Volume 52 - Number 1 - Spring 1986

F. Fertility

Studies that treat quantitative fertility data analytically. References to crude data are coded under S. Official Statistical Publications . Methodological studies specifically concerned with fertility are cited in this division and cross-referenced to N. Methods of Research and Analysis Including Models , if necessary.

F.1. General Fertility

Analytical studies of quantitative birth data and reproduction rates and studies of fertility and its concomitants. Studies of age at marriage, divorce, and factors influencing family size are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

52:10252 Aguinaga Roustan, Josune. Causal hypotheses on fertility: the preponderant role of the family unit. [Hipotesis causales sobre fecundidad: el papel preponderante de la unidad familiar.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 21, Jan-Mar 1983. 83-101 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
This article reviews the literature concerning models that have been devised to study the factors affecting fertility and family size in developed countries and the relevant biological, economic, social, and demographic factors. Particular attention is paid to the case of Spain.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10253 Ahmad, Sultan. Effect of education on marital fertility in four Muslim populations. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 23-37 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The effects of education on marital fertility in Bangladesh, Java, Jordan, and Pakistan are analyzed using World Fertility Survey data. "An inverted U-shape relationship between female education and current fertility was noticeable in Bangladesh and Java, [while an] inverse relationship was supported by data from Jordan and Pakistan. Cumulative fertility...was found to be inversely related to 6 or more years of education of the women in three populations, the exception being Java....The differences in fertility or lack of it by wife-husband level of education in these four Muslim populations were, to a large extent, explained by the interplay between the duration of breastfeeding and the current use of efficient contraceptive methods."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10254 Ali, Karamat. Determinants of fertility in developing countries. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, Summer 1985. 65-83 pp. Lahore, Pakistan. In Eng.
The effect of agricultural modernization, which has taken place in many developing countries over the past two decades, on demographic variables is considered. Particular attention is given to the impact on fertility and infant mortality. A model is elaborated and applied to 1971 data for 75 developing countries. The results illustrate the close relationship between fertility and infant mortality and show that agricultural modernization has an effect on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10255 Bachu, Amara; O'Connell, Martin. Developing current fertility indicators for foreign-born women from the Current Population Survey. Review of Public Data Use, Vol. 12, No. 3, Oct 1984. 185-95 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This paper presents fertility estimates for foreign-born women from the April 1983 [U.S.] Current Population Survey. The survey data indicate that women 18-44 years old from Latin America, especially from Mexico, have a higher fertility rate than their European counterparts, with women from Asia having an intermediate level of fertility....An evalutaion of the data indicates that although the survey information is useful in identifying fertility differences among foreign-born women in the United States, the relatively large sampling errors associated with these data restrict their usefulness for detecting annual changes in the childbearing patterns of immigrant women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10256 Bernhardt, Eva M. The influence of social background on childbearing and marriage formation among Swedish women in consensual unions: cohorts born 1936-1960. [Den sociala bakgrundens betydelse for barnafodande och giftermal inom informellt samboende bland svenska kvinnor fodda 1936-60.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 20, ISBN 91-7820-007-5. Oct 1984. 49 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is one in a series of progress reports from a research project on the life cycle of women in modern Sweden from 1936 to 1960. In the present paper, the impact on fertility of the growing popularity of consensual unions in Sweden is examined. The author notes that consensual unions are most often the choice of those of middle class origin who do not wish to get married and who frequently do not want to have children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10257 Bidegain, Gabriel. The Venezuelan woman and population reproduction. [La mujer venezolana en la reproduccion de la poblacion.] Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales Documento de Trabajo, No. 15, Jun 1985. 16 pp. Universidad Catolica Andres Bello, Instituto de Investigaciones Economicas y Sociales: Caracas, Venezuela. In Spa.
The author investigates the influence of family planning on the level of fertility in Venezuela and other South American countries during the last 30 years. He also examines the roles played by declining infant mortality, immigration, changes in nuptiality, and improved statistical reporting in the tripling of the Venezuelan population that occurred between 1950 and 1981.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10258 Byers, Edward. Putting history back in historical demography: Nantucket re-reexamined. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 16, No. 4, Spring 1986. 683-99 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
This article is part of a continuing controversy concerning the extent of family limitation practices in the whaling community of Nantucket, Massachusetts, prior to 1850. A response by Barbara J. Logue is also included (pp. 691-9).
For the most recent article by Logue, published in 1985, see 51:30290.
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

52:10259 Chesnais, J. C. The consequences of modern fertility trends in the member states of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 16, ISBN 92-871-0806-4. 1985. 54 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This report was prepared within the framework of activities of the Council of Europe's Steering Committee on Population. It is concerned with the consequences of current fertility trends for individuals, households, the family life cycle, and society as a whole. The author concludes that there is a conflict between the fact that the sum of individual preferences leads to fertility below replacement levels and the needs of society as a whole. Among the consequences of demographic aging and population decline discussed are the increasing importance of immigration and its social and economic consequences and the ability of a declining and aging labor force to compete in world markets.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10260 Council of Europe (Strasbourg, France). Conclusions on the development of fertility trends in Europe. Pub. Order No. CDDE (85) 12. 1985. 11 pp. Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
Conclusions are presented concerning fertility trends in Europe based on the findings of a study conducted for the European Population Committee of the Council of Europe during the years 1982-1985. Declining fertility rates in member states in the early 1980s are noted, and contributing factors are considered. Consequences of the observed sub-replacement fertility trends for individuals, families, and societies are suggested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10261 Doh, Rainer. Population policy and reproductive behavior in Romania. [Bevolkerungspolitik und generatives Verhalten in Rumanien.] Sudost-Europa, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1985. 33-43 pp. Munich, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
Data are presented from the Romanian Fertility Survey of 1978. Information is included on the relationship between fertility and factors such as place of residence, educational status, income, and available living space.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10262 Ferry, Benoit; Page, H. J. The proximate determinants of fertility and their effect on fertility patterns: an illustrative analysis applied to Kenya. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 71, Dec 1984. 54 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
This report uses World Fertility Survey data for Kenya to estimate the proximate determinants of fertility and their impact at both the national level and among major subgroups. The subgroups are determined by current age, education, province, and rural or urban residence. Patterns of age at first birth, birth spacing, and age at last birth are considered. The authors emphasize the need to consider the response of proximate determinants of fertility to socioeconomic pressures when formulating population policy.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10263 Feyisetan, Bamikale J. Fertility and female employment in Lagos, Nigeria. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 57-76 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The relationship between fertility and female employment in Lagos, Nigeria, is examined using data from a 1974 survey. The study "is principally a test of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis....Fertility and female employment equations are estimated by the two stage least squares procedure: [these estimates] are compared to those derived from the ordinary least squares procedure. [It is found that] mothering and working tend to conflict only if employment is undertaken in the formal sector of the urban labour market; a positive association is discernible between the proclivity to engage in non-domestic but irregular activities of the informal sector and the bearing and rearing of children...."
The results also indicate "the inadequacy of using a mere rural-urban dichotomy in the examination of the maternal role incompatibility hypothesis as done in some earlier works."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10264 Ford, Kathleen. Declining fertility rates of immigrants to the United States (with some exceptions). Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 71, No. 1, Oct 1985. 68-70 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"This paper compiles 1970 and 1980 Census data on the fertility of immigrants to the United States from twenty countries or regions. The data show that 1) immigrants are a heterogenous group with respect to fertility, 2) Mexican women have higher fertility than other groups, and 3) most groups (including Mexican women) experienced the decline in fertility from 1970 to 1980 that was true of the native born population." Implications of the finding that most immigrant groups have lower cumulative fertility and higher current fertility than native-born women are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10265 Gil Calvo, Enrique. Future trends in unemployment and fertility. [La tendencia futura del paro y la fecundidad.] Revista Espanola de Investigaciones Sociologicas, No. 27, Jul-Sep 1984. 61-77 pp. Madrid, Spain. In Spa.
The author examines Easterlin's hypothesis concerning future trends in fertility and unemployment in the context of a trend toward the increasing scarcity of young men. Literature on the subject is reviewed and the hypothesis is studied in relation to data for the years 1960-1970 from the Spanish Ministry of Economics and data for 1964-1983 from an investigation of the economically active population in Spain, which was conducted by the National Institute of Statistics.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10266 Harewood, Jack. Mating and fertility: results from three WFS surveys in Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. WFS Scientific Reports, No. 67, Dec 1984. 65 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
This study, in part an examination of family organization in the Caribbean, provides data on the relative importance and stability of various union types and analyzes the relationship between certain mating characteristics of non-Indian women and their level of fertility. Data from World Fertility Surveys on selected population characteristics and estimates of the frequency and direction of relationship change are used to investigate the general belief that significant changes in mating patterns and fertility have recently occurred in the region.
Patterns involving five separate populations--Indian and non- Indian in Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago, and non-Indian in Jamaica-- are analyzed, and similarities in the associations between mating variables and fertility in the three countries are noted.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10267 Itoh, Tatsuya. Marriage duration specific birth rates based on the 1974 welfare survey using the own- children method. Jinko Mondai Kenkyu/Journal of Population Problems, No. 175, Jul 1985. 48-58 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
A method is discussed for calculating fertility by duration of first marriage using the own-children method. The procedure takes into account conditions existing in Japan, including the fact that divorce rates are low, over 99 percent of children are born in wedlock, and remarriage rates are low. The method is illustrated using data from a 1974 survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10268 Jain, Anrudh K.; Nag, Moni. Female primary education and fertility reduction in India. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 114, Sep 1985. 57 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors critically examine the contribution of Indian education policies toward attainment of the country's stated fertility reduction objectives. "By first analyzing the macro- and micro-level Indian data on education and fertility, the authors demonstrate that female education in India monotonically increases the use of contraception and age at marriage, both of which, in turn, decrease fertility. The authors then present strong arguments that the educational policy in India, as far as fertility reduction is concerned and perhaps other aspects of development as well, should give high priority to the increase of female primary education, particularly by reducing the currently high repetition and drop-out rates from primary schools."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10269 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). Indexes of population reproductivity for the Japanese population in 1975-1980. Institute of Population Problems Research Series, No. 235, Sep 1, 1985. ii, 34 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Nine sets of tables containing population reproduction rates and indexes for Japan for the period 1975-1980 are presented. Retrospective data on fertility back to 1920 are also included. Information is provided on the sources of data, which consist of Japanese official publications.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10270 Japan. Institute of Population Problems (Tokyo, Japan). The Eighth National Fertility Survey, 1982: the first report. Marriages and births in Japan. Mar 25, 1983. v, 170 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This is the first report giving results from the Eighth National Fertility Survey, carried out in Japan in 1982. It contains the results of the survey of married people and includes information on age at marriage and reproductive behavior as well as their determinants. The data indicate that age at marriage increased over the past decade. Social differentials in age at marriage are noted, particularly between arranged marriages and love matches and according to wife's educational status and husband's occupation. It is also noted that the completed fertility of married couples has stabilized at about 2.2 children over the course of the decade.
Other topics considered include ranges of and opportunities for mate selection, timing of births, expected number of children, and value and costs of children.
For a related report concerning unmarried people, also published in 1983, see 51:10394.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10271 Kallan, Jeffrey; Udry, J. Richard. The determinants of effective fecundability based on the first birth interval. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 53-66 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The socio- demographic determinants of effective fecundability in nine developing countries are explored using data from the World Fertility Survey. In addition to the substantial differences in fecundability among the countries observed, later age at marriage has a clear, positive, and nonlinear effect on fecundability within countries. "Women with higher education and those with more educated husbands have higher fecundability. Urban residents have higher fecundability than rural. The higher fecundability of more recent cohorts is the most consistent observation."
The authors note that "since those variables most frequently shown to have inverse relationships to fertility show direct relationships to fecundability within populations, the role of fecundability as a proximate variable in models of the determinants of fertility requires further specification."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10272 Kamanga, Kawaye. The dilemma of high fertility in Sub-Sahara Africa. Pub. Order No. DA8518009. 1985. 140 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
"The objective of this study is to appraise the current status of fertility in Sub-Sahara Africa and, specifically, to: (1) elucidate the socioeconomic, cultural, biological and environmental factors that influence fertility behavior; (2) present factors that are obstacles to reducing fertility; (3) formulate recommendations for designing policy to curb fertility; and (4) discuss means to improve decision-making in fertility related programs.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pittsburgh.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10273 Katz, Eliakim; Stark, Oded. On fertility, migration and remittances in LDCs. World Development, Vol. 14, No. 1, Jan 1986. 133-5 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the effect of migratory opportunities for children on fertility when the decision by the child whether and how much to remit is endogenous to the analysis. [They] differentiate between two classes of motivations to remit and four changes that are likely to increase the return to migration [and] demonstrate that the effect of each of these changes on remittances depends on the motive for remittances. Given that the demand for children as assets depends on the returns to them of which remittances constitute a part, [the authors then] identify links between motivations to remit and the demand for children."
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10274 Kaufmann, Franz-Xaver; Quitmann, Joachim; Schulz, Martin; Simm, Regina; Strohmeier, Klaus P. Family development in North Rhine-Westphalia. Socio-spatial context, modeling, and microsimulation. [Familienentwicklung in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Sozialraumliche Kontexte, Modellierung und Mikrosimulation.] IBS-Materialien, No. 17, ISBN 3-923340-01-4. 1984. 202 pp. Universitat Bielefeld, Institut fur Bevolkerungsforschung und Sozialpolitik: Bielefeld, Germany, Federal Republic of. In Ger.
This is a report on a research project carried out in 1981-1983 to examine reproductive behavior in North Rhine-Westphalia, Federal Republic of Germany. The focus is on processes of family development in a socio-spatial context and the possibilities of forecasting these processes. The current state of research on reproductive behavior and its determinants is first reviewed, and the approach adopted in the project is outlined. Explanations for regional differences in reproductive behavior are then analyzed. In the final chapters, two microsimulation models of reproductive behavior are developed and tested.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10275 Kim, Ik Ki. A multilevel analysis of fertility behavior in Korea. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 20, No. 2, Summer 1985. 65-90 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The socioeconomic determinants of fertility behavior in the Republic of Korea are examined using a model that simultaneously takes into account both individual and community-level differences. The model is applied to data from the 1974 Korean National Fertility Survey, which was conducted as part of the World Fertility Survey. Separate consideration is given to fertility onset, early fertility, and later fertility. The results show a positive correlation between socioeconomic development and both increased age at first birth and a reduced number of children, even when family planning inputs are lacking. The presence of family planning programs accelerates the process of fertility change.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10276 Lamas Alonso, Luis. Birth intervals, parity-specific fertility, and stable populations. Pub. Order No. DA8512314. 1985. 213 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
This study is concerned with the conversion of survey data on maternity histories, including birth intervals, into measures of total fertility. "In this dissertation, a general method of integration of the information on birth intervals, based on the theory of Stochastic Processes, is presented. It is also proven that a population with a fixed fertility schedule, defined in terms of birth intervals, age, and duration since last event, will converge to a Stable Population."
Using data from the Peru Fertility Survey, a proportional hazards model is applied to the study of the effects of selected intermediate variables, such as breast-feeding, contraception, and marital interruption, on the risk of closing of each of the birth intervals. "Using the results of this analysis and an aggregation procedure, the effects of the intermediate variables on measures of total and age-specific fertility are analyzed."
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10277 Lamur, Humphrey E. Recent fertility trends in Suriname. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 57-62 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"A rapid decline in fertility took place in Suriname between 1962 and 1974, and then stopped. While this sudden stabilization is surprising, it is not unusual. Similar trends have occurred in some Caribbean and Latin-American countries. The 1962-74 fall in fertility in Suriname seems to have been due to a combination of socioeconomic factors and the activities of the Suriname Family Planning Association, founded in 1968." The data were collected by the author in Suriname between 1979 and 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10278 Langford, C. M.; Wilson, C. Is there a connection between a woman's fecundity and that of her mother? Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 437-43 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data on the fertility of mothers and daughters in 10,931 mother-daughter pairs were obtained from family reconstitution studies based on English parish registers between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries. These data indicate that there is no association between the fecundity of daughters and that of their mothers."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10279 Lehning, James R. The decline of marital fertility: evidence from a French department, La Loire (1851-1891). Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 201-17 pp. Paris, France. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
"This study focuses on the decline of marital fertility between 1851 and 1891 in the French department of the Loire. Using data from a sample of 33 rural villages, it finds that a gradual mortality decline created pressures for fertility decline by increasing the economic burden of children on individual families. The closeness of a village to an urban center and to avenues of communication was also associated with lower fertility, suggesting that the increased integration of rural villages in urban systems also increased these pressures."
The author also finds that "inherited attitudes related to different cultural pasts created variations in the speed and extent to which marital fertility declined. This suggests the need for further investigation of cultural factors as mediators between socioeconomic development and demographic change."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10280 Lehrer, Evelyn. Log-linear probability models: an application to the analysis of timing of first birth. Applied Economics, Vol. 17, No. 3, Jun 1985. 477-89 pp. London, England. In Eng.
Using methodology developed by Nerlove and Press and applied to the empirical study of jointly dependent variables with more than two states, the author elaborates an econometric model "for the special case of two trichotomous jointly dependent variables, and applies it to a substantive issue, namely, the determinants of age at initiation of childbearing." The econometric technique used is first described and then used to analyze timing of first births in the United States.
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10281 Lin, Fude. An analysis of factors affecting the fertility transition in China. Population Research, Vol. 2, No. 2, Apr 1985. 14-22 pp. Beijing, China. In Eng.
Using data from official sources, the author examines some of the factors contributing to the decline in fertility in China in the years 1950 to 1983. Particular attention is given to the decline in fertility in rural areas, the role of economic factors as evidenced by regional fertility differentials, the influence of education, and the relationship between type of work and fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10282 Locoh, Therese. Fertility and family in West Africa: contemporary south Togo. [Fecondite et famille en Afrique de l'Ouest: le Togo meridional contemporain.] INED Travaux et Documents Cahier, No. 107, ISBN 2-7332-0107-7. 1984. xiii, 182 pp. Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques [INED]: Paris, France; Presses Universitaires de France: Paris, France. In Fre.
This is an analysis of fertility trends in a rural population in south Togo. The data concern 1,827 women interviewed during the course of a survey carried out in 1976. The first chapter consists of a general review of the dynamics of fertility in Africa South of the Sahara as a whole. The demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the region of south Togo in which the survey was carried out are then described, and the methodology of the survey is introduced. A chapter is included on nuptiality and marriage patterns, including marriage age and different types of union.
A subsequent chapter presents a detailed analysis of fertility. It is followed by a chapter on fertility determinants, including nuptiality and postpartum abstinence. A final chapter deals with the social reasons for the continuing high level of observed fertility. The author notes that although fertility has recently increased, women were successful in achieving their primary objective of spacing children efficiently during the period covered by the survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10283 Locoh, Therese. Fertility in black Africa. [La fecondite en Afrique noire.] Etudes Togolaises de Population, No. 9, 1985. 36 pp. Lome, Togo. In Fre.
This is a general review of the situation concerning fertility in sub- Saharan Africa. Among the factors considered are marriage customs, birth spacing, contraception, and improvements in the health situation. A discussion of government attitudes concerning the regulation of fertility in the region is included. Consideration is also given to the available sources of data.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:10284 Lura, Russell. Population change in Kericho district, Kenya: an example of fertility increase in Africa. African Studies Review, Vol. 28, No. 1, Mar 1985. 45-56 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The author analyzes changes in the size of the Kipsigis population in the Kericho district of western Kenya since 1905 and accompanying changes in fertility rates. Data are from administrative reports for the colonial period; the censuses of 1948, 1962, and 1969; and more recent published sources concerning fertility. Age at marriage, length of breast-feeding, infant mortality, form of marriage, the economic value and cost of children, income, and education are among the variables considered as possible determinants of fertility.
The author concludes that "although mortality decline may account for part of the change in the rate of natural increase, fertility changes have been instrumental as well. The initial rise in fertility can be explained through the reduction in the age at circumcision and age at marriage and the decline in the incidence of polygyny. By the 1960s, the evidence pointed to a slowdown in the rate of fertility increase with a possible fertility decline. The major identifiable reason for the decline was an increase in the educational level of the female population."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10285 Lutz, Wolfgang. Parity-specific fertility analysis. A comparative study on 41 countries participating in the World Fertility Survey. [1985?]. 97 pp. Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Institut fur Demographie: Vienna, Austria. In Eng.
Data from the World Fertility Survey for ever-married women in 41 countries are analyzed, with an emphasis on parity-specific reproductive behavior. The author first outlines the quantum and tempo aspects of cohort fertility determinations, which are defined as the proportion proceeding to higher parities and the age at which they stopped reproducing.
Summary tables present information on the number of women aged 40-49 with seven or more births by place of residence and education, mean ages at last birth for a cohort of ever-married women aged 40-49 with completed parity, mean interval between first and last birth, mean number of children ever born by selected marital duration and age groups, annual parity-specific fertility rates three years before the survey, and mean ages at birth of order "i" three years before the survey. Tables containing computations of the quantum and tempo of cohort fertility by country are included in an appendix.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10286 Moriyama, Masaki. Fertility of women engaged in fishery in Matsushima Bay. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 7, May 1984. 65-9 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
This study is concerned with the impact of change in occupation in Japan on fertility. The data concern married women aged 20-79 in two fishing villages and were taken from medical records.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10287 Morocco. Direction de la Statistique. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Demographiques (Rabat, Morocco). Recent levels and trends in fertility in Morocco. [Niveaux recents et tendances de la fecondite au Maroc.] Oct 1985. 63 pp. Rabat, Morocco. In Fre.
Recent trends in fertility in Morocco are analyzed using data from a variety of sources including the censuses of 1971 and 1982, the national fertility survey of 1979-1980, the contraceptive prevalence survey of 1984, and vital statistics. The various sources are used to estimate fertility levels, the various estimates obtained are compared, and the quality of data is reviewed. It is concluded that the total fertility rate was between 5.5 and 5.9 in the early 1980s. Changes in fertility since 1962 are described, and comparisons are made with other Arab countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10288 Mott, Frank L.; Marsiglio, William. Early childbearing and completion of high school. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 234-7 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth concerning high school completion for a population of women in the United States aged 20-26 in 1983 are analyzed according to the following factors: childbearing experience before and after leaving high school, race or ethnicity, age at first birth, and type of credential received. The study concludes that "women who have had a child either before leaving high school or within a number of months of leaving school are far less likely to have eventually obtained a secondary credential than are women who have postponed childbearing until their 20s."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10289 Needleman, Lionel. Canadian fertility trends in perspective. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 43-56 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the broad movements of Canadian period and cohort fertility over the last hundred years or so, and compares them with corresponding trends in the United States and other industrialized countries. The main movement in Canada was a decline in fertility extending from the nineteenth century to the present time, interrupted in the 1940s and 1950s by a 'baby boom'. The long decline in cohort fertility is largely explained by the decrease in the proportions of families of six or more children."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10290 Newell, Colin. Spatial variations in fertility and nuptiality in Britain: an historical perspective. CPS Research Paper, No. 86-1, ISBN 0-902657-16-X. Jan 1986. iii, 60 pp. University of London, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Centre for Population Studies: London, England. In Eng.
"The spatial pattern of fertility in Britain around 1851, 1931 and 1981 is described using Coale's Indices of nuptiality and overall and marital fertility, mainly at county level." Analyzing data from published sources, the author seeks to trace the interrelationship of nuptiality and marital fertility over time, to examine the impact of changing economic circumstances on nuptiality, and to describe the changing spatial patterns of nuptiality and fertility.
The findings indicate substantial spatial variations in nuptiality and marital fertility in 1850, due in part to differences in economic conditions and to migration- induced marriage squeezes. Consideration is given to regional differences in age at marriage and in marital fertility. The pre- transitional pattern of the period "is then compared with the situation that had evolved by the 1930s when fertility had declined to post-transitional lows. Lastly, in the light of these analyses the position around 1980 is discussed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10291 Nishikawa, Yuiko. A socioeconomic analysis of fertility in Kerala, India. Jinkogaku Kenkyu/Journal of Population Studies, No. 7, May 1984. 59-63 pp. Tokyo, Japan. In Jpn.
Factors affecting fertility in the Indian state of Kerala are analyzed. The author concludes that both education and the provision of health services have led to significant declines in fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10292 Nur, Osman el-H. M. The physiological effect of infant mortality in reproductive behavior in the Sudan. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 23, No. 2, Apr 1985. 143-7 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
"The present study examines the physiological effect of infant mortality on reproductive behavior for the Sudan using retrospective pregnancy history data for ever-married women, 15- 49. The investigation has revealed that the death of an infant reduces the subsequent birth interval significantly, by about 6 months. This difference in the length of birth interval appears to be primarily a result of the interruption of lactation. When the birth intervals are examined by the fate of the two preceding children, the analysis shows insufficient evidence to indicate that infant mortality affects the length of birth intervals independently of the physiological effect."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

52:10293 Oni, Gbolahan A. Effects of women's education on postpartum practices and fertility in urban Nigeria. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 321-31 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The influence of women's education on postpartum practices and fertility in Illorin, a Nigerian urban community, is analyzed using data from a 1983-1984 household survey of 913 currently married women aged 15 to 35. "Using life-table survival analysis to estimate breastfeeding and abstinence durations and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model to estimate relative risk of weaning and terminating abstinence, women's education was found to have a strong negative relationship with breastfeeding and postpartum abstinence. The use of contraception was low in this community and marital fertility for educated women was higher than for illiterate women."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10294 Pitchford, J. D. External effects of population growth. Oxford Economic Papers, Vol. 37, No. 2, Jun 1985. 264-81 pp. Oxford, England. In Eng.
The author considers the problem posed by the fact that the social optimum number of children in a given country may be significantly less than the total number of children if individual family optimums are realized. A model of ideal choice is developed in which the effects of variations in per capita output and wages occur as the size of the labor force changes. The implications for countries that are creating programs to limit fertility are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10295 Rogers, Carolyn C.; O'Connell, Martin. Fertility of American women: June 1984. Current Population Reports, Series P-20: Population Characteristics, No. 401, Nov 1985. iv, 37 pp. U.S. Bureau of the Census: Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This publication reports estimates on the childbearing experience of American women based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in the June 1984 supplement to the Current Population Survey. Figures for children ever born are presented separately for four ethnic subgroups and are organized by age and marital status according to the following characteristics: region of country, farm or nonfarm residence, educational attainment, labor force status, and occupation. Selected characteristics for women who had a child in the 12 months preceding the survey are also summarized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10296 Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Schultz, T. Paul. The demand for and supply of births: fertility and its life cycle consequences. American Economic Review, Vol. 75, No. 5, Dec 1985. 992-1,015 pp. Nashville, Tennessee. In Eng.
The authors "develop and implement a methodology for identifying empirically the supply function for births in order to assess the consequences of exogenous variation in the supply of births for fertility, for couples' choice of contraceptive techniques, and for the life cycle labor supply and earnings of married women." The methodology is applied to monthly longitudinal data on contraceptive use, fertility, and female labor supply in the United States. The data are for a sample of women from the 1970 National Fertility Survey who were reinterviewed in 1975.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10297 Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. The status of women and fertility in the third world in the 1970-80 decade. Center for Policy Studies Working Paper, No. 118, Nov 1985. 49 pp. Population Council, Center for Policy Studies: New York, New York. In Eng.
"The paper examines the relationship between the status of women and fertility on the basis of data from 75 developing countries at the beginning and at the end of the 1970-80 decade. In countries in which fertility had declined during the decade, the status of women had improved considerably in terms of all indicators and was significantly higher than in countries in which fertility had increased or remained the same. A high degree of economic and social development was found to be important only when associated with the high status of women."
The author concludes that a necessary and sufficient condition for fertility decline is that the majority of women have access to valued resources. "The data also show that women's share of paid employment is the best indicator of women's economic participation and should replace women's activity rate in demographic analysis."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10298 Schmid, Josef. The background of recent fertility trends in the member states of the Council of Europe. Council of Europe Population Studies, No. 15, ISBN 92-871-0372-0. 1984. 39 pp. Council of Europe: Strasbourg, France. In Eng.
This report was prepared within the framework of activities of the Council of Europe's Steering Committee on Population. It is concerned with the background of current fertility trends in member countries. The focus of the report is on the major shifts in social values, norms, and structures that have affected fertility behavior. Variations in fertility among member states are first described, and models for explaining past fertility trends are outlined.
The factors affecting fertility in contemporary Europe are then analyzed. Consideration is given to postindustrial values that influence fertility, such as the growth in the importance of individual needs and preferences, and to new groupings and moral standards favoring low fertility, such as alternatives to the traditional family, new trends in sexuality, and subcultural movements affecting social change. Finally, some myths and mistaken beliefs about low fertility are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10299 Schultz, T. Paul. Changing world prices, women's wages, and the fertility transition: Sweden, 1860- 1910. Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 93, No. 6, Dec 1985. 1,126-54 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
"This paper identifies demand-induced changes in the price of women's time as a factor determining the fertility transition. Changes in world prices of grains and animal products in the 1880s affected the composition of Swedish output and labor demands. The increase in the price of butter relative to grains improved women's wages relative to men's and contributed thereby to the decline in fertility. When child mortality, urbanization, and the real wages of men are held constant, aggregate county-level data for a 50-year period, 1860- 1910, suggest that this exogenous appreciation in the value of women's time relative to men's explains a quarter of the concurrent decline in Swedish fertility."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 50, No. 3, Fall 1984, p. 430).
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10300 Seiver, Daniel A.; Cymrot, Donald J. A new approach to household fertility behavior. Eastern Economic Journal, Vol. 10, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1984. 31-41 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
This study is concerned with a new approach to household fertility behavior that recognizes that fertility decisions are made by pairs of individuals who may disagree over desired family size. The authors first identify the costs and benefits of child services to each spouse. They then "provide specific examples of situations in which disagreement is likely to occur. Using the [U.S.] National Fertility Survey of 1965 [they] are able to test whether disagreements are more likely to occur in these identified cases."
Location: Princeton University Library (FST).

52:10301 Smith, David P. Comment on Barbara Devaney's "An analysis of variations in U.S. fertility and female labor force participation trends". Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 137-42 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
This is a critique of an article by Barbara Devaney on variations in U.S. fertility and female labor force trends. A reply by Devaney (pp. 141-2) is included.
For the study by Devaney, published in 1983, see 49:20264.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10302 Sobel, Michael E. Social mobility and fertility revisited: some new models for the analysis of the mobility effects hypothesis. American Sociological Review, Vol. 50, No. 5, Oct 1985. 699-712 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
The relationship between social mobility and fertility is analyzed, with emphasis on the development of models to analyze the mobility effects hypothesis. The proposed models allow for the introduction of explanatory variables other than mobility and are illustrated using U.S. data from the 1962 Occupational Changes in a Generation--I study. The results confirm the relative impact of various social origin and destination categories on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10303 Starr, Thomas B.; Dalcorso, R. Daniel; Levine, Richard J. Fertility of workers: a comparison of logistic regression and indirect standardization. American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 123, No. 3, Mar 1986. 490-8 pp. Baltimore, Maryland. In Eng.
"Estimates of the effect of occupational exposure on the fertility of men employed at three [U.S.] chemical plants were obtained from data stored at the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology using logistic regression and indirect standardization."
Location: Princeton University Library (SZ).

52:10304 Teachman, Jay D.; Polonko, Karen A. Timing of the transition to parenthood: a multidimensional birth-interval approach. Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 47, No. 4, Nov 1985. 867-79 pp. Saint Paul, Minnesota. In Eng.
"In this paper [the authors] outline a conceptual framework for analyzing first-birth timing and then examine potential determinants using an appropriate multivariate methodology and data from the 1973 [U.S.] National Survey of Family Growth. More specifically, [they] test for the relative impact of three dimensions on birth timing: historical time, individual or couple time, and socioeconomic background characteristics. Utilizing a birth-interval approach, significant findings include a strong impact of individual time in all cases, a significant impact of historical time for whites but not for blacks, and a greater impact of wives' background characteristics compared with those of husbands'."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10305 Tolnay, Stewart E. Black American fertility transition, 1880-1940. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 2-7 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
"The black fertility transition [in the United States] between 1880 and 1940 has received unusual treatment in the social science literature, and seems more puzzling than the transitions of other population groups. This review describes the black transition; discusses alternative explanations for the transition; and suggests a common ground for the apparently discordant explanatory traditions. It is pointed out that 'the' black transition was really multiple transitions which varied substantially over time and across space."
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10306 United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP] (Bangkok, Thailand). The influence of infant and child mortality on fertility in selected countries of the Asian and Pacific region. Population Research Leads, No. 20, 1985. 18 pp. Bangkok, Thailand. In Eng.
Data from the World Fertility Survey for 10 selected countries in Asia and Oceania are used to analyze the correlation between infant mortality and fertility. Among the underlying factors identified are the "insurance behavior" of parents concerned about their children's survival, the disruption of breast-feeding subsequent to an infant's death, and the "replacement behavior" of parents following the death of a child.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10307 van Hoorn, W. D. Netherlands Fertility Survey 1982: age of the woman at first marriage and at first birth by social variables. [Onderzoek Gezinsvorming 1982: leeftijd van de vrouw bij het eerste huwelijk en bij de geboorte van het eerste kind naar sociale variabelen.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 33, No. 11, Nov 1985. 35-45 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
This article contains "the results of a multivariate analysis on data of the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey. The dependent variables are the woman's age at first marriage and her age at first birth; the independent variables are social characteristics such as education, religion, political preference, occupation and income. The applied techniques are analysis of variance and multiple classification analysis. Two groups of women were analysed separately because of a potential distortion by the age variable; the groups consisted of women born in the period 1945-1949 on the one hand and those born in 1950-1954 on the other hand."
The focus is on variations over time in age at first marriage and at first birth. The results indicate that level and duration of education of women and their partners is the most important factor; occupation and income are also shown to be significant. Comparisons are made with data from the 1977 Netherlands Fertility Survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10308 van Tonder, J. L. Fertility survey 1982: data concerning the black population of South Africa. RGN.HSRC Report, No. S-129, ISBN 0-7969-0250-X. 1985. 301 pp. Human Sciences Research Council, Institute for Sociological and Demographic Research: Pretoria, South Africa. In Eng.
These are the results of a 1982 fertility survey of the black population of South Africa. The survey, which employed the questionnaire developed for the World Fertility Survey, included a nationally representative sample of 5,000 ever-married women under age 50. The results are presented separately under the general headings of nuptiality, fertility, preferences for number and sex of children, knowledge and use of contraception, and use of contraception as related to fertility preference.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10309 Ventura, Stephanie J.; Taffel, Selma M. Childbearing characteristics of U.S.- and foreign-born Hispanic mothers. Public Health Reports, Vol. 100, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 647-52 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study compares maternal and infant health and sociodemographic characteristics of U.S.-born and foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mothers and their babies, using data from the national vital statistics system and the 1980 National Natality Survey....Compared with foreign- or Puerto Rican-born Hispanic mothers, U.S.-born mothers tended to be younger, to have had fewer high-order births, to be less likely to receive delayed or no prenatal care, to have higher educational attainment, and to be more likely to be unmarried." Consideration is also given to factors affecting low birth weight.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10310 Weller, Robert H. International migration and fertility: with special reference to Arab countries. In: International migration in the Arab world. Proceedings of an ECWA Population Conference, Nicosia, Cyprus, 11-16 May 1981. Vol. 2, 1982. 945-70 pp. U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia [ECWA]: Beirut, Lebanon. In Eng.
This paper begins with a theoretical discussion of the ways in which international migration can affect fertility both in the country of origin and in the country of destination. Using census and other published data, the author then examines fertility in some of the member countries of the U.N. Economic Commission for Western Asia (ECWA) between 1965 and 1975 to determine the effects of migration on overall fertility levels, fertility differentials between immigrants and natives in countries of destination, and fertility differentials between emigrants and stayers in countries of origin. The need for better data sources in order to investigate this relationship is emphasized.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10311 Wongboonsin, Kua. Fertility patterns and their determinants in Thailand, 1969-1979: results from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Pub. Order No. DA8515469. 1985. 390 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
Fertility patterns and trends in Thailand between 1969 and 1979 are analyzed using data from four national surveys, including the World Fertility Survey, and community- level data on the availability of and access to rural health and family planning services. The approach used is the supply-demand model developed by Easterlin and Crimmins. The focus of the study is on the alteration of the determinants of fertility control when using ex ante measurements of desired family size.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at the University of Pennsylvania.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

52:10312 Yen, Eva Chung-Chiung. Determinants of fertility in the LDC's: the household production approach revisited. Pub. Order No. DA8520818. 1985. 96 pp. Dissertation Abstracts International: Ann Arbor, Michigan. In Eng.
The author elaborates a modified household production model and applies it to an examination of the determinants of fertility in developing countries. The two modifications involve the interchangeability of wife's and other family members' household production time and the influence of residence on fertility. A simple regression model is used to show that both family structure and location have a substantial impact on fertility decisions.
This work was prepared as a doctoral dissertation at Washington University.
Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, A: Humanities and Social Sciences 46(7).

F.2. Differential Fertility

Studies on differences in fertility patterns and levels in subgroups of a population. Also included are studies on age-specific fertility, such as teenage pregnancy.

52:10313 Ahmed, J. Polygyny and fertility differentials among the Yoruba of western Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 63-73 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data were analysed from the 1973 surveys of the Nigerian segment of the Changing African Family (CAFN) Project which covered Yoruba women and men in Ibadan and the western state of Nigeria. The Yoruba women in monogamous unions and those in polygynous unions show slightly varying levels of fertility, measured as mean number of children ever born. Most of this variation can be attributed to other variables; type of union of the women does not significantly affect their fertility level."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10314 Ashurst, Hazel; Balkaran, Sundat; Casterline, J. B. Socio-economic differentials in recent fertility. WFS Comparative Studies: Cross-National Summaries, Rev. ed. No. 42, Dec 1984. 61 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
This is the second of two cross-national summaries on socioeconomic differentials in fertility. The present report supplements World Fertility Survey data from 29 developing countries and Portugal presented in the first report with data from an additional 12 surveys, most of which are from Africa. Using four socioeconomic variables--type of place of current residence, woman's years of education, her partner's occupation, and her work status since first union--fertility rates are calculated for each subgroup. Detailed estimates for the 12 countries covered in this report and summary measures for the other 29 countries surveyed are presented.
For a related publication by Iqbal Alam, published in 1984, see 50:30332.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10315 Bailey, Mohamed. Differential fertility by religious group in rural Sierra Leone. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 75-85 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study examines the influence of Islam and Christianity (Catholicism and Protestantism) on fertility in rural Sierra Leone. Analyses using number of children ever born and number of living children for currently married women of childbearing ages 15-49 as measures of fertility show that Muslim fertility is lower than either Catholic or Protestant fertility net of relevant demographic and socioeconomic variables."
The results also show that "the interaction between wife's educational level and her religious affiliation was statistically significant for number of children ever born but not for number of living children. Religion is shown to be an important factor in differentiating fertility behaviour at different educational levels. Among wives with no schooling, differences in religion lead to small fertility differentials; among those with primary or higher education, the fertility differentials are substantial." Data were collected in 1979 for a sample of 2,000 currently married women.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10316 Etzler, Cecilia. Marriage, cohabitation, or childbearing as a starting event of family formation among Swedish women according to social background: cohorts born 1936-1960. [Forsta steget i familjebildningen--gifta sig, borja sambo eller fa barn: utveckling och skillnader bland svenska kvinnor med olika social bakgrund fodda 1936-1960.] Stockholm Research Reports in Demography, No. 21, ISBN 91-7820-008-3. Nov 1984. 53 pp. University of Stockholm, Section of Demography: Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
This is one in a series of progress reports from a research project on the life cycle of women in modern Sweden. In the present paper, fertility differences among married, cohabiting, and single women in Sweden born between 1936 and 1960 are analyzed. The results suggest that illegitimacy among single women is very rare, cohabitation before proceeding to marriage is common, and differences among women of different socioeconomic status have declined over time.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10317 Heath, Anthony. Social mobility and fertility. In: Measuring socio-demographic change. University of Sussex, 9-11 September 1985. Conference papers. ISBN 0-904952-20-7. 1985. 59 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
A study of the relationships among current social class, social origins, and fertility using 1980 data is outlined in this one-page summary. Topics covered in the paper will include economic theories of fertility, the ways in which class origins influence fertility, and the possible effects of upward and downward social mobility on fertility.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10318 Jagdeo, Tirbani P. Teenage pregnancy in the Caribbean. ISBN 0-9166A3-09-5. 1984. viii, 144 pp. International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], Western Hemisphere Region: New York, New York; Caribbean Family Planning Affiliation: St. Johns, Antigua. In Eng.
"This study is a qualitative analysis of the nature and dynamics of adolescent pregnancy in the Caribbean." Data are from interviews of 141 females aged 12-19 who visited prenatal and postpartum clinics in Grenada, Dominica, and Antigua during the early 1980s. Among the topics considered are the activities of family planning organizations in the region; the influences of church, peers, school, and family on adolescent fertility patterns; and attitudes toward contraception, its accessibility, and use.
A separate chapter presents findings from interviews of 15 nulliparous, never-pregnant women aged 19-22 from Antigua. In the concluding chapter, the author summarizes the observed individual and institutional sources of resistance to adolescent fertility regulation in the Caribbean.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10319 Kazdova, Jitka; Koubek, Josef. Geographical variations in female fertility in Czechoslovakia and changes in the 1970s. [Uzemni diferenciace plodnosti zen v Ceskoslovensku a jeji zmeny v prubehu sedmdesatych let.] Demografie, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1985. 313-20 pp. Prague, Czechoslovakia. In Cze. with sum. in Eng; Rus.
In this study of regional differences in fertility rates in Czechoslovakia in the 1970s, the authors detect a reduction in the degree of variation between regions. Areas that had formerly been characterized by high fertility, primarily Slovak districts, experienced more rapid declines in fertility levels over the period and responded less positively to pro-natalist population measures than did the areas previously characterized by lower fertility rates.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10320 Kuo, Eddie C. Y.; Chiew, Seen-Kong. Ethnicity and fertility in Singapore. Research Notes and Discussions Paper, No. 48, ISBN 9971-902-90-7. LC 85-940635. 1984. xv, 180 pp. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore. In Eng.
This is one in a series of reports on a study of ethnic differentials in fertility, which was conducted in five countries of Southeast Asia between 1980 and 1983. The present report is concerned with Singapore. It includes a report on the survey methodology as well as chapters on the nature of ethnic differences; ethnic differences in fertility, including fertility and sex preferences, value of children, family planning differences, differences in proximate variables affecting fertility, and differences in nuptiality; and explanations for the observed fertility differences.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10321 Leibowitz, Arleen; Eisen, Marvin; Chow, Winston K. An economic model of teenage pregnancy decision- making. Demography, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 1986. 67-77 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Cross-sectional data on 297 California teenagers who were pregnant for the first time between 1972 and 1974 are used to model unmarried teenagers' decisions concerning their pregnancy outcomes, with a focus on the impact of economic factors. The authors consider that the teenager contrasts her expected utility as a married mother, an unmarried mother, or after abortion. The results show that "pregnant girls who are eligible for or are receiving public assistance are more likely to give birth and remain unmarried. Teenagers with greater time values are more likely to choose abortion, and Mexican-American girls are more likely to carry their pregnancies to term."
This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1980 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 46, No. 3, Fall 1980, p. 397).
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10322 Menard, Scott. Inequality and fertility. Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 20, No. 1, Spring 1985. 83-97 pp. New Brunswick, New Jersey. In Eng.
The relationship between inequality and fertility is examined, with emphasis on direct social influences on fertility. Multiple regression analysis is used to test for evidence of this relationship when competing hypotheses are considered as well. The author also discusses problems related to the concept of inequality. Data concern 140 countries and are from secondary sources. The results suggest that the relative status of women is the most likely influence on such fertility differentials.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10323 Mineau, Geraldine P.; Anderton, Douglas L.; Bean, Lee L.; Willigan, J. Dennis; Bardet, J.-P. Differential fertility development and social religious groups: the example of Utah in the nineteenth century. [Evolution differentielle de la fecondite et groupes sociaux religieux: l'exemple de l'Utah au XIXe siecle.] Annales de Demographie Historique, 1984. 219-36 pp. Paris, France. In Fre. with sum. in Eng.
"This paper presents a differential fertility analysis which is of interest on two counts: firstly, it provides concrete findings on the factors which modify behaviour patterns; and secondly, it is based on a method of analysis by groups which enables several variables involved in this modification to be taken into account simultaneously."
Analyzing data from Mormon genealogical records for a sample of 24,953 Utah families in which the wife was born in the period 1830-1889, the authors conclude that "religion and residence are two factors which undeniably have a strong influence on fertility. Their relative importance varies from one period to another."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10324 Mott, Frank L. The pace of repeated childbearing among young American mothers. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 5-12 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Work Experience of Youth for the years 1979 to 1983 are used to examine the pace of repeated childbearing among young U.S. mothers. The data concern 1,448 women, of whom 697 were white, 516 black, and 235 Hispanic. The results show that women who gave birth at ages 16 and younger are more likely to bear a second child within the next two years than women who have their first child at an older age, particularly if they are black or Hispanic. The role of factors such as socioeconomic status, marital status, wantedness of first birth, and educational status is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10325 Neuman, Shoshana; Ziderman, Adrian. How does fertility relate to religiosity: survey evidence from Israel. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, Jan 1986. 178-80 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
The authors examine the relationship between religious observance and fertility and contraceptive use among Jews in Israel. Data are from an unpublished sample survey of salaried workers in Israel, which was conducted in June 1968.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10326 Polit, Denise F.; Kahn, Janet R. Early subsequent pregnancy among economically disadvantaged teenage mothers. American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, No. 2, Feb 1986. 167-71 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This study investigated the antecedents and short-term consequences of an early subsequent pregnancy in a sample of economically disadvantaged teenage mothers. Data were gathered [between 1980 and 1983] from a sample of 675 young mothers living in eight United States cities. Within two years of the initial interview, when half the sample was still pregnant with the index pregnancy, nearly half of the sample experienced a second- or higher-order pregnancy." The factors associated with such repeat pregnancies are considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10327 Tolnay, Stewart E. Fertility of southern black farmers in 1900: evidence and speculation. Journal of Family History, Vol. 8, No. 4, Winter 1983. 314-32 pp. Minneapolis, Minnesota. In Eng.
"This paper examines variation in the fertility of southern black farmers near the turn of the century. The data source is a 1 in 750 sample of households taken from the 1900 [U.S.] manuscript census. Environmental and individual characteristics are used in regression analyses to predict the number of children ever born to married women between the ages of 15 and 44. Comparable results are presented for southern native white farmers."
The results are significantly different for the two groups considered. "The fertility of blacks responded positively to the presence of manufacturing activity...while whites exhibited the opposite relationship. Further, land shortages significantly depressed white fertility, but were unrelated to black reproduction. A possible interpretation of these discrepant results is offered, emphasizing the inferior social position of and restricted opportunities for southern blacks in the late 1800s. Finally, it is concluded that a mix of voluntary and involuntary forces was probably responsible for the rural black fertility transition...."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology

Studies on infertility, as well as studies of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, and other relevant pathologies of pregnancy.

52:10328 Karim, Abdul; Chowdhury, A. K. M. Alauddin; Kabir, M. Nutritional status and age at secondary sterility in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 497-502 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"In a prospective study of 2,324 women in Matlab, Bangladesh, the occurrence of primary and secondary sterility by age groups was examined. The results were related to the nutritional status of the women, as assessed by measurements of height, weight, arm circumference and ponderal index. There is evidence that nutritional status is an important factor in estimated age at sterility, with thinner women experiencing a slightly earlier menopause."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10329 McDowall, M. E. Occupational reproductive epidemiology: the use of routinely collected statistics in England and Wales 1980-82. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects, No. 50, ISBN 0-11- 691141-7. 1985. iii, 77 pp. Office of Population Censuses and Surveys [OPCS]: London, England. In Eng.
"The aim of this study is to explore the use of routine statistics for occupational reproductive epidemiology and in doing so to present the results of the first major analysis of routinely collected England and Wales statistics for this purpose. Chapters 2- 8 each examine a specific adverse reproductive outcome by parents (mainly father's) occupation. Chapters 2-5 are relatively routine analyses of altered sex ratio, congenital malformations, stillbirths, infant and perinatal mortality and low birthweight."
Chapter 6 "contains a rather more speculative analysis of reduced fertility by occupation, whilst Chapters 7 and 8 demonstrate the use of case- control studies based on routine data by examining sudden infant death and childhood cancer respectively by father's occupation." A final chapter summarizes previous chapters concerning variations in patterns of reproductive outcome for specific occupations.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10330 Mosher, William D.; Aral, Sevgi O. Factors related to infertility in the United States, 1965-1976. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Vol. 12, No. 3, Jul- Sep 1985. 117-23 pp. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In Eng.
Data from national data bases are used to examine the relationships among sexual activity, complications of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, use of contraception, and infertility in the United States. The results show that "although the overall rate of infertility among American women of reproductive age remained fairly constant between 1965 and 1976, the percentage of young black women who were infertile increased very sharply. In 1976, 18% of black women of reproductive age were infertile, whereas only 9% of white women of the same age were infertile."
The results show "a strong association between sexually transmitted diseases, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility trends. Our projections indicate that sexually transmitted diseases operating through pelvic infections account for much of the race differential in infertility as well as for one-half to one-third of the increase."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

F.4. Actions and Activities Directly Affecting Fertility

Studies concerning activities, including family planning programs, that are primarily designed to influence fertility.

F.4.1. General Fertility Control and Contraception

General aspects of fertility control, primarily those concerned with family planning and family planning programs.

52:10331 Atkinson, Linda E.; Lincoln, Richard; Forrest, Jacqueline D. Worldwide trends in funding for contraceptive research and evaluation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 196-207 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The results of a worldwide survey of funding for fundamental nondirected reproductive research, contraceptive development, and evaluation of long-term contraceptive safety during the years 1980-1983 are presented and compared with two previous studies covering the period 1965-1978. The figures indicate a decline in constant 1970 dollars in all areas of research considered, although a general increase in coordination and planning among publicly supported programs and private industry has occurred. Data are provided for worldwide expenditures for fundamental reproductive research, contraceptive research and development, and evaluation of the long-term safety of existing methods for the years 1980 to 1983. Reasons for the decline in commercial contraceptive research are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10332 Balakrishnan, T. R.; Krotki, Karol; Lapierre-Adamcyk, Evelyne. Contraceptive use in Canada, 1984. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep- Oct 1985. 209-15 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Results of the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey concerning contraceptive use are presented and compared with data from the 1982 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth. The age, birth expectations, education, church attendance, and country of birth of Canadian women appear to influence method choice while differences in contraceptive prevalence and in selection of method between Catholics and Protestants in Canada have become insignificant. The data reveal no significant differences in contraceptive use between Quebec women and other Canadian women, thereby confirming the nationwide applicability of earlier surveys conducted in the province.
Overall contraceptive prevalence among married and single women is shown to be higher in Canada than in the United States, with the pill being chosen by considerably greater numbers of never-married women in Canada than in the United States. Factors affecting the high rate of female sterilization are also discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10333 Balasubrahmanyan, Vimal. Towards a women's perspective on family planning. Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 21, No. 2, Jan 11, 1986. 69-71 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
In this article, the author is concerned with the need to integrate a women's perspective into the family planning program in India. Examples from field studies and published sources are recounted to illustrate the need to involve the women's movement. The role of women in monitoring the family planning program and in research concerning women's experiences with contraception is also considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PF).

52:10334 Bertrand, Jane T.; Mangani, Nlandu; Mansilu, Matondo; Landry, Evelyn G. Factors influencing the use of traditional versus modern family planning methods in Bas Zaire. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 332-41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The use of traditional and modern family planning methods in one urban and one rural area of Bas Zaire before the establishment of organized family planning programs is analyzed. The data were collected in two surveys carried out in 1981 and 1982. The results indicate that the use of modern contraceptive methods was extremely limited, although substantial motivation existed for birth spacing.
"Of the variables tested as possible correlates, only economic status was related to use of both traditional and modern methods in the same direction. Use of a traditional method was largely determined by age of the youngest child and breastfeeding status. By contrast, use of a modern method was highest among women over 30 with higher levels of education and parity, who were not currently breastfeeding."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10335 Boulier, Bryan L.; Rosenzweig, Mark R. Estimation of the level and timing of fertility control from reports on children ever born. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 1-11 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
The authors develop "a non-linear estimation procedure for determining the age at which married women begin to control fertility and their level of control, as well as the social and economic determinants of these parameters. The method requires only data on children ever born, age at marriage, and socioeconomic characteristics of couples. Application of the method to samples of married women from the 1965 and 1970 U.S. National Fertility Surveys yields estimates of the level and timing of fertility control and differences in these parameters by cohort and religion that are consistent with findings from special surveys on contraceptive use."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10336 Gans, Lydia P.; Wood, Corrine S. Discriminant analysis as a method for differentiating potential acceptors of family planning: Western Samoa. Human Organization, Vol. 44, No. 3, Fall 1985. 228-33 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
"This paper reports on an examination of selected variables which shape the lives of reproductive women living in Western Samoa. The purpose of the study is to attempt to identify measurable characteristics differentiating the women into distinct groups: those who are likely to be receptive to newly-introduced approaches to family planning, and those who--at this time--are likely to be less accepting of modern methods of birth control." The data are from a 1979 survey of 90 women.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10337 Guthrie, George M.; Fernandez, Tomas L.; Estrera, Nenita O. Small-scale studies and field experiments in family planning in the Philipines. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Vol. 8, No. 4, 1984. 391-412 pp. Elmsford, New York/Oxford, England. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
The results of four small descriptive studies and field trials on family planning, which were undertaken in the Philippines between 1976 and 1981, are presented. The results indicate that resistance to acceptance and continuation of reliable contraceptive methods are associated with fears of side effects and of disruption of physical and social relations between husband and wife rather than to the desire for large families. Intervention by field-workers in response to such fears increases both family planning acceptance and continuation.
Location: New York Public Library.

52:10338 Kabir, M.; Ahmed, T. Contraceptive prevalence rates in Bangladesh--some preliminary results based on a new service statistics system. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1985. 27-38 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The authors describe the Contraceptive Service Statistics System that has been developed by the Management Information System Unit of the Bangladesh Family Planning Department in order to obtain accurate and reliable information on family planning statistics. Some preliminary data from the system for contraceptive prevalence for 1981 are presented that indicate approximately 18.6 percent of currently married women are using contraception.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:10339 Khan, M. E.; Prasad, C. V. S. A comparison of 1970 and 1980 survey findings on family planning in India. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 312-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"This report compares the findings of two national sample surveys and highlights changes in the level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning among Indian couples during 1970-1980. No significant change in desired family size during this period is indicated, but awareness about various contraceptives increased and more people had a favorable attitude toward family planning by 1980....Sterilization remained the most popular modern method, followed by condoms. It was also found that current contraceptive users belonged to a relatively better socioeconomic group than those couples who did not want any additional children yet were not practicing contraception, characterized by a higher literacy level, more exposure to mass media, and better communication between spouses."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10340 Laukaran, Virginia H.; Winikoff, Beverly. Contraceptive use, amenorrhea, and breastfeeding in postpartum women. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 293-301 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Data from a 1981-1982 survey of infant feeding practices in four developing countries are used to analyze the relationship of amenorrhea, lactation, and time since childbirth with contraceptive use." A negative relationship between breast-feeding and the use of oral contraceptives, a strong negative correlation between amenorrhea and contraceptive use, and a tendency for women less than four months postpartum not to use contraceptives are indicated. The analysis suggests that "women in the immediate postpartum period, especially those who are lactating and amenorrheic, are not as highly motivated to use contraception as had been supposed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10341 Madigan, Francis C. Differentiation of current users and of non-users of family planning, Philippines, 1983. Research Institute for Mindanao Culture, Series 1, 1983 NDS, No. 2, Dec 1985. 31 pp. Xavier University, Research Institute for Mindanao Culture: Cagayan de Oro, Philippines. In Eng.
Data from the 1983 National Demographic Survey for the Philippines and from earlier published sources are analyzed to show the distribution of users and nonusers of family planning methods according to selected socioeconomic variables and variables related to exposure to family planning programs. The findings indicate that "the program inputs have been effective on the one hand, and that non-program socioeconomic variables are also important, and cannot be overlooked without risk of reducing program effectiveness."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10342 McIntosh, E. Noel; van Bergen, Binny; Dhakhwa, Dev R.; Vaidya, Tika M.; Khatri, Tara B. Recent changes in the sociodemographic profile of sterilization acceptors in Nepal. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1985. 405-11 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Changes in the socio-demographic profile of sterilization acceptors in Nepal are analyzed using data for 8,056 males and 9,291 females accepting sterilization from 1979 to 1983. A general decline in age at sterilization and in family size of acceptors is noted.
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:10343 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (New York, New York). Trends in teenage childbearing, 1970-83. Statistical Bulletin, Vol. 67, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1986. 3- 9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in childbearing among adolescents in the United States from 1970 to 1983 are reviewed using data from official sources. The data and accompanying analysis are presented separately for whites and all other races. The analysis suggests that although adolescent pregnancy is declining over time, rates continue to be significantly higher than for other developed Western countries.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10344 Omran, Abdel R.; Johnston, Alan G. Family planning for health in Africa. 1984. x, 190 pp. University of North Carolina, Carolina Population Center: Chapel Hill, North Carolina. In Eng.
This book consists of a series of papers by various authors concerning the health rationale for developing family planning programs in Africa. Most of the papers are based on reviews of the published literature. Following an introductory chapter, attention is given to "African evidence for the health risks associated with unplanned fertility, particularly parity and family size (Factor 1); maternal age and pregnancy timing (Factor 2); and birth interval and child spacing (Factor 3)."
Subsequent chapters include information on the health risks of childbearing in East Africa, the health rationale for family planning in North Africa, and a physician's perspective on family formation, fertility regulation, and health in Africa. The relations between traditional African religions and cultural attitudes and family planning, between Islam and family planning, and between Christianity, particularly Catholicism, and family planning are also discussed.
A final chapter is concerned with demographic aspects of population policies in Africa. The authors conclude that "family planning is universally indicated in Africa for health reasons regardless of the demographic pressures."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10345 Orr, Margaret T.; Forrest, Jacqueline D.; Johnson, Jeanette H.; Tolman, Deborah L. The provision of sterilization services by private physicians. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 216-20 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Findings from a 1983 nationwide survey of private providers of sterilization in the United States are summarized. Data are analyzed according to the following categories: the setting in which the service is performed, the specialty of the providing physician, the average fees and total costs of the procedures, and the fee policies of the providers.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10346 Sadik, Nafis. Women and family planning. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1985. 40-52 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The role that family planning can play in enhancing the status of women is examined. A general review of worldwide differences in levels of contraceptive practice is first presented, drawing on recent survey-based estimates and focusing on developing countries. Next, the author summarizes recent changes in laws and policies related to family planning; future policy trends are also considered. The author stresses the need for greater government commitment to family planning in order to free women from reproductive burdens and to permit their greater contribution to the development process. The role of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities is described.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10347 Sanders, Thomas G. Family planning and population policy in Brazil. UFSI Report, No. 16, 1984. 7 pp. Universities Field Staff International: Hanover, New Hampshire. In Eng.
An overview of current attitudes in Brazil with regard to population issues is first presented. The work of the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, a private organization providing family planning services, is then described. Finally, Brazilian government actions and pronouncements concerning population policies over the decade between the World Population Conferences in Bucharest (1974) and Mexico (1984) are chronicled.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10348 Streatfield, Kim. A comparison of census and family planning program data on contraceptive prevalence, Indonesia. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 342-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
"Indonesian family planning (FP) service statistics indicate that three out of five couples of childbearing age nationwide are now using modern contraception provided by the FP program. The 1980 Indonesian Census provided a unique opportunity to cross-check the FP program's contraceptive prevalence figures for every province. The results of that comparison indicate considerable variation, particularly in Java, between the FP program estimates of numbers of current users and the census estimates. Possible explanations for these differences are sought in the FP program approach to estimation of prevalence levels from acceptor data, and by examining the possibility of census underestimation of prevalence levels."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.2. Clinical Aspects & Use-Effectiveness Studies

Selected studies on the medical aspects of fertility control methods, including studies on side effects and use-effectiveness.

52:10349 Grimes, David A. Reversible contraception for the 1980s. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 255, No. 1, Jan 3, 1986. 69-75 pp. Chicago, Illinois. In Eng.
A review of currently available reversible contraceptive methods in the United States is presented. The author provides "a brief clinical update on reversible contraception, including current use of contraception, the efficacy of various methods, the safety of these methods, and a brief overview of each."
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.

52:10350 Hutchings, Jane E.; Benson, Patti J.; Perkin, Gordon W.; Soderstrom, Richard M. The IUD after 20 years: a review. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 6, Nov-Dec 1985. 244-7, 250-5 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The authors review the history and development of IUDs since their introduction in the early 1900s and discuss the types currently available. Specific attention is given to modes of action and effectiveness, side effects and complications, information for IUD providers, insertion and removal, and the Dalkon Shield. According to the authors, "evidence to date shows that for a fully informed woman, the IUD can provide a satisfactory, highly effective, relatively low-risk method of contraception."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10351 Zatuchni, Gerald I.; Goldsmith, Alfredo; Sciarra, John J. Intrauterine contraception: advances and future prospects. PARFR Series on Fertility Regulation, ISBN 0-397-50708-9. LC 85-861. 1985. xviii, 504 pp. Harper and Row: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania/London, England. In Eng.
These are the proceedings of the International Workshop on Intrauterine Contraception: Advances and Future Propects, held from May 29 to June 1, 1984, in Chicago, Illinois. The 57 papers are grouped under the following headings: worldwide experience with intrauterine contraception, governmental regulatory agencies and IUDs, multicenter comparative clinical trials, technical advances in intrauterine contraception, current IUD research and development, uterine bleeding and IUD use, clinical concerns with intrauterine contraception, and pelvic inflammatory disease and IUD use.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.3. Evaluation of Programs

Studies evaluating either the demographic impact or other criteria of effectiveness of family planning programs.

52:10352 Krystall, Eric. Private sector family planning. Populi, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1985. 34-9 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report concerns a demonstration family planning project in Kenya, begun in 1983 with support from USAID and the government of Kenya, that was designed to assist the private sector in the provision of health services, including family planning. The author emphasizes the role that private sector programs can play in supporting and supplementing government programs in this area.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10353 Prakasam, C. P.; Subramanyam, L. B. Family planning performance in India--a methodological approach. Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1985. 39-45 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
"This paper makes an attempt to describe briefly the taxonomic method [of program evaluation] and demonstrate its application to a quantitative analysis of family planning performance in India, by considering the State as a unit of analysis for...1981." The results indicate that "the over-all performance of family planning in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh was the best during 1981. The least performance was recorded in Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Assam in 1981."
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

52:10354 Rosenfield, Allan; McNamara, Regina. Community-oriented health, nutrition and family planning services: overview and lessons from operations research. Center for Population and Family Health Working Paper Series, No. 21, Oct 1985. 24 pp. Columbia University, Center for Population and Family Health [CPFH]: New York, New York. In Eng.
Some of the key issues in the fields of health, nutrition, and family planning in the developing world are reviewed, and experiences with integrated programs addressing all three areas are discussed. Research findings concerning new approaches to the delivery of these services are outlined.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y..; Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10355 Sardon, Jean-Paul. Family planning and contraceptive practices in China. [Planification familiale et pratiques contraceptives en Chine.] Population, Vol. 40, No. 4-5, Jul-Oct 1985. 774-9 pp. Paris, France. In Fre.
Data from the 1982 Chinese census and early findings from a 1-in- 1,000 fertility survey are used to assess the efficacy of recent family planning efforts in China. Figures are presented for contraceptive use by method according to age, urban or rural residence, and region of the country. A decline in the birth rate in China is noted, and suggestions for sustaining this development are offered.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10356 United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] (New York, New York). General lessons learned from evaluations of MCH/FP projects in Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland and Zambia. Dec 1984. iv, 41 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
This report attempts to bring together some general lessons from the evaluation of four UNFPA funded projects in the area of maternal and child health and family planning, which were carried out in the African countries of Botswana, Malawi, Swaziland, and Zambia. The results of each individual project evaluation are first presented. The final section describes the common problems encountered in the four projects and makes some recommendations concerning how they can be resolved in future projects.
The five areas considered are training of medical personnel in family planning; family planning administration, particularly staff supervision and the supply and distribution of contraceptives; research and evaluation; project administration; and execution by the World Health Organization (WHO).
Location: Johns Hopkins University, Population Information Program, Baltimore, Md.; Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.4.4. Attitudes Toward Fertility & Fertility Control

Studies concerned with the interrelations between fertility control and attitudinal variables, including studies on wanted and unwanted pregnancy and children, motivation for parenthood, sex preference, and voluntary childlessness. Studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of family planning and attitudes toward family size are classified under this heading.

52:10357 Beaujot, Roderic P.; Tong, Kit-Ying S. The effect of marital satisfaction on fertility. Genus, Vol. 41, No. 1-2, Jan-Jun 1985. 13-21 pp. Rome, Italy. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Ita.
"The present study is an investigation into the effects of marital satisfaction on the desire for children. Based upon the data provided by the Social Change in Canada Survey 1977, the analysis highlights marital satisfaction as one of the factors affecting childbearing motivations. When mean differentials and standardized regression coefficients are examined, a positive relationship is found between marital satisfaction and the desire for children, especially for persons, both men and women, who have one or no children. Marital satisfaction was found to be less important than demographic variables but more important than socio-economic variables in explaining fertility variation."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10358 Campbell, Eugene K. Male role in fertility decisions in Robertsport, Liberia. Biology and Society, Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep 1985. 135-41 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"This paper examines the role of men in family planning among the Vai tribe in Robertsport, Liberia. The data were collected from a sample survey of Vai males in the town in 1982." The author found in a sample of 100 married men aged 15-39 that husbands, generally desiring large numbers of children, are a dominating influence in fertility decisions. In decisions that are reached jointly, educational attainment appears to be a significant factor.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10359 Chen, Chaonan E. An experiment about family planning attitude change. Institute of Economics Monograph Series, No. 27, LC 84-203133. Sep 1983. xiv, 154 pp. Academia Sinica, Institute of Economics: Taipei, Taiwan. In Eng.
The process of changing attitudes toward family planning in Taiwan is examined using data for approximately 500 female factory workers. The women were exposed to one of three different 30-minute talks. The impact of the talks was assessed using a Galileo System model of metric multidimensional scaling. The results suggest that attitudes were significantly changed by one of the talks and moderately changed by the other two, indicating that direct efforts to change attitudes of this kind may play a valuable role in family planning programs.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10360 de Graaf, A. Netherlands Fertility Survey 1982: choosing a family size. [Onderzoek Gezinsvorming 1982: de keuze voor een kindertal.] Maandstatistiek van de Bevolking, Vol. 33, No. 9, Sep 1985. 49-59 pp. Voorburg, Netherlands. In Dut. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1982 Netherlands Fertility Survey are used to show the characteristics of women choosing to have different numbers of children and to analyze their motivation concerning family size. Reasons why women did not have the number of children originally desired are also considered. The data concern 2,923 women aged 28-37. Separate consideration is given to the characteristics of women remaining childless, those with one child, those with two children, those with three children, and those with four or more children.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10361 Eglite, P. A. Factors and motives affecting population reproduction. [Faktory i motivy demograficheskogo povedeniya.] LC 85-103308. 1984. 288 pp. Zinatne: Riga, USSR. In Rus.
This study is concerned with the factors that affect individual motivation to have children and with the influence of social policy. The geographical focus is on the Latvian Republic of the USSR. The author describes research on this topic that has been carried out at the Economic Institute of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Consideration is given to differences among social classes in the factors affecting reproduction.
Location: U.S. Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

52:10362 Fosu, Gabriel B. Fertility and family planning in Accra. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 11-22 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Data from a sample interview survey conducted in Accra [Ghana] in 1982 show that there is a very high level of knowledge of contraceptive methods among mothers aged 25-39 years (92%). However, only about 41% of the women had ever used any form of contraception, and only 18% were using modern methods at the time of the study. This is low for a city where an official family planning programme has been in operation for 15 years....Suggestions are made for increasing the effectiveness of such programmes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10363 Kabir, M.; Uddin, M. M.; Chowdhury, S. R.; Ahmed, T. Characteristics of users of traditional contraceptive methods in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan 1986. 23-33 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"The 1981 Bangladesh Contraceptive Prevalence Survey found that 55% of ever-married women had some knowledge of traditional methods of contraception and the overall level of ever use was 23%. There was a positive relationship between use and socioeconomic variables. Current use of traditional methods at 7.7% was only slightly below the figure for modern methods (10.9%). It is suggested that traditional methods still have an important role in family planning and that this should not be disregarded."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10364 Leichenko, Stuart. Public attitudes about sex education, family planning, and abortion in the United States. America Speaks Study, No. 854005, 1985. 97 pp. Louis Harris and Associates: New York, New York. In Eng.
These are the results of an opinion poll concerning public attitudes in the United States with regard to sex education, family planning, and abortion. The poll, conducted for the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, was carried out in the summer of 1985 and was based on a nationwide sample of 2,510 adults interviewed by telephone. Topics covered include attitudes toward teenage pregnancy, sex education, and contraception; attitudes toward induced abortion; and public support for U.S. aid for birth control programs overseas.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10365 Miller, Warren B.; Shain, Rochelle N. Married women and contraceptive sterilization: factors that contribute to pre-surgical ambivalence. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 471-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Two hundred and fifty-five married women about to have a tubal ligation and 167 women whose husbands were about to have a vasectomy were interviewed about their decisions. The data were analysed to determine the factors with which pre-surgical ambivalence about the decision was associated." The data were collected in San Antonio, Texas, between 1980 and 1982.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10366 Miller, Warren B. Why some women fail to use their contraceptive method: a psychological investigation. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 27- 32 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
The psychological factors that affect the efficiency with which women practice their chosen method of contraception are analyzed. The author notes that "a woman's contraceptive vigilance...frequently depends upon...the internal balance...between her positive and negative feelings toward getting pregnant and between her positive and negative feelings about her current contraceptive method." The data concern approximately 1,000 U.S. women and were collected during the course of the Psychology of Reproduction study, begun in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1972.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10367 Ozgur, Servet. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of family planning among women aged 15-44 in the Yildizeli district of Sivas. [Sivas'in Yildizeli ilcesinde 15-44 yas grubu evlenmis kadinlarin aile planlamasi konusundaki bilgi, tutum ve uygulamalari.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 7, 1985. 95-114 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
The findings of a survey concerning family planning conducted among ever-married women aged 15-44 in the Yildizeli district of the province of Sivas in eastern Turkey are reported. Socioeconomic, educational, and health characteristics of the population are considered. The author concludes that the knowledge and use of contraception among the women studied are limited.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10368 Pust, Ronald E.; Newman, Jeanne S.; Senf, Janet; Stotik, Esther. Factors affecting desired family size among preliterate New Guinea mothers. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 23, No. 5, Oct 1985. 413-20 pp. Limerick, Ireland. In Eng.
Data from a random sample of 331 Enga mothers in Papua New Guinea are used to analyze factors affecting desired family size. The results show that these women perceived that an average of 5.96 live births were needed to achieve their mean desired completed family size of 4.65 children. This perception is shown to agree with actual infant and child mortality rates experienced by this population. "This suggests that as a group preliterate women may possess an accurate estimate of prevailing child mortality rates."
Consideration was also given to family planning in this survey. Despite considerable awareness of contraception, the majority expressed no opinions concerning readiness to use specific modern methods. The authors suggest that "an integrated maternal health and family planning program focusing on the health benefits to mother and child of the current 3-4-year birth interval seems indicated."
Location: New York Academy of Medicine.

F.4.5. Induced Abortion

Studies on induced abortion, including those on attitudes, with the exception of studies primarily concerned with government regulation of abortion, which are coded under M.2. Measures Affecting Fertility . Studies of spontaneous abortion appear under F.3. Sterility and Other Pathology .

52:10369 Akadli, Banu. A cross-sectional study on abortions. [Dusuklerle ilgili bir kesit analizi calismasi.] Nufusbilim Dergisi/Turkish Journal of Population Studies, Vol. 7, 1985. 27-41 pp. Ankara, Turkey. In Tur. with sum. in Eng.
Data from the 1978 Turkish Fertility Survey concerning abortions are analyzed. Information is included for a sample of 4,431 women and is presented separately by place of residence, desired number of children, and number of living children. The results indicate that one woman in three of those surveyed had experienced an abortion, despite the fact that induced abortion was illegal at the time of the survey.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10370 Colombo, Bernardo. The problem of abortion: a statistical-demographic approach. [Problematiche dell'aborto: approccio statistico-demografico.] Rassegna delle Ricerche sulla Famiglia Italiana, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1983. 97-103 pp. Milan, Italy. In Ita.
Available data sources on induced abortion in Italy since its legalization in 1978 are described. These include provincial medical records, data from hospital obstetrics departments, clinic records, reports from professionals, and direct and indirect studies on abortion. Reports of research based on the various sources are summarized, and the relative merits of the sources are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10371 Frejka, Tomas. Induced abortion and fertility. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 17, No. 5, Sep-Oct 1985. 230-4 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Total legal abortion rates and their impact on total fertility rates for selected countries in selected years are considered. The analysis suggests that "even in countries with high rates of legal induced abortion, contraceptive use and marital patterns nearly always have a greater impact on fertility levels than does abortion." At the same time, the author notes that the absolute impact of abortion on fertility is frequently considerable.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10372 Henshaw, Stanley K. Trends in abortions, 1982-1984. Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 18, No. 1, Jan-Feb 1986. 34 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Trends in induced abortion in the United States between 1982 and 1984 are summarized in this one-page article. The author notes that reports from state health departments indicate a four percent decline over this period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10373 Krishnamoni, Devaki; Jain, Subash C. The use of contraception among abortion applicants. Canadian Journal of Public Health/Revue Canadienne de Sante Publique, Vol. 76, No. 2, Mar-Apr 1985. 93-7 pp. Ottawa, Canada. In Eng. with sum. in Fre.
These are the results of a study on a near-total sample of women requesting abortion in Newfoundland, Canada, in 1977. The data are from clinic records at the major provincial hospital. The results indicate that information on effective methods of contraception is limited among a high proportion of abortion seekers.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Md.

52:10374 Solapurkar, M. L.; Sangam, R. N. Has the MTP Act in India proved beneficial? Journal of Family Welfare, Vol. 31, No. 3, Mar 1985. 46-52 pp. Bombay, India. In Eng.
The impact of the 1971 legalization of abortion in India is examined. Data are from a study of 1,684 induced abortions performed at the General Hospital, Solapur, between 1977 and 1984. The characteristics of abortion seekers are described, and the impact of abortion on subsequent contraception is considered.
Location: Columbia University, CPFH Library, New York, N.Y.

F.5. Factors Other Than Contraception Affecting Fertility

Studies on lactation, nutrition, fecundability, sex behavior, menarche and menopause, and other biological factors or social customs as they affect fertility directly. Factors affecting contraceptive practice and factors affecting fertility indirectly are not included here.

52:10375 Aborampah, Osei-Mensah. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum sexual abstinence: analysis of a sample of Yoruba women, western Nigeria. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 461-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"This study employs multiple classification and regression techniques to determine the influence of marital, sociodemographic and selected intermediate variables on duration of breast-feeding and post-partum sexual abstinence among a sample of 300 Yoruba women of western Nigeria. Only education and place of residence appeared to be significantly related to the post- partum variables. Breast-feeding was shown to exert a significant positive effect on abstinence. The effect of contraception on the post-partum variables appeared to be a function of socioeconomic status."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10376 Bergstrom, Staffan. Breast-feeding-- the leading contraceptive in the world. [Amning--varldens ledande preventivmedel.] Lakartidningen, Vol. 85, No. 6, Feb 6, 1985. 398-403 pp. Stockholm, Sweden. In Swe.
Breast-feeding trends around the world are reviewed, with a focus on the contraceptive effects of breast-feeding. Consideration is given to breast-feeding patterns in Sweden, particularly to differences between Swedish and foreign-born women.
Location: U.S. National Library of Medicine, Washington, D.C.

52:10377 Jasso, Guillermina. Marital coital frequency and the passage of time: estimating the separate effects of spouses' ages and marital duration, birth and marriage cohorts, and period influences. American Sociological Review, Vol. 50, No. 2, Apr 1985. 224-41 pp. Washington, D.C. In Eng.
Variations in marital coital frequency in the United States are analyzed using data for 2,361 white married couples who were interviewed in the 1970 and 1975 rounds of the National Fertility Studies. The paper presents "estimates of the ceteris paribus cohort-free effects of spouses' ages, marital duration, and contemporaneous period influences on coital frequency, as well as of the correlations between coital frequency and birth- and marriage- cohort factors."
These estimates were obtained "by (a) using the properties of the fixed-effects statistical model in order to separate the effects of cohort influences from the age/duration and period effects and to control for the operation of couple-specific unobservables, and (b) using strictly monotonic nonlinear transformations in order to separate the effects of wife's age, husband's age and marital duration."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10378 Knodel, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat. Infant feeding practices, postpartum amenorrhea, and contraceptive use in Thailand. Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 16, No. 6, Pt. 1, Nov-Dec 1985. 302-11 pp. New York, New York. In Eng.
Data from the 1984 Contraceptive Prevalance Survey of Thailand suggest a leveling off or reversal of the previous trend toward reduced breast- feeding, coinciding with recent efforts to promote breast-feeding among the Thai population. While initiation of breast-feeding is almost universal in rural areas and very common in urban areas, the substantial differentials in duration along rural-urban, regional, and educational lines indicated in previous surveys are confirmed. The duration of full breast-feeding is short, with supplemental food usually being introduced in the first month.
The results also indicate that "a sizeable minority of women start practicing contraception during postpartum amenorrhea. As amenorrhea is of only moderate duration, however, the extent of overlap in protection against pregnancy is very modest. Furthermore, the resumption of menses is clearly associated with a substantial increase in contraceptive practice."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10379 Livi-Bacci, Massimo. Fertility, nutrition, and pellagra: Italy during the vital revolution. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 16, No. 3, Winter 1986. 431-54 pp. Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Eng.
Through an analysis of demographic indicators for the Italian region of Veneto in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the author seeks evidence of a relationship between changes in fertility and the incidence of pellagra, a disease stemming from chronic malnutrition. Data are from official surveys and other published sources. Figures are presented for various aspects of fertility, mortality, incidence of pellagra, and death rates from pellagra.
The author concludes that it is logical to deduce from the data that the prevalence of pellagra in the region in the 1870s and 1880s had a depressive effect on fertility and that elimination of the disease and improvement of nutritional standards in the years preceding World War I removed these factors.
Location: Princeton University Library (SH).

52:10380 Nemeth, Roger J.; Bowling, J. Michael. Son preference and its effects on Korean lactation practices. Journal of Biosocial Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, Oct 1985. 451-9 pp. Cambridge, England. In Eng.
"Using retrospective data from [the Republic of] Korea, multi-variate log- linear analyses indicate that the sex of a child influences the probability of it being breast-fed. Even for women with a living son, there are greater than average odds that they will not breast- feed an infant girl. The sex of the child did not, however, influence the number of months he/she was breast-fed."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10381 Potter, R. G.; Millman, S. R. Fecundability and the frequency of marital intercourse: a critique of nine models. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 461-70 pp. London, England. In Eng.
"The biological and demographic literature on the effects or frequency of intercourse on fecundability is reviewed in this paper. While empirical work and model-building results agree well on the effect of change from low to moderate coital frequencies, inconsistencies emerge when increase from moderate to high coital frequencies is considered. Of the models considered, it may be argued that the explicit provision for unfavourable cycles makes Schwartz's model an improvement over Barrett and Marshall's, Lachenbruch's and Trussell's."
The author notes that Bongaarts, using a very different approach, obtained results much closer to those of Schwartz et al. than did the others. "Bongaarts's model is used as a starting point for new modelling, to be reported in the next issue, which deals with these inconsistencies by taking into account the ageing of gametes."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10382 Smith, David P.; Ferry, Benoit. Correlates of breastfeeding. WFS Comparative Studies, No. 41, Dec 1984. 23 pp. International Statistical Institute [ISI]: Voorburg, Netherlands; World Fertility Survey [WFS]: London, England. In Eng.
Using World Fertility Survey data for 28 developing countries, the authors seek to provide an overview of breast-feeding patterns across nations and cultural regions. Attributes examined as potential determinants of the duration of breast-feeding include respondent's age at birth of child, parity following birth, residence at interview, education, work since marriage, desire for more children, contraceptive use, and child's sex. Age, parity, residence, and education are shown to have a strong influence on duration of breast-feeding, while findings for the other variables are mixed or statistically insignificant. Interactions among variables and limitations of the methodology are discussed.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

F.6. Fertility Outside Marriage

Studies on nonmarital fertility, including illegitimacy. Studies of common-law marriage and other forms of cohabitation or voluntary single parenthood are coded under G.1. Marriage and Divorce or G.2. Family and Household .

52:10383 Carlson, Elwood. Increased nonmarital births among foreign women in Germany. Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 70, No. 1, Oct 1985. 110-1 pp. Los Angeles, California. In Eng.
Changes in the proportion of childbearing outside marriage among foreign-born women in the Federal Republic of Germany since the 1950s are analyzed. The results indicate that differences between social conditions in the countries of origin and of residence have led to an increase in fertility outside marriage among immigrant women. The impact of social supports in Germany that make having and raising a child outside of the family possible is considered.
Location: Princeton University Library (PR).

52:10384 Dumas, Jean; Boyer, Louise. Focusing on the recent increase in fertility among unmarried women in Canada. [Mise au point sur l'accroissement recent de la fecondite des celibataires au Canada.] Cahiers Quebecois de Demographie, Vol. 13, No. 2, Oct 1984. 311-22 pp. Montreal, Canada. In Fre.
Problems in assessing the significance of the recent increase in fertility among nonmarried women in Canada for the period 1961-1982 are discussed, and difficulties in collecting the data from birth records and censuses are considered. The authors calculate a hybrid fertility rate for both nonmarried women living alone and those living in a consensual union other than marriage. The results indicate that while the fertility rate for single women aged 20-35 living alone has changed little, the rate for nonmarried women living in consensual unions has increased relative to that of married women, reflecting the greater prevalence of cohabitation outside of marriage that has occurred during the study period.
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10385 Jones, Jo A.; Kahn, Joan R.; Parnell, Allan; Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Swicegood, C. Gray. Nonmarital childbearing: divergent legal and social concerns. Population and Development Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, Dec 1985. 677-93, 800, 802 pp. New York, New York. In Eng. with sum. in Fre; Spa.
Legal and social definitions of nonmarital childbearing are first discussed. Proposing a conceptualization of out-of-wedlock childbearing, the authors contrast their broader social definition with the more restrictive legal one and illustrate the differences using data from the June 1980 U.S. Current Population Survey. Defining out-of-wedlock births as those to mothers not married at the time of birth, the authors classify an additional one million births in the years 1968-1977 in the United States as nonmarital.
This broader perspective entails social policy implications and "indicates that nonmarital fertility is more prevalent in the older, better educated strata of the population than the legal definition has implied."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).

52:10386 Suchindran, C. M.; Koo, Helen P.; Griffith, Janet D. The effects of post-marital childbearing on divorce and remarriage: an application of hazards models with time-dependent covariates. Population Studies, Vol. 39, No. 3, Nov 1985. 471-86 pp. London, England. In Eng.
The authors "examine the effects of having a baby during a period of separation on the probability of divorce, and the impact of bearing a child while divorced on the likelihood of remarriage in the United States. Among whites, neither a first nor a second birth during separation had any significant effect on the probability of divorce. Among blacks, either a first or second birth significantlly increased the chance of divorce."
The function of postmarital childbearing among black women as an incentive to obtaining a divorce is considered. "Whereas the occurrence of both first and second births during divorce significantly increased the probability of remarriage among whites, only a second birth did so among blacks. Further analysis suggests that while the legitimization of births was an important factor among whites, there was little evidence of a comparable effect among blacks."
Location: Princeton University Library (SPR).


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