Volume 52 - Number 1 - Spring 1986

H. Migration

Studies that treat quantitative data on migration analytically. Methodological studies concerned primarily with migration are coded in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , as appropriate. Includes some consideration of policy aspects, but studies relating primarily to policies designed to affect migration are coded under M.3. Measures Affecting Migration .

H.1. General Migration

Studies that concern both international and internal migration.

52:10452 Baydar, Nazli. Analysis of migration histories with special reference to the ESCAP National Migration Surveys. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 63, Sep 1985. ix, 56 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"This paper reviews the methods of analysis of migration histories. We assume that migrations are the observable outcomes of a dynamic process. The characteristics and the covariates of the process can be estimated from the migration history data. The maximum likelihood methods provide the researchers with a modeling tool that can handle longitudinal data. The properties of the data from the ESCAP National Migration Surveys are of special concern to this paper. The potential problems that may arise during the analysis of the ESCAP survey data are discussed in detail."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10453 Bustamante, Jorge A. Internal and international migration and income distribution: the northern frontier of Mexico. [Migracion interna e internacional y distribucion del ingreso: la frontera norte de Mexico.] Comercio Exterior, Vol. 34, No. 9, Sep 1984. 849-63 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Spa.
Migration trends in the north of Mexico are analyzed. Data are from a survey of 1,326 Mexican migrants in three U.S. cities and a survey of 2,320 individuals in the frontier zones of Mexico, both of which were carried out in 1982. Both international and internal migration are considered. The focus is on the relationship between migration and inequalities in income distribution.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10454 Findley, Sally E.; De Jong, Gordon F. Community and family factors influencing family migration in Ilocos Norte. PSTC Reprint Series, No. 86-03, 1986. [27] pp. Brown University, Population Studies and Training Center: Providence, Rhode Island. In Eng.
"This paper presents the results of an empirical test of a multilevel model of migration behavior in Ilocos Norte, the Philippines. It distinguishes families with any form of migration from those who have not adopted a form of migration, and shows how migration behavior is jointly determined by both family economic concerns and community social and economic structure." Data are for a sample of 4,000 individuals included in the Philippine Migration Survey and reinterviewed in 1982.
This paper was previously published in Philippine Population Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 18-44; a version was also presented at the 1985 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 51, No. 3, Fall 1985, p. 416).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10455 Gabriel, Stuart A.; Sabatello, Eitan F. Palestinian migration from the West Bank and Gaza: economic and demographic analyses. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jan 1986. 245-62 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
The authors analyze aspects of Palestinian demographic change in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip during the years 1922-1982. "The research is initiated in Section II with a brief historical overview of demographic change in the territories, including comparison of fertility, natality, and mortality during periods of Jordanian and Israeli administration. Section III focuses on composition, destination, and local demographic impacts of Palestinian migration. In Section IV, econometric evaluation of migratory determinants is undertaken." Data are from official Jordanian, Kuwaiti, Israeli, and Palestinian sources and from other published literature.
The significance of migration in explaining demographic trends in the region is noted. Migratory movements in the wake of the 1948 and 1967 wars are shown to be similar in magnitude to those observed during periods of relative political stability. The authors also suggest that "consumption patterns, housing development, and indices of employment opportunity in local and foreign labor markets are highly significant in an explanation of Palestinian emigration over the post-1967 period." Population growth forecasts and policy implications are briefly considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:10456 Grundy, Emily. Divorce, widowhood, remarriage and geographic mobility among women. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 415-35 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from the 1971 Census records included in the OPCS Longitudinal Study were used to examine the relationship between geographic mobility and marriage termination and remarriage [in England and Wales]. Remarried women had high rates of mobility and there seemed to be a clear 'excess' of moves made around the time of remarriage, shortly after the end of the first marriage. There was a suggestion too of a peak in movements following widowhood but no indication of excess movement at the time of de jure divorce."
In addition, "data from linked 1971-81 Census information showed that changes of marital status were strongly associated with changes of tenure. Other characteristics of divorced, widowed and remarried women were also examined to see how they might affect their patterns of geographic movement."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10457 Hauser, Philip M.; Suits, Daniel B.; Ogawa, Naohiro. Urbanization and migration in ASEAN development. ISBN 0-8248- 0996-3. 1985. xiv, 496 pp. National Institute for Research Advancement: Tokyo, Japan. In Eng.
This book is a product of a conference on migration and development in southeastern Asia, held in Tokyo, Japan, October 20- 26, 1982. The focus of the papers is on the impact of migration, including urbanization, on various aspects of development, including agricultural, industrial, population distribution, and urban policies. The papers, which are by various authors, are grouped under geographical headings, including a regional section, and sections on Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Most of the data on which the papers are based are from the 1980 census round.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10458 Katz, Eliakim; Stark, Oded. Labor mobility under asymmetric information with moving and signalling costs. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 21, Dec 1985. 10 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Information about the true skill level of individual workers may not flow freely across labor markets or between firms, and though available to the workers themselves may not be equally available to some employers. Consequently, the level and composition of labor mobility is affected. In this paper [the authors] derive some results concerning the impact of moving costs in conjunction with informational asymmetry upon the level of labor mobility, the skill level of those who move and the effect upon both these variables of costly signalling."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10459 Khalaf, Nadim G. Population movements and the Lebanese conflict. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 529-60 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
"This paper has three specific objectives: to make available recently prepared manpower estimates on changes in the level and structure of employment of the Lebanese Labour Force; to assess and analyze the [effects] of the Lebanese Conflict (the 1975- 76 events) on manpower movements and labour market conditions; and to explore briefly some manpower aspects of eventual economic reconstruction and long term development in Lebanon." Data concern the period 1970-1979 and are from published sources, social security registrations, and immigration information.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10460 Lindsay, Beverly. African migration and national development. ISBN 0-271-00383-9. LC 85-6463. 1985. xii, 180 pp. Pennsylvania State University Press: University Park, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
The purpose of this book, which consists of several articles by different authors, is to "provide an analytical overview of the nexus among the economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of migration and national development in Subsaharan Africa. Particular attention is devoted to the role of voluntary labor or employment migration (for the purpose of wage employment) since job-seeking is a dominant reason for migration. Although less prevalent, commercial migration (for the purpose of business opportunity) is also discussed as a form of voluntary movement."
An introduction to the relationship between national development and migration and a historical overview of labor migration in the subcontinent since the colonial period are first presented. Particular aspects of African migration are then discussed, including Yoruban migration in West Africa, restraints on emigration from rural villages in Mali, socioeconomic factors involved in the migration of Zambian women to Lusaka, health care among migrant workers in Lesotho, the influence of Senegal's educational system on the rural exodus, and the implications for economic development of the regional distribution of Kenya's population. Similarities among the specific subjects are highlighted in the final chapter.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10461 Oldakowski, Raymond K.; Roseman, Curtis C. The development of migration expectations: changes throughout the lifecourse. Journal of Gerontology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Mar 1986. 290-5 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relative influence of factors that determine the expectations of individuals concerning migration over the course of their lives is examined using data collected in Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. "Factors representing personal characteristics, ties to origin, and ties to potential destinations were used to discriminate between expected migrants and nonmigrants in three population subgroups representing different stages of life. These subgroups included a general adult population, a preretirement population, and an elderly population."
The findings show "that personal characteristics are most influential among preretirement persons, ties to origin are most influential among the general and elderly populations, and ties to potential destinations are influential among all population subgroups."
Location: Princeton University Library (SW).

52:10462 Organization of American States [OAS] (Washington, D.C.). Labor migration in Chile. [Las migraciones laborales en Chile.] Migraciones Laborales en America Latina: Diagnostico Demografico, ISBN 0-8270-2083-X. 1985. vi, 92 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This report, which is concerned with labor migration affecting Chile, is one in a series done under a joint project of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Spanish government, and the Intergovernmental Committee on Migration. The first part deals with socioeconomic development and regional demographic comparisons. The second part concerns internal migration. The third part deals with immigration into Chile between 1800 and 1970. The fourth part covers emigration from Chile, especially to Argentina and the United States, and includes information on occupational characteristics and the labor force.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10463 Organization of American States [OAS] (Washington, D.C.). Labor migration in Colombia. [Las migraciones laborales en Colombia.] Migraciones Laborales en America Latina: Diagnostico Demografico, ISBN 0-8270-2225- 5. 1985. x, 121 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This report, which is concerned with labor migration affecting Colombia, is one in a series done under a joint project of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Spanish government, and the Intergovernmental committee on Migration. The first part deals with immigration into Colombia. The second part concerns internal migration, urbanization, the rural exodus, unemployment, and the emigration of Colombians to Venezuela and the United States. The third part deals with frontier migration and labor markets for frontier colonization, commercial cultivation, and urbanization. The fourth part concerns policies affecting labor migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10464 Organization of American States [OAS] (Washington, D.C.). Labor migration in Venezuela. [Las migraciones laborales en Venezuela.] Migraciones Laborales en America Latina: Diagnostico Demografico, ISBN 0-8270-2180- 1. 1985. x, 85 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This report, which is concerned with labor migration affecting Venezuela, is one in a series done under a joint project of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Spanish government, and the Intergovernmental Committee on Migration.
The first part of the present study covers Venezuelan migration from colonization to the end of the nineteenth century. The second part deals with 1900- 1945, a period of oil boom, agricultural stagnation, and rural exodus. The third part covers 1946-1959 and the massive postwar immigration. The fourth section deals with internal and international migration during the 1960s. In the fifth part, the situation during the 1970s is discussed, including the impact of changes in oil prices, the effects of alien immigrants on Venezuelan society, and labor migration policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10465 Pastor, Robert A. Migration and development in the Caribbean: the unexplored connection. Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean, ISBN 0-8133-7056-6. LC 85-3246. 1985. xxii, 455 pp. Westview Press: Boulder, Colorado/London, England. In Eng.
This book consists of 19 papers by different authors, which were discussed at a conference held at the Wye Center in Maryland in September 1984. The focus is on the relationship between migration and economic development in the Caribbean. The general approach is interdisciplinary, and the overall objective is to analyze and recommend migration and development policies for the United States, the Caribbean governments involved, and international development organizations.
The papers are organized under the following general headings: the impact of development on migration; the impact of emigration on development, which includes case studies on the Eastern Caribbean, Jamaica, and Hispaniola; the impact on development of different types of migration, including return migration, temporary worker programs in Florida, illegal migration to the United States, and migration to the Caribbean; Caribbean policies on migration and development; policy options for the United States; and a synthesis of theory and policy.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10466 Standing, Guy. Measuring population mobility in migration surveys. ISBN 92-2-103463-1. May 1983. iii, 55 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
The author attempts to complement a recent effort to present a systematic set of concepts for use in examining the diverse forms of mobility and immobility by developing two modules of questions for surveys that cover migration behavior. Suggested questions for inclusion in household-type surveys and individual-type surveys are presented, and ways of using these questions to create the principal concepts involved are discussed.
For a related study, published by the same author in 1981, see 48:10555.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10467 Stark, Oded. Marriage and migration. Migration and Development Program Discussion Paper, No. 22, Feb 1986. 22 pp. Harvard University, Center for Population Studies, Migration and Development Program: Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
"Marriage, migration and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly....[The author explores] the role of migration in obtaining joint labour market and marriage market equilibrium. This facilitates identification of several novel and testable hypotheses."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10468 Tziafetas, G.; Tzougas, J. International migration in Greece: statistical results. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/ Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1985. 523-36 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of some socio-economic factors affecting immigration in Greece and the relation of these factors to those affecting internal migration and the migration process as a whole." An econometric model is elaborated using data for 1981. The findings show that standard of living and other socioeconomic factors play an important role in the decision to migrate, particularly in the case of internal migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10469 Willekens, Frans. Migration and development: a micro-perspective. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 62, Aug 1985. v, 18 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
Focusing on such factors as individual choices relative to income, education, environment, marriage, and retirement, the author asserts that "migration may be viewed as a dynamic choice problem in a life cycle perspective." The micro-perspective is used to connect decisions at the individual level with population developments at the societal level. Implications for policies aimed at controlling migration are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.2. International Migration

Studies concerned with international migration, including the brain drain.

52:10470 Abdel Jaber, Tayseer. Trends and prospects of brain drain from Arab countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 779-90 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In this consideration of the brain drain from Arab countries, a distinction is made between movement from one Arab country to another, which is likely to be temporary, and movement to industrialized countries, which is likely to be permanent. The author discusses recent international statements concerning an Arab brain drain, government policies involving inducements to stay or restrictions on leaving, conditions in Gulf countries that induce Arabs to return from industrial countries, political instability and socioeconomic conditions encouraging emigration, and the relative importance of professionals and technicians in the Arab labor market.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10471 Abou-Gamrah, Hamed. National surveys of international migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 313-31 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Stressing the increasing importance of international migration for the Arab countries of Western Asia, the author first evaluates various sources of migration data. Collection of information at border crossings, population registration, and field inquiries such as censuses and surveys are considered. The purposes and merits of specialized national surveys of international migration are then discussed; suggestions for procedures that might be followed for such surveys are also presented. A brief examination of the kinds of migration information currently collected through the censuses of these Western Asian countries, as well as Egypt, is included.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10472 Badran, Nabil. Palestinian migration: trends and socio-economic consequences. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 489-528 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Trends in Palestinian migration since 1948 are discussed. The author notes that movement was initially to Arab countries that bordered Palestine and subsequently to the oil- producing Gulf countries. Motivated by the dual purposes of retaining Palestinian identity through the establishment of Palestinian communities and securing advantageous employment, Palestinians relocated in large groups to places of employment. Data from official government publications, the Palestinian Liberation Organization, and other published sources are used to show the growth and distribution of the Palestinian population to the present time.
In concluding, the author considers ways in which the socioeconomic success of Palestinian migration affects the Palestinian national cause, namely, return to the Palestinian homeland.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10473 Beauge, Gilbert; Sader, Makram. The pattern of employment, migration and labour in the Gulf countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 441-71 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In this study of migrant workers in the oil-producing countries of Western Asia, consideration is given to factors affecting the demand for foreign labor, the development of new migration streams, and the broad range of jobs for which foreign labor is necessary. Special attention is given to the differentiation of migrant workers by nationality into separate areas of employment. Rejecting the results of recent research that focuses on an equilibrium between labor supply and demand, the authors instead identify four mechanisms for labor allocation in the Gulf countries that, taken together, may be used to explain the distribution of workers by nationality. Appendixes show the hierarchy by nationality in certain sectors of the Saudi Arabian economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10474 Bertoncello, Rodolfo; Lattes, Alfredo E.; Moyano, Cesar; Schkolnik, Susana. Argentine emigration. [Los Argentinos en el exterior.] Sep 1985. 48 pp. Centro de Estudios de Poblacion [CENEP]: Buenos Aires, Argentina; United Nations Research Institute for Social Development [UNRISD]: Buenos Aires, Argentina. In Spa.
An attempt is made to estimate the extent of recent emigration from Argentina and to describe the characteristics of the emigrants, including sex, age, educational status, marital status, and occupation, and their countries of residence. Data are from a variety of sources, including official national sources and published secondary sources from selected countries. The volume and characteristics of this emigration are described, with the focus on the period 1960-1980.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10475 Beshai, Adel A. The idea of compensation: a reappraisal. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 1,129-41 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The author critically examines arguments concerning the compensation principle of international migration and focuses the discussion primarily on explanations presented by S. Bhagwati and Herbert Grubel. The concept of compensation, which is based on an interpretation of international migration according to the pure theory of trade, postulates that countries of origin sustain a loss and countries of destination, a gain in the international movement of highly skilled and professional workers. The author first finds fault with specific assumptions underlying the compensation principle and then concludes that "the broad picture that emerges is one which makes one feel that the brain drain issue may at least be exaggerated."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10476 Bidegain, Gabriel; Pellegrino, Adela. The immigrant woman in Venezuela. [La mujer inmigrante en Venezuela.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 18, Nov 1985. 16 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Data from a 1981 survey of migration in Venezuela and from other sources are analyzed to estimate the total number of female immigrants and their place of birth, reason for migrating, age, marital status, family status, education, economic activity, occupation, and integration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10477 Birks, J. S.; Sinclair, C. A. The socio-economic determinants of intra-regional migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 733- 52 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
International migration to the Arab regions of North Africa and Western Asia during the period 1975- 1980 is studied, with particular attention given to intra-regional migration. Data are from a 1980 International Labour Office study, previously published work of the authors, and central bank publications from the countries concerned. Specific consideration is given to the cases of Jordan and Yemen.
Migration patterns noted between 1975 and 1980 include the development of secondary labor markets, the redirection of migration streams away from Europe, the persistent predominance of Indians and Pakistanis among the migrants, the growing number of migrants from East and Southeast Asia, the stabilization of the proportion of Arab migrants, and settling, which implies population redistribution in the Arab countries. The authors note that as wealth has increased among migrants, money is no longer the sole motivator of migration. Leisure, security of income, education, and health services are now significant determinants as well.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10478 Bohmer, Jochen. Turkish migrant workers and labor migration: emigration, return migration, investment behavior, and rural development. [Arbeitsemigration turkischer Gastarbeiter: Abwanderung, Ruckwanderung, Investitionsverhalten und landliche Entwicklung.] Orient, Vol. 25, No. 4, Dec 1984. 537-50, 612 pp. Hamburg, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger. with sum. in Eng.
The results of a study of emigration and return migration, conducted in the rural district of Esme, Turkey, are presented. Consideration is given to the impact of migrant savings and returning migrants' skills on economic development in the region of origin.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

52:10479 Chamie, Joseph. International migration and population growth in the ECWA countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 863- 903 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The effects of international migration on population growth in the member countries of the U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA] since the 1930s are analyzed, with particular attention to the period after 1970. Data are primarily from censuses, but data from other surveys and registrations are also used. For each country, the author includes percentage of nonnationals in the total population, percentage of nationals living abroad, age and sex distribution and natural growth rates for both national and nonnational populations, and projections of five possible nonnational and national population growth patterns through the year 2000. Both in-migration and out-migration are shown to be significant factors affecting population growth in the region.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10480 Chekir, Hafedh; Garson, Jean-Pierre. North African migration to the Arabian Gulf. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 193-241 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Trends in current and potential migration of North African workers to the Persian Gulf countries of Bahrain, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia are discussed. Aspects considered include the implications for North African workers of recent restrictions on immigration in European countries, kinds of employment opportunities available in the Gulf countries, the suitability of North African workers for these jobs, immigration policies in the Gulf countries, and the probability of North African workers migrating directly from North Africa or secondarily from Europe.
It is concluded that employment opportunities for skilled workers exist in the Gulf countries; however, the reluctance of most Gulf countries to increase their permanent immigrant populations is a significant obstacle to increased migration of North African workers to these countries. Migration statistics, presented in tabular form, and representative legislation concerning the employment of aliens in Gulf countries are contained in two appendixes.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10481 Conde, Julien. The future of international migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 55-89 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In the first section of this paper, international migration trends in the twentieth century are reviewed. It is suggested that migration patterns have changed since 1950, so that movement from underdeveloped countries to industrialized or oil-producing countries now predominates. Attention is given to the ecological, social, political, economic, and demographic factors influencing migration; economic factors are shown to exert the strongest influence. In the second section of the paper, recent significant migration streams throughout the world are identified. In the final section, four possible patterns of future world development are described, and the implications for international migration are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10482 Connor, Walker. Mexican-Americans in comparative perspective. An Urban Institute Book, ISBN 0-87766-389-0. LC 85-11052. 1985. xxvii, 373 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a collection of 13 papers presented at a conference held in Los Angeles, California, March 14-16, 1984, to assess the effects of recent Mexican immigration on the economic, educational, social, political, and linguistic systems of the United States. Perspectives from the fields of anthropology, demography, education, law, linguistics, political science, psychology, and sociology are included in the comparative analysis of Mexican Americans. Among the topics covered are migration theory and practice; trans-border peoples; ethnicity and political mobilization; acculturation and assimilation in the United States; conflict management in a multiethnic society; ethnicity and stratification; language, identity, and political loyalty; and language policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10483 Cuddy, Dennis L. Contemporary American immigration: interpretive essays (European). Immigrant Heritage of America Series, ISBN 0-8057-8421-7. LC 81-7118. 1982. 223 pp. Twayne: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This collection of essays on contemporary European immigration to the United States is one of two volumes, the other of which deals with non-European immigration. The nine papers in the present volume deal with migration from Italy, Ireland, Poland, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Lithuania, and Britain. Each essay attempts to cover similar topics, including the history of migration, motives for leaving, reasons for choosing the United States as a destination, initial impressions and subsequent satisfaction with life in the United States, and the possibility of return migration.
For a related volume by the same author concerning non-European immigration, also published in 1982, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10484 Cuddy, Dennis L. Contemporary American immigration: interpretive essays (non-European). Immigrant Heritage of America Series, ISBN 0-8057-8420-9. LC 81-7130. 1982. 267 pp. Twayne: Boston, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This collection of essays is concerned with contemporary immigration to the United States from areas other than Europe. The 10 papers deal with Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, Japanese, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Canadian, black, Arab, and Australian immigration. Each essay attempts to cover the same topics, including the history of migration, motives for leaving, reasons for choosing the United States as a destination, initial impressions and subsequent satisfaction with life in the United States, and the possibility of return migration.
For a related volume by the same author concerning European immigration, also published in 1982, see elsewhere in this issue.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10485 Davis, Kingsley. International inequality and migration in the Middle East and North Africa: an analysis of trends and issues. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 15-53 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Population trends in the Middle East and North Africa between 1950 and 1980 are examined, with particular emphasis on the effects of international migration. Data are from U.N. publications and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Patterns of population growth and net migration rates are first presented for both rich and poor countries. The author then focuses on several of the oil-rich countries, comparing native and nonnative populations by age, sex, fertility, and labor force participation. It is concluded that if rapid development continues in these oil-rich countries, the majority of their populations will be nonnative before 1990. Some implications of this finding are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10486 Dekkers, A. J. M.; Kiujper, H. External migration in 1984. [Buitenlandse migratie in 1984.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 34, No. 1, Jan 1986. 28-54 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data are presented on international migration to and from the Netherlands in 1984. The data concern those persons added to or subtracted from the country's population register. Migrant characteristics are analyzed by age, marital status, and province of arrival or departure.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10487 Djajic, Slobodan. Skills and the pattern of international migration. Institute for Economic Research Discussion Paper, Rev. ed. No. 612, Jun 1985. 34 pp. Queen's University, Institute for Economic Research: Kingston, Canada. In Eng.
"This paper develops a simple two- country model of international migration. By distinguishing individuals in terms of their ability and age, the model enables us to examine not only the equilibrium flow of migrants and the pattern of factor rewards in the two economies, but also the factors which determine the skill and age profile of those who migrate. In addition, the effects of both qualitative and quantitative restrictions on immigration are analysed within a general-equilibrium framework. The role of an emigration tax and how it interacts with the immigration policy of the labor-importing country is also considered."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10488 Emke-Poulopoulos, Era. Problems of emigration and return migration. [Problemata metanasteuses palinnosteses.] 1986. 638 pp. Institouto Meletes tes Ellenikes Oikonomias: Athens, Greece; Ellenike Etaireia Demographikon Meleton: Athens, Greece. In Gre. with sum. in Eng.
The problems associated with emigration and return migration in Greece since 1890 are explored. The basic concepts and institutional framework in which this migration has occurred are first introduced. Variations in migration trends over time are then described. Next, characteristics of migrants are considered, as well as place of origin and destination. A chapter is included on migration theory. Political, macroeconomic, and macro-sociological factors affecting migration are also discussed, with particular reference to the differences between the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors.
The next part of the book deals with return migration. Consideration is given to factors in receiving countries that have increased pressures for migrants to return to their country of origin, and to factors in Greece that have encouraged such movements. The effects of these migrations on employment, production, foreign exchange flows, skills and training, and population structure are emphasized. The effects of migration and return on the individuals concerned are also considered. The problems of second generation migrants are examined, and policy issues are reviewed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10489 Erel, Shlomo. New roots: 50 years of immigration of German-speaking Jews to Israel. [Neue Wurzeln: 50 Jahre Immigration deutschsprachiger Juden in Israel.] ISBN 3-88350-601-X. 1983. 312 pp. Bleicher: Gerlingen, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This book focuses on the immigration of German-speaking Jews to Israel, their problems of adaptation, and their contributions to Israeli society. The emphasis is on Jewish emigration from Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia between 1919 and 1951, with particular reference to the mass emigration that began when the Nazi movement came to power in 1933. The book is based on various written sources and personal interviews. Topics discussed include the contribution of German-speaking Jews in areas such as academic life, medicine, the press, and politics.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10490 Ethier, Wilfred J. Illegal immigration: the host-country problem. American Economic Review, Vol. 76, No. 1, Mar 1986. 56-71 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
Some theoretical aspects of international migration are explored, with a focus on the illegal migration of unskilled workers to the United States. The emphasis is on the implications for U.S. immigration policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10491 Fein, Aharon. The rate of emigration from Israel. Forum, No. 53, Fall 1984. 53-60 pp. Jerusalem, Israel. In Eng.
The author first comments on the politically sensitive aspect of emigration estimates for Israel. Total Israeli emigration rates between 1948 and 1983 are then calculated, and the method of measurement is outlined. Data are from official Israeli and U.S. sources and from published articles.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

52:10492 Glazer, Nathan. Clamor at the gates: the new American immigration. ISBN 0-917616-70-7. LC 85-175. 1985. ix, 337 pp. ICS Press: San Francisco, California. In Eng.
This book consists of papers by various authors on aspects of recent immigration to the United States. The first section includes four papers concerning immigration policy; this is followed by a section on the economic impact of immigration on resident Americans. Three papers on immigrant assimilation are then presented. In a final section, the authors discuss the significance of international borders, national sovereignty, and citizenship; the problems of mass expulsions; and recent changes in the laws affecting the status of the alien and the citizen.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10493 Grimmeau, J. P. Sixty years of foreign immigration in Belgium. [Soixante ans d'immigration etrangere en Belgique.] Annee Sociale, No. 1, Jan-Apr 1984. 214-21 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Immigration to Belgium over the past 60 years is reviewed using official data. Four distinct periods of immigration are identified: the period between the wars, 1945 to 1958, 1961 to 1966, and the period since 1967. The problems associated with measuring not only migratory movements but the natural increase of the immigrant population are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10494 Heisel, Donald F. Theories of international migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 653-84 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Different theories of international migration are reviewed in five sections according to the particular aspect of migration emphasized, with studies at the macro- and micro-levels discussed separately within each section. The five categories considered are demographic, geographic, economic, social, and legal-political. The author concludes that theoretical work organized around one of these factors, but with reference to the others, is most likely to yield the best results. He also emphasizes that constant attention to changing patterns and issues is needed for such work to remain relevant.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10495 Hill, Ken. The use of census data for estimating international migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 283-311 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
This paper assesses the usefulness of selected census data in estimating international migration. Consideration is given to the problems to be expected when using data on age and sex, birthplace, nationality, residence a specified number of years ago, duration of residence, and residence of relatives. The author illustrates some of these problems by using data from the Kuwaiti censuses of 1965 and 1970 to develop net international migration estimates for Kuwait. Some advantages of using data from two censuses are also demonstrated. The author concludes that census data can be used to give reasonable estimates of immigration but not of emigration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10496 Ishow, Habib. Changes in the population of Kuwait and their socioeconomic and political consequences. [L'evolution de la population du Koweit et ses consequences socio-economiques et politiques.] Afrique et l'Asie Modernes, No. 145, Summer 1985. 33-55 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
The evolution of the population of Kuwait since the beginning of the exploitation of oil in 1946 is examined, with particular emphasis on the years 1957-1975. Official statistics are presented concerning the structure of the population by native or nonative status, nationality, and sex. The data show that since 1965 foreigners have constituted a majority of the country's population. Figures are also included concerning the distribution of the native and nonnative labor force among the various types of economic activity. The economic, social, and political consequences for Kuwait of this recent immigration are then considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SY).

52:10497 Katanani, Ahmad K. Economic alternative to migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 1,143-64 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The migration of workers from labor-rich to capital-rich countries, with particular reference to Arab countries, is considered from two points of view. The assumption is first made that present patterns of migration will continue. Systems of compensation, taxation, and remittances that might increase the benefits to the sending countries are also discussed. Available alternatives to migration are then considered, in the event that migration should stop. Most important among these alternatives are the development of labor-intensive production systems for labor-rich countries, the replacement of labor with capital, and the foreign investment of capital for capital-rich countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10498 Khoury, Munir. The socio-cultural effects of intraregional migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 591-623 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The social and cultural effects of the migration of Arabs and Asians to the oil-producing Arab countries are discussed. The following factors are considered to have social, or short-term effects: number, age and sex distribution, and nationality of migrants; the temporary and exploitative nature of migration; the dual allegiance of migrants; natives' resentment of migrants; migrant domination of some sectors of the labor market; the shortage of skilled workers in sending countries; the inequality of treatment for migrants and natives; inflation; excessive consumption of luxury items; and "cultural schizophrenia" produced by overly rapid change.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10499 Khoury, Nabeel A. The politics of intra-regional migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 753-76 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The history of inter-Arab relations since the 1950s is summarized, and the year 1973 is highlighted as the start of substantial intra-regional migration. The author contends that political relations between Arab countries since 1973 and the pattern of Arab migration during this period have been characterized by both pragmatism and turmoil. On the one hand, migration has served the economic interests of both sending and receiving countries.
On the other hand, the xenophobia of many Arab populations, the disruption of relations between Egypt and the rest of the Arab world after the Camp David accords, the revolution in Iran, and the Iran- Iraq war have sustained inter-Arab conflict and, in turn, depressed intra-regional migration. As illustrations, the cases of Kuwait and Egypt are examined in detail.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10500 Lebon, Andre; Zucker, Elisabeth. Immigration in France, 1983 and 1984. [L'immigration en France en 1983 et 1984.] Jan 1985. 61 pp. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD], Systeme d'Observation Permanente des Migrations [SOPEMI]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This review of the immigration situation in France in 1983 and 1984 is part of an annual series of reports prepared within the framework of the Permanent System for the Observation of Migration (SOPEMI) at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Chapters are included on migration flows, the foreign population in France and the French population abroad, the employment of foreigners, the settlement of immigrants in France, return to country of origin, and remittances.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10501 Mamish, Muhi A. The use of current administrative statistics for estimating international migration flows. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 333-57 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The focus of this paper is on the usefulness of current administrative statistics, including population registers; passport, visa, and work permit information; border-crossing data; and travel agency records for the estimation of international migration flows. Such methodological and practical problems as the definition of the terms "migrant" and "migration", as well as consideration of the reliability and comparability of various data sources, are discussed. The paper concludes with a general evaluation of statistical data available for the study of international migration in Western Asia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10502 Mehani, Mohamed. North African migration to Europe. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 143-91 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In this study of migration from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia to Europe, the author focuses specifically on migration to France, where 90 percent of the North African emigrants have settled. The history of North African emigration from World War I through 1980 is reviewed. Among the factors affecting emigration that are considered are the colonial relationship between France and the North African countries; the shortages of workers in France following both world wars; the willingness of North African workers to do jobs considered undesirable by Europeans; and concern in France over the proportion of immigrants, especially Arabs, in the French population. Data are from Algerian and French government records and from other published reports.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10503 Melotti, Umberto; Aimi, Antonio; Ziglio, Leila. Recent in-migration to Milan. [La nuova immigrazione a Milano.] Nuova Informazione, No. 106, ISBN 88-202-0619-6. 1985. 158 pp. Mazzotta: Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Recent trends in migration to Milan, Italy, are analyzed. The focus is on migration from developing countries to Italy, primarily to the major urban centers, since the 1970s, and on the problems faced by these migrants. Separate sections are devoted to women and to quantitative aspects of the labor force concerning migrants from developing countries.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10504 Muller, Thomas; Espenshade, Thomas J.; Manson, Donald; de la Puente, Manuel; Goldberger, Mildred; Sanchez, Juan. The fourth wave: California's newest immigrants. ISBN 0-87766-349-1. LC 85- 22646. 1985. xvii, 217 pp. Urban Institute Press: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
In this book, the authors report the findings of a project undertaken to assess the impact on southern California of the recent substantial increase in immigration from Mexico. Immigration to the United States, and to California in particular, is outlined, and the history of U.S. immigration legislation is summarized. Official data are analyzed to construct a profile of the demographic, economic, and social characteristics of immigrants to California since 1970; particular attention is given to immigrants residing in Los Angeles County.
Subsequent chapters discuss socioeconomic aspects of the immigrants' life in California and the level of assimilation achieved; the effects of the influx of immigrants on job availability and wages; the impact of immigration on public revenues and expenditures and on population, prices, and living standards; the future demand for labor in southern California and anticipated sources of supply; and consequences of various immigration policies.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10505 Muschkin, Clara G.; Myers, George C. Migration and household/family structure: Puerto Ricans in the United States. International Migration/Migrations Internationales/ Migraciones Internacionales, Vol. 23, No. 4, Dec 1985. 495- 509 pp. Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
"The analyses in this research were intended to demonstrate the advantages of utilizing microdata from [U.S.] census sources for examining migration status and related household and family structures. By asking for the self-identification of ethnic origin, in this case Spanish/Hispanic origin, a census is able to trace not only first generation migrants by different durations of residence, but also later generations. The flexibility afforded by microdata tape files enables [the authors] to further examine multilevel effects of migration and family patterns. In this present example, the widespread nature of family instability among persons of Puerto Rican origin in the New York/New Jersey area has been noted."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10506 Nassef, Abdul F. Major issues in receiving countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 361-94 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The purpose of this study is to consider the implications for the receiving countries of labor migration to oil-producing Arab countries. The author notes that the increasing dependency of oil- producing countries on migrant labor is causing concern, particularly when the workers are non-Arabs. The importance of limiting foreign labor is stressed, and some measures aimed at increasing the native labor force are described. The author also suggests that it would be desirable to encourage migrants from Arab countries in situations where foreign labor remains a necessity.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10507 Organization of American States [OAS] (Washington, D.C.). Labor migration in Argentina. [Las migraciones laborales en Argentina.] Migraciones Laborales en America Latina: Diagnostico Demografico, ISBN 0-8270-2132- 1. 1985. x, 86 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This report, which is concerned with labor migration affecting Argentina, is one in a series done under a joint project of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Spanish government, and the Intergovernmental Committee on Migration. The first part is concerned with the two main sources of immigration into Argentina-- Europe and neighboring countries in Latin America. The rest of the report deals with immigration from neighboring countries and includes consideration of the role of immigrants in the labor force in Argentina and in their countries of origin. Present-day Argentine immigration policy is briefly considered. Finally, the overall situation in the 1970s is discussed, and projections for the 1980s are offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10508 Organization of American States [OAS] (Washington, D.C.). Labor migration in Peru. [Las migraciones laborales en Peru.] Migraciones Laborales en America Latina: Diagnostico Demografico, ISBN 0-8270-2246-8. 1985. ix, 32 pp. Washington, D.C. In Spa.
This report, which is concerned with labor migration affecting Peru, is one in a series done under a joint project of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Spanish government, and the Intergovernmental Committee on Migration. The first part deals with immigration into Peru between 1849 and 1972. The second part concerns emigration from Peru. Peruvian emigration is compared with that from other Latin American countries, with particular emphasis on occupations and destinations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10509 Pellegrino, Adela. Undocumented migrants in Colombian migration to Venezuela. [Los indocumentados en la inmigracion colombiana en Venezuela.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 20, Nov 1985. 37 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
Data from the 1971, 1980, and 1981 Venezuelan censuses and from the 1980 General Registration of Aliens are analyzed and discussed under the following chapter headings: the context of Colombian immigration into Venezuela, legal aspects and definition of the immigrant in Venezuela, the reason for counting Colombians in Venezuela, characteristics of Colombian clandestine immigration, characteristics of employment in Venezuela and the role of Colombians, and factors determining migration between Venezuela and Colombia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10510 Price, Charles A. The demography of Polish settlers in Australia. In: Polish people and culture in Australia, edited by Roland Sussex and Jerzy Zubrzycki. Australian Immigration Monograph Series, No. 3, ISBN 0-86784-630-5. 1985. 14-46 pp. Australian National University, Institute of Advanced Studies, Department of Demography: Canberra, Australia. In Eng.
Immigration to Australia from Poland from the mid-nineteenth century to the present day is reviewed. The emphasis is on the distribution of Polish migrants in Australia and on migrant characteristics, including region of origin, age distribution, marital status, occupations, educational status, family size, language, and assimilation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10511 Qutub, Ishaq. Assimilation of migrants. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 625-49 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
A theoretical discussion of the concept of the assimilation of one group of people into a larger society is first presented. The process of assimilation and factors affecting it are then considered, both from a theoretical viewpoint and with particular reference to the assimilation of immigrants in the Persian Gulf countries. Other topics covered include types of migrants in Arab countries, various measures of assimilation, and a review of some earlier studies of assimilation in Arab countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10512 Reid, John. Immigration and the future U.S. black population. Population Today, Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb 1986. 6-8 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The author first briefly reviews the history of black migration to the United States from the initiation of the slave trade in the mid-1600s to the present. Projections are then presented for the total U.S. black population and for total black immigration through 2030. Particular attention is given to the emergence of a "multicultural" black society and potential problems of assimilation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10513 Samha, Moussa. Migration trends and patterns within the ECWA region. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 93-141 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
Demographic characteristics of the Arab countries of Western Asia are reviewed, with particular attention given to patterns of population distribution and growth, the relative importance of natural increase and migration, political considerations, and the impact of oil production. Major migratory flows are analyzed, and their effects on both host countries and countries of origin are examined. Among the characteristics of such migration in Western Asia considered are the composition of the migrant population, the relationship between migration and employment, legal factors, and duration of residence. The paper concludes with a discussion of conditions that may influence future migration. Data are from various published reports.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10514 Talha, Larbi. People from the Maghrib in France. Emigrants or immigrants? [Maghrebins en France. Emigres ou immigres?] Etudes de l'Annuaire de l'Afrique du Nord, ISBN 2-222- 03394-2. 1983. viii, 425 pp. Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes sur les Societes Mediterraneennes: Aix-en-Provence, France; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique [CNRS]: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is a collection of papers by different authors concerning migrants from North Africa currently residing in France. The focus of the papers is on the situation since 1974 and on the extent to which this migration is in a state of change from temporary to permanent. The papers are grouped in four parts. The first part contains four papers dealing with the history of this migratory movement. The second part is concerned with the growth of a modern labor force in North Africa and its relationship to the French economy. The primary geographical focus is on Algeria, although consideration is also given to questions concerning internal migration, international migration, and social change in Morocco and Tunisia.
The third part concerns the process of development of permanently resident migrant communities in France, problems of assimilation, and the prospects of return migration. A final section contains four papers in which the authors attempt to present syntheses of the current situation.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10515 Tapinos, Georges. The economic affects of intra-regional migration. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 563-89 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The intra-regional migration of Arab workers in North Africa and Western Asia is studied from the points of view of both the sending and receiving countries. Factors differentiating this migration from migration streams elsewhere are discussed, and the economic effects are considered. For the receiving countries, the author emphasizes that in order to have continued economic growth those countries must rely on immigration to compensate for shortages of certain kinds of labor in their native populations. For sending countries, the effects noted are in the areas of employment, salary transfers, and income distribution.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10516 Tyree, Andrea; Donato, Katherine. The sex composition of legal immigrants to the United States. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 69, No. 4, Jul 1985. 577-84 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The sex composition of legal immigrants to the United States is examined using official data. A predominance of female over male migrants is noted during the period 1820 to the present. Reasons for this female predominance are considered, and differences in the sex composition of migrants by country of origin are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10517 United Nations. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA] (Beirut, Lebanon). International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. 1982. x, 1,185 pp. Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
These two volumes represent the proceedings of a conference on international migration in and affecting the Arab world, held in Cyprus in 1981. Topics covered include the measurement of international migration, forced migration, the socioeconomic and demographic consequences of migration, the determinants of international migration, the Arab brain drain, legal aspects, remittances, and migration policies.
Selected items will be cited in this or subsequent issues of Population Index.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10518 United Nations. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]. Population Division (Beirut, Lebanon). Socio-economic characteristics of international migrants in the Gulf states. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 685-732 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
This study of the socioeconomic characteristics of international migrants focuses on six oil-producing Gulf countries: the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. Data are from censuses of these countries and concern the years 1960-1980, with particular attention to the 1975 censuses of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. Migrants are differentiated as Arab, Asian, or Western. Among the topics considered with respect to the migrant populations are level of migration into the country of residence, age and sex structure, duration of residence and determining factors, educational status, levels and rates of employment, distribution by occupation, and distribution by economic sector.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10519 Verhaeren, Raphael-Emmanuel. International migrations in Europe. [Les migrations internationales en Europe.] Mondes en Developpement, Vol. 11, No. 43- 44, 1983. 349-68 pp. Brussels, Belgium. In Fre.
Recent international migration trends to and within Europe are analyzed. It is noted that the foreign population of Europe has been growing in size since 1979, despite employment problems and the development of policies designed to reduce immigration and encourage migrants to return home. Reasons for this apparent contradiction are examined. The author concludes that the employment of foreign workers facilitates the regulation of long-term and short-term economic cycles as well as the restructuring of certain sectors of the economy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10520 von Hippel, Wolfgang. Emigration from southwest Germany: studies on Wurttemberg emigration and emigration policy in the eighteenth and nineteenth century. [Auswanderung aus Sudwestdeutschland: Studien zur wurttembergischen Auswanderung und Auswanderungspolitik im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert.] Industrielle Welt, Vol. 36, ISBN 3-608-91248- 7. 1984. 352 pp. Klett-Cotta: Stuttgart, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This book is a study of emigration from Wurttemberg, in southwest Germany, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The focus is on emigration to North America and to other European countries. The book is divided into two parts. The first deals with emigration and emigration policy during the eighteenth century and the second with mass emigration between 1815 and 1870. Topics covered include the volume of migration and trends over time; characteristics of migrants; reasons for migration, including poverty in the area of origin and efforts to attract migrants to the area of destination; and policy aspects.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10521 Webb, M. A. Migration and education subsidies by governments: a game-theoretic analysis. Journal of Public Economics, Vol. 26, No. 2, Mar 1985. 249-62 pp. Amsterdam, Netherlands. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the implications of the brain drain. "The brain drain alters both the endowments of educated labor and the cost of increasing the endowment of such labor in both countries of immigration and emigration." It thus affects government subsidies for education both directly and indirectly. "This has implications for the burden of education expenditures and net supplies of educated labor in a world with a brain drain. The [author] shows the need for inclusion of a mechanism for transfers between the involved governments if a compensation scheme is to yield Pareto efficient migration."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10522 Yeslam, Suleiman F. Major issues in sending countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 395-420 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
This paper focuses on the migration of laborers from oil-importing countries in Western Asia to oil-exporting countries in the same region. Economic conditions that affect migration are examined for both the sending and receiving countries. Tables based on U.N. data are included to show comparative population distributions by age and sex. The socioeconomic implications of emigration for the sending countries are also discussed. Important among these are the resulting shortage of educated and skilled laborers, repatriated remittances, and the demographic consequences of the disproportionate emigration of young males.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10523 Zahlan, Antoine B. The Arab brain drain: policy reviews and proposals. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 825-60 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
"This paper is concerned with policy aspects of the Arab brain drain. It attempts to compare the patterns of the Arab brain drain of the past two decades (1960-1980) with a forecast of a likely pattern for the following two decades. An analysis of the policy framework within which the Arab brain drain evolved over the 1960-1980 period [is] presented." Four hypothetical scenarios for future development are then constructed. Based on these, the author outlines five policy proposals to assist the Arab world in coping with the brain drain problems expected in the future.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10524 Zarour, Tawfiq A. Determinants and consequences of the Arab brain drain. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 791-823 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In this attempt to assess the significance for the sending countries of emigration from the Arab world of highly skilled and educated workers, the author reviews the published work on the subject. Such determinants of migration as income, professional support, professional prestige, and social conditions are discussed. The consequences of emigration of professionals are then considered, with particular attention given to the topics of manpower loss, repatriated earnings, and repatriated skills. The author concludes that there are no specific or quantifiable negative effects in Arab countries that can be directly attributed to the Arab brain drain.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.3. Internal Migration

Studies concerned with internal migration.

52:10525 Alatas, Secha. The effects of changes in life cycle stages on the migration behavior of individuals in Javanese communities, in Indonesia. Pub. Order No. DA8519798. 1985. 267 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the effect of life cycle changes on migration in Indonesia. "The main purposes of this study were: (1) to examine the extent to which the major life cycle events are accompanied by changes in place of residence, (2) to analyze the probability of migration in different life cycle stages, and (3) to investigate how the probability of migration in a specific life cycle stage varies by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the individuals." Data concern 1,587 women aged 14 to 49 and 888 males included in the Asian Marriage Survey carried out in Semarang in 1979.
Among the factors affecting migration that are considered are schooling, employment, marriage, and marriage dissolution.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Brown University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10526 Boudoul, Jacques; Faur, Jean-Paul. Since 1975, interregional migrations are less frequent. [Depuis 1975, les migrations interregionales sont moins nombreuses.] Economie et Statistique, No. 180, Sep 1985. 11-21, 59, 60 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Spa.
Recent trends in interregional migration in France are analyzed, with a focus on regional differences and on age structures. The results indicate that migration has declined since 1975. The impact on retirement is noted. The data are from official sources, including the 1982 census.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10527 Choe, Ehn Hyun; Chung, Young Il; Byun, Yong Chan. International symposium on national migration surveys in Asia, Seoul, 17-19 April 1985. 1985. ii, 245 pp. Korea Institute for Population and Health: Seoul, Korea, Republic of; Economic Planning Board, National Bureau of Statistics: Seoul, Korea, Republic of. In Eng.
"This is the final report of the International Symposium on National Migration Surveys in Asia organized jointly by the Korea Institute for Population and Health and the National Bureau of Statistics of the Economic Planning Board with [the] close collaboration of the UNFPA, at Seoul from 17 to 19 April 1985." Papers are included on recent surveys on migration in Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, Japan, India, and Taiwan, with the emphasis on internal migration. However, the major focus of the papers presented here is on the 1983 Korean National Migration Survey and on questions related to further analysis of data from the survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10528 Costello, Michael A.; Palabrica-Costello, Marilou. Mobility and employment in the Southern Philippines. Jul 20, 1985. v, 236 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. In Eng.
Based on a probability sample of 1,171 households, the authors analyze the interrelationships between population mobility and employment in the Southern Philippine province of Misamis Oriental. Results are presented for a continuum of study communities, including a rural (village) setting, two smaller towns, and a medium-sized city. Major topics include differential migration patterns, migrant adjustment, temporary mobility, employment patterns, and standards of living.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10529 Finland. Tilastokeskus (Helsinki, Finland). Population movement by county in 1983. [Maassamuutto muuton suunnan mukaan kunnittain 1983/Inrikes omflyttning efter flyttningens riktning kommunvis 1983.] Tilastotiedotus/Statistisk Rapport, No. VA 1984:14, Dec 27, 1984. 139 pp. Helsinki, Finland. In Fin; Swe.
Data on population migration by county for Finland in 1983 are presented. The data are from the central register of all internal migration, which is updated on a weekly basis. Details are included on how this migration reporting system operates and on the reporting responsibilities of individuals, landlords, and employers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10530 Gould, W. T. S. Migration and development in western Kenya, 1971-82: a retrospective study of primary school leavers. Africa, Vol. 55, No. 3, 1985. 262-85 pp. London, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
The relationship between socioeconomic development and migration in Kenya during the period 1971-1982 is explored using data from a retrospective survey of school leavers from a small area in Kakamega, Western Province, Kenya. The continuity of migration patterns over time is noted, with a predominance of circular migration and migration to the capital, Nairobi. The data indicate a steady decline in the prosperity of the region.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10531 Islam, M. N. Self-selectivity problems in interregional and interindustry migration in Canada. Environment and Planning A, Vol. 17, No. 11, Nov 1985. 1,515-32 pp. London, England. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the role that inter-industry mobility plays in the decision to migrate in Canada, and also with the joint impact on earnings of inter-industry and interregional migration, corrected for selectivity bias. The data, for the period 1970-1971, are from a one percent random sample of a micro data base established by the Unemployment Insurance Commission. "Contrary to the commonly held belief that a migrant's decision to change his location is independent of his decision to change his industry of employment, this paper provides evidence that these movements are in fact interrelated."
Location: Princeton University Library (UES).

52:10532 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Tables of interprefectural migrations in Japan, 1954-1983. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 233, Dec 1, 1984. 84 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Data are presented on trends in internal migration in Japan from 1954 to 1983. The data are organized by prefecture and groups of prefectures, and the three major metropolitan areas are included in each regional grouping to facilitate the analysis of rural-urban migration.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10533 Kawabe, Hiroshi. Migration by age in the metropolitan area: the case of migration by teenagers in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 172, Oct 1984. 63-6 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Migration affecting the Tokyo metropolitan region is analyzed using data from censuses taken by the city from 1960 to 1984. The focus is on age at migration. The author concludes that changes in the age structure of the population of Tokyo are primarily caused by the migration of young people to the city in search of employment or for higher education.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10534 Kawabe, Hiroshi. Some characteristics of internal migration observed from the cohort-by- cohort analysis. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 175, Jul 1985. 1-15 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
Trends in internal migration in Japan are examined by means of a cohort analysis of data for the period 1950-1980. Changes in patterns of rural-urban migration are noted, and the extent of return migration is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10535 Madigan, Francis C. Migration differentials in the Philippines, 1983. Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Series 1, 1983 NDS, No. 1, Dec 1985. 20 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
Data from the 1983 National Demographic Survey for the Philippines and from earlier published sources are used in bivariate and multivariate analyses in order to examine differential internal migration rates according to region, place of residence, and other selected characteristics. The significance of the associations between different variables and propensity to migrate is discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10536 Markovic, Petar; Stevanovic, Dura. The movement of the Yugoslav population: volume, directions, factors. [Pokretljivost jugoslovenskog stanovnistva: obim, pravci, faktori.] Studije i Analize, 1982. 190 pp. Ekonomika Poljoprivrede: Belgrade, Yugoslavia. In Scr.
An analysis of internal migration trends in Yugoslavia is presented. The economic characteristics of the population are first described. Next, regions of in-migration and out-migration are identified. The factors affecting migration are then analyzed separately for each republic and autonomous region. Finally, the socioeconomic characteristics of migration zones are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10537 McHugh, Kevin E. Reasons for migrating or not. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 69, No. 4, Jul 1985. 585-9 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Reasons why people migrate are examined by questioning prospective migrants about future moves. Reasons reported before the move are compared with reasons reported after the move. Consideration is also given to reasons for not moving. The data concern 167 U.S. households, 42 of which were migrants.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10538 Ormrod, Richard K. Evidence that California elderly are migrating southward. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jan 1986. 149-51 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census Public Use Microdata Sample are analyzed in order to examine the migration of California's elderly population between 1975 and 1980. Limitations of the data are discussed, and a pattern of migration toward the southern third of the state is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10539 Oucho, John O. Some demographic measures of rural migrants in Kenya based on survey data. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 77-95 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"This paper presents demographic measures of [a] migrant population in the Kericho tea plantation area in the Kenya Highlands which depends on rural-rural migration, mainly from Western Kenya Districts." Using data from a sample survey conducted in 1978-1979, estimates are calculated for age and sex distribution, fertility, mortality, and mobility of the migrant population.
The findings show that "age reporting problems detected are common to those estimated [using] censuses as well as other surveys; this rural-rural migration is highly selective of males; migrants have lower fertility and mortality than non-migrants in the districts of out-migration; and a substantial proportion of migrants are temporary...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10540 Pernia, Ernesto M. Migration, development and employment in East and Southeast Asia: patterns and implications. Population and Labour Policies Programme Working Paper, No. 151, ISBN 92-2-105314-8. Oct 1985. 45 pp. International Labour Office [ILO]: Geneva, Switzerland. In Eng.
"This paper first reviews some of the major studies on internal migration in East and Southeast Asian countries, highlighting its relationship to development, with special attention to the role policies play in the evolution of migration patterns. The second part focuses on intersectoral labour migration in the context of structural transition and employment. The concluding section discusses what may be some of the important implications for policy and research."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10541 Plane, David A.; Rogerson, Peter A. Dynamic flow modeling with interregional dependency effects: an application to structural change in the U.S. migration system. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 91-104 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The causative matrix approach is used to examine patterns of U.S. interregional migration from 1935 to 1982. "Trends in the gross migration streams underlying the dramatic increase in core-periphery net migration taking place in the 1970s are examined, as is a more recent shift in the major source area of core region net outflow." The value of the approach to this type of demographic analysis is noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10542 Segal, Edwin S. Projections of internal migration in Malawi: implications for development. Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 23, No. 2, Jun 1985. 315-29 pp. New York, New York/Cambridge, England. In Eng.
In this article, the author seeks "(1) to explore district-level population movements in Malawi, as documented in the 1977 census; (2) to project these into long-run estimates of population distribution in the country; and (3) to make suggestions regarding the implications for development policy."
By fitting 1977 data to a Markov chain, movements in population on the regional and district levels for 1988 and 1999 are projected. Results show a general trend toward a more even distribution of population throughout the country. Implications for the development of the commercial-estate sector in Malawi and for the carrying capacities of various districts are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10543 Sivamurthy, M.; Kadi, A. S. Determinants of interstate migration in India. An exploratory macro-analysis of 1971 census data. Working Papers of the NIDI, No. 60, Jul 1985. vii, 26 pp. Netherlands Interuniversity Demographic Institute [NIDI]: Voorburg, Netherlands. In Eng.
"In this paper an attempt has been made to study the determinants of interstate rural to rural, rural to urban and urban to urban migration between the 15 major Indian states using 1971 Census data. To study migration flows, gravity models are formulated which incorporate socio-economic and other variables. A new variable, stayers among past migrants...has been included as an explanatory variable to represent the spatial interaction between [two origins]...and the relative attractiveness of [one] destination....The models are analysed using stepwise regression analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10544 Sun, Hongming. Marital migration of the rural population in Beijing suburbs. Renkou Yanjiu, No. 2, Mar 29, 1984. 44-6 pp. Beijing, China. In Chi.
The recent increase in marital migration in China among the rural population of the Beijing suburbs is examined, with a focus on the impact of uneven economic developments in villages and of different rates of population growth and distribution, fertility, and sex ratios. Findings are based on a survey of 1981 marriage patterns in a number of Beijing suburban communes. It is found that slightly over 50 percent of the women married within their communes, less than 20 percent married men from other suburban communes, and the remainder married outside the communes. The author observes that more women than men have migrated into the Beijing area and that marriage has been a major determinant of this movement.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).; Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:10545 Toney, Michael B.; Swearengen, Roger. Migration data: prospects for research based on the youth cohort of the NLS. Review of Public Data Use, Vol. 12, No. 3, Oct 1984. 211-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The quality of data for the analysis of internal migration in the United States is assessed. The authors consider the adequacy of panel data from the youth cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS) for migration research. "Key information relevant to eight of the nine criteria developed by Bilsborrow and Akin (1982) for evaluating survey data is contained in this data set, including extensive migration-defining information, personal and household variables, and environmental variables."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10546 Winsberg, Morton D. Flight from the ghetto: the migration of middle class and highly educated blacks into white urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 44, No. 4, Oct 1985. 411-21 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The movement of middle-class blacks away from black ghettos in the United States is analyzed. "Using 1980 data for ten Florida Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas with large populations, it was determined that the intensity of the migration varied greatly among the cities, for a variety of different reasons. All ten cities, however, experienced clustering among the middle-class Blacks who moved from the ghettos. This clustering was usually around large public service institutions, principal employers of the group."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10547 Zagrobskaya, A. F. Migration, reproduction, and the education of the population. [Migratsiya, vosproizvodstvo i uroven' obrazovaniya naseleniya.] LC 83-150264. 1982. 175 pp. Naukova Dumka: Kiev, USSR. In Rus.
The relationships among population reproduction, migration, and education in the Ukraine are examined. Attention is paid to the impact of internal migration on population characteristics. A cohort analysis of migrants is used to examine the relationship between migration and education.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

H.4. Settlement and Resettlement

Studies on international and internal settlement and resettlement, including programs concerned with refugees and their settlement and with forced migrations.

52:10548 Ekouevi, Koffi A. Forced migration from Nigeria. Demo-economic aspects: the case of southeast Togo. [Les migrations des expulses du Nigeria. Aspects demo- economiques: cas du sud-est Togo.] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 10, Jun 1985. 52 pp. Lome, Togo. In Fre.
The impact on a region of southeastern Togo of the migration caused by the expulsion of foreigners from Nigeria in 1983 is analyzed. The data are from interviews conducted in August 1983 with approximately 100 migrants. Consideration is given to demographic characteristics, professional qualifications, reasons for original migration, and the socioeconomic situation of migrants while in Nigeria.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:10549 Silitshena, R. M. K. Intra-rural migration and settlement changes in Botswana. African Studies Centre Research Reports, No. 20, ISBN 90-70110-38-5. 1983. vi, 230 pp. African Studies Centre: Leiden, Netherlands. In Eng.
This is an analysis of migration and settlement patterns in Botswana. The focus is on why some people are now settling permanently in rural areas instead of migrating seasonally between their fields and villages, and also on the implications of such a change for the society and economy as a whole. The study is primarily concerned with the situation in Kweneng District.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10550 Ziadeh, Nicola. Forced migration in the Arab world: a historical perspective. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 475-88 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
In this analysis of forced migration in the Arab world, six types of forced migration are defined and examples ranging from the time of Abraham to the twentieth century are included. The six types are described as follows: voluntary migration on account of beliefs; intruders driven out by natives, even if after a long period of settlement; resettlement of subjects within their territory at the command of their rulers; resettlement of subjects outside of their native territory, also to serve the needs of the ruler; deportation of natives when lands are invaded; and deportation of natives from their lands in colonial territories to make land available for colonists.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

H.5. Temporary Migration

Migration, both internal and international, in which the stay is temporary. Includes return migration, transit migration, commuting, and seasonal migration.

52:10551 Baucic, Ivo. Return migration trends and issues: a global view. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 1, 1982. 421-40 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
The author contends that migration can have positive effects for the sending country under the following circumstances: the migrants stay only temporarily in the receiving country; they eventually return to their country of origin; and they remit money saved while working in the host country to their country of origin. Some advantages of temporary migration are discussed, both for the migrant himself and for his country of origin, and three common patterns of emigration and return are described. Most of the examples given reflect the migration experience of Yugoslavia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10552 Brea, Jorge A.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Wagner, Daniel. Circulation and migration in third world settings: a comparison in Ecuador. Revista Geografica, No. 101, Jan-Jun 1985. 97-113 pp. Mexico City, Mexico. In Eng.
This study is concerned with circulation, defined as temporary and repetitive migration that lacks any declared intention of a permanent or long-lasting change in residence. "The first section of the paper reviews pertinent circulation literature. Attention then turns to describing circulation and migration patterns in Ecuador, and identifying relationships between these patterns and regional differentials in economic development, both through cartographic and statistical analyses. A summary and conclusions comprise the last section."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10553 Japan. Statistics Bureau (Tokyo, Japan). The commuter population. Population Census, 1980: Monograph Series, No. 6, Aug 1984. 256 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Developments in commuting patterns and trends in Japan are analyzed using official data for the period 1960-1980. Regional differences in population characteristics are reviewed. Other factors considered include age, occupation, and distance travelled.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10554 Saket, Bassam K. Promoting the productive use of remittances. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 1,093-127 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
After a brief review of factors influencing the emigration of Jordanian workers, the author examines the volume and use of remittances sent back to Jordan since 1961 by these workers. Data are from the Central Bank of Jordan and from a 1980 survey of 1,800 households in the Amman Governorate. Monthly expenditures and electrical appliances owned are compared for returned migrants, current migrants, and those who have never migrated. Information is also included concerning investment of remittances. The principal uses of remittances are shown to be for family maintenance and for investment in real estate.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10555 Ulack, Richard; Costello, Michael A.; Palabrica-Costello, Marilou. Circulation in the Philippines. Geographical Review, Vol. 75, No. 4, Oct 1985. 439-50 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Based on a survey of 2,741 randomly selected households, this study examines the characteristics and effects of circular migration. Individuals who participate in this type of migration are young, relatively well educated, single, and economically motivated. Circulation is an alternative to permanent migration and should be accommodated by planners and policymakers. The setting for this case study is Cebu and Misamis Oriental provinces, the Philippines."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

H.6. Rural-Urban Migration

Migration from rural to urban areas (the rural exodus), both internal and international. Reverse or turnaround migration is also included.

52:10556 Kawanabe, Noboru. Urban traditional sector and rural-urban migration in developing countries. Osaka Economic Papers, Vol. 34, No. 2-3, Dec 1984. 248-60 pp. Osaka, Japan. In Jpn. with sum. in Eng.
The effect of the urban traditional sector on rural-urban migration in developing countries is examined. The author constructs a three-sector model along the lines of a model developed by Harris and Todaro, which also includes the urban traditional sector. The implications for social welfare policy and urban wages are considered.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10557 Lewis, Herbert S.; Kerven, Carol; Southerland, Nancy. Urbanization and outmigration in Somalia: final report. LC 85-144207. May 1983. vi, 70 pp. Clark University, International Development Program: Worcester, Massachusetts. In Eng.
The authors report on a study of rural exodus and urbanization in Somalia, which was conducted in a four-week period in 1983 and involved interviews with 30 public officials and rural village leaders. Particular attention is given to "i) changes in income and investment patterns arising out of migration; ii) shifts in the settlement hierarchy due to migration; and iii) the types of linkages maintained between migrants and their places of origin."
The survey findings show a rapid pace of urbanization in Mogadishu and in some regional urban centers, accompanied by significant rural out-migration. The existence of income disparities between rural and urban areas as a factor contributing to migration patterns is considered. The need to take into account the economic and demographic consequences of urbanization and rural exodus in framing development policy for Somalia is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10558 Speare, Alden; Harris, John. Education, earnings, and migration in Indonesia. Economic Development and Cultural Change, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jan 1986. 223-44 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
In this investigation of migration in Indonesia and its determinants, the authors assert that "Java is best characterized as an equilibrium system in which migration flows are sufficiently responsive to differential geographic emergence of opportunities to prevent large earning differentials from becoming established." They compare the earnings of those who have migrated to urban areas with the earnings of rural residents, identify major characteristics of migrants and rural residents, and assess differential migration rates on the basis of these characteristics.
The findings show sharp differences in propensities for rural-urban migration by age, sex, and education. The authors conclude that "the key variable that can influence the [migration] flows is the location of job creation with specific education and/or skill requirements." The analysis is based on data from a 1973 survey of migration in Java, conducted by the National Institute of Economics and Social Research in Indonesia.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPIA).

52:10559 Visaria, Pravin; Kothari, Devendra. Data base for the study of migration and urbanisation in India: a critical analysis. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning Working Paper, No. 2, Dec 1985. vi, 88 pp. Gujarat Institute of Area Planning: Ahmedabad, India. In Eng.
The authors critically examine a range of data concerning migration and urbanization in India. They attempt "to identify how far the observed urban growth is attributable to (a) the reclassification of localities from rural to urban (or vice versa); (b) an extension of the boundaries of urban localities; (c) natural increase; and (d) net migration from rural to urban areas." Data are from decennial censuses for the years 1901-1911, national sample surveys, unpublished university studies, and other published sources.
Among the issues considered are reservations about birthplace data, the classification of migrants by birthplace and by place of last residence, migration according to duration of residence data, components of India's urban growth from 1961 to 1981, and reasons for the deceleration in rural-urban migration since the 1950s. The need for a multidisciplinary approach to such problems is stressed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10560 Vorlaufer, Karl. Migration between rural peripheral areas and urban central areas in Africa: a theoretical and empirical study of migration using the example of Nairobi. [Wanderungen zwischen landlichen Peripherie- und grossstadtischen Zentralraumen in Afrika: eine migrationstheoretische und empirische Studie am Beispiel Nairobi.] Zeitschrift fur Wirtschaftsgeographie, Vol. 28, No. 3-4, 1984. 229-61 pp. Frankfurt am Main, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Migration between rural peripheral areas and urban central areas is analyzed using the city of Nairobi, Kenya, as an example. The study is based on official Kenyan data for 1969-1979. The role of Nairobi as a focal point for both centripetal and centrifugal migration is discussed, and the volume, intensity, and direction of migration streams are examined. An attempt is also made to evaluate this migration in terms of modernization and dependency theories.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10561 Zuniga, Victor. The rural exodus continues in the city, at Monterrey, Mexico. [L'exode rural continue dans la ville, a Monterrey (Mexique).] Revue Francaise de Sociologie, Vol. 26, No. 3, Jul-Sep 1985. 455-73, 564, 566-8 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng; Ger; Spa.
An analysis of recent rural migrants in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, is presented. The focus of the study is on the impact of rural-urban migration on social class. The author concludes that in contrast to Europe, where the assimilation of rural migrants has been the norm, migrants in Monterrey are in the process of establishing original and distinct social and economic structures in the city.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).


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