focusing on the policy dimension of factors affecting mortality, these papers are concerned with such developments in recent decades as the control of major diseases, the establishment of social security systems, and the initiation of major health programs in developing countries. The impact of these developments on mortality patterns worldwide is assessed.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20164 Vallin, Jacques. Mortality in developing countries. [La mortalite dans les pays en developpement.] Espace, Populations, Societes, No. 3, 1985. 484, 515-40 pp. Villeneuve d'Ascq, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author examines differences among developing countries in life expectancy at birth and investigates selected underlying social, cultural, and political factors. Data for countries of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania for the years 1950-1955 and 1980-1985 are presented in tables, charts, and maps to facilitate country and regional comparisons. A graph depicting the relationship between life expectancy at birth and per capita income is also included.
Success in reducing infant mortality and the establishment of primary health care programs are seen as major determinants of improved life expectancy. The experiences of Cuba, Costa Rica, and China are given particular attention.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20165 Vaupel, J. W. How change in age-specific mortality affects life expectancy. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 147-57 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The author discusses the use of mathematical formulas to describe the relationship between change in age-specific mortality rates and change in life expectancy. The formulas "also shed light on how past progess against mortality has been translated into increases in life expectancy--and on the impact that future progress may have. Furthermore, the mathematics can be adapted to study the effect of mortality change in heterogeneous populations in which those who died at some age would, if saved, enjoy a different life expectancy than those who live."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20166 Vaupel, James W.; Gowan, Ann E. Passage to Methuselah: some demographic consequences of continued progress against mortality. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 4, Apr 1986. 430-3 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Three alternative scenarios concerning the impact of continued progress in reducing U.S. mortality are presented. These involve "no future progress against mortality; steady reductions in mortality at all ages at a rate of 2 per cent per year; and a radical breakthrough in the year 2000 that cuts mortality in half. All three scenarios substantially shift the composition of the U.S. population toward older ages, steady progress resulting in the most radical change. If mortality is reduced 2 per cent per year, by 2080 almost two-fifths of the population would be above age 65 and the number of centenarians would approach 19 million."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20167 Williams, Ronald L.; Binkin, Nancy J.; Clingman, Elizabeth J. Pregnancy outcomes among Spanish- surname women in California. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 4, Apr 1986. 387-91 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"To examine Latino pregnancy outcomes in California, we studied the maternal risk characteristics, birthweight distribution, and birthweight-specific fetal, neonatal, post- neonatal, and infant mortality rates for White, Black, and Latino women who delivered their babies within the State during 1981. Latinos were further subdivided into U.S.-born and Mexican-born mothers." Data are for matched birth and death certificates from the California Department of Health Services computerized file for the 1981 birth cohort of 415,538 singleton births.
The results indicate that "maternal risk characteristics between U.S.-born Black women and U.S.-born women with Spanish surnames were similar. In contrast, Latino women, regardless of national origin, delivered small proportions of low weight infants as compared to Blacks. Birthweight-specific mortality rates during the fetal and neonatal periods for the offspring of Mexican-born Spanish surname women were generally higher than those for other ethnic groups."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.2. Prenatal and Perinatal Mortality

Studies dealing primarily with fetal and neonatal mortality, except those dealing with spontaneous abortions, which are classified under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology , and those studies dealing with induced abortions, which are classified under F.4.5. Induced Abortion . Perinatal mortality is defined as mortality occurring between the twenty-eighth week of gestation and the seventh day of life.

52:20168 Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick; Capellari, Marcia M. Perinatal risk in third world cities. World Health Forum, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1985. 322-4 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The authors present details of "a survey in the city of Pelotas in southern Brazil [which] showed that the perinatal mortality rate was three times higher in the poorest families than in the wealthiest ones. It also suggested that the identification of important risk factors could help to reduce perinatal mortality by indicating which mothers needed special care." Low birth weight is shown to be the most significant factor influencing perinatal mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20169 Hein, Herman A.; Lathrop, Susan S.; Papke, Kathryn R. Comparing perinatal mortality. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 66, No. 3, Sep 1985. 346-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Comparisons of perinatal outcome data among regions or hospitals can be misleading if the risk status of the population served is not considered. Data are presented from two large perinatal centers (Medical Center Hospital in San Antonio, Texas, and University of Iowa Hospitals in Iowa City, Iowa), which report substantially different institutional neonatal and fetal mortality rates."
The authors show that "examination of neonatal and fetal mortality by birth weight groupings demonstrates the difference between outcome in the two hospitals to be considerably less than the overall rates might imply. Additional data about the regionalized system of care in Iowa are presented to illustrate why mortality may rise in a referral center and yet be consistent with a salutary effect on perinatal outcome in the region."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20170 Murrells, T. J.; Catford, J. C.; Smith, T. M. F.; Machin, D. The use of logit models to investigate social and biological factors in infant mortality. II: stillbirths. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 189-200 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
The authors examine stillbirth data for England and Wales for the years 1949-1950 and 1975. The data are analyzed by incorporating the year of data collection into the statistical model which enables changes in age, parity, and social class over time to be investigated.
The results show that "despite a marked reduction in stillbirth mortality from 21.1 to 10.1 per thousand over the period, the relative contribution of social class has increased. In particular there has been a relative increase in risk for mothers in the lower social classes. By contrast the effects of age and parity, although remaining important, have diminshed over the period."
For Part 1, also published in 1985, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20171 Powell-Griner, Eve. Perinatal mortality in the United States: 1950-81. NCHS Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 34, No. 12, Supplement, Pub. Order No. DHHS (PHS) 86-1120. Mar 31, 1986. 16 pp. Hyattsville, Maryland. In Eng.
Trends in perinatal mortality in the United States during the years 1950-1981 and developments in the measurement of these rates are summarized. Information is provided on fetal deaths; infant deaths, both neonatal and postneonatal; and on sex, race, and geographic differentials among the observed rates. Data are from U.S. vital statistics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20172 Rumeau-Rouquette, Claude; Blondel, Beatrice. The French perinatal programme. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 299-311 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines the impact of the government program initiated in 1971 in France to reduce perinatal mortality. The program is outlined, and changes in neonatal mortality and morbidity for France during the years 1972-1981 are highlighted. It is concluded that "the fall in neonatal mortality and in the incidence of morbidity may be ascribed to a variety of different measures: advances in research, improvements in methods of prevention, the measures included in the programme and changes in attitudes to reproduction and in reproductive behaviour."
The author presents several reasons for caution in attributing changes in mortality to health intervention programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.3. Infant and Childhood Mortality

Studies of infant mortality under one year of age, including neonatal mortality occurring after the seventh day of life, and childhood mortality after one year of age. The subject of infanticide, deliberate or implied, is also classified under this heading.

52:20173 Beghin, Ivan; Vanderveken, Marc. Nutritional programmes. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 81-102 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors focus on the connection between protein-energy malnutrition and various aspects of perinatal, infant, and child mortality in developing countries. Data are from official and other published sources. The authors examine the relationship between malnutrition and mortality at young ages, outline a typology of nutritional interventions, and describe problems in measuring the effectiveness of nutrition programs. Among the types of intervention investigated are nutrition rehabilitation centers, the distribution of supplementary food to young children and to pregnant women, and integrated nutrition and health care.
The results indicate that vertical interventions, such as food distribution programs, have little or no impact on mortality. However, data from pilot projects indicates the success of good health care combined with nutrition programs in reducing mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20174 Behm Rosas, Hugo. Survival in infancy: the dimensions of the problem in Latin America. [Sobrevivencia en la infancia: las dimensiones del problema en America Latina.] Working Paper/Documento de Trabajo, No. 17, [1985?]. 30 pp. Population Council, Latin America and Caribbean Regional Office: Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
The author summarizes the principal epidemiologic characteristics of mortality under five years of age in the countries of Latin America during the period 1955-1980. He attempts to identify and characterize the populations at specific levels of risk based on recent trends in differential mortality. Factors considered include urban and rural differences, causes of death, and social inequalities.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20175 Bidegain, Gabriel. Infant and child mortality in Venezuela (a comparison of various methods of measurement). [La mortalidad infantil y juvenil en Venezuela (comparacion de diversos procedimientos para su medida).] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 22, Feb 1986. 18 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Vital statistics data for Venezuela concerning mortality under one year of age and mortality from one to four years of age are compared with indirect data from the 1977 National Fertility Survey and with data from the 1981 census. The author concludes that there is considerable underreporting in the vital statistics data on infant and child mortality.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20176 Borja, Eduardo. Determinants of premature mortality in Ecuador. [Factores determinantes de una mortalidad prematura en Ecuador.] WFS Scientific Reports, No. 74, Jun 1985. 31 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
The authors examine factors related to infant and child mortality in Ecuador using data from the 1979-1980 National Fertility Survey. The mortality risks of 9,326 children born during the nine-year period preceding the survey are analyzed, and socioeconomic variables are related to the different mortality rates. Characteristics of the child, the parents, the household, and the community are considered.
Among these variables are child's sex, birth order, age of mother at birth, and preceding birth interval; mother's level of education and work experience, father's occupation, and joint income; dwelling's water supply, electricity, and sewage, number of inhabitants per room, and presence of selected household goods; and availability in the community of potable water, electricity, hospitals or public clinics, road access, post, telephone services, and newspapers. Univariate and multivariate analyses are performed, and the results of each method are presented.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20177 Breschi, Marco; Livi Bacci, Massimo. The effect of season and climate on the survival of children. The experience of Italy during the nineteenth century. [Saison et climat comme contraintes de la survie des enfants. L'experience italienne au XIXe siecle.] Population, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 9-35 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
The seasonal impact of climatic conditions on infant mortality in Italy during the nineteenth century is analyzed. The data are from official sources for the period 1863-1882 and from two family reconstitution studies. The results indicate that winter was particularly dangerous for the youngest infants and that climatic conditions throughout the year affected infant mortality until weaning. "The calculations in the paper confirm that the probability of surviving the first year of life, and, to a lesser extent, the chances of surviving over several years depend upon the month of birth."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20178 Castaneda, Tarsicio. The determinants of the decline in infant mortality in Chile, 1975-1982. [Determinantes del descenso de la mortalidad infantil en Chile: 1975-1982.] Cuadernos de Economia, Vol. 22, No. 66, Aug 1985. 195-214 pp. Santiago, Chile. In Spa. with sum. in Eng.
Using the example of Chile from 1975 to 1982, the author examines the impact on infant mortality of programs aimed at improving the nutritional and medical status of mothers and children. The framework of the analysis is a production function model with fixed effects on children's health from various inputs. The results suggest that programs focusing on the mother are more effective in reducing infant mortality than those focusing on the child. The key role played by increased availability of potable water and efficient sewerage in urban areas is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20179 Costello, Michael A. Infant and childhood mortality research in the Philippines: a review and an agenda. [1985?]. 41 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
The author reviews 25 primarily micro-level studies conducted during the period 1975-1985 concerning infant and child mortality in the Philippines. Attention is given to both socioeconomic and proximate determinants of infant and child mortality, and a model for analyzing the determinants of child survival developed by Mosley and Chen in 1984 is utilized. Among the social and economic factors identified in the studies are region of residence, urban or rural residence, income, mother's education, father's occupational status, mother's employment status, and child's sex.
The proximate variables considered include maternal age, preceding birth interval, parity, nutrition, and use of health services. Topic areas not covered by existing empirical research are identified, and suggestions for future research are outlined.
For the article by Henry W. Mosley et al., published in 1984, see 50:40161.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20180 DaVanzo, Julie; Habicht, Jean-Pierre. Infant mortality decline in Malaysia, 1946-1975: the roles of changes in variables and changes in the structure of relationships. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 143-60 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"Individual-level retrospective data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey are used to examine why the infant mortality rate (IMR) has declined rapidly in Malaysia since World War II. Substantial increases in mothers' education and improvements in water and sanitation have contributed. However, breastfeeding reductions have kept the IMR from declining as rapidly as it would have otherwise. The detrimental effects of reduced breastfeeding more than offset the beneficial effects of water and sanitation improvements. The majority of the IMR decline, however, is not explained by changes in the variables considered here, or in their relationships with infant mortality."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 411.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20181 de Vroede, Maurice. Insurance policies on infant deaths in France and Belgium at the beginning of the twentieth century. [Les assurances sur deces d'enfants en France et en Belgique au debut de XXe siecle.] Population et Famille, No. 57, Nov 1985. 17-40 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The effect on infant mortality of insurance policies taken out on the life of a child in Belgium and France at the beginning of the twentieth century is examined. These policies covered not only burial costs but provided a sum of money to the parents or third party taking out the policy and were considered by many to be an inducement to poor people to allow sick children to die. The author notes that such policies were prohibited in France after 1905 and in Belgium after 1907.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20182 Ebanks, G. Edward. Infant and child mortality and fertility: Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Jamaica. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 75, Jun 1985. 68 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
"This report deals with infant mortality, child mortality and fertility in the three Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Jamaica and has two main goals. The first focus is upon the interrelationship between infant and child mortality on the one hand, and fertility on the other. The second aim is an examination of correlates of infant and child mortality. Intervening variables between infant and child mortality and fertility are included in the analysis. The data of the study are taken from the Trinidad and Tobago Fertility Survey 1977, the Guyana Fertility Survey 1975, and the Jamaica Fertility Survey 1975-6; all conducted under the World Fertility Survey (WFS) Programme."
After an introductory discussion of the methodology used, the author examines each of the three countries separately. Comparisons of the country-specific findings are included in a final chapter.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20183 Fargues, Philippe. A potential contribution of health centers to the measurement of child mortality in Africa. An analysis of questions asked of pregnant women--the case of Abidjan, 1980-. [Un apport potentiel des formations sanitaires pour mesurer la mortalite dans l'enfance en Afrique. Analyse des questions posees a la femme a l'occasion d'une grossesse--le cas d'Abidjan, 1980-.] INED Dossiers et Recherches, No. 6, May 1986. 33 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Brussels, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The author elaborates several methods for estimating child mortality in Africa using information routinely collected during prenatal health care visits. Methods are outlined for dealing with three types of available data: the proportion of children deceased among all previous births, by age of mother; the proportion of children deceased among the most recent two births, for all ages of mother; and the distribution of children deceased by age at death and age of mother, all birth orders combined.
Four approaches are outlined, and their limitations and biases are discussed. The methods include the adapted multiplying factors technique developed by Brass and Macrae, a probability calculation involving maternal age, a preceding birth technique, and a fourth approach "relying on information already available in Ivory Coast registers, the age distribution of dead children all birth orders combined...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20184 Fargues, Philippe. Ages at death and mortality level: evaluating the rate of death registration from age structure. An application to Tunisia. [Ages au deces et niveau de mortalite: evaluer le taux d'enregistrement des deces a partir de leur structure par ages. Application a la Tunisie.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21-25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 113-52 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre.
A method for evaluating the degree of completeness of death registration in developing countries is presented, with a focus on the estimation of mortality from one to five years of age. The method is applied to official Tunisian data for the period 1973-1977. Comparisons are made to the situation in other developing countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20185 Frank, Odile; Dakuyo, Mathias. Child survival in sub-Saharan Africa: structural means and individual capacity (a case study in Burkina Faso). Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 122, Dec 1985. 76 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The paper begins with a brief review of child morbidity and causes of death in Africa as background to our focus on diarrheal diseases. Next, we review the recent demography of child mortality in Burkina Faso, as background to the case study. We then address the two major axes of this research: individual capacity to alter exposure to disease and modify disease outcomes, and structural means to overcome individual shortcomings. The limits to individual capacity and, in turn, structural means, are the major organizing principle of this research and the connecting thread of our analysis."
The authors conclude that "the weaknesses in individual capacity to assure child survival, due to an inadequate knowledge base and consequently misinformed hygienic practices, explain the persistence of residual excess child mortality when even the full range of preventative health measures is introduced."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20186 Geronimus, Arline T. The effects of race, residence, and prenatal care on the relationship of maternal age to neonatal mortality. Center for Population Studies Discussion Paper, No. 86-4, May 1986. 20 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"This population-based study explores whether excessive neonatal mortality rates (NMR's) among infants with teenage mothers are attributable to young maternal age or to a translation of environmental disadvantage into reproductive disadvantage. First births from the 1976-1979 linked birth and infant death registers for three states [in the United States] are analyzed. The data set is sufficiently large (305,907 births) to measure maternal age in fine gradations while including several control variables in logit analyses."
It is shown that "the associations of racial identification and prenatal care with low birth weight, short gestation, and neonatal mortality overshadow and confound the associatioon between teenage and poor outcome. At every maternal age, higher NMR's are observed for Blacks compared to Whites. The hypothesis that excessive neonatal mortality among Blacks is due to the greater frequency of teenage childbearing among Blacks is not supported. Indeed, unlike White, Black primiparae above age 23 experience higher NMR's than most Black or White teenagers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20187 Gonzalez Perez, Guillermo. Infant mortality as an indicator of social homogeneity in Cuba. [La mortalidad infantil como indicador del proceso de homogeneizacion social en Cuba.] Revista Cubana de Administracion de Salud, Vol. 11, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 138-52 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Infant mortality data from England, France, and Costa Rica for periods from 1950 to 1980 are compared with similar data from Cuba to support the author's hypothesis that in capitalist countries infant mortality varies with socioeconomic class, whereas in Cuba infant mortality tends to be the same regardless of class.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20188 Holla, M. Vital statistics system--a major source of information on infant and child mortality. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Vol. 52, No. 415, Mar-Apr 1985. 115-26 pp. New Delhi, India. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant and child mortality in India are reviewed. A summary of the available data, including surveys, the Sample Registration System (SRS), and vital statistics is provided. Data on infant and child mortality are presented by sex and state for 1978 and 1980, and by causes of death for 1980 and 1982.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20189 Imhof, Arthur E. Reflections on infant mortality: a European historian's comments on today's differentials in South and Southwest Africa. [Nachdenken uber Sauglingssterblichkeit: ein europaischer Historiker zu den heutigen Unterschieden in Sud- und Sudwestafrika.] Zeitschrift fur Bevolkerungswissenschaft, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1985. 305-43 pp. Wiesbaden, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
Differentials in infant mortality between the black and white populations of South Africa and Namibia are examined using data from research programs carried out in 1983 and 1985. It is noted that there are seven times as many infant deaths among blacks as among whites. An attempt is made to explain these differentials through the concept of "poverty", meaning underdevelopment and indigence at every level, rather than just economic helplessness. Comparisons are also made with the historical European experience, and the role of female literacy in breaking the cycle of poverty and high infant mortality in Europe is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20190 Jones, T. Stephen; Waldman, Ronald J.; Foege, William H. The role of immunization programmes. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 45-55 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The authors survey the influence of vaccine-preventable diseases on high child mortality rates in developing countries. They conclude that "these diseases are part of a complex interaction of political, social, and economic factors which result in excess deaths. Thus, measles mortality cannot be separated from malnutrition, malaria and other intercurrent infections, and deaths from neonatal tetanus result not only from reaction to a bacterial toxin, but also from poor environmental sanitation, lack of education, and limited health facilities."
The prospects for transferring recent advances in the eradication of measles in the United States to developing countries are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20191 Kannisto, Vaino. Estimation of fetal and infant mortality by the method of pregnancy follow-up. [Avaliacao da mortalidade fetal e infantil pelo metodo do seguimento da gravidez.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 26, 1983-1984. 49-71 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes a method for estimating levels of infant and fetal mortality in developing countries, which involves repeated observations of individuals attending maternal and child health care facilities or those included in multi-round surveys. The method is illustrated using data for approximately 5,000 pregnancies in Syria during the period 1976-1979. The author claims that this method minimizes the problem of the omission of early infant deaths from mortality data.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20192 Kleinman, Joel C. State trends in infant mortality, 1968-83. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 6, Jun 1986. 681-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper presents an analysis of state trends in infant mortality rates (IMRs) for 1968-83 [in the United States]. In order to take into account the large random error component asssociated with state IMRs, weighted least squares estimates are used to fit log-linear models to these trends. Using simulated data, these estimates are shown to be nearly unbiased and to provide valid significance tests. However, the power to detect changes in trends is rather limited, especially in small states." White and non-white IMRs are analyzed separately.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20193 Klinger, Andras. The fight against infant mortality. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 281-97 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author first examines trends in infant mortality in selected developed countries over the period 1930-1980. Health intervention programs and their implications for infant mortality are then discussed. Included in these programs are measures concerned with prenatal prophylaxis, measures to improve newborn survival, and social programs influencing infant mortality. Particular attention is given to the case of Hungary.
While the evidence indicates a general trend toward lower levels of infant mortality, significant differences among the levels in various countries remain. According to the author, "these differences in level, moreover, are associated with structural differences. In countries where infant mortality is lowest, it is concentrated more in the early neonatal period and where it is highest, post-neonatal mortality is much more important." It is suggested that these structural differences be considered in health program planning.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20194 Lynch, Katherine A.; Mineau, Geraldine P.; Anderton, Douglas L. Estimates of infant mortality on the Western frontier: the use of genealogical data. Historical Methods, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall 1985. 155-64 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Data from the Mormon Historical Demography Project are evaluated and used to analyze infant mortality in Utah in the mid-nineteenth century. The authors "describe the population under observation, evaluate the quality of the genealogical records, present infant mortality estimates for birth cohorts in the years 1850-1919, and assess the social-historical and epidemiological conditions that helped shape these patterns."
Possible underreporting and potential sources of bias in the genealogical data base are assessed, and the pattern of decline in infant mortality and contributing factors are discussed. The findings show that "an incipient decline in infant mortality appeared within both core and periphery areas as early as the cohort of the 1870s, though a truly secular decline did not take place until the early 1890s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20195 Mata, Leonardo. The fight against diarrhoeal diseases: the case of Costa Rica. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 57-79 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author reviews trends in infant mortality in Costa Rica from the 1920s through the 1970s, with a particular focus on declines in diarrheal diseases. While it is difficult to discern the impact on infant mortality of a particular intervention, the author concludes that "the gains in Costa Rica have resulted from a combination of either simultaneous or sequential actions of a reasonably long-term nature. Democracy, political stability, and priority support for education, health and agriculture (in part because there were no expenditures on an army) led to the prompt establishment and maintenance of interventions."
Among the factors identified as contributing to the decline in diarrheal disease are the extension of the supply of potable water, the nationwide promotion of health education, the establishment of rural health programs providing vaccinations and utilizing growth charts, the use of oral rehydration salts, and the promotion of breast- feeding. Official data are used to illustrate the trends in mortality and in mortality due to diarrheal diseases.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20196 Mosley, W. Henry. Will primary health care reduce infant and child mortality? A critique of some current strategies, with special reference to Africa and Asia. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 103-37 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author analyzes factors influencing infant and child mortality in order to better define a strategy for primary health care. The geographic focus is on Africa and Asia, with particular attention to Kenya. Data are from official and other published sources and are primarily for the 1970s and early 1980s.
The author first assesses the success of primary health care programs in meeting the goals defined by the 1978 joint conference of the World Health Organization and the U.N. International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF). Following an analysis of recent trends in infant and child mortality in Kenya, a conceptual model of the determinants of child survival is elaborated. The usefulness of the model in designing primary health care programs and in evaluating their impact is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20197 Murrells, T. J.; Smith, T. M. F.; Catford, J. C.; Machin, D. The use of logit models to investigate social and biological factors in infant mortality. I: methodology. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 175-87 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
"Infant mortality data for England and Wales, cross classified by mother's age, parity and social class, have been published on two occasions, the first giving the relevant data for 1949/50, the second for 1975, some 25 years later. Published analyses of these separate data sets have been based on graphical and tabular methods. This paper describes the statistical methodology appropriate to the use of logit models to investigate these data sets and shows how such models may be used to supplement the more informal approach. The stillbirth data for 1975 are used for illustration."
For Part 2, also published in 1985, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20198 Rosero Bixby, Luis. Determinants of the decline of infant mortality in Costa Rica. [Determinantes del descenso de la mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica.] Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Vol. 99, No. 5, Nov 1985. 510-27 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa. with sum. in Eng; Fre; Por.
The decline in Costa Rican infant mortality from 68 per 1,000 live births in 1970 to 20 per 1,000 in 1980 is analyzed in relation to various socioeconomic factors including declining overall mortality, declining fertility, high literacy, increasing national income and, especially, various public health programs that were inaugurated and carried out during the 1970s.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20199 Rosero-Bixby, Luis. Infant mortality in Costa Rica: explaining the recent decline. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 57-65 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Costa Rica has undergone a dramatic reduction in its infant mortality rate from 68 per 1,000 live births in 1970 to 20 per 1,000 in 1980. In the present study, changes during this century, mortality differentials, and causes of death are analyzed, and multiple regression techniques are used to identify the determinants of the decline in Costa Rica's 79 cantons (counties)."
The author concludes that "although socioeconomic development and greatly reduced fertility contributed to the infant mortality decline, as much as three-fourths of the decline is attributable to public health programs implemented during the 1970s. The extension of primary health care--especially rural and community programs--seems to be responsible for 40 percent of the reduction."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20200 Rousseau, J. A. Infant and child mortality in Haiti. [La mortalite infantile et juvenile en Haiti.] WFS Scientific Reports, No. 82, Jun 1985. 23 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Fre.
The author examines and compares direct and indirect measures of infant and child mortality in Haiti. Using data from the 1977 Haiti Fertility Survey, various mortality levels and trends are calculated and related to variables including place of residence, parents' education, father's occupation, maternal age, birth order, and child's sex. Indirect estimation methods developed by Brass, Sullivan, and Feeney are applied to mortality data.
The analysis shows that direct and indirect methods of estimating infant and child mortality levels for the entire country for recent years yield closely corresponding results. Less similarity is found among findings at the regional level and for 20-year trends.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20201 Steckel, Richard H. Birth weights and infant mortality among American slaves. Explorations in Economic History, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1986. 173-98 pp. Orlando, Florida. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the ongoing debate regarding the health and mortality of slaves that started with the publication of "Time on the Cross". The author argues that living standards of slave children in the United States were poor. Using data from the records of the coastal trade in slaves from the early nineteenth century, it is shown that newborns of slaves weighed on average less than 5.5 pounds and that the infant mortality rate was around 30 to 40 percent. Factors affecting this situation are analyzed, and the implications for the estimation of slave fertility and of the underenumeration of vital events and infant mortality in other populations are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:20202 Suarez-Ojeda, Nestor; Yunes, Joao. Childhood mortality in the Americas: probable effects of primary health care. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 139-62 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Recent trends in infant and child mortality and causes of death in the Americas are reviewed. Data for the 1960s and 1970s are presented separately by country. The authors examine in particular the impact of primary health care on the structure of child mortality by cause.
The findings indicate that "the cause of death structure has been modified by the strong decrease in mortality from causes amenable to primary health care. This has led to an increase in the relative importance of perinatal causes....The diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases and those now preventable by vaccination continue to account for a large number of deaths. The authors conclude that social and economic inequities, especially in the distribution of goods and services, are the principal reasons. Conversely, active primary health care programmes have had a very favourable influence on infant mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20203 Wallace, Helen M.; Hong, Jae Woong; Ericson, Anders. Comparison of infant mortality in the United States and Sweden. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 31, No. 4, Aug 1985. 223-8 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Infant mortality in the United States and Sweden during the period 1950 to 1982 is compared. Separate consideration is given to infant mortality, neonatal mortality, and postneonatal mortality. Causes of death are also analyzed. The authors conclude that although infant mortality in the United States is still high, progress is being made in reducing rates of infant mortality to levels observed in countries such as Sweden.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

E.4. Mortality at Other Ages

Studies of age-specific mortality and of mortality in special groups defined by age.

52:20204 Crimmins, Eileen M. The social impact of recent and prospective mortality declines among older Americans. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 3, Apr 1986. 192-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"Recent mortality declines among older Americans have been dramatic. This essay discusses how mortality decline affects the composition and characteristics of the older population as well as the ability of families and societies to provide support networks for the aged members of society." The study covers the period from 1930, with projections up to the year 2030, and the data are from official U.S. sources.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

E.5. Life Tables

Studies that present actual life table data and all studies concerned primarily with life tables, including the appropriate methodological studies. Life table studies that are concerned with topics other than mortality are classified under the appropriate heading and cross-referenced to this heading.

52:20205 Cuba. Comite Estatal de Estadisticas. Instituto de Investigaciones Estadisticas [INSIE] (Havana, Cuba). Life expectancy in Cuba and its provinces in the years 1982-1983. [La esperanza de vida de Cuba y provincias anos 1982-1983.] Aug 1985. 93 pp. Havana, Cuba. In Spa.
Life tables for Cuba for the years 1982 and 1983 are presented by sex. Those for Cuba as a whole are by individual year of age; those for the country's provinces are abbreviated life tables by five-year age groups.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20206 Gage, Timothy B.; Dyke, Bennett. Parameterizing abridged mortality tables: the Siler three-component hazard model. Human Biology, Vol. 58, No. 2, Apr 1986. 275-91 pp. Detroit, Michigan. In Eng.
"Siler's five-parameter competing-risk mortality model has been applied to a world-wide sample of life tables, and to the Coale and Demeny model tables. This model incorporates three additive hazards that correspond to the three types of mortality described by Pearl and Miner in 1935. The results suggest that this model fits life tables more accurately than the four parameter Logit model of Ewbank et al., and provides parameter estimates that are sufficiently well determined to interpret biologically. We conclude that the model is useful for graduating abridged mortality tables and developing biological theories of mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20207 Goldman, Noreen; Lord, Graham. A new look at entropy and the life table. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 2, May 1986. 275-82 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The mathematical derivations described in this paper offer a new look at the entropy of the life table, denoted by H. Contrary to previous claims, it is theoretically possible, and has been observed empirically, for life tables to have entropy values greater than unity. A re-expression of H as a weighted average of life expectancy at different ages relative to life expectancy at birth demonstrates clearly the conditions under which reductions in mortality by a fixed amount at all ages can result in even greater gains in life expectancy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20208 Hills, Carole; Hollis, John. Greater London lifetables--1979-82. GLC Statistical Series, No. 50, ISBN 0-7168-1652-0. 1986. i, [113] pp. Greater London Council: London, England. In Eng.
"This report presents lifetables based on mortality in 1972-82 for each of the London boroughs, the borough groups and Greater London. The model is described, the results are analysed and their uses explained." Data are included on life expectancy, survivorship, and death rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20209 Hungary. Kozponti Statisztikai Hivatal (Budapest, Hungary). Studies in mortality differentials, 2. Life tables of urban and rural population by counties (complete and abridged life tables), 1980-1982, VIII. 1985. 595 pp. Budapest, Hungary. In Eng.
Complete and abridged life tables for Hungary are presented by sex for the years 1980, 1981, and 1982. The life tables are presented separately for villages and for cities and towns by county.
For Part VII, also published in 1985, see 51:30185.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20210 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The 38th abridged life tables (April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985). Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 239, Nov 20, 1985. 19 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
These abridged life tables are part of an annual series based on official mortality statistics. The present life tables cover the period April 1, 1984 to March 31, 1985.
For a previous report in this series, also published in 1985, see 52:10212">52:10212.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20211 Lombardo, Enzo. Life expectancy and median life in life tables: the historical emergence of these measures. [Speranza di vita e vita mediana nelle tavole di mortalita: la traccia storica del sorgere di queste misure.] Statistica, Vol. 45, No. 4, Oct-Dec 1985. 545-53 pp. Bologna, Italy. In Ita. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
The author describes the development of two measures used in life tables, life expectancy and median length of life. These measures were developed during the course of correspondence between the Dutch brothers Christiaan and Lodewijk Huygens in 1669.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20212 Shin, Eui-Hang; Jun, Kwang-Hee. A cohort demographic model of career mobility in organizations. Bulletin of the Population and Development Studies Center, Vol. 14, 1985. 15-27 pp. Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"Utilizing the basic mathematical techniques of the life table, this paper formulates a cohort demographic model of career mobility in bureaucratic organizations. The model focuses upon the derivations of the effects of size and location of a particular entry cohort relative to the sizes of preceding and succeeding cohorts, the effects of intra- and inter-cohort competitions and the 'compensatory effects' of a cohort on its career mobility. A new measurement procedure of the seniority status of a cohort which takes into account the cumulative career history of the cohort is developed. Also, the structural sources of position vacancies in bureaucratic organizations are discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20213 Yaakoubd, Abdel-Ilah. Some problems in using the new United Nations model life tables. [Quelques problemes d'utilisation des nouvelles tables-types de mortalite des Nations-Unies.] Departement de Demographie Working Paper, No. 129, ISBN 2-87085-077-8. Mar 1986. [21] pp. Universite Catholique de Louvain, Departement de Demographie: Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
The new U.N. model life tables for developing countries are first introduced. Gaps in the tables and problems in using them are then discussed from both the theoretical and empirical points of view. The author questions the adequacy of some fundamental assumptions on which the methods used are based and demonstrates some problems that may be encountered when the tables are in use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.6. Differential Mortality

Studies on the ratio of mortality in different subgroups of a population, classified according to certain criteria, such as sex, social class, occupation, and marital status. Also includes studies on excess mortality and comparative mortality.

52:20214 B'Chir, M. Differential mortality by sex in Arab countries. [L'inegalite devant la mort selon le sexe en pays arabes.] In: Actes du colloque: la question demographique dans le monde arabe. Tunis 21-25 novembre 1983. Revue Tunisienne de Sciences Sociales, Vol. 21, No. 76-79, 1984. 21-83 pp. Tunis, Tunisia. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ara.
Differential mortality by sex in the Arab countries is analyzed. Problems of data availability are first reviewed. Next, a review of the published literature concerning this problem in the Arab countries is presented. The author then attempts to analyze why female mortality is higher at certain ages. The article concludes with an unannotated bibliography.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20215 Heins, Frank; Stiens, Gerhard. Regional differences in mortality: a study using the example of the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. [Regionale Unterschiede der Sterblichkeit: Untersuchung am Beispiel der Lander Nordrhein-Westfalen und Rheinland-Pfalz.] Seminare--Symposien--Arbeitspapiere, No. 16, ISBN 3-87994-819-4. 1984. xi, 190, 47 pp. Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Landeskunde und Raumordnung: Bonn, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Regional differences in mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany are analyzed using official data for the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate. The data are for the years 1979, 1980, and 1981. The first part of the publication contains an overview of regional differences in various aspects of mortality, including average life expectancy, sex- and age-specific mortality, and causes of death. In the second part, an attempt is made to explore possible factors contributing to regional mortality differentials. Factors discussed include socioeconomic structure, the environment, settlement structure, and migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20216 Mergenhagen, Paula M. Sex, marital status, and mortality: an analysis of changing patterns. Pub. Order No. DA8522482. 1984. 328 pp. University Microfilms International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
An analysis of mortality differentials in the United States by sex and marital status is presented. The situation in 1960 is compared with that in 1979 in order to identify changes over time. The focus is on the impact on differential mortality of changing marital roles and of the improved status of single women. The results indicate that the sex gap in mortality rates between spouses declined during the period for a variety of reasons. The relatively good mortality status of the divorced and the poor status of the widowed, especially men, are noted. Reasons for the differences observed are considered.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Vanderbilt University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(8).

52:20217 Neubauer, Gunter. Small-area differences in mortality in Bavaria and their possible causes. [Kleinraumliche Unterschiede der Sterblichkeit in Bayern und deren mogliche Ursachen.] Raumforschung und Raumordnung, Vol. 43, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 225-32 pp. Cologne, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Geographic differentials in mortality are analyzed for 96 rural and urban districts of Bavaria, Federal Republic of Germany, using official data for 1973-1982. The data are standardized for age structure and are differentiated by sex. Possible causes for the observed geographic patterns are examined by analyzing the relationship between total mortality and 40 indicators. The findings show that the greatest correlation is between mortality and mobility indicators.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20218 United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs (New York, New York). Determinants of mortality change and differentials in developing countries: the Five-Country Case Study Project. Population Studies, No. 94; ST/ESA/SER.A/94, Pub. Order No. E.85.XIII.4. ISBN 92-1-151151-8. 1986. xi, 170 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This publication is the result of case studies initiated in 1981 by the United Nations and the World Health Organization, with the aim of examining mortality determinants in five developing countries. "The purpose of the case studies was to examine the factors related to levels, trends and differentials in mortality in diverse populations in order to illustrate the options facing Governments for setting strategies for reducing mortality and improving health."
Following an introductory overview, papers are included concerning the mortality transition in Sri Lanka; an integration of demographic and epidemiologic research on mortality in Kenya; the determinants of mortality in Senegal, 1960-1980; mortality structure in Matlab, Bangladesh, and the effect of selected health interventions; and the effect of health and nutrition interventions on infant and child mortality in rural Guatemala.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20219 Waldron, Ingrid. The contribution of smoking to sex differences in mortality. Public Health Reports, Vol. 101, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1986. 163-73 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"The contribution of smoking to sex differences in mortality is estimated on the basis of data from 12 studies of the mortality of nonsmoking men and women, together with mortality data for comparable general population samples. Most of the data are for samples drawn from the U.S. population from the late 1950s to 1980. The findings from different studies are generally consistent, once methodological factors are taken into account."
The results indicate that "for total mortality, the proportion of sex differences attributable to smoking decreases from about two-thirds at age 40 to about one-quarter at age 80. Over the adult age span, it appears that about half of the sex difference in total mortality is attributable to smoking. Findings for ischemic heart disease mortality show a similar pattern. For lung cancer, it appears that about 90 percent of the sex difference in mortality is attributable to smoking."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 394).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

E.7. Mortality by Cause

Studies of demographic relevance on causes of death. Studies of morbidity and of public health measures are included only if they relate specifically to mortality. Also included are maternal mortality and comparisons of causes.

52:20220 Alauddin, Mohammad. Maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh: the Tangail district. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 13-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"A study was conducted from September 1982 to August 1983 in the Tangail district of Bangladesh to estimate the maternal mortality level there and identify its causes and correlates. A rate of 56.6 per 10,000 live births was found, with abortion-related deaths contributing nearly 10 deaths per 10,000 live births. The major causes of maternal mortality were found to be obstructed labor and sepsis caused by improperly perfomed abortion. Those at high risk were mothers below age 20 and above age 30 and those above parity four. No inverse relationship was found between maternal mortality and socioeconomic status, as might be expected."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20221 Alfredsson, L.; von Arbin, M.; de Faire, U. Mortality from and incidence of stroke in Stockholm. British Medical Journal, Vol. 292, No. 6531, May 17, 1986. 1,299-303 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine the incidence of and mortality from stroke among those over age 40 in Stockholm, Sweden, from 1974 through 1981 using official cause of death statistics and registers recording inpatient care. "Information on the population at risk was obtained from the civil registration system. A multiplicative model was used to control for changes in the distribution of age during the study."
The findings indicate that "mortality from stroke decreased annually throughout the study by a mean of 2.3% for men and 3.5% for women. This favourable development was not accompanied by a similar decrease in the incidence of stroke." Differentials between men and women in incidence of stroke are also noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:20222 Aron, Joan L.; Prorok, Philip C. An analysis of the mortality effect in a breast cancer screening study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1986. 36- 43 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The theory of competing risks is used to analyze mortality from breast cancer using long-term follow-up data from a breast cancer screening trial carried out by the Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York. The data concern some 20,000 women originally examined between 1963 and 1970 and followed through 1981, and a control group of some 30,000 women. The results indicate that screening reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality, but not mortality from causes of death other than breast cancer.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20223 Barker, D. J. P.; Osmond, C. Infant mortality, childhood nutrition, and ischaemic heart disease in England and Wales. Lancet, No. 8489, May 10, 1986. 1,077-81 pp. Boston, Massachusetts/London, England. In Eng.
The authors examine patterns in mortality rates in England and Wales using information from vital statistics registers. "A strong geographical relation was found between ischaemic heart disease mortality rates in 1968-78 and infant mortality in 1921-25. Of the twenty-four other common causes of death only bronchitis, stomach cancer, and rheumatic heart disease were similarly related to infant mortality. These diseases are associated with poor living conditions and mortality from them is declining. Ischaemic heart disease is strongly correlated with both neonatal and postnatal mortality. It is suggested that poor nutrition in early life increases susceptibility to the effects of an affluent diet."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:20224 Becker, Nikolaus; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Wagner, Gustav. Atlas of cancer mortality in the Federal Republic of Germany. [Krebsatlas der Bundesrepublik Deutschland.] 2nd rev. ed. ISBN 0-387-13413-1. LC 84-13927. 1984. 383 pp. Springer-Verlag: New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Eng; Ger.
This atlas presents data on mortality from cancer for the 328 administrative districts of the Federal Republic of Germany. The data are from officially recorded causes of death and concern the years 1976 to 1980. The data are presented separately for males and females for 24 forms of cancer and for cancer mortality as a whole.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20225 Blanc, Michel. The long-term effects of anti-smoking programmes. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 241-59 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
"After a review of the literature on smoking in France and of the excess mortality associated with tobacco, the results of a simulation of various possible trends in tobacco consumption combined with demographic projections are presented. This provides some idea of the potential effects which intervention programmes against tobacco would have on mortality in the long term and especially on the expectation of life. These effects evidently differ according to the population affected by these programmes and their level of efficacy."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20226 Bradshaw, Evelyn; Harington, J. S. The changing pattern of cancer mortality in South Africa, 1949-1979. South African Medical Journal/Suid-Afrikaanse Mediese Tydskrif, Vol. 68, No. 7, Sep 28, 1985. 455-65 pp. Pinelands, South Africa. In Eng.
Changing patterns of cancer mortality in South Africa for the period 1949-1979 are analyzed. The data are presented for all major ethnic groups, although the data for blacks only concern urban blacks. Changes over time in the major causes of cancer mortality are examined.
For a related study, published in 1975, see 42:1288.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20227 Breslow, Lester. The case of cardiovascular diseases. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 197-216 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author examines recent trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in developed countries and the impact of various intervention programs. Among the programs discussed are those aimed at single risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, and high blood pressure, as well as those directed toward multiple risk factors. In the latter group are approaches involving medical treatment and those designed to alter the behavior of high risk groups in the community, at the workplace, and at school.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20228 Chesnais, Jean-Claude. The prevention of deaths from violence: lessons from experience. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 261-79 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
The author first surveys the incidence of deaths from violent causes during the period 1950-1980 in selected developed countries; he then discusses the success of various forms of public intervention designed to reduce these categories of mortality. International comparisons are presented for trends in mortality due to homicide, suicide, domestic accidents, industrial accidents, and automobile accidents.
Among the findings noted are the persistent, high relative level of homicides in the United States, the high relative level of suicides in Hungary, the overall decline in domestic and work-related accidents, and the low relative levels of mortality due to traffic accidents in Great Britain and Japan. Government policies and socioeconomic factors contributing to these international differentials are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20229 de Freitas, Eduardo. A contribution to the study of violent deaths in Portugal. [Contributos para o estudo das mortes violentas em Portugal.] Revista do Centro de Estudos Demograficos, No. 26, 1983-1984. 127-71 pp. Lisbon, Portugal. In Por. with sum. in Eng; Fre.
This study is in two parts. The first examines trends in homicide in Portugal from 1931 to 1982 using official data. The second is concerned with suicide and reviews the principal theories that have been developed concerning this cause of death.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20230 Foggin, Peter; Godon, Daniel. Cardiovascular mortality as it relates to the geographic distribution of employment in non-metropolitan Quebec. Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1986. 559-69 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
"This exploratory analysis examines relationships between employment-specific cardiovascular mortality and certain spatially-based potential risk factors [in the province of Quebec, Canada]....Linkage analysis and principal components analysis are used to simplify and clarify the complex relationships that exist among selected independent variables (potential risk factors) and multiple regression analysis is used to identify the functional relationships between these employment, geographic and demographic variables and the study's dependent variable (ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular mortality) in the form of standard mortality ratios (SMRs)."
The authors find that "although it was not possible to establish strong positive links between most employment sectors and cardiovascular mortality, it is possible to conclude that there is a negative association for men between textile employment and cerebrovascular mortality; that in the case of women, those who work in agriculture are less at risk than women who are working in industrial employment. There is also some statistical evidence that there is an association between women in the pulp and paper industry and cardiovascular risk levels."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20231 Hatton, Francoise; Flamant, Robert; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Helene; Maujol, Leone. The fight against cancer. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 217-40 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
Mortality and morbidity statistics for 11 developed countries are analyzed in order to examine the survival rates of cancer patients and the overall population's cancer mortality rates. Trends over the last three decades are examined, and the influence of health intervention programs is considered. The successes of programs involving treatment, early screening, early detection of precancerous lesions, and prevention are discussed, with findings varying according to the specific form of cancer.
The authors conclude that "the struggle against cancer has yielded some positive results, even though they are still limited. Children, adolescents and younger women have been the main beneficiaries. No clear gains have been recorded for adult men, even though the incidence of cancer is highest among them."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20232 Hatzakis, Angelos; Katsouyanni, Klea; Kalandidi, Anna; Day, Nicholas; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in Athens. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1986. 73-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in Athens, Greece, are examined over the period 1975-1982 using data from the National Observatory and from the town registries of Athens and neighboring communities. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between mortality and levels of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20233 Hogberg, Ulf; Joelsson, Ingemar. The decline in maternal mortality in Sweden, 1931-1980. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 64, No. 7, 1985. 583-92 pp. Umea, Sweden. In Eng.
A review of trends in maternal mortality in Sweden from 1931 to 1980 is presented. The reasons for the steep decline observed are discussed. "A decreasing incidence of complications during pregnancy and delivery, together with a lower case fatality rate from complications have been found to account for the major part of the reduction in maternal mortality in Sweden. This has been achieved by improvements in obstetrical and antenatal care, by the introduction of antibiotics and blood transfusion, and by a favorable shift to more appropriate ages for reproduction."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20234 Hoogendoorn, D. The death certificate form. [Het formulier voor de verklaring van de doodsoorzaak.] Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Vol. 129, No. 30, Jul 27, 1985. 1,429-31 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Dut.
The author examines how the form currently used in the Netherlands to report data on causes of death can be improved. The focus is on making it more user-friendly.
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:20235 Huff-Corzine, Lin; Corzine, Jay; Moore, David C. Southern exposure: deciphering the South's influence on homicide rates. Social Forces, Vol. 64, No. 4, Jun 1986. 906-24 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
The alternative theories that have been developed to explain the higher homicide rates occurring in the southern part of the United States are reviewed. The authors use ordinary least squares and ridge regression techniques to analyze state homicide rates for total populations, whites, and nonwhites. "Our findings show homicides for total populations and whites to be influenced by both poverty and regional differences. Among nonwhites, however, poverty is not related to the homicide rate, and the presumed effect of southern culture depends on the measurement adopted. The results lend support to arguments that the high homicide rates of white southerners and blacks reflect, in part, subcultural differences."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20236 Hughes, Kenneth. Trends in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Singapore, 1959 to 1983. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1986. 44-50 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
Mortality from ischemic heart disease in Singapore is analyzed using official data for the period 1959-1983. The results indicate that "the age- standardized rates for ages 30 to 69 years increased in men from 106.8 per 100,000 in 1959-1963 to 204.5 in 1979-1983, while for women they increased from 30.7 to 72.0 per 100,000." They also show, however, that a decline in mortality from this cause has started among the youngest cohorts.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20237 Imaizumi, Yoko. Statistical analysis of mental disorders in Japan. Part 4. Mortality rate of affective psychoses. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 177, Jan 1986. 14-26 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The death rate from affective psychoses in Japan is analyzed using official data for the period 1947-1978. Variations in mortality by age, marital status, and geographic region are noted. Consideration is also given to the effect of population density and the physician-population ratio.
For Part 3, published in 1984, see 50:30231.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20238 Khan, Atiqur R.; Jahan, Farida A.; Begum, S. Firoza; Jalil, Khalid. Maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh. World Health Forum, Vol. 6, No. 4, 1985. 325-8 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
In a study conducted in 1982- 1983, the authors used information recorded by traditional birth attendants concerning births and maternal deaths in the Jamalpur district of Bangladesh. The results show that "maternal mortality was found to be 6.23 per 1,000 live births. The women most at risk were those aged 35 and over and those with five or more children. A high standard of care for all women through training of traditional birth attendants, appropriate back-up services, and provision of family planning could significantly reduce the present high maternal mortality."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20239 Khan, Atiqur R.; Jahan, Farida A.; Begum, S. Firoza. Maternal mortality in rural Bangladesh: the Jamalpur district. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 17, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 7- 12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Maternal mortality in the Jamalpur district of Bangladesh is analyzed using data for 1982-1983 collected as part of the demographic surveillance system in Matlab thana. The data concern 9,317 live births and 58 maternal deaths. The results show that "maternal mortality was positively related to maternal age and parity, with the mortality risk rising very sharply beyond age 35 years, and beyond parity four among women aged 25-34 years in particular. The most common causes of maternal death were eclampsia (20.7 percent), septic abortion (20.7 percent), postpartum sepsis (10.3 percent), obstructed labor (10.3 percent), and antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage (10.3 percent)."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20240 Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wysocki, Miroslaw. The relation of thirteen-year mortality to ventilatory impairment and other respiratory symptoms: the Cracow study. International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 15, No. 1, Mar 1986. 56-64 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The relationship between mortality and ventilatory impairment and other respiratory symptoms is examined using data on 3,047 individuals followed-up after a 13-year interval in Krakow, Poland. "The results confirm the strong predictive power of ventilatory impairment for overall and circulatory mortality, even after adjustment for age, cigarette smoking and other factors in logistic regression models."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20241 La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano. Correlations between cancer mortality rates from various Italian regions. Tumori, Vol. 71, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 441-8 pp. Milan, Italy. In Eng.
"Death certification rates from 17 non-sexual and 4 sexual cancers were used to examine patterns of correlation between various cancers within the 20 Italian regions. A large number of strongly positive correlations emerged, reflecting the geographical distribution of cancer mortality in Italy which shows substantially higher rates for several common sites in northern areas."
Significant results include "the high positive correlations between various tobacco-related cancers in both sexes (however somewhat higher in males), the positive correlations between most intestinal sites and between a well defined group of other cancers including intestines in both sexes, breast and ovary in females and prostate in males, previously described in several widely heterogeneous populations. Various alcohol-related cancers showed high positive coefficients in males but not in females."
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20242 La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano. Trends in ischemic heart disease mortality in Italy, 1968-78. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 4, Apr 1986. 454-6 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Trends in ischemic heart disease mortality in Italy from 1968 to 1978 are reviewed by age and sex using official data. The results show that "female heart disease mortality decreased in all age groups up to age 79, with an average annual rate of decline in the 35-74 age- standardized rate of over 0.7 per cent. In males, age-specific death rates in some age groups were stable or increased moderately, but in middle-aged (50 to 59) males there was a consistent increase so that the rise in the 35-74 age standardized male death rate was approximately 1 per cent per year."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20243 Mercer, A. J. Relative trends in mortality from related respiratory and airborne infectious diseases. Population Studies, Vol. 40, No. 1, Mar 1986. 129-45 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Relative trends in mortality from respiratory and airborne infectious diseases are examined "in view of their contemporary relevance and because of certain inconsistencies in previous explanations of the trends. Death rates from the mid-nineteenth century can be established for specific diseases from registration data for England and Wales, and some comparisons are possible with other European countries."
The author notes "a marked contrast between diseases which became less important from the eighteenth century...and increases in death rates at different times during the second half of the nineteenth century for measles, diphtheria, cholera, croup and diarrhoeal disease among infants. Thus, deaths from smallpox and consumption appear to have been declining throughout the nineteenth century in contrast with a continuingly high childhood mortality from measles, which could be taken as an indicator of continuing inadequate nutrition among large sections of the population."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20244 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Suicide: an update. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1986. 16-23 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Recent trends in suicide mortality in the United States are reviewed. It is noted that "suicide is the eighth leading cause of death in the United States and accounts for almost two percent of all deaths." It is also noted that the number of suicides has remained steady over the past three years. Age, sex, race, and geographic variations in these trends are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20245 Molineaux, Louis. The impact of parasitic diseases and their control, with an emphasis on malaria and Africa. In: Health policy, social policy and mortality prospects, edited by Jacques Vallin and Alan D. Lopez. ISBN 2-87040-035-7. 1985. 13-44 pp. Ordina Editions: Liege, Belgium; International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]: Liege, Belgium. In Eng.
This is a review of some of the published literature concerning parasitic diseases and their control and the impact on mortality. The author first discusses studies dealing with malaria eradication programs in Sri Lanka, Guyana, and Latin America from the 1930s through the 1960s. Attention is then given to research projects that were carried out in Tanzania, Kenya, and Nigeria. Discussions of mortality from other parasitic diseases and the prospects for control are included. The author concludes that the information concerning the impact of parasitic diseases and their control on mortality is deficient.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20246 Schulz, Ingolf; Radoschewski, Michael. Assessment of mortality in the German Democratic Republic in 1982 using causes of death to compute life expectancy. [Zur Einschatzung der Mortalitat in der DDR im Jahre 1982 mittels todesursachenspezifischer Verluste an potentiellen Lebensjahren.] Zeitschrift fur Arztliche Fortbildung, Vol. 79, No. 10, 1985. 415-8 pp. Jena, German Democratic Republic. In Ger.
Life tables for specific causes of death are used as a basis for calculating potential years of life lost. The method is applied to data for the German Democratic Republic in 1982.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20247 Srp, B.; Strupplova, J. Maternal mortality in the Czech Socialist Republic, 1978-1982. [Materska umrtnost v CSR v letech 1978-1982.] Ceskoslovenska Gynekologie, Vol. 50, No. 8, Sep 1985. 569-75 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze.
Recent trends in maternal mortality in the Czech part of Czechoslovakia are reviewed for the period 1978-1982. The data are presented by region and cause of death.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20248 Thouez, J. P.; Ghadirian, P. The geographical relationships among mortality from cancer of the esophagus, cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol, and tobacco: the case of the province of Quebec. [Relations geographiques entre la mortalite par cancer de l'oesophage, la cirrhose du foie, l'alcool et le tabac: le cas de la province de Quebec.] Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 6, 1986. 611-8 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This study concerns the geographical relationships between alcohol consumption per capita; smoking and death from cirrhosis of the liver and cancer of the oesophagus in persons of 15 years old and over in Quebec [Canada]. First, the geographical distribution of variables is analysed. Secondly, we have used methods of correlation and regression in order to evaluate their relation to each other. In the latest case we have chosen the logistic regression model to investigate the simultaneous effects of alcohol and tobacco."
The results indicate a significant relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality from cirrhosis of the liver, but no such relationship for esophageal cancer.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:20249 Trovato, Frank. The relationship between marital dissolution and suicide: the Canadian case. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 48, No. 2, May 1986. 341-8 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
A multivariate methodology is applied to test "the hypothesis that provinces with high levels of divorce experience increased rates of suicide. Aggregate data for Canada's provinces and territories for 1971 and 1978 provide strong support for this prediction, thus indicating similarity in patterns with the United States." The author employs the following control variables in a multiple regression analysis: percentage of population with university education, percentage Roman Catholic, the interprovince immigration rate, and the provincial marriage rate. The results are compared to previous findings for the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:20250 Tsutakawa, Robert K.; Shoop, Gary L.; Marienfeld, Carl J. Empirical Bayes estimation of cancer mortality rates. Statistics in Medicine, Vol. 4, No. 2, Apr-Jun 1985. 201-12 pp. Chichester, England. In Eng.
An empirical Bayes method is used to obtain adjusted rates of cancer mortality that are more stable for use in comparisons among cities and to predict future mortality trends. The method is illustrated using data on stomach and bladder cancers in Missouri cities.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:20251 Wrigley, J. Michael; Nam, Charles B. Differential cancer mortality at the older ages: comparison of rates based on underlying and multiple-cause designations. Center for the Study of Population Working Paper, No. WPS 86-28, 1986. 8, [3] pp. Florida State University, College of Social Sciences, Center for the Study of Population: Tallahassee, Florida. In Eng.
The authors contrast measurements of cancer mortality derived from single-underlying-cause statistics and from the total mentions method as an introduction to an intended comparative analysis involving multiple-causes-of-death measurements. The total mentions method takes into account all mentions of a cause on death certificates and includes all cases where a particular condition was present at the time of death. The authors "focus on sex, race, and age differentials in cancer mortality, among those 45 and over in Florida [in 1980], and examine the nature of such differentials when the total mentions concept is used as compared with the underlying cause concept."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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